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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m

0732290 0 5 3 2 8 2 4 8 3 3 W G ASL IF T B O O K6O FT H E S E R IE S C A T IO N A LT R A IN IN G T H IR DE D IT IO N ,1 9 9 4 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 2 5 7 7 T m A P IG A S L IF TM A N U A L B o o k6o fth e V o c a tio n a l T r a in in g S e r ie s T h ir d E d itio n , 1 9 9 4 I s s u e db y A M E R IC A N P E T R O L E U M IN S T IT U T E E x p lo r a tio n&

Production Departm ent F O R IN F O R M A T IO N C O N C E R N IN G T E C H N IC A L C O N T E N T O F T H IS P U B L IC A T IO N C O N T A C T T H E A P I E X P L O R A T IO N & P R O D U C T IO N D E P A R T M E N T , S E E B A C K C O V E R F O R IN F O R M A T IO N C O N C E R N IN G H O W T O O B T A IN A D D IT IO N A L C O P IE S O FT H IS P U B L IC A T IO N . 7 0 0 N O R T H P E A R L , S U IT E 1 8 4 0 (L B -3 8 2 ), D A L L A S , T X 7 5 2 0 1 -2 8 3 1 (2 1 4 ) 9 5 3 -1 1 0 1 . U s e rso f th is p u b lic a tio n s h o u ld b e c o m e fa m ilia r w ith its s c o p e a n d c o n te n t. T h is d o c u m e n t is in te n d e d to s u p p le m e n t ra th e r th a n r e p la c e in d iv id u a l e n g in e e r in g ju d g m e n t. O F F IC IA L P U B L IC A T IO N R E G U .S . P A T E N T O F F IC E C o p y rig h tO 1 9 9 4 A m e ric a n P e tro le u m In s titu te Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E lk V T -6 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 2 6 6 0 6 W P O L IC Y A P I P U B L IC A T IO N S N E C E S S A R IL Y A D D R E S S P R O B L E M S OF A GENERALNAT U R E .W IT H R E S P E C T T O P A R T IC U L A R C IR C U M S T A N C E S ,L O C A L ,S T A T E A N D F E D E R A L L A W S A N D R E G U L A T IO N S S H O U L D B E R E V IE W E D . A P I IS N O T U N D E R T A K IN G T O M E E T D U T IE S O F E M P L O Y E R S , M A N U F A C T U R E R S , O R S U P P L I E R S T O W A R N A N D P R O P E R L Y T R A I N A N D E Q U I P T H E I R EM PLOYEES, AND O T H E R S E X P O S E D , C O N C E R N IN G H E A L T H A N D S A F E T Y R IS K S A N D P R E C A U T IO N S , N O R U N D E R T A K IN G T H E IR O B L IG A T IO N S U N D E R L O C A L , STATE,OR FEDERAL LAW S.

N O T H IN G C O N T A IN E D I N A N Y A P IP U B L IC A T IO N IS T O B E C O N S T R U E D A S G R A N T IN G A N Y R IG H T , B Y IM P L IC A T IO N O R O T H E R W IS E , F O R T H E M A N U F A C T U R E , S A L E ,O R U S E O F A N Y M ETHOD, APPARATUS, OR PRODUCT C O V E R E D B Y L E T T E R S P A T E N T . N E IT H E R S H O U L D A N Y T H IN G C O N T A IN E D I N T H E P U B L IC A T IO NB EC O N S T R U E DA SIN S U R IN GA N Y O N EA G A IN S TL IA B IL IT YF O R IN F R IN G E M E N T O F L E T T E R S P A T E N T . GENERALLY, API P U B L IC A T IO N S A R E R E V IE W E D A N D R E V IS E D , R E A F F IR M E D , O R W IT H D R A W N A T L E A S T E V E R Y F IV E Y E A R S . S O M E T IM E S A O N E -T IM E E X T E N S IO N OF UP TO TW O

Y E A R S W IL L B E A D D E D T O T H IS R E V IE W C Y C L E . T H IS P U B L IC A T IO N W ILL N O L O N G E R BEI N EFFECT F IV E YEARS AFTER IT S P U B L IC A T IO N D A T E A S A N O P E R A T IV E A PI P U B L IC A T IO N OR, W HERE A N E X T E N S IO N H A S B E E N GRANTED, UPON R E P U B L IC A T IO N . S T A T U S O F T H E P U B L IC A T IO N C A N B E A S C E R T A I N E D F R O M T H E A P IE X P L O R A T I O N

& P R O D U C T IO ND E P A R T M E N T (2 1 4 -9 5 3 -1 1 0 1 ). A C A T A L O G O F A P IP U B L I C A T I O N S A N D M A T E R I A L S I S P U B L I S H E DA N N U A L L YA N DU P D A T E DQ U A R T E R L YB YA P I . 1 2 2 0 LS T . ,N . W . , W A S H IN G T O N , D .C .2 0 0 0 5 . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P IT IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 2 7 5 4 2m FOREW ORD A rtific ia ll i f t re p re s e n ts an in c re a s in g ly im p o rta n t p a rt o f th e o il b u s in e s s . In fa c t, a t th e tim eo fth is w ritin g , o v e r 9 0 % o f th e o ilw e lls i n th e U n ite d S ta te s u s e d s o m e fo rm o f a r t i f i c i a l l i f t . T h e f o u r b a s i c t y p e s o f a r t i f i c i a l l i f t u s e di nth e o il in d u s try a re : ro d p u m p in g , e le c tric s u b m e rs ib le p u m p in g , h y d ra u lic p u m p in g , a n d gas lift. A s the nam e im plies, gas l i f t i s t h e o n l y o n e o f t h e a r t i f i c i a l l i f t s y s t e m s t h a t d o e s n o t use som e form of m echanical pum p t o p h y s ic a lly force the fluid fro m o n e p la c e to another. Because

of th is phenom enon, gas l i f t h a s c e rta in a d v a n ta g e s o v e r th e other system s i n som e in s ta n c e s a n d o c c u p ie s a ra th e r u n iq u e a n d im p o rta n t p la c e a s a lift m e c h a n is m . T h is m a n u a l i s u n d e rth eju ris d ic tio n o f th eE x e c u tiv eC o m m itte eo nT ra in in g a n d D e v e lo p m e n t, E x p lo ra tio n & P ro d u c tio n D e p a rtm e n t, A m erican P e tro le u m In s titu te . It is in te n d e d t o

fam iliarize o p e ra tin g p e rs o n n e l w ith the u seo fg a s lift asa n artificiall i f t system . It in c lu d e s in fo rm a tio n o n th e b a s ic p rin c ip le s o f g a s lift, th e c h o ic eo f g a s lift e q u ip m e n t, h o w v a rio u s ty p e s o f g a s lift e q u ip m e n t w o rk , a n d h o w a gas lift system s h o u ld be designed. In fo rm a tio n is a ls o in c lu d e d o n m o n ito rin g , a d ju s tin g , re g u la tin g , a n d tro u b le -s h o o tin g g a s lift e q u ip m e n t. T he first editiono f th is m a n u a l w a s is s u e d in 1 9 6 5 .A s e c o n d e d itio n w a s is s u e din1 9 8 4 , a n d e d ito ria l e rra ta w e re p u b lis h e di n 1 9 8 6 a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a 1 9 8 8 reprinto f the manual. T h i s t h i r d e d i t i o n w a s d e v e l o p e d a sa n e d i t o r i a l u p d a t e f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h r e c e n tA P I g a s lift standards. It w a s d e v e lo p e d w ith a s s is ta n c e b y v o lu n te e r te c h n ic a l re v ie w e rs in c lu d in g : J . R . B la n n , C o n s u lta n t, L e a d R e v ie w e r J .R. Bennett, Exxon Production ResearchCompany J o e C le g g , P e c tin In te rn a tio n a l

J o h n M a rtin e z , P ro d u c tio n A s s o c ia te s H . W . W in k le r, C o n s u lta n t Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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API T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 D 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 O S 3 2 8 2 8

489 m O th e r p u b lic a tio n s in th eA P I V o c a tio n a l T r a in in g S e r ie s a re : B ook 1 : I n tr o d u c tio n to O il a n d G a s P r o d u c tio n , F o u rth E d itio n , 1 9 8 3 (R e a ffirm e d 1 9 8 8 ) T h is p o p u la ro rie n ta tio n m a n u a lc o n ta in s 8 1 p a g e s a n d o v e r 1 0 0 p h o to g ra p h s a n d lin e draw ings.I t is w ritte n a s a s im p le , e a s y -to -u n d e rs ta n d s ty le to h e lp o rie n t a n d tra in in e x p e ri- e n c e d o il a n d g a s p ro d u c tio n p e rs o n n e l. T h e b o o k is a ls o h e lp fu l to s tu d e n ts , in d u s try o ffic e p e rs o n n e l, a n d b u s in e s s e s a llie d w ith th e o il a n d g a s in d u s try . T h e fo u rth e d itio n re p re s e n ts a c o m p le te re v is io n a n d u p d a tin g o f th e p re v io u s e d itio n . S p ira l b o u n d ,8 ’/2x 1 1 ,soft cover. B ook2 : C o r r o s io n o f O il a n d G a s W e ll E q u ip m e n t, S e c o n d E d itio n , 1 9 9 0 G eneralaspects o f corrosion,sw eetcorrosion,oxygencorrosion,andelectrochem ical corrosion are thoroughly covered. M ethods of evaluation and control m easures are described in d e ta il S p ira l b o u n d , 6 ’/2 x

1 0 ,soft cover, 87 pages. Book 3: S u b s u r fa c e S a lt W a te r I n je c tio n und D isposal, S e c o n d E d itio n 1 9 7 8 (R e a ffirm e d 1 9 8 6 ) A h a n d b o o k f o r t h e p l a n n i n g ,i n s t a l l a t i o n ,o p e r a t i o n ,a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f s u b s u r f a c e in je c tio n a n d d is p o s a l s y s te m s . D e s ig n c rite ria a n d fo rm u la e a re g iv e n fo r g a th e rin g s y s te m s , tre a tin g p la n ts , a n d in je c tio n fa c ilitie s . A lte rn a tiv e e q u ip m e n t a n d m ethods are discussed a n d illu s tra te d . E c o n o m ic c o n s id e ra tio n s a re presented. The b o o k in c lu d e s a g lo s s a r y a n d b ib lio g r a p h y . S o f t c o v e r , 6 I/2x 1O ,spiral bound, 67 pages, 1Sillu s tra tio n s . B o o k5 : W ireline O perations and P rocedures, S e c o n d E d itio n , 1 9

8 3 (R e a ffirm e d 1 9 8 8 ) T h is h a n d b o o k d e s c rib e s th e v a rio u s s u rfa c e a n d s u b s u rfa c e w ire lin e to o ls a n d e q u ip m e n t u s e d i n th e o il a n d g a s in d u s try . It e x p la in s a n d o u tlin e s th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e s e to o ls i n w ire lin e o p e ra tio n s ,in c lu d in g th o s e o p e ra tio n s c o n d u c te d o ffs h o re . It isabasicm anual p r e s e n te d i n a sim ple, uncluttered m anner. Soft cover, 72 pages, 9 0 illu stratio n s, 6l/2 x IO, spiral bound. A P IS p e c s& R P s (U s e rs s h o u ld c h e c k th e la te s t e d itio n s ) S p e c 1 1V I,S pecification for G as Lift V alves, O rifices, R everse F low V alves an d D u m m y V a1v e s C o v e rs s p e c ific a tio n s o n g a s lift v a lv e s , o rific e s , re v e rs e flo w valves, and dum m y valves. R P 11V 5,R ecom m en ded P r a c tic e fo r O p e r a tio n , M a in te n a n c e , a n d T r o u b le -S h o o tin g

of G a s L ift I n s ta lla tio n s C o v e r sr e c o m m e n d e dp r a c t i c eo nk i c k o f fa n du n l o a d i n g ,a d j u s t m e n tp r o c e d u r e sa n d tro u b le -s h o o tin g d ia g n o s tic to o ls a n d lo c a tio n o f p ro b le m a re a s fo r g a s lift o p e ra tio n s . R P11V 6,R ecom m en ded P r a c tic e fo r D esign o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w G as L ift I n s ta lla tio n s U sin g Injection P ressure O perated V alves T h isre c o m m e n d e d p ra c tic eisin te n d e d t o s e tg u id e lin e sfo rc o n tin u o u sflo w g a s l i f t in s ta lla tio n d e s ig n s u s in g in je c tio n p r e s s u r e o p e r a te d valves. The a s s u m p tio n i s

m a d e th a t th e d e s ig n e r is fa m ilia r w ith a n d h a s a v a ila b le d a ta o n th e v a rio u s fa c to rs that affect a design. The d e s ig n e r is re fe rre dto th e A P I “ G a s L ift M a n u a l”(B o o k 6 o f th e V o c a tio n a l T ra in in g S e r ie s ) a n d to th e v a rio u s A PI11V recom m ended practices on gas l i f t . R P 11V 7,R e c o m m e n d e d P r a c tic e fo r R e p a ir , T e s tin g a n d S e ttin g G a s L ift V a lv e s T h is d o c u m e n t a p p lie s to re p a ir, te s tin g , a n d s e ttin g g a s lift valves and reverse flow (check) v a lv e s . It p re s e n ts g u id e lin e s re la te d to the repair and reuse of valves; these practices a re intended to serve both repair shops and operators. The com m only used gas pressure operated b e llo w s v a lv e is a ls o c o v e re d . O th e r v a lv e s , in c lu d in g b e llo w s c h a rg e d v a lv e s

i np ro d u c tio n pressure (fluid) service should b e re p a ire d a c c o rd in g to th e s e g u id e lin e s . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E + V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 2 9 3 1 5 T A B L EO F C O N T E N T S A P I G A S L IF T M A N U A L C H A P T E R1. IN T R O D U C T IO N T O A R T IF IC IA L L IF T A N D G A S L IF T B A S IC P R IN C IP L E S O F O IL P R O D U C T IO N........................................................................... 1 F a c to rs T h a t A ffe c t O il P ro d u c tio n............................................................................... ........... i A R T IF IC IA L L IF T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 T y p e s o f A rtific ia l L ift S y s te m s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 C hoosing an A rtlflclal Lift System .

................................................................................ ......... 1 TH E P R O C E S S O F G A S L IF T............................................................................... ....................... 2 T y p e so f G as Lift............................................................................ ............................................. 2 C o n tin u o u s F lo w G as Lift............................................................................ .............................. 2 In te rm itte n t F lo w G as Lift. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A D V A N T A G E S A N D L IM IT A T IO N S O F G A S L IF T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 C h o ic e o f G as L ift System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 H IS T O R IC A L R E V IE W

O F G A S L IF T DEVELOPM ENT ...................................................... 6 E . . . 6 C h ro n o lo g ic a l D e v e lo p m e n t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 DEVELOPM ENT OF THE M ODERN G A S L IF T V A L V E...................................................... 8 D ifferential V alves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 B e llo w s C h a rg e d V a lv e s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . . T e c h n ic a l D e v e lo p m e n t o f G a s L ift E q u ip m e n t..................................................................... a . . . rly . . . . . . E . . . x . . . p . . . e . . . rim . . . . . . e . . . n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 C H A P T E R2 W ELL PERFORM ANCE IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 IN F L O W P E R F O R M A N C E P R E D IC T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 P ro d u c tiv ity In d e x (P .I.) T e c h n iq u e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 In flo w P e rfo rm a n c e R e la tio n s h ip (IP R ) T e c h n iq u e............................................................ 1 2 V ogel IPR C . . . u . . . 1 2 V o g e l’s E x a m p le P ro b le m............................................................................... ......................... 1 3 W ELL OUTFLOW P E R F O R M A N C E P R E D IC T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . rv e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 7 E . . . x . . . 1 7 P R E D IC T IN G TH E E F F E C TO F G A S L IF T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 C o m p a ris o n o f C o n d u it S iz e............................................................................... ..................... 2 1 E ffe c t o f S u rfa c e O p e ra tin g C o n d itio n s............................................................................... . 2 1 U se of Inflow P e rfo rm a n c e R e la tio n s h ip C u rv e s (IP R ) ...................................................... 2 2 C o m p u te r P ro g ra m s fo r W e ll P e rfo rm a n c e A n a ly s is.......................................................... 2 2 C H A P T E R3M U L T IP H A S E F L O W P R E D IC T IO N IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 D im e n s io n le s s P a ra m e te rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a . . . m . . . p . . . le P ro . . . . . . . . . . . . b . . . le m. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 E m p iric a l D a ta. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 B a s is fo r D e v e lo p in g M u ltip h a s e F lo w C o rre la tio n s.......................................................... 2 3 A ccuracy of Flow ing Pressure at D epth Predictions........................................................... 2 3 Im p o rta n c e o f R e lia b le W e ll T e s t D a ta.............................................................................. ... 2 4 F L O W C O R R E L A T IO N S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 P U B L IS H E D V E R T IC A L , H O R IZ O N T A L A N D IN C L IN E D M U L T IP H A S E P a p e rs E v a lu a tin g th e A c c u ra c y o f M u ltip h a s e F lo w C o rre la tio n s.................................. 2 4 R o s-G ra y a n d D u n s-R o s C o rre la tio n s............................................................................... ..... 2 5

E N E R G Y L O S S F A C T O R S O R N O -S L IP H O M O G E N E O U S M IX T U R E S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5 S IM P L IF IE D M U L T IP H A S E F L O W C O R R E L A T IO N S B A S E D O N TO TA L P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r C o rre la tio n............................................................................... ..... 2 5 B a x e n d e ll a n d T h o m a s C o rre la tio n............................................................................... ......... 2 5 T w o -P h a s e H o m o g e n e o u s N o -S lip M ix tu re C o rre la tio n s.................................................. 2 6 G E N E R A L T Y P EO FM U L T IP H A S E F L O W C O R R E L A T IO N S......................................... 2 6 T y p ic a l P re s s u re G ra d ie n t E q u a tio n fo r V e rtic a l F lo w...................................................... 2 6 P u b lis h e d G e n e ra l T y p e C o rre la tio n s............................................................................... ..... 2 7 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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TA B LEO FC O N T E N T S (C o n tin u e d ) D IS P L A Y SO F F L O W IN G

 

   

 

   

 

 

P R E S S U R E A T D E P T H G R A D IE N T C U R V E S..................... 2 7 C o n v e rtin g R g ot oR g.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 G ilb ert’s C urves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8 M in im u m F lu id G ra d ie n t C u rv e............................................................................... ............... 2 8 D isplaying G radient Curves to Prevent Crossover.............................................................. 3 2 S T A B IL IT Y OF FLOW C O N D IT IO N S A N D S E L E C T IO N O F P R O D U C T IO N C O N D U IT

S IZ E............................................................................... ......... 3 2 C o n d itio n s N e c e s s a ry to A s s u re S ta b le M u ltip h a s e F lo w .................................................. 3 3 E f f e c t o f T u b i n g S i z eo n M i n i m u m S ta b iliz e d F lo w R a te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4 G ra p h ic a l D e te rm in a tio n o f M in im u m S ta b iliz e d P ro d u c tio n R a te.................................. 3 2 C H A P T E R4 G A S A P P L IC A T IO N A N D G A S F A C IL IT IE S F O R G A S L IF T IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 B A S IC F U N D A M E N T A L S O F G A S B E H A V IO R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5 A P P L IC A T IO N T O O IL F IE L D SY STEM S..............................................................................

3 9 S u b s u r f a c e A p p lic a tio n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 Pressure C orrection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 T e m p e ra tu re C o rre c tio n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 9 Test R ack S . . . e . . . 4 1 G a s In je c tio n in th e A n n u lu so r T u b in g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 F lo w T h ro u g h th e G a s L ift V a lv e............................................................................... ............ 4 5 S U R F A C E G A S F A C IL IT IE S............................................................................... ...................... 4 9 ttin g s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

S y s te m D esign C o n s id e ra tio n s............................................................................... ................. 4 9 G as C o n d itio n in g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 R e c ip ro c a tin g C om pression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 P ip in g a n d D is trib u tio n S y s te m s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 G . . . a . . . 5 4 C e n trifu g a l C o m p re s s io n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 C H A P T E R5 G A S L IF T V A L V E S IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s . . . M . . . e . . . te rin g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7 V A L V E M E C H A N IC S............................................................................... ................................... 5 7 B a s ic C o m p o n e n ts o f G a s L ift V a lv e s............................................................................... .... 5 8 C . . . lo s in . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 O p e n in g F o r c e s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 V a lv e L o a d R a te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 P ro b e T est............................................................................. ...................................................... 6 0 Production Pressure Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 g . . . F . . . o . . . rc e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Closing . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1

Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

V A L V E C H A R A C T E R IS T IC S............................................................................... ..................... 6 1 D y n a m ic F lo w T est............................................................................. ...................................... 6 .1 V alve . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 B e llo w s P ro te c tio n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 Test Rack O pening Pressure........................................................................ ............................ 6 2 T Y P E S O F G A S L IF T V A L V E S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 C la s s ific a tio n o f G a s L ift V a lv e s b y A p p lic a tio n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 V a lv e s U s e d fo r C o n tin u o u s F lo w Spread. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. ................................................................................ ......... 6 3 V alves U sed for Interm ittent Lift . ................................................................................ ........... 6 3 W ire lin e R e trie v a b le V a lv e a n d M a n d re l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 M a n d re l a n d V a lv e P o rtin g C o m b in a tio n s............................................................................ 6 7 B . . . a . . . 6 4 C H A P T E R6C O N T IN U O U S F L O W G A S L IF T D E S IG N M E T H O D S IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute s . . . ic V a lv e D e s ig n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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API T IT L E tV T -b 9 4 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 3 3 T 7 3 W

 

   

 

   

 

 

T A B L EO F C O N T E N T S (C o n tin u e d ) T Y P E SO F IN S T A L L A T IO N S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9 C O N T IN U O U S F L O W U N L O A D IN G S E Q U E N C E............................................................... 7 0 D E S IG N O F C O N T IN U O U S F L O W IN S T A L L A T IO N S....................................................... 7 2 Types of D esign Problem s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 E x a m p le G ra p h ic a l D e s ig n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 D ow nhole Tem perature for D esign Purposes....................................................................... 7 9 A c tu a l C o n d itio n s D iffe re n t F ro m D e s ig n C o n d itio n s....................................................... 8 1 D E S IG N IN G G A S L IF T F O R O F F S H O R E IN S T A L L A T IO N S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 A D V A N T A G E S O F C O N T IN U O U S F L O W

O V E R IN T E R M IT T E N T S a fe ty F a c to rs in G a s L ift D e s ig n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 F L O W G A S L IF T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 D U A L G A S L IF T IN S T A L L A T IO N S............................................................................... ......... 8 3 C H A P T E R 7 -A N A L Y S IS A N D R E G U L A T IO N O F C O N T IN U O U S F L O W G A S L IF T IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 R e c o m m e n d e d P ra c tic e s P rio r to U n lo a d in g........................................................................ 8 4

R e c o m m e n d e d G a s L ift In s ta lla tio n U n lo a d in g P ro c e d u re................................................ 8 4 A n a ly z in g th e O p e ra tio n o faC o n tin u o u s F lo w W ell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 G A S L IF T W ELLS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 R ecording Surface Pressure in the Tubing and C asing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 M easurem ent of G as V o lu m e s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 5 Surface and Estim ated Subsurface Tem perature Readings................................................ 8 6 V is u a l O b s e rv a tio n o f th e S u rfa c e In s ta lla tio n.................................................................... 8 6 T e s tin g W e ll fo r O il a n d G a s P ro d u c tio n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 M ETHODS O F O B T A IN IN G S U R F A C E D A T A F O R C O N T IN U O U S F L O W M E T H O D S O F O B T A IN IN G SUBSURFACE DATA

F O R C O N T IN U O U S F L O W G A S L IF T A N A L Y S IS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 Subsurface Pressure Surveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7 S u b s u rfa c e T e m p e ra tu re S u rv e y s in C a s in g F lo w W e lls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 Com puter Calculated Pressure Surveys......................................................................... ........ 8 8 T e m p e ra tu re S u rv e y s in T u b in g F lo w W ells........................................................................ 8 8 Flow ing Pressure and Tem perature Survey.......................................................................... 9 0 F lu id L e v e l D e te rm in a tio n b y A c o u s tic a l M e th o d s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 Precautions when Running Flow ing Pressure and Tem perature Surveys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8 V A R IO U S W E L L H E A D IN S T A L L A T IO N S F O R G A S IN JE C T IO N C O N T R O L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1 W E L L IN JE C T IO N G A S P R E S S U R E F O R C O N T IN U O U S F L O W SY STEM S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 G E T T IN G THE MOST OIL W ITH T H E A V A IL A B L E L IF T G A S..................................... 9 2 M . . . a . . . 9 2 S em i-A u to m atic C o n tro ls.............................................................................. ........................... 9 3 O p tim iz in g G a s L ift S y s te m s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 A u to m atic O p tim izatio n of In jectio n G as U se..................................................................... 9 5 A P P E N D IX 7 AEX A M PLES O F n . . . u . . . a . . . l . . . C . . . o . . . n . . . tro . . . . . . ls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

P R E S S U R E R E C O R D E R C H A R T S F R O M C O N T IN U O U S F L O W W ELLS............................................................... 9 6 C H A P T E R8. IN T E R M IT T E N T F L O W G A S L IF T IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 2 O P E R A T IN G S E Q U E N C E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 2 T Y P E S O F IN S T A L L A T IO N S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 3 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0732290

 

   

 

   

 

 

0 5 3 2 8 3 2 9 0 T TA B LEO FC O N T E N T S (C o n tin u e d ) F A C T O R S A F F E C T IN G P R O D U C IN G R A T E............................................................... 1 0 3 M a x im u m R a te. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 3 F a llb a c k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 4 U se of Plungersi n Interm ittent L ift System s.............................................................. 1 0 5 D E S IG N O F IN T E R M IT T E N T L IS T IN S T A L L A T IO N S............................................ 1 0 5 F . . . a . . . llb a c k M e th o d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 0 5 Percent L oad M ethod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 V a ria tio n so fPercent L oad M ethod. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 P ro d u c tio n P re s s u re O p e ra te d G a s L ift V a lv e s .......................................................... 1 0 9 CHAM BERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 D e s ig n o f a G a s L ift C h a m b e r In s ta lla tio n .................................................................. 1 1 0 C H A P T E R 9 P R O C E D U R E S FO R A D J U S T IN G , R E G U L A T IN G A N D A N A L Y Z IN G IN T E R M IT T E N T F L O W G A S L IF T IN S T A L L A T IO N S IN T R O D U C T IO N

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 C O N T R O L O F TH E IN JE C T IO N G A S............................................................................ 1 1 2 T he T im e C y c le C o n tro lle r............................................................................... .............. 1 1 2 L o c a tio n o f T im e C y c le C o n tro lle r............................................................................... 1 1 3 C h o k e C o n tro l o f th e In je c tio n G a s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 3 U N L O A D IN G A N IN T E R M IT T E N T IN S T A L L A T IO N............................................... 1 1 3 R e c o m m e n d e d P ra c tic e s P rio r to U n lo a d in g............................................................... 1 1 3 In itia l U -T u b in g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 U n lo a d in g O p e ra tio n s U s in g A T im e C y c le O p e ra te d C o n tro lle r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 U n lo a d in g w ith C h o k e C o n tro lo f th e In je c tio n G a s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 A D JU S T M E N T O FTIM E C Y C L E O P E R A T E D C O N T R O L L E R. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 P ro c e d u re o r D e te rm in in g C y c le F re q u e n c y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 IN JE C T IO N G A S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 S E L E C T IO N O F C H O K E S IZ E FO R C H O K E C O N T R O LO F

V A R IA T IO N I N TIM E C Y C L E A N D C H O K E C O N T R O LO F IN JE C T IO N G A S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 A p p lic a tio n o f T im e O p e n in g a n d Set Pressure C losing C o n tro lle r ....................... 1 1 6 A p p lic a tio n o f T im e C y c le O p e ra te d C o n tro lle r w ith C h o k e i n t h e In je c tio n G a s L in e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 A p p lic a tio no fA C o m b in a tio n P re s s u re R e d u c in g R e g u la to r a n d IM P O R T A N C EO FW ELLHEAD T U B IN G B A C K

P R E S S U R E T O C hoke C o n tro l 1 1 6 R E G U L A T IO N O F IN JE C T IO N G A S...................................................................... 1 1 7 W e llh e a d C o n fig u ra tio n. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 7 Separator Pressure........................................................................ .................................... 1 1 7 Surface Chokei nF lo w lin e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 7 F lo w lin e S iz e a n d C o n d itio n............................................................................... ........... 1 1 7 R E G U L A T IO N O FIN JE C T IO N G A S...................................................................... 1 1 7 In s ta lla tio n W ill N o t U n lo a d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 7 V alve W ill N ot C lose............................................................................

........................... 1 1 7 E m u ls io n s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 C o rro sio n . ................................................................................ ..........................................S 1 1 8 . ................................................................................ ..............................1 S U G G E S T E D R E M E D IA L P R O C E D U R E S A S S O C IA T E D W ITH T R O U B L E -S H O O T IN G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 A P P E N D IX 9 A .E X A M P L E SO F IN T E R M IT T E N T G A S L IF T M A L F U N C T IO N S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 0 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E a V T -b 7 4 m O 7 3 2 2 7 0

 

   

 

   

 

 

0 5 3 2 8 3 3 8 4 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS (C o n tin u e d ) C H A P T E R 1 0.TH E U SE O F P L U N G E R S IN G A S L IF T S Y S T E M IN T R O D U C T IO N. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 A P P L IC A T IO N S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 T Y P E SO FPLU N G ER L IF T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 S E L E C T IN G TH E P R O P E R E Q U IP M E N T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5 R e trie v a b le T u b in g (o r C o lla r) S to p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5 S . . . ta n d in g V a lv e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 5 P lu n g e rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 W e ll T u b in g. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 0 M a s te r V a lv e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 S e c o n d F lo w O u tle t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 P R O P E R IN S T A L L A T IO N P R O C E D U R E S ................................................................... 1 3 1 SUM M ARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 3 1 G L O SSA R Y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2 SYM BO LS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 3 5 B u m p e r S p rin g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 L . . . u . . . b . . . ric . . . . . . a . . . to r. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 3 1 R E F E R E N C E S. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 8 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T I T L E x V T - 6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 3 4 7 8 2 m 1 C H A P T E R1 IN T R O D U C T IO N T O A R T IF IC IA L L IF T A N D

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

G A SL IF T B A S ICP R IN C IP L E SO F O IL P R O D U C T IO N W hen oil is first found in th e re s e rv o ir, it is u n d e r p re s - su re fro m th e n a tu ra l fo rc e s th a t su rro u n d a n d tra p it. Ifa h o le (w ell) is d rilled in to th e reserv o ir, a n o p e n in g is p ro v id e d a tam uch low er pressure throughw hich the reservoir f lu id s c a n e s c a p e . T h e d r iv in g f o r c e w h ic h c a u s e s th e s e P R E S S U R E flu id s to m o v e o u t of thereservoir a n d in to th e w e llb o re com es from t h e c o m p r e s s i o n o f t h e f l u i d s t h a t a r e s t o r e di n the reservoir. The actual energy that causes aw ell to prod u c e o ilre s u lts fro m a re d u c tio n i n pressurebetw een th e re s e rv o ir a n d th e p ro d u c in g fa c ilitie s o nth es u r f a c e . F ig .1 -1illu s tra te s th is p ro d u c tio n p ro c e s sa s it o c c u rsi n an

o il w ell.I fth e pressuresin the reservoir and the w ellbore are allow ed to e q u a liz e , e ith e r b e c a u s e o fad e c r e a s ei n re s e rv o ir P R E S S U H F pressure or a n increase in w ellbore and surface pressure, no flow fro m th e r e s e r v o irw ill ta k e p la c e a n d th e re w ill b e n op ro d u c tio n fro m the w ell. * E L L H E A D 1 0P R O C E S S IN G A N D T R E A T IN G S T IL LL O W E R P R E S S U R E / LOW EST P R E S S U R E F a c to rs T h a t A ffe c t O il P ro d u c tio n F ig .1 -1 T h e p r o d u c tio n p r o c e s s in a n o il w e ll A R T IF IC IA L L IF T

In m a n y w e lls th e n a tu ra l e n e rg y a s s o c ia te d w ith o il w ill not produce as u ffic ie n t p re s s u re d iffe re n tia l b e tw e e n th e reservoir and th e w e llb o re t o c a u s e th e w ell to flo win to th e p ro d u c tio n fa c ilitie s a t th e s u rfa c e . Ino th e r w e lls , n a tu ra l energy w ill not driveo ilt o th e s u r f a c e i n s u f f i c i e n t v o l u m e . T he reservoir’s natural energy m ust then be supplem ented by so m e fo rm of artificial lift. T y p e s o f A rtific ia l L ift S y s te m s T here are four basic w ays o fp ro d u c in g a n o il w e ll b y artificial lift. T hese areG asL@ , Sucker Rod Pum ping, Subm e r s ib le E le c tr ic P u m p in g a n d SubsurfaceH ydraulic P u m p in g . T he surface and subsurface equipm ent required for each system is s h o w n in F ig .1 -2 . C h o o s in g a n A rtific ia l L ift S y s te m

T h e c h o ic e o fa n a r t i f i c i a l l i f t s y s t e m i n ag iv e n w e ll depends upon anum bero f factors. Prim ary am ong th e m , a s fa ra s g a s lift is c o n c e rn e d , is th e a v a ila b ility o f g a s . Ifg a s is re a d ily a v a ila b le , e ith e ra s d is s o lv e dg a s in th e p ro d u c e d o il,o rfro m a n o u ts id e s o u rc e ,th e n g a s liftis o fte n a n id e a l s e le c tio n fo r a rtific ia ll i f t .Experience has show n that produced gas w ill support a gas lift systemi f th e d a ilyg a s rate from the reservoir isa t least1 0 % of the total circulatedg a s r a te .N o o th e r sy ste m o f a rtific ia l lift u s e s th e n a tu ra l e n e rg y s to r e di nth e re s e rv o ira s c o m p le te lya s g a s lift.If a n in s ta l- la tio ni sa d e q u a te ly d e s ig n e d , w e llsc a n b e g a s lifte d o v e ra w id e ra n g e o f p ro d u c in g c o n d itio n s b y re g u la tin g th e in je c tio ng a sv o lu m ea t the surface. Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T I T L E x V T - h 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 3 5 b L 9 W 2

 

 

   

 

   

 

G as L ift TH E PROCESS OFG A S L IF T G a s lift is th e fo rm o f a rtific ia l lift th a t m o s t c lo s e ly re s e m b le s th e n a tu ra l flo w process. It can be considered a n e x te n s io n o f th e n a tu ra l flo w p r o c e s s . In a n a tu ra l flo w w e ll, a s th e flu id tra v e ls u p w a rd to w a rd th e s u rfa c e ,th e flu id colum n pressure isreduced,gascom esout o fs o lu tio n , a n d th e free gas expands. The free gas, being lighter than th e o il it d is p la c e s , re d u c e s th e d e n s ity o f th eflo w in g flu id a n d fu rth e r re d u c e s th e w e ig h t o f th e flu id c o lu m n a b o v e th e fo rm a tio n . T h is re d u c tio n in th e flu id c o lu m n w e ig h t p ro d u c e s th e p r e s s u r e

d iffe re n tia l b e tw e e n th e w e llb o re a n d th e re s e rv o ir th a t c a u s e s th e w e ll to flo w . T h is is s h o w ni n F ig .1 -3 (A ). W h e n a w e ll p ro d u c e s w a te r a lo n g w ith th e o il a n d th e a m o u n t o f f r e e g a s i nth ec o lu m n is th e re b y reduced,the sam e pressure differentialbetw een w ellbore a n d re s e rv o ir c a n b e m a in ta in e d b y s u p p le m e n tin g th e fo rm a tio n g a s w ith in je c tio n g a s a s s h o w n i nF ig .I-3 (B ). Types ofG as L ift There are tw o basic types of gas lift system s usedi n the o il in d u s try . T h e s e a re c a lle d c o n tin u o u s flo w a n d in te rm itte n t flo w . C o n tin u o u sF lo wG as L ift In th e c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s l i f tp ro c e s s , re la tiv e ly h ig h p r e s s u r e g a s i sin je c te d d o w n h o le in to th e flu id c o lu m n . T h is in je c te d g a s jo in s th e fo rm a tio n g a s to lift th e flu id to the surface by one or m ore of the follow ing processes: 1 .R e d u c tio n o f th e flu id d e n s ity a n d th e c o lu m n w e ig h t s oth a t th e p re s s u re d iffe re n tia l b e tw e e n re s e rv o ir a n d w e llb o re w ill b e in c re a s e d (F ig . 1 -4 A ).

H Y D R A U L IC P U M P P U N P

. I P A C K E R S T A N D IN G V A L V E IO P T IO N A L I “ C O N T R O L E Q U IP M E N T -G A S L IF T V A L V E G A S L IF T (C O U R T E S YD R E S S E R -G U IE E R S O N J F ig .1 -2 A rtific ia ll i f t system s Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,`

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 9 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 3 6 5 5 5 m In tro d u c tio n t o A rtific ia l L ift a n d

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

G as L ift 3 2 .E x p a n s io n o f th e in je c tio n g a ss o th a t i t p u s h e s liq u id In te rm itte n t F lo w G as L ift a h e a d o f it w h ic h fu rth e r re d u c e s th e c o lu m n w e ig h t, t h e r e b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t i a lb e t w e e n t h e r e s e r I f a w ell h a sa lo w re s e rv o irp re s s u reo rav e rylo w v o ir a n d th e w e llb o re (F ig . 1 -4 B ). p ro d u c in g ra te , i t c a n b e p ro d u c e d b y afo rm o f

g a s l i f t 3 . D is p la c e m e n to f liq u id s lu g s b y la rg e b u b b le so f g a s c a lle d in te rm itte n t flo w . A s its n a m e im p lie s , th is s y s te m p ro d u c e s in te rm itte n tly o rirre g u la rly a n d is d e s ig n e d to p ro d u c e a tth e ra te a tw h ic h flu id e n te rs th e w e llb o re a c tin g a s p is to n s (F ig . 1 -4 C ). Aty p ic a l s m a ll c o n tin u o u s flo w gas lift system is show n fro m t h e f o r m a t i o n . I n t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t f l o w system , fluid i s i nF ig .1 -5 . a llo w e d to a c c u m u la te a n d b u ild u p i n th e tu b in g a tth e FLU I

\d F R O MF O R M A T IO N O IL&G A S

 

r 4I D C O L U M N W E IG H T R E D U C E D B Y W ELL F O R M A T IO N G A S IN A N A T U R A L FLO W (A ) OIL&G A S

F R O MF O R M A T IO N I F L U ID C O L U M N W E IG H T R E D U C E D B Y A G A S L IF T W E L L F O R M A T IO N A N D IN J E C T E D G A S : (B ) F ig .1 -3 R e d u c tio n in flu id c o lu m nw e ig h tb y fo r m a tio n a n d in je c te d g a s Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group

 

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A P I T IT L E a V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 3 7 491

 

 

   

 

   

 

W 4 G as L ift b o tto m o f th e w e ll. P e rio d ic a lly , a la rg e b u b b le o f h ig h th e rifle s lu g . T h e fre q u e n c y o f g a s in je c tio n i n in term itp re s s u re g a s is in je c te d in to th e tu b in g v e ry q u ic k ly u n d e rte n t lift is d e te rm in e d b y th e a m o u n t o f tim e re q u ire d fo r a n e a th th e c o lu m n o f liq u id a n d th e liq u id c o lu m n is p u s h e d liq u id s lu g to e n te r th e tu b in g . T h e le n g th o f th e g a s in ra p id ly u p th e tu b in g t o th e surface. This a c tio n i s sim ilar t o je c tio n p e rio d w ill d e p e n d u p o n th e tim e re q u ire dt o p u s h firin g a b u llet fro m a rifle by the expansion o fg a s b e h in d

one slug of liquid to the surface. A D V A N T A G E S A N D L IM IT A T IO N S O F G A S L IF T C h o ic eo f G a s L iftS y s t e m T he a d v a n ta g e s o fg a s l i f t c a n b e sum m arized a s fo llo w s: B e c a u s e o f its c y c lic n a tu re , in te rm itte n t flo w g a s lift is s u ite d o n ly to w e lls th a tp ro d u c e a tre la tiv e ly lo w ra te s . C o n tin u o u s flo w g as lift w ill u su ally b e m o re efficien t a n d le s s e x p e n s iv e fo r w e lls th a t p ro d u c e a t h ig h e r ra te s w h e re c o n tin u o u s flo w c a n b e m a in ta in e d w ith o u t e x c e s s iv e u se o f in je c tio n g a s . G a s lift is s u ita b le fo r a lm o s t e v e ry ty p e o fw ell th a t

req u ires artificial lift. It can b e u sed to artificially lift o il w e lls to d e p le tio n , re g a rd le s s o f th e u ltim a te p ro d u c in g ra te ; to k ic k o ff w ells that w ill flow n a tu ra lly ; to b a c k flo w w a te r in je c tio n w e lls ; a n d to u n lo a d w a te r fro m g a s w e lls . 1 .In itia lc o s to f d o w n h o le g a s lifte q u ip m e n tis u s u ally lo w . 2 .F le x ib ility c a n n o t b e e q u a le d b y a n y o th e r fo rm of lift. In s ta lla tio n s c a n b e d e s ig n e d fo r liftin g in itia lly fro m near the surface and for lifting from n e a r to ta l d e p th a t d e p le tio n . G a s lift in s ta lla tio n s c a n b e d e s ig n e d to lift from o n e to m a n y th o u s a n d so f barrels per day. 3 .T h e p ro d u c in g ra te c a n b e c o n tro lle d a t th e s u rfa c e . 4 . S a n d i n th e p ro d u c e d flu id d o e s n o ta ffe c tg a s lift e q u ip m e n t in m o stin stallatio n s. L IQ U ID G A S R e d u c tio no f E x p a n s io no f G a s F lu id D e n s ity

(C) D is p la c e m e n to f L iq u id S lu g s b y G as B u b b le s F ig .1 -4 T h reee f f e c t so f gasi n a gasl i f t w e ll Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 7 00 5 3 2 8 3 83 2 8 m In tro d u c tio nt o A rtific ia l L ift a n d G as L ift 5 5 . G as lifti s n o t a d v e rs e ly a ffe c te d b y d e v ia tio n o f th e w e llb o re . 6 .T h e re la tiv e ly fe w m o v in g p a rts ina g a s lift s y s te m g iv e ita lo n g s e rv ic e life w h e n c o m p a re d to o th e r fo rm so f artificial lift. 7 . O p e ra tin g c o s ts a re u s u a lly re la tiv e ly lo w fo r g a s lift system s. 8 . G as lift is id e a lly s u ite dt o s u p p le m e n t fo rm a tio n g a s fo r th e p u rp o seo f artificially liftin g w e llsw h e re m o d e ra te am ountsof gas a re p r e s e n t i n th e p ro d u c e d flu id . 9 . T he m ajor item

of equipm ent(thegascom pressor) i n agas lift system is installed on the surface w here it c a n b e e a s ily inspected, repaired a n d m a in ta in e d . T h is e q u ip m e n t c a n b e d riv e n b y e ith e r g a so r e le c tric ity . G L Y C O L O n th e o th e r h a n d , g a s lift a ls o h a s c e rta in lim ita tio n s which can be sum m arizeda s fo llo w s: l . G asm ust be available. In som e instances air, exhaust gases, and nitrogen have been used but these are gene ra lly m ore expensive and m o re d iffic u lt t o w o r k w ith th a n lo c a lly p ro d u c e d n a tu ra l g a s ,. 2 . W ide w ell spacing m ay lim itth e u s e o f a c e n tra lly located source o f h ig h p re s s u re g a s . T h is lim ita tio n h a s b e e n c i r c u m v e n t e d o n s o m e w e l l s t h r o u g h t h eu s e of gas-cap g a sa s a lifting sourceand the return of the

g a s to th e c a p th ro u g h in je c tio n w e lls . 3 . C orrosive gasl i f t gas can increase the costof g a sl i f t o p e ra tio n s if i t is necessarytotreator d ry th e g a s before use. D E H Y D R A T O R S U R P L U S G A S T O S A L E S S T A T IO N G A S /O I L S E P A R A T O R M A N IF O L D IN J E C T IO N G A S M A N IF O L D (M E T E R IN G & C O N T R O L ) Ø I F ig . 1 -5 A ty p ic a lg a sl i f ts y s te m Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 q m 0 7 3 2 2 9 00 5 3 2 8 3 92 b 4 m

 

 

   

 

   

 

4 . In s ta lla tio n o f ag a s lift s y s te m in c lu d in g c o m p re s s o r su s u a lly re q u ire s a lo n g e r le a d tim e a n d g re a te r p re p a ra tio n th a n d o e s s in g le w e ll p u m p in g s y s te m s . In a d d itio n , th e in itia l s u rfa c e in s ta lla tio n fo r g a s lift w ill s o m e tim e s b e m o re e x p e n s iv e th a n e q u iv a le n t p u m p in g in s ta lla tio n s . H o w e v e r, th e re d u c e d o p e ra tin g c o s t o f th e g a s lift system w ill usually fa r o u t w e ig h a n y a d d itio n a l c o s t o f th e in itia l in s ta lla tio n . A ls o , if th e a s s o c ia te d g a s w ill b e gathered and com pressed, a s is u s u a lly th e c a s e , p ro v is io n s fo r c irc u la tin g s o m e of the com pressed gas for gas lift w ill n o t, in m ost c a s e s ,s ig n ific a n tly in c re a s e th e in itia lc o s t. 5 . In very low pressured reservoirs, continuous flow g a s lift cannot achieve as great a pressure draw dow n as can som e pum ping system s. H ow ever, w h e n lo w flo w -

in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re i s desired,th e use of interm ittent lift and cham berl i f tform s of gaslift can u s u ally achievepressuredraw dow nscom parableto pum pingsystem s. 6 . C o n v e rs io n o f o ld w e lls to g a s lift c a n re q u ire a h ig h e r le v e l o f c a s in g in te g rity th a n w o u ld b e re q u ire d fo r pum pingsystem s. H IS T O R IC A L R E V IE WO FG A S L IF T D E V E L O P M E N T E a rly E x p e rim e n ts 3 . 1900-1920: G ulf C oast A rea “air fo r h ire ” boom . Such fa m o u s fie ld s a sS p in d le T o p w e re p ro d u c e d b y a ir l i f t . Carl Em anual Loscher (Germ an m in in g e n g in e e r) a p p lie d com pressed airasam eans o f liftin g liq u id i n

la b o ra to ry e x p e rim e n ts in 1 7 9 7 .T h e firs tp ra c tic a la p p lic a tio n o f 4 .1 9 2 0 -1 9 2 9 :A p p lic a tio n o fstraig h tg asliftw ith w id e a irl iftw a s i n 1846 whena n A m e r i c a n n a m e d C o c k f o r d p u b l i c i t y f r o m t h e S e m i n o l e F i e l d i n O k l a h o m a ( S e e l i f t e d o il fro m som e w e lls i n e n n s y lv a n ia . F ig . 1 -7 ). T he firstU .S . patent for gas lift called an “ o il e je c to r”w a s issued to A .B reari n 1 8 6 5 (F ig . 1 -6 ). FLO W L IN E -b .rl W

F ig .1 -6 B rear O il E jector (M ay2 3 ,1 8 6 5 ) C h r o n o lo g ic a l D e v e lo p m e n t T he fo llo w in g c h ro n o lo g ic a l d e v e lo p m e n t of gas liftw as given by Brown,Canalizo and Robertson in a p a p e r p u b lis h e di n1 9 6 1 . ( M a n y o f th e s k e tc h e s s h o w n in th is c h a p te r a re ta k e n fro m th is p a p e r.) 1 . P rio rto1 8 6 4 :S o m ela b o ra to rye x p e rim e n tsp e rfo rm e d w ith p o s s ib ly o n e o r tw o p ra c tic a la p p lic a tio n s . 2 . 1 8 6 4 -1 9 0 0 :T h ise rac o n s is te d o fliftin g b y com p re s s e d a ir in je c te d th ro u g h th e a n n u lu s o r tu b in g . Several flooded m ine shafts w ere unloaded. N um erous patents w ere issued for foot-pieces, etc. S U B M E R G E N C E Fig. 1 -7 E a r ly g a s lift n o m e n c la tu r e

5 . 1 9 2 9 -1 9 4 5 : T h is e ra in c lu d e d th e p a te n tin g o fa b o u t 2 5 ,0 0 0 d iffe re n t flo w v a lv e s . M o re e ffic ie n t ra te s o f p ro d u c tio n a s w e lla s p ro ra tio n c a u s e d th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e flo w v a lv e . 6 . 1 9 4 5 to p re s e n t: S in c e th e e n d o f W o rld W a r II, th e p re s s u re -o p e ra te d v a lv e h a s p ra c tic a lly re p la c e d a ll o th e r ty p e s o f g a s lift v a lv e s .A lsoin th is e ra , m a n y a d d itio n a l c o m p a n ie s h a v e b e e n fo rm e d w ith m o s to f th e m m arketing som e version of a pressure-operated v a lv e . 7 .1 9 5 7 :I n t r o d u c t i o n of w ire lin ere trie v a b leg a slift v a lv e s . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 4 0 T 8 b m In tro d u c tio n t o A rtific ia l L ift a n d

 

 

   

 

   

 

G as L ift 7 T e c h n i c a l D e v e l o p m e n to fG as L i f t E q u i p m e n t 3 . K i c k - o f f v a l v e s ( F i g . 1 -1 0a n d F i g . 1 -11 )w ere next 1 . T h e te c h n ic a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f g a s lift e q u ip m e n t c a n b e e m p lo y e d t o p ro v id eam eans forc lo s in g off gas after a l o w e r v a l v e w a s u n c o v e r e d . T h e e a r lyk ic k -o ff v a lv e s w e re d e s ig n e d to o p e ra te o na1 0 -2 0 psi pressure difgrouped into stages w hich are described as follow s: S tra ig h t g a s in je c tio n w h ic h e m p lo y e d n o v a lv e s a n d fe re n tia l u n til th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e s p rin g -lo a d e d c o n s is te d p rim a rily o f U -tu b in g th e g a s a ro u n d th e d iffe re n tia l v a lv e w h ic h o p e ra te d at about1 0 0psi difb o tto m o f th e tu b in g . S e v e ra l ty p e s of early gas and fe re n tia l. T hek ic k -o ff v a lv e w a s a c ru d e fo re ru n n e r a ir lift h o o k u p s a re s h o w n in F ig .1 -8 .

o f th e m o d e rn g a s lift flo w v a lv e . 2 F ig .1 -8 E a r ly g a s (a ir ) lift w ith o u t v a lv e s Jet collars (F ig. 1 -9 ) w ere placed up the string t oa llo w g a s to e n te r h ig h e r up and thereby reduce the excessive kick-off pressures re q u ire d fo r k ic k in g a ro u n d th e b o tto m . \ : : : %I ON T U R N T U B IN G T OC L O S E ,-T U B IN G T U B IN G G A S " A S T U B IN G

F ig .1 -1 0 T a y lo r k ic k -o ff v a lv e I FLO W L IN E a+-I " " -= -":= "" " FLAPPER TYPE \ S P R IN G F ig . 1 -9 J e t c o lla r F ig .1 -1 1 K ic k -o ff v a lv e s Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P IT IT L E S V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532843 9 1 2 m 8 G as L ift DEVELOPMENTO F THE MODERN G A SL IF T VALVE

 

 

   

 

   

 

D iffe re n tia l V a lv e s U n til 1 9 4 0 , th e c lo s e s tth in g to th e p re s e n td a y g a s l i f t flo w v a lv e w a s th e d iffe re n tia l v a lv e (F ig .1 -1 2 ) w h ic h w as operated by the differencei n pressure betw een the inje c tio n g a s i nth e c a s in g a n d th eflu id i nth e tu b in g . T h e d iffe re n tia l v a lv e o p e n e d w hen there w as an increase i n fluid pressure relative to injection gas pressure and closed w hen the gas pressure increased relative t oth e flu id . T h is p rin c ip leo fo p e ra tio n m e a n t th a t th e d iffe re n tia l v a lv e s h a d to b e s p a c e d c lo s e to g e th e ri n order to assure proper o p e ra tio no fth e in s ta lla tio n . L ittle o r n o s u rfa c e c o n tro l w a s p o s s ib le in a d iffe re n tia l v a lv e in s ta lla tio n . SEC. A -A ? --

il-" v (A ) M e c h a n ic a lly c o n tr o lle d v a lv e s FLO W L IN E C A S IN G + G A S IN T U B IN G 4 D IS K T Y P E V E L O C IT Y (C ) V e lo c ity c o n tr o lle d v a lv e s (B ) B ry a n d iffe re n tia l v a lv e FLO W L IN E (D ) S p r in g lo a d e d d iffe r e n tia l v a lv e s F ig .1 -1 2 E a rly ty p e s o ffz o w v a lv e s Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P IT IT L E + V T -6 74 D 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 4 2 8 5 7 W In tro d u c tio n t o A rtific ia l L ift a n d G as L ift 9 O n e ty p e o f d iffe re n tia l v a lv e , w h ic h w a s

 

 

   

 

   

 

v e ry p o p u la r around 1940, is show n in F ig . 1 -13 .T h is v a lv e w a s o rig in a lly c a lle d th e S p e c ific G r a v ity D iffe r e n tia lV u lv e . T he s p e c ific g ra v ity d iffe re n tia l v a lv e e m p lo y e d th e d iffe re n c e in s p e c ific g ra v ity b e tw e e n a 1 6 fo o t c o lu m n of kerosene a n d a1 6fo o t c o lu m no f w e ll flu id fo r o p e ra tin g pressure. It w as very successful in continuous floww ells and m ay still be operatingsuccessfullyinsom ew ells.H ow ever,the v a lv e ’s le n g th a n d e x c e s s iv e d ia m e te r lim ite d its tra n s p o rta b ility a n d a p p lic a tio n . O P E R A T IN G V A L V E VALVES ABOVE O P E R A T IN G V A L V E F ig .1 -1 3 S p e c ific g r a v ity ty p e d iffe r e n tia l v a lv e B e llo w s C h a r g e dV a lv e s I n 1 9 4 0 ,W .R . K in g in tro d u c e d h is b e llo w s c h a rg e d g a s lift v a lv e . A d ra w in g ta k e n fro m K in g ’s p a te n t is s u e d o n

J a n u a r y 18, 1944 is shown i n F ig . 1 -1 4 . K in g ’s v a lv e , w h ic h isvery sim ilarto m ostpresentday unbalanced,singlee le m e n t, b e llo w s c h a r g e d g a s lift v a lv e s , a llo w e d fo r th e f i r s t tim e the gas lifting of low pressure w ellsw ith a controlled change in the surface injection gas pressure. Since K in g ’s valve w as opened by an increase in in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re G a s C h a rg e d P re s s u re C ham ber B e llo w s S te m8 S e a t 4 F ig .1 -1 4 King valve (F irst pressured bellow s valve) and closed by adecrease

in pressure,the valve could be operated from the surface b y c h a n g e s in th e in je c tio n g a s p r e s s u r e . T h is m e a n t th a t it w a s n o lo n g e r n e c e s s a r y to operate a valve from t h e s u r f a c eb y r o t a t i n go r m o v in g th e tu b in go rw ire lin ec o n n e c te dtoth es u rfa c e .T h e p rin c ip a lo fo p e ra tio n o f th e b e llo w s v a lv e w a s a ls o fa r s u p e rio r to th e d iffe re n tia l v a lv e fo r m o s t a p p lic a tio n s i n th a t th e b e llo w s v a lv e w a s c lo s e d b y a decrease in gas p re s s u re , w h e re a s th e d iffe re n tia l ty p e v a lv e o p e n e d w itha d e c r e a s e in gaspressure.T hism eantthatfew erofthe b e llo w s ty p e gas pressure o p e r a te d valves were re q u ire d fo r e a c h in s ta lla tio n , s in c e th e v a lv e re lie d

o n th e re la tiv e ly h ig h in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re fo r o p e ra tio n , th e re b y a llo w in g th e s p a c in g b e tw e e n v a lv e s to b e m u c h g re a te r th a n th e d iffe rential pressure operated valves. K in g h a d g o o d in s ig h t in to v a lv e c o n s tru c tio n w h e n h e d e s ig n e d h is v a lv e . H e re c o g n iz e d th e n e e d fo r c o m p le te b e llo w s p ro te c tio n , in c lu d in g a n a n ti c h a tte r m e c h a n is m . T h e b e llo w s in th e K in g v a lv e is p ro te c te d fro m e x c e s s iv e w ell pressureby sealing th e b e llo w s cham ber from th e w e ll flu id s a fte r fu ll s te m tra v e l. C h a tte r is p re v e n te d b y th e Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 74 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 4 3 7 7 5 m

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

1 0 G as L ift sm a ll o rific e . T h e b a ffle d e s ig n a ls o s u p p o rts th e b e llo w s . P O S IT IV E S T O P FO RS T E M B E L L O W S S E C T IO N G A S IN L E T S S T E M8S E A T IN S E R T R E V E R S EC H E C K S im ila r c o n s tru c tio n is u s e d b y severalm anufacturers in th e ir p r e s e n t g a s lift v a lv e s . T he success o f th e K in g v a lv ei s e v id e n c e d b y th e fa c t th a t th e b a s ic p rin c ip le s u s e d in th ed e s ig n w e re q u ic k ly a d o p te d b y alm ostallvalvem anufacturersand a re still u s e d w ith little m o d ific a tio n in to d a y ’s g a s lift v a lv e s . F

ig . 1 -1 5i sa n illu s tra tio no f a ty p ic a l m o d e rn b e llo w s c h a rg e d g as lift v alv e. N o te th e sim ilarity b e tw e e n th is v a lv e a n d th e K in g v a lv e s h o w n i n F ig .1 -1 4 . G a s liftv a lv e s a n d m andrelsarediscussed i n d e ta il i n C h a p te r5 of this m a n u a l. F ig . 1 - 1 5T y p ic a l m o d e r n b e l l o w sc h a r g e d g a sl i f t v a l v e Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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"1

A P I T IT L E tV T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 4 4 6 2 1 m W ell Perform ance 1 1 C H A W ELLP E F

T E R

2 IF O R M A N C E IN T R O D U C T IO N W e ll p e rfo rm a n c e is c o n tro lle d b y a la rg e n u m b e r o f

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

 

fa c to rs th a t a re o fte n in te rre la te d . M o s t s tu d e n ts of fluid flo w n o w d iv id e w ell perform ance in to tw o b a s ic c a te g o rie s w h ic h th e y c a ll In flo w a n d O u tflo w perform ance.A si l l u s tra te d i n F ig . 2 -1 ,all flo w i n th e r e s e r v o ir u p t o th e w e llb o re is d e s ig n a te d a s in flo w p e r fo r m a n c e a n d a ll flo w u p th e tu b in g a n d in to th e p ro d u c tio n fa c ilitie s is d e s ig n a te d o u tflow performance.

Aw e ll sin flo w perform anceis c o n tro lle d b y th e c h a ra c teristics of th e r e s e r v o ir s u c h a s r e s e r v o ir pressure, productiv ity a n d flu id c o m p o s itio n . Aw e ll so u tflo w perform ance isa d ire c t fu n c tio n o f th e s iz e a n d ty p e of producing e q u ip m e n t.B o th in flo w a n d o u tflo w p e rfo rm a n c e c a n b e p re d ic te d q u ite a c c u ra te ly , a n d w e lls c a n be designed b a s e d o n th e s e p re d ic tio n s . In a n y g iv e n w e ll, o u tflo w p e rfo rm a n c e and inflow perform ancem ustbeequal.T hatis,w ecan

   

produce no m ore fluid fro m th e re s e rv o ir th a n we can l i f t t o th e s u r f a c e a n d v ic e v e r s a . B e c a u s e o f th is f a c t, it is e x tre m e ly im p o rta n t th a t a w e ll s in flo w p e rfo rm a n c e b e c a re fu lly c o n s id e re d w h e n s iz in g p ro d u c tio n e q u ip m e n t. U

4 N FLO W P E R F O R M A N C E " " "" I

I I I I F ig .2 -1In flo w a n d O u tflo w P e r fo r m a n c e in a flo w in g w e ll

 

 

Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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1 2 G as L ift IN F L O W P E R F O R M A N C E P R E D IC T IO N Aw e ll s in flo w p e rfo rm a n c e is u s u a lly e x p re s s e d in te rm s o f p ro d u c tiv ity w h ic h s im p ly in d ic a te s th e n u m b e r o f b

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

a r- re ls o f o il o r liq u id th a t a w e ll is c a p a b le o f p ro d u c in g a t a given reservoir pressure. O ne wayof expressing wellprod u c tiv ity is w ith th e P ro d u c tiv ity In d e x (P .I.= J ) te c h n iq u e . T h is in v o lv e s m e a s u rin g a w e ll s p ro d u c in g ra te , a n d flo w - in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re a t th a t ra te , th e n u s in g th is in fo r- m a tio n to c a lc u la te a P .1 f o r t h e w e l l . In flo w P e r fo r m a n c e R e la tio n s h ip (IP R ) T e c h n iq u e T h e P .I. m e th o d a s s u m e s th a t a ll fu tu re p ro d u c tio n ra te c h a n g e s w ill b e i n th e s a m e p ro p o rtio n to th e p re s s u re draw dow n as w as the test case. T his m ay not alw ays be true, e s p e c ia lly in a s o lu tio n -g a s d riv e re s e rv o ir p ro d u c in g b e lo w th e b u b b le p o in t p re s s u re . T h e b u b b le p o in t p re s s u re is th e condition of tem perature and pressure w here free gas first c o m e s o u t o f s o lu tio ni nth e o il. W h e n th e p re s s u rei n th e fo rm a tio n d ro p s b e lo w th eb u b b l e p o i n t p r e s s u r e , g a s i s released in the reservoir and the resulting tw o -p h a se flo w o f g a s a n d o il a ro u n d th e w e llb o re c a n c a u s e a re d u c tio n in th e w e ll s p ro d u c tiv ity . J . V . V o g e l d e v e lo p e d a n e m p iric a l P ro d u c tiv ity In d e x (P .I.= J ) T e c h n iq u e te c h n iq u e fo r

 

 

p re d ic tin g w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity s u n d e r s u c h re d u c e d c o n d itio n s a n d h e c a lle d h is m e th o d o f a n a ly s is In flo w P e rfo rm a n c e R e la tio n s h ip (IP R ) a fte r th e te rm in o lo g y u s e d i n a n e a rlie r p a p e r w ritte n b y W .E . G ilb ert.

O n e d e fin itio no fP ro d u c tiv ity In d e x a n d th e o n e th a t is u s e d in a rtific ia l lift, d e fin e s P .I. a sth e num ber of barrels o f liq u id p ro d u c e d p e r d a y (B L P D ) fo r e a c h p o u n d p e r square inch (psi) of reservoirpressure draw dow n. D raw dow n is d e fin e d a s th e d iffe re n c e in th e s ta b iliz e d s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re (S S B H P ) a n d th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le pressure (FB H P). This can be w ritten a s a n e q u a tio n u s in g

 

 

c u rre n t e n g in e e rin g s y m b o ls a s fo llo w s : V o g e l2 c a lc u la te d IP R c u rv e s fo r w e lls p ro d u c in g fro m s e v e ra l fic titio u s s o lu tio n g a s d riv e re s e rv o irs . F ro m th e s e curves he w as able to develop a reference IPR curve w hich n o t o n ly c o u ld b e u s e d f o r m o s t s o lu tio n g a s d riv e r e s e r v o irs in a rriv in g a t o il w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity , b u t w o u ld g iv e 91 m uch m ore a c c u r a te p ro je c tio n s th a n c o u ld b e o b ta in e d J = pw s-P ,, E q u a tio n2 .1 u s in g th e P .I. m e th o d . H is w o rk w a s b a s e d e n tire ly u p o n re s u lts o b ta in e d fro m w e lls p ro d u c in g in s o lu tio n g a s d riv e reservoirs. H ow ever, good experiencehas

b e e n o b ta in e d using the VogelIP R in a ll tw o -p h a s e flo w c o n d itio n s . w here: J = P ro d u c tiv ity in d e x , B L P D /p s i q l = L iq u id P ro d u c tio n R a te , B L P D P ,, = S ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re , p s ig Pw f= F lo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re , p s ig T h e c a lc u la tio n o f a w e ll s P .I. is g iv e n in th e fo llo w in g V o g e l IP R C u rv e e x a m p le . T he V ogel IPR dim ensionless curve (see Fig.2 -2 )is b a s e d G iv e n :Aw e llth a t produces1 0 0 BLPD andhasan SSB H P

 

o n th e fo llo w in g e q u a tio n : of 1000 psig and a FBHP of9 0 0 p s ig . F in d : P .I. o f the w ell (q o h a x =1 .0-0 .2( 2 ) 0 .8 (+ ) E q u a tio n 2 .2 S o lu tio n : 90 q l 1 0 0B L P D J = Pw s -Pw f 1 0 0 0 p s ig-9 0 0 p s ig N o te th a t th e in itia l b u b b le p o in t p re s s u re (P B ) h a s b e e n J = 1B L P D /p s i E q u a tio n 2 .1 substituted for the static

b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e (P w s) in the -T h e P .I. te c h n iq u e a llo w s u s to d e te rm in e th e w e ll p ro d u c - tion if the pressure is draw n dow n further. U sing the sam e e x a m p le , if w e d ra w th e F B H P d o w n to5 0 0 psig from the low ing rate: a b o v e e q u a tio n to e m p h a s iz e th a t th e V o g e l IP R c u rv e o n ly a p p lie s w h e n Pw f=PS Thechange i n p ro d u c tio n w ith a c h a n g e in th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re a b o v e th e in itia l b u b b le p o in t re s e rv o ir p re s s u re is d e fin e d by th e p ro d u c tiv s e c o n d re q u ire m e n t to a s s u re v a lid ity o f th e V o g e l IP R O f

P sigth e p ro d u c ea t th e ity in d e x e q u a tio n ,

 

O o o

w h ic h isa s tra ig h t ]in e IP R c u r v e . T h e q 1 J = E q u a tio n 2 . re la tio n s h ip is th a t th e flo w e ffic ie n c y (F E ) m u s t b e e q u a l to P ,, -P,f u n ity (F E=1.O ) w h e re flo w e ffic ie n c y is d e fin e d a s th e ra tio o r re a rra n g in g th e e q u a tio n : o f th e a c tu a l to th e id e a l p ro d u c tiv ity in d e x . Id e a l im p lie s n o s k in e ffe c t; th a t is , th e a b s o lu te p e rm e a b ility a n d p o ro s 9 1 = ( J ) X (P w s- P w f)= 1 X 5 0 0 ity of the form ation rem ain in the sam e and unaltered from R a te (q l)=5 0 0 B L P D a t F B H P (P w ,) o f 5 0 0 p s ig

th e d ra in a g e ra d iu s to th e w e llb o re ra d iu s . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A PI T IT L E *V T -b 7 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0 5 3 2 8 4 b 4 T 4 W e ll P e r f o r m a n c e 1 3 P R O D U C IN G

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

R A T E A S A F R A C T IO N O F M A X IH U H P R O D U C IN G R A T E W IT H 1 0 0 % D R A W D O W N , q ,/(q ,) M X. Fig.2 -2 Vogel’s curve fo r inflowp e r fo r m a n c e r e la tio n ship (from Vogel’spapel;S P E1 4 7 6 ) S in c e th is d is c u s s io n is a n in tro d u c tio n to th e a p p lic a tio n o f th e w id e ly -u s e d Vogel IPR curve a n d n o tad e ta ile d p re s e n ta tio n o n th e c o n c e p ts o f w e ll d a m a g e a n d in flo w p e rfo rm a n c e , th e e x a m p le c a lc u la tio n s w ill b e b a s e d o n th e

a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t P ,, =PB andF E 1 .0 .A lso , th e IP R c u rv e w ill n o t b e re s tric te d to a ll o il p ro d u c tio n if fre e g a s is p re s e n t w itht h el iq u idp h a s ea t th ef lo w in gb o tto m h o le p re s s u re si n the w ellbore. If a w ell produces free gas, and a s ig n ific a n t flo w in g b o tto m h o le d ra w d o w n b e lo w th e in itia l b u b b le p o in t p re s s u re is re q u ire d fo r th e d e s ire d d a ily p ro - d u c tio n ra te , m o re a c c u ra te p ro d u c tio n p re d ic tio n s c a n b e expected using the Vogel IPR c u rv e th a n tio n s h ip fo e in p ro d u c in gb o tto m h becom eslessat th e lo w e r flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re . G a g e p re s s u re s w ill b e u s e d in th e s e c a lc u la tio n s .A w o rk sheet for perform ing IPR c a lc u la tio n s is g iv e n in F ig . 2 -3 . V o g e l’s E x a m p le P r o b le m T h e fo llo w in g d a ta fo r illu s tra tin g IP R c a lc u la tio n s w e re u s e d in V o g e l’s p a p e r: G iv e n : I . A veragereservoirpressure, P ,, = 2 0 0 0 p s ig u s in g r w a te tio n fo o lep re a s tra ig h t lin e p ro d u c tiv ity in d e x re la r-c u t w e lls . T h e in c re m e n ta l in c re a s r th e s a m e in c re m e n ta l in c re a s einflo w s s u red ra w d o w n

(pw s =PB ) 2 . D a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te= q o=65 BOPD 3 . F lo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re , Pw f= 1 5 0 0 p s ig F in d : l . M a x im u m p ro d u c tio n ra te fo r1 0 0 p e rc e n t d ra w d o w n (P w f=Op s ig ) 2 . D a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te fo raflo w in g b o tto m h o le pressure equal to5 0 0p s ig (See Figures 2-4 and 2-5 for a graphical presentatio n o f th e S o lu tio n .) S o lu tio n : 1 . T h e m a x im u m p ro d u c tio n ra te , (9 0 ) m a x , is c a lc u la te d u s in g th e g iv e n te s tq o a n d c o r r e s p o n d i n g P ,r. Pressure Ratio = =0 .7 5 Pw r 1 5 0 0 P ,,

2 0 0 0 F ro m the V ogel IPR c u rv e : R a te R a tio , q o ~ =0 .4 0 (9 0 ) m ax T h e m a x im u m d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te re p re s e n ts th e m a x im um d e liv e ra b ility of the w elli fth e b o tto m h o le p re s s u re could be decreased to atm ospheric pressure( Op sig ) by tu rn - in g th e w e ll u p s id e d o w n a n d p ro d u c in g th ro u g h a fric tio n le s s c o n d u it. 2. Pressure R atio=pwf = 5 0 0 = 0 .2 5 P ,, 2 0 0 0 F ro m th e V o g e l IP R c u rv e : R a te R a tio , q o =0 .9 0

(9 0 ) m ax q o= 1 6 2 .5(0 .9 0 )= 146 BO PD W h e n th e v a lv e fo r(9 0 ) m ax is d e te rm in e d , th e v a lu e o fq . f o r a l l v a l u e s o f P w r c a n b e c a l c u l a t e d . A l s o , t h e v a l u e o f P ,f c a n b e c a lc u la te d fo r a n y v a lu e o fq .le s s th a n (q o )m a x . A sa n e x a m p le , th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e fo r a p ro d u c tio n ra te o f 1 1 4 B O P D fo r th e a b o v e w e ll c a n b e c a lc u la te d as follow s: R a te R a tio= 9 0 1 1 4 (9 0 )

m ax 1 6 2 .5 -=0 .7 0 F ro m the V ogel IPR curve: Pressure Ratio, =0 .5 0 P ,, Pw r=0 .5(2 0 0 0 )= 1 0 0 0 p s ig Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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W ORK SHEET FOR N O N D IM E N S IO N A L IN F L O W PERFORMANCE CURVE W ELL N O . F R O M BHP SURVEY G IV E N : ( 1) P, = P S k I (3 ) TEST RATE= ~ B F P D 1.o 0 . . .I : : j . . . i : ! . . . ] . . . I : . , . . . 0.80

x = (5 )= fro m th isc u rv e 0.60 II > 0.40

: . I : !I , . : i . . 0.20

I

1I j . , O O 0 .2 0 0 .4 0 0 .6 0 0 .8 0

   
!::

1.o 0 I P lo t B H P (7 ) v e rs u s B F P D (8 )fo r IP RC u rv e b e tw e e n B H P = O& B H P= P,, &B F P D = O& B F P D I M ax. R a te (6 ) F ig . 2 -3 W orksheetfor perform ingIP R calculations Copyright American Petroleum Institute

"

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Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,`

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A P I T IT L E W V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 00 5 3 2 8 4 8 2 7 7 m W ell Perform ance 1 5 IP R 2 ,0 0 0 arm 2O F R A C T IO N O F M A X IM U M

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

P R O D U C IN G R A T E F R A C T IO N O F M A X IM U M P R O D U C IN G R A T E F R A C T IO N O F M A X IM U M P R O D U C IN G R A T E F R A C T IO N O F M A X IM U M P R O D U C IN G R A T E Fig.2 -4 E x a m p le p r o b le ms o lu tio n Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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F R A C T IO NO F M A X I M U MP R O D U C I N GR A T EF R A C T I O N O F M A X I M U MP R O D U C I N GR A T E S IN C E T E S T R A T E A T 1 5 0 0P S lG W AS65B O P D X = 1 6 2B O P D =(q o )M AX (G ) IP R F R A C T IO N O F M A X IM U M P R O D U C IN G R A T E @ ” 0 .9 =_ _ _ -

 

 

 

   

 

0 .4 @ 162 B O P D A 65 BOPD x0 .9 A =146 BOPD = q o -146 BOPD = q O F ig . 2 -5 C o n tin u a tio no fe x a m p le p r o b l e m Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I TITLE*VT-b 74 m 0732270 0 5 3 2 8 5 0 9 2 5 m W ell Perform ance 1 7 W ELL OUTFLOW P E R F O R M A N C EP R E D IC T IO N W ell o u tflo w perform ance depends upon m any c o m p le x factors w hich are often as difficult to sim ulate as those for in flo w p e rfo rm a n c e . S u c h v a rie d p a ra m e te rs a s flu id c h a ra c - te ris tic s , w e ll c o n fig u ra tio n , c o n d u it s iz e , w e llh e a d b a c k p re s - s u re , flu id v e lo c ity , a n d p ip e ro u g h n e s s a ll c o n trib u te s ig n ifi- c a n tly to o u tflo w p e rfo rm a n c e . E ffo rts to p re d ic t w e ll o u tflo w p e rfo rm a n c e h a v e b e e n g o - in g o n fo r m a n y y e a rs a n d th e s e e ffo rts h a v e c u lm in a te d in m uch research and developm ent w ork being done in the area of m ultiphase flow c o rre la tio n s . T h e flo w

 

 

   

 

   

 

c o rre la tio n s th a t have developed from th is w o rk a tte m p t to p re d ic t th e p re s - s u re a t d e p th in a flo w in g v e rtic a l c o lu m n o f m u ltip h a s e flu id (o il-g a s, o il-w ater-g as, o r w ater-gas) ta k in g in to a c c o u n t a ll o f th e flu id c h a ra c te ris tic s a lo n g w ith th e c o n d u it c o n fig u ra tio n a n d o th e r fa c to rs a ffe c tin g th e flo w . S in c e th e p ro d u c in g c h a ra c te ris tic s o f c o n tin u o u s flo w gas lift w ells are essentially the sam e as those for a naturally flow ing w ell, th e flo w c o rre la tio n s th a t h a v e b e e n d e v e lo p e d w o rk e q u a lly w e ll in e ith e r s y s te m . T h e d e v e lo p m e n t a n d useof m ultiphase flo w c o rre la tio n s fo r o u tflo w p e rfo rm a n c e p re d ic tio n s a re d is - c u s s e d in C h a p te r3 . E x a m p le P r o b le m A ll o f th e c o rre la tio n s fo r p re d ic tin g m u ltip h a s e flo w re q u ire e x te n s iv e c a lc u la tio n s a n d fro m a p ra c tic a l s ta n d p o in t c a n o n ly b e d o n e w ith a c o m p u te r. F o rtu n a te ly th e s e c o m - p u te r c a lc u la tio n s h a v e b e e n p lo tte d in to g e n e ra liz e d p re s - sure gradientcurves th a t a re im m e d ia te ly a v a ila b le to th e operator and engineer.A n exam ple of one such gradient curve is s h o w n in F ig . 2 -6 A . U s in g a s u ite o f th e s e g ra d ie n t c u rv e s c a lc u la te d f o r s e v e r a l d if f e r e n t w ell rates,theflow ing b o t t o m h o l e p r e s s u r e P w fc a n b e r e a d a t a g i v e n d e p t h f o r a specific rate and gas to liquid ratio (Rg]).Separate curves m ust be u s e df o r e a c h w e ll ra te , w a te r c u t a n d R g l.F o rtu n a te ly , m a n y o f th e v a ria b le s in tw o p h a s e flo w c a u s e o n ly a s m

a ll c h a n g e a n d c a n b e g e n e ra liz e d . T h e fo llo w in g e x a m p le d e m - o n s tra te s th e u s e o f th e s e c u rv e s to p re d ic t o u tflo w p e rfo rm ance and w ell perform ance. W ell data for the exam ple p ro b le m fo llo w s : C asing T u b in g S ta tic B H P (T o d a y ) F lo w in g W e llh e a d B a c k In je c tio n G a s P re s s u re W ater C u ts (A ssum ed) P ressure G radient C urves P r e s s u r e T u b in g S e ttin g D e p th F o rm atio n G as O il R atio P ro d u c tiv ity In d e x F o rm a tio n D e p th 7-inch O .D . (o u ts id e d ia m e te r) 2 ’/~in ch O .D . 1 9 7 0 p s ig@5 8 0 0f t . 2 3 0 p s ig 1 5 0 0p s ig@S u rf. E P R C o rre la tio n (O rkiszew ski) 0 -2 5 -5 0 -7 5 % N ear 5800 ft. 800 CFA3 5 .0 B FPD /psi D raw dow n

(S tra ig h t L in e ) 5 8 0 0 ft. T h e w e ll u n d e r c o n s id e ra tio n is a h ig h p ro d u c tiv ity w e ll. T o b e g in th e a n a ly s is it is a s s u m e d th a t fo r th is w e ll, a n d th e g iv e n re s e rv o ir c o n d itio n s , m a x im u m flo w ra te s c a n p ro b a b ly b e s t b e o b ta in e d u n d e r a n n u la r flo w c o n d itio n s . T h is m a y n o t b e t r u e , a n d t h e m a x i m u m r a t e s f o r 2 ’/8 i n c h t u b i n g w ill b e c h e c k e d la te r. The first step is toobtaino r c a lc u la te a s u ite o f v e rtic a l tw o-phase flow ing pressure gradient curves for the con- d u i ts i z e s t o b ee x a m i n e db a s e do np r o d u c i n g c o n d itio n s to b e e x p e c te d . C o m p u te r p ro g ra m s a v a ila b le fro m s e v e ra l s o u rc e s m a k e th e c a lc u la tio n a n d p lo t- tin g o fs u c h c u r v e s b o th f a s ta n d in e x p e n s iv e . G e n e ra liz e d c u rv e s , a v a ila b lei nm a n y te x tb o o k s , c a n be used if th e y c lo s e ly m a tc h th e a c tu a l p ro d u c in g c o n d itio n s . T h e g ra d ie n t c u rv e s u s e d i nth is e x a m p le a re n o t ty p ic a l, g e n e ra liz e d w ell gradient curves, but w e re c a lc u la te d fo r th e s e s p e c ific c o n d itio n s . T he suite of gradient curves should cover all ranges of flo w rates that are possible for the p a rtic u la r c o n d u it b e in g c o n s id e re d . S ix to te n ra te s s h o u ld b e s u ffic ie n t, b u t th e a c tu a l n u m b e r w ill d e p e n d o n th e w id tho fth e producing range

being considered. T he rates should be fa irly e q u a lly d iv id e d o v e r th e e n tire ra n g e to g iv e s o m e - w h a t e q u a l d is trib u tio n o f p o in ts a lo n g th e e n tire le n g th of the curve. A p a g e o f g ra d ie n t c u rv e s c a lc u la te d fo r th is p a rtic u la r w e l la n dr e p r e s e n t i n gt h e 3 0 0 0 B O P D r a t ei s s h o w n in F ig . 2 -6 A . In th is c a s e a lin e h a s b e e n d ra w n re p re s e n tin g th e p ro d u c in g fo rm a tio n d e p th a t5 8 0 0f t . T h e in te rs e c tio n o f th e d e p th lin e w ith th e R g l lin e fo r n a t u r a lf l o w c o n d i t i o n s (8 0 0 R ,, fo r1 0 0 % o il) has been n o te d w ith a n arrow . Thepressure at this point hasbeen read as 930 psig. Fig. 2-6B s h o w s th e g ra d ie n t c u rv e s fo r th e4 0 0 0 B /D fluid rate at 100% oil; a n d a s im ila r re a d in g , in th is c a s e9 4 0 psig, hasbeen n o te d o n it. G ra d ie n t c u rv e re a d in g s a re c o n -tin u e d in th is f a s h io n u n til

s u ffic ie n t p o in ts a re o b ta in e d to re p re s e n t a fu ll ra n g e o f p ro d u c in g ra te s . T hepressurereadingsarenow tabulated i n th e m anner show n in Table 2-1. N otethatthepressures s h o w n in T a b le 2 -1 are for both 1 0 0 % o il a n d v a rio u s w a te r c u ts . A s e p a ra te s u ite of gradientcurves i s re q u ire d fo r e a c h w a te r c u t. T h e p o in ts show n i n Table 2-1are n o w p lo tte d o n C a rte s ia n C o o rd in a te p a p e r w ith flo w in g p ressu re at th e fo rm a tio n d e p th b e in g s c a le d a lo n g th e v e rtic a l (Y ) axis and th e p ro d u c in g ra te p lo tte d a lo n g th e h o riz o n ta l(X ) axis. F ig. 2-7 is a

p lo t o f th e s e v a lu e s a n d th e re s u ltin g c u rv e s re p re s e n t th e m in im u m flo w in g p re s s u re a t th e fo rm a tio n d e p th th a t w ill b e re q u ire d to o v e rc o m e g ra v ity , fric tio n , s u rfa c e p re s s u r e a n d o th e r e f f e c ts ,a n d p r o d u c e a tth e r a te s in d ic a te d . ~ Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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1 8 G as L ift I T Y P IC A L G R A D IE N T C U R V E S FO R3 0 0 0 B /D R A T E (C O U R T E S Y E X X O N P R O D U C T IO N R E S E A R C H C O .) 1 I 4 1 I T Y P IC A L G R A D IE N T C U R V E S FO R4 0 0 0 B ID R A T E (C O U R T E S Y E X X O N P R O D U C T IO N R E S E A R C H C O .) F ig . 2 -6 G radientc u r v e s TA B LE 2 -1 T A B U L A T IO N O F P O IN T S F R O M G R A D IE N T C U R V E F O R N A T U R A L F L O W 7 "x 2 7 /8 " A n n u lu sN a tu ra l F lo wR g la s In d ic a te d F B H P@5 8 0 0f t ,p sig

1 0 0 % O il 2 5 % W tr 5 0 % W tr 7 5 % W tr R ate, B P D (R ,I=8 0 0 ) (R g l=6 0 0 ) (R g l=4 0 0 ) (R ,[=2 0 0 ) 2 ,0 0 0 9 9 0 1 2 6 0 1 6 5 5 2 2 4 0 2 ,5 0 0 3 ,0 0 0 3 ,5 0 0 4 ,0 0 0 4 ,5 0 0 5 ,0 0 0 6 ,0 0 0 8 ,0 0 0 1 0 ,0 0 0 1 2 ,5 0 0 9 4 0 9 3 0 9 3 5 9 4 0 9 6 0 9 7 0 1O 00 1 0 8 0

1 1 8 0 1 3 2 0 1 1 8 0 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 1 1 3 5 1 1 6 0 1 2 4 0 1 3 2 0 1 4 4 0 1 5 3 5 1 4 6 5 1 4 2 0 1 3 9 0 1 3 7 5 1 3 7 0 1 3 7 0 1 4 4 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 1 9 0 2 1 4 0 2 1 0 0 2 0 6 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 1 9 6 0 1 9 8 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 8 0 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 O S 3 2 8 5 2 7 T 8 m W ell Perform ance 1 9 4 .On the sam e sheet of graph paper, plot th e w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity lin e b a s e d o n e ith e r th e s tra ig h t lin e p ro d u c tiv ity in d e x o r th e IP R

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

te c h n iq u e b y b e g in n in g at a p o in t re p re s e n tin g th e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re (S B H P ) o n th e v e rtic a l a x is . T h is e x a m p le uses the s tra ig h t lin e P .I. m e th o d . A n e x a m p le u s in g th e IP R c u rv e s is g iv e n in F ig . 2 -1 3 . In th is c a s e , th e p o in t is 1970 psig at5 8 0 0 f t. C o n tin u e th e p lo t o f th e p ro d u c tiv ity lin e b y re d u c in g th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s sure by the am ount of drawdown calculated for v a riousrates.Forexam ple,ata rate o f5 0 0 0 B /D a n d w ith a P.I. of5 .0B F P D p si, th e d ra w d o w n fro m th e static pressure of 1970 psig is 1000 psig. Therefore, the p o in t to b e p lo tte d fo r th e e x te n s io no f th e p ro d u c tiv i t ylin e is 1 9 7 0 p s ig le s s 1 0 0 0 p s ig o r 9 7 0 p s ig a n d is p lo tte d o p p o s ite th e5 0 0 0B F P D ra te . 5 .T h e p o in ts o f in te rs e c tio n o f th e d ra w d o w n lin e w ith th e flo w in g p re s s u re c u rv e s re p re s e n t th e m a x im u m

p ro d u c in g ra te b y n a tu ra l flo w w h ic h is p o s s ib le u n d e r th e g iv e n re s e rv o ir a n d w e ll c o n d itio n si f flo w is up th e 2 l/8 ”x7 “ a n n u lu s . In th is e x a m p le , s h o w ni n F ig . 2 - 7 , th e m a x im u m ra te in d ic a te d is5 0 0 0 B /D a t z e ro w a te r c u t a n d 4 2 5 0 B /D at a 25% w a te r c u t. N o te th a t th e d ra w d o w n lin e d o e s n o t in te rs e c t th e5 0 % and 75% w a te rs c u rv e s . T h is in d ic a te s th a t th e n a tu ra l flo w i s im possible regardless o f ra te w h e re th e w a te r c u t is 5 0 %o r m o re . N a tu ra l F lo w th e n w o u ld c e a s e o n th is 2S O ( 2 0 0 ( tOOao v ) @ 0 Im$ 1 5 0 1 g = 59Y 1 0 0 1 5 0 ( I

I l l I I 7 ” x 2 -7 /8 ” A N N U L U S ,S B H P 1 9 7 0 P S IG \-P l =5 .0 B F P D /P S I I I l I I I 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 8 0 0 01 0 ,0 0 01 2 ,0 0 0 1 4 , P R O D U C IN GR A T E(B F P D I w ell w hen it reaches a w ater cu t som ew here betw een F ig .2 -7 F lo w in g BHP

V S.P roducing rate fo rn a t u r a l 2 5 % a n d 50% . flo wc o n d itio n s , v a r io u s w a te rc u ts P R E D IC T IN G T H E E F F E C T O F G A S L IF T T he e f f e c to f in je c tin g a d d itio n a l g a s in to a flu idc o lu m n fro m an outside source for gas lift purposes can be determ in e d in th e fo llo w in g m a n n e r. 1 .U sing the sam e gradient curves a n d th e s a m e m e th o d a s fo r n a tu ra l flo w , d e te rm in e th e flo w in g p re s s u re a t th e fo rm a tio n d e p th fo r th e to ta lg a s liq u id ra tio (fo rm a tio n g a s+in jected g as). If th ere is no lim it on th e a m o u n t o f g a s th a t c a n b e in je c te d , th e R g lw h ic h p ro d u c e s th e m inim um g ra d ie n tlin e at each produc- in g r a te c a n b e u s e d .In th e e x a m p le p ro b le m , th a ti sa R ,, o f 3 0 0 0a t th e 3 0 0 0B /D ra te . S in c e th is m inim u m g ra d ie n t w ill re p re s e n t d iffe re n tR ,~ v a lu e s a t d iffe re n t ra te s , th e c a lc u la tio n o f in je c tio n g a s re q u ire -

m e n t w ill d e p e n d o n th e m in im u m g ra d ie n t fo r th e r a t e b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d . T a b l e 2 - 2s h o w s a t a b u l a t i o n o f th e m in im u m dow nhole pressure readings at the v a rious rates. 2 . P lo t th e p re s s u re s v e rs u s ra te s ta b u la te d in T a b le 2 -2 o n C a rte s ia n C o o rd in a te p a p e r in th e s a m e m a n n e r a s i n th e e x a m p le fo r n a tu ra l flo w . F ig . 2 -8 shows a c u rv e p lo tte d fo r th e m a x im u m g a s in je c tio n ra te a lo n g s id e th e c u rv e p lo tte d fo r n a tu ra l flo w (8 0 0R g l) fo r th e 100% oil case.Ad o tte d lin e is a ls o s h o w n o n F ig . 2 -8 to in d ic a te th e 1 2 0 0 R g l c u rv e w h ic h r e p r e s e n ts a p lo t o f th e flo w in g p re s s u re fo r a c a s e w h e re in je c te d g as is lim ited to4 0 0 c u b ic

feet per barrel (CF/B)(1200 -8 0 0 ). 3 . T h e m a x im u m p ro d u c in g ra te s w h ic h a re p o s s ib le u n d e r v a rio u s c o n d itio n s a re i n d i c a t e d b y t h e in te rs e c - tio n o f th e p ro d u c tiv ity lin e w ith th e flo w in g p re s s u re versus rate curves. In this caseth em a x im u m rate for u n lim ite d g a s lift is5 6 0 0 B /D , and for lim ited gas lift (4 0 0C F /B in je c te d g a s ) is 5 4 5 0 B /D . T h e s e c o m p a r e to a m axim um n a tu ra l flo w ra te u n d e r th e s a m e c o n d itio n s o f5 0 0 0 B /D .A com parison ofm axim um p ro d u c in g ra te s p o s s ib le u n d e r b o th g a s lift a n d n a tu ral flow c o n d itio n s is s h o w n in T a b le 2 -3 . 4 .U s in g th e a b o v e e x a m p le , it is n o w p o s s ib le to e v a lu a te th e b e n e fits a c c ru in g to g a s lift u n d e r th e g iv e n c o n d itio n s . A ls o , it is p o s s ib le to d e te rm in e th e o p tim u m g a s in je c tio n ra te b y c o m p a rin g th e o il p ro d u c e d Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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1 0 ,0 0 0 1 1 8 0 1 2 8 0 1 3 6 0 1 8 6 0 1 2 .5 0 0 1 3 5 0 1 4 2 0 1 5 3 0 1 9 5 0 2500"----7 " x 2 -7 /8 A N N U L U S 2 0 0 0 k L GOOao v ) @ J \ N O T E :T H IS R E P R E S E N T S M A X IM U A A N D N O T O P T I M U M G A S L IF T C O N D IT IO N S O =

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C o m p a riso no f n a tu r a lflo w w ith g a s lift,2 5 % w a te r, n o in je c tio n g a s lim it Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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,M A X R A T E 5 0 0 0 B /D M AX G A S REQ = 5 5 0 0M C F P I=5 .0 B F P D /P S I 5 0 0 2000 4000 6000 B o b 0l 0 , d O O12,~0014,000 P R O D U C IN G RATE (BFPD) F ig . 2 -1 0 C o m p a r is o no f n a tu r a lflo w w ith g a s lift,5 0 % w a te r ,n o in je c tio n g a s lim it cYOO ( o v ) G A S L IF T (M A X R A T E ) @ J n $:150/

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A P I T IT L E tV T -b 7 Y m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 5 4 5 7 0 m W ell Perform ance 2 1 (5 4 5 0 B / D )u n d e r t h e l i m i t e d g a s i n j e c t i o n r a t e o f 2 1 8 0 M C F /D ay to the o ilp ro d u c e d(5 6 0 0 B /D ) a t a m a x im u m g a s in je c tio n r a te o f 4 7 7 0 M C F /D . P lo ts o f c u rv e s c o m p a rin g g a s lift a n d n a tu ra l flo w a t 25% ,5 0 % a n d7 5 % w a te r c u ts a n d w ith n o in je c tio n g a s lim it a re sh o w n in F ig . 2 -9 , 2 -1 0 a n d 2 -1 1 . TA B LE 2 -3 C O M P A R IS O NO F M A X IM U M P R O D U C IN G R A T E S FOR NATURAL FLOW AND G A S L IF T M a x . R a te M a x . R a te

Inj. G as N a t. F lo w G as L ift R e q u ire d W a te r% @ /D ) @ /D ) (M C F /D ) O 5 0 0 0 5 6 0 0 3 9 2 0 2 5 4 3 0 0 5 3 0 0 4 7 7 0 5 0 -0 5 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 7 5 -0 2 6 0 0 3 3 8 0 2500r"--7 x 2 -7 1 8 A N N U L U S N O T E : T H IS

O P T IM U M G A 5 L IF T t M A X IM U M A N D N O T ( o C O N D IT IO N S OOv) @ J m v ) 1500 f3L L \ M AX R A T E 1°00-

7

M AX R A T E 2600 B /D z M AX G AS REO=3 3 8 0 M U D 3Y loo0 t

\ N O T E : T H ISR E P R E S E N T S \ M A X IM U M \ A N D N O T O P T IM U M P l=5 .0B F P D /P S I C O N D IT IO N S 5 0 0

2 0 b 0 4 0 0 0 d o 0 W OO 10,dOO12,bOOl ~ ~ 1 0 0 P R O D U C IN G R A T E (B F P D ) F ig . 2 -1 1 C o m p a r is o no f n a tu r a lflo w w ith g a s lift,7 5 % w a te r ,n o in je c tio ng a s lim it C o m p a r is o n o f C o n d u it S iz e The effect of conduitsize o n m a x im u m p ro d u c in g ra te c a n b e s e e n b y

 

c o m p a rin g b o tto m h o le flo w in g p re s s u re v e r s u s r a t e c u r v e s p r e p a r e d f o r t h e v a r i o u s p i p e s i z e s u n d e r c o n s id e ra tio n . In th e e x a m p le p ro b le m , flo w th ro u g h 2 /~ in c h tu b in g was consideredas a n a lte rn a tiv e t o a n n u la r flo w . F ig . 2 -1 2 sh o w s a p lo t o f th e flo w in g p re ssu re v e rsu s ra te c u rv e s fo r v a rio u s w a te r c u tsi n2 7 / ~i n c h tu b in g . T h e m axim um flow ra te a t e a c h w a te r c u t is s h o w n in th e ta b le o n F ig . 2 -1 2 . T h e e ffe c t o f c h a n g in g s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re s o r fo rm a tio n p ro d u c tiv ity o n p ro d u c in g ra te s c a n b e d e te rm in e d b y re p lo ttin g th e p ro d u c tiv ity lin e fo r th e new prod u c tiv ity a n d w ith a n e w static pressure starting point. E ffe c t o f S u rfa c e O p e ra tin g C o n d itio n s T o c a lc u la te th e e ffe c t o f s u rfa c e o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s , such as back pressure, on w ell production,curves s h o u ld

 

be prepared for avariety of possible s u r f a c e o p e ra tin gp re s- sures and a com parison m ade of the producing rates under e a c h c o n d itio n . S u c h c o m p a ris o n s are usefuli nd e te rm in in g th e p ro d u c tio n t o begainedfrom reducingpressure lo s s e si np ro d u c tio n fa c ilitie s . T h e y m ay also be used for d e te rm in in g th e o p tim u m d e s ig n o p e ra tin g p re s s u re a t th e w e llh e a d . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E a V T -h 9 4 9 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 5 5 407 m 2 2 G a s L ift U s eo f In flo w P e rfo rm a n c e R e la tio n s h ip C u rv e s (IP R ) A lth o u g h th e e x a m p le p ro b le m u s e s th e s tra ig h t lin eP .I. te c h n iq u efo r p re d ic tin g in flo w perform ance, IP R c u rv e s c a n a ls o b e u s e d fo r d e te rm in in g th e p o in t o f in te rs e c tio n , 2 5 0 0 " I

I l I l I 2 -7 /8

T U B IN G N A T U R A L FLO W M A X FLO W R A T E S % H 20 B F P D 2 5 O 2 4 0 0 2 5 0 0 5 0 2 1 0 0 7 5 5 0 0 H P I=5 .0 B F P D /P S I l e 3 5 0 0 2dO O 40b0 6 0 b 0

 

 

d o 0 l0 ,A O O1 2 ,b O O I P R O D U C IN G R A T E (B F P D ) F ig . 2 -1 2N a tu r a lflo w , 2

w h ic h is , in e ffe c t, th e b a la n c e p o in t b e tw e e n in flo w a n d o u tflo w perform ance. An exam ple of such a plot is show n in F ig .2 -1 3 . C o m p u te r P ro g ra m s fo r W e ll P e rfo rm a n c e A n a ly s is C o m p u te r p ro g ra m s a re a v a ila b le th a t c o m p a re w e llin - flo w p e rfo rm a n c e (p ro d u c tiv ity ) w ith th e v e rtic a l flo w c h a r- a c te ris tic s o fth ep ro d u c tio n in s ta lla tio n to d e te rm in e th e m a x im u m p ro d u c tio n ra te s th a t a re p o s s ib le u n d e r v a rio u s p ro d u c in g c o n d itio n s . T h e s e p ro g ra m s a re u s u a lly a v a ila b le as adjuncts to gas lift design program s but can be used as s e p a ra te to o ls fo r w e ll p e rfo rm a n c e a n a ly s is . M o st o f th e c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s fo llo w v e ry c lo s e ly th e m anual technique discussed in th is c h a p te r. H o w e v e r, th e c o m p u te r v e rs io n s

 

h -in c h tu b in g

u s u a lly a llo w th e u s e r to in p u t a w id e v a rie ty o f p ro d u c in g p a ra m e te rs a n d to s tu d y th e e ffe c t o f each ofth e param eters on w ell perform ance. M any of the com puterprogram s w ill a ls o p lo tth e in fo rm a tio n i n a g ra p h ic fo rm s im ila r to th a t s h o w n in F ig . 2 -1 4 . T h is d e m - o n s tra te s th e e ffe c t o f in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re o n p ro d u c in g ra te a n d in je c tio n g a s r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h e g r e a t a d v a n t a g e o f th e c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s is th a t th e y a llo w th e g e n e ra tio no f alarge num ber of such curves com paring various producin g p a ra m e te rsi n a very short period of tim e. O 0 I L I I I 1 I I 1 I 1 0 0

M o 300 4 0 0 500 600 7 0 0 B oo P R O D U C T IO NR A T E (B B L ./D A Y I F ig . 2 -1 3C urve num ber( 1 ) is an IP R curve and curve num ber (2 )in d ic a te s th e c a lc u la te d p e $ o r m a n c e c h a r a c te r i s t i c so fth e o u tflo w s y s te m G A S L I F T P E R F O R M A N C E Y E L L O R T A lU 6 U L R R FLO U 2 716 IN . Y R T E R C U T -9 0 f FW HP = Y O 0

P S IG S C IW J C R S = 0 .9 0 " " " " " " " " 4 c a s IN J . P n E s s u n e s Fig.2 -1 4 C o m p u te r p lo tsof g a s lift w e ll p e r fo r m a n c e Copyright American Petroleum Institute

Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 5 6 3 4 3 m M u ltip h a s e F lo w P re d ic tio n 2 3 CHAPTER 3 M U L T IP H A S E F L O W P R E D IC T IO N IN T R O D U C T IO N There are several w ords and term si n this chapter w hich m ay be new o r c o n fu s in g to th e re a d e r w h o is n o t fa m ilia r w ith m u ltip h a s e

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

flo w s tu d ie s .Ad efin itio n of all term s is n o t n e c e s s a ry fo r u n d e rs ta n d in g th e b a s ic c o n c e p ts , b u t a d is c u s s io n o f th e m o re u n iq u e te rm in o lo g y s h o u ld a id th e r e a d e r . D im e n s io n le s s P a r a m e te r s M o s t m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s in v o lv e n u m e ro u s dim ensionless groups or param eters. D im ensionless groups a re c o m m o n ly u s e d i n th e a n a ly s is o f e x p e rim e n ta l d a ta because the num ber of m easured or assum edvaluesfor v a ria b le s c a n b e g re a tlyr e d u c e d b y c o m b in in g s e v e ra lv a ria b le s in to a s in g le d im e n s io n le s s g ro u p o fv a ria b le s . T h e v a ria b le s a re c o m b in e d in s u c h a m a n n e r th a t a ll u n its w ill c a n c e l, th u s th e g ro u p b e c o m e s in d e p e n d e n t of the u n it s y s te m . R e y n o ld s n u m b e r isa n e x a m p le o f a d im e n s io n le s s

param eter or group. E m p ir ic a l D a ta T h e w o rd e m p iric a l re fe rs to m e a s u re d d a ta . W h e n th e re is n o p u re ly m a th e m a tic a l re la tio n s h ip th a t w ill a c c u ra te ly p re d ic t th e v a lu e o f a v a ria b leo r p a ra m e te r a s s o c ia te d w ith m u ltip h a s e flo w . T h e v a lu e m u s t b e e s ta b lis h e d e m p iric a lly b y a c tu a l m e a s u re m e n ts . G e n e ra lly , in te rp o la tio no f em p iric a l d a ta w ill p re s e n t n o p ro b le m b u t e x tra p o la tio n c a n b e q u ite d a n g e ro u s . In te rp o la tio n m e a n s th e d e te rm in a tio n o f v a lu e s b e tw e e n m e a s u re d d a ta , w h e re a s e x tra p o la tio n re fe rs to p re d ic tin g v a lu e s b e y o n d th e ra n g e o f th e m e a su re d d a ta . F o r e x a m p le , th e in v e s tig a to r d o e s a ll o f th e e x p e ri- m e n ta l w o rk in l /d -in c h n o m in a l tu b in g .Ageneral com pu- te r p ro g ra m is d e v e lo p e d b a s e d o n th e s e te s t d a ta fo r 1 /4 in c h n o m in a ltu b in g a n d e x te n d e d to h ig h ra te s th ro u g h la rg e tu b in g s u c h a s 4 h - in c hO .D .P re d ic tio n s b e y o n d th e ra n g e o f a c o rre la tio n

 

 

 

m a y b e to ta lly i n error. U sually a c o rre la tio n is id e n tifie db y th e in v e s tig a to ro rin v e s tig a to rs . Aty p ic a l m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n consistso f num erous e q u a tio n s a n d c u rv e s d e fin in g th e re la tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n different independent dim ensionless groups,w hich m ay be c a lle d c o rre la tin g p a ra m e te rs . T h e s e re la tio n s h ip s re p re sent m easured data that have been organized in a m anner th a t w ill p e rm it c a lc u la tio n o f th e flo w in g p re s s u re s a t d e p tho r p re ssu re lo ss th ro u g h a flo w lin e based on a prod u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e a n d th e flu id ra te s a n d p ro p e rtie s . P ro d u c tio n c o n d u it is a g e n e ra l te r m w h ic h c a n m e a n tu b - in go r tu b in g -c a s in g a n n u lu s , d e p e n d in g u p o n w h ic h is th e p ro d u c tio n s trin g . M o s t w e lls a re p ro d u c e d th ro u g h a tu b - in g s trin g .

B a s is fo r D e v e lo p in g M u ltip h a s e F lo w C o r r e la tio n s S e v e ra l o f th e e a rlie r m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n sw e re based on a total energy loss factor or a no-slip hom ogene- o u s m ix tu re fo r h ig h ra te p ro d u c tio n . T h e to ta l e n e rg ylo s s fa c to r is a n a lo g o u s to a single-phase friction fa c to r. N o -slip h o m o g e n e o u s flo w im p lie s th a t th e g a s a n d liq u id h a v e th e s a m e v e lo c ity ; th e re fo re , th e d e n s ity o f th e m ix tu re c a n b e calculated for any desired pressure w ithout a com plex gas- s lip p a g eo r liq u id h o ld u p c o rre la tio n .I n o th e r w o rd s , th e p re s s u re lo s s c a lc u la tio n s fo r m u ltip h a s e flo w a n d s in g le phase flow are sim ilar. T he distribution o f th eliq u id a n d th e g a sisb a s e d o n th e d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te w ith n o a c c u m u la tio n o f liq u id i n th e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it. T h e s e s im p lifie d m e th o d s fo r c a lc u la tin g m u ltip h a s e flo w p re s - sure loss,w ith a totalenergylo s s fa c to ro r a n o -s lip h o m o g e n e o u s m ix tu re a n d fric tio n fa c to r, d o n o t re q u ire th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e flo w re g im e o r p a tte rn . T h e flo w

reg im efo r m u ltip h a s e flo w m u st b e d e te rm in e d b e fo re th e p r e s s u r elo s sc a n b e c a lc u la te d fo r th e m o re g e n e ra l ty p e o f c o rre la tio n . E a c h flo w regim ehas a different seto f equa- tio n s a n d c o rre la tin g p a ra m e te rs fo r c a lc u la tin g a p re s s u re lo s s . If th e flo w re g im e c a n n o t b e a c c u ra te ly d e te rm in e d , th e c a lc u la te d p r e s s u r e lo s s w ill b e in e r r o r a n d d is c o n tin u ities in th e s lo p eo fthe flow ing pressure g r a d i e n t c u r v e sm a y be apparent. M u ltip h a s e flo w i n a p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it re p re s e n ts c o m p le x re la tio n s h ip s b e tw e e n m a n y v a ria b le s a n d d im e n - sionless groups.F o r th e p u rp o s e o f th is d is c u s s io n , m u lti- p h a s e flo w im p lie s the presence of freegas a n d a liq u id w h ic h m ay b e o ila n d o rw a te r. M a n y

o fth e im p o rta n t c o rre la tin g p a ra m e te rs m ustbe d e te rm in e d e m p iric a lly b e c a u s e m a th e m a tic a l s o lu tio n s d o n o t e x is t. T h e re is no o n e m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n a v a ila b le to d a y th a tis u n iv e rs a lly a c c e p te d b y th e p e tro le u m in d u s try for accura te ly p re d ic tin g flo w in g p re s s u re g ra d ie n ts in a ll s iz e s o f p ro d u c tio n c o n d u its fo r th e ra n g e s o f g a s a n d liq u id ra te s e n c o u n te re d in o il fie ld o p e ra tio n . T h e re is a c o n tin u in g effort to d e v e l o p n e w c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d t o im p ro v e t h o s e t h a t e x is t. A c c u ra c yo f F lo w in g P re s s u re a t D e p th P re d ic tio n s A ccurate flow ing pressure a t d e p th p re d ic tio n s in p ro d u c tio n c o n d u its a re e s s e n tia l to e ffic ie n t c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift in s ta lla tio n d e s ig n a n d a n a ly s is . S e le c tin g th e

b e s t c o rre la tio n fo r s p e c ific w e ll p ro d u c tio n ra te s a n d c o n d u it s iz e s is n o t a lw a y s a s im p le m atter. Flow ingpressure a t d e p th s u rv e y s w ith c a lib ra te d in s tru m e n ts a n d a c c u ra te s ta b iliz e d p ro d u c tio n d a ta m e a s u re d d u rin g th e s u rv e y s a re Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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API T I T L E r V T - 6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 5 7 2 8 T m 2 4 G as L ift e s s e n tia l to v e rify th e a p p lic a b ility o f a m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n . In o th e r w o rd s, th e o n ly w a y to p ro p e rly e v a lu a te a m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n o r s e t of flow ing pressu re a t d e p th gradient curves

 

   

 

is to c o m p a re re lia b le w e ll te s t d a ta w ith c a lc u la te d p re s s u re s a t d e p th o r with pressures d e te rm in e d fro m published gradient curves. Im p o r ta n c eo f R e lia b le W e ll T e s t D a ta R e lia b le w e ll te s t d a ta im p lie s a c c u ra te gasm easurem ent. T h e im p o rta n c e o f s e le c tin gth ere c o m m e n d e d o rific e b e ta ratiosforaccurategasm easurem entcannotbeovere m p h a s iz e d b e c a u s e th e v o lu m e tric g a s ra te is o n e o f th e m o st im p o rta n t p a ra m e te rs fo r d e fin in g th e flo w p a tte rn o r re g im e . B e ta ra tio is th e ra tio o f th e s iz e o f th e b o re h o lei n th e o rific e p la te to th e in te rn a l d ia m e te r o f th e m e te r tu b e . A d iffe re n tia l re a d in g in th e u p p e r tw o -th ird s o f th e ra n g e of the elem ent is essentialforaccurate gas m easurem ent w ith an o rifice m eter, an d th e b eta ratio co n tro ls th e d iffer- e n tia l p e n re a d in g fo r a g iv e n v o lu m e tric g a s ra te .T h e p ro p e r e q u a tio n s fo r m u ltip h a s e flo w c a lc u la tio n s d e p e n d upon a c o rre c t p re d ic tio no f th e flow regim e fo rth e g e n e ra l ty p e o f m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s . T h e re a re re q u ire d w e lla n d tu b u la rc o n d itio n sb e fo re a c c u ra te flo w in g p re s s u re -a t-d e p th p re d ic tio n s c a n b e a n tic ip a te d . T h em u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n si n th is d is c u s s io n

a re n o t a p p lic a b le w h e n a n e m u ls io n e x is ts . T h e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it m u s t b e fu ll o p e n :i.e ., th e a re a o p e n to flo w c a n n o tb e r e s t r i c t e d b y s c a leo r p a ra ffin d e p o s itio n . F o r a c c u ra te p re d ic tio n s th e flo w p a tte rn s h o u ld a ls o b e re la tiv e ly s ta b le w ith o u t s e v e re h e a d in g o r s u rg in g . T h e r e h a v e b e e n m a n y in s ta n c e s w h e n a m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n o r s e t o f g ra d ie n t c u rv e s h a s been rejected based o n re p o rte d ly re lia b le w e ll te s t d a ta a fte r th e c a lc u la te d flo w - in g pressures at depth d id n o t a p p ro x im a te th e m e a s u re d p re s s u re s a td e p th .F u rth e rin v e s tig a tio n o f th e re p o rte d p ro d u c tio n te st d a ta m a y re v e a l th e re a s o n fo r th e d is c re p a n c y . A p ra c tic e o f re d u c in g th e flo w ra te to run a s u rv e y is n o t u n c o m m o n w h e n th e w ire lin e o p e ra to r h a s d iffic u lty lo w e rin g

the subsurfacepressuregageinto th e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it. F ie ld personnel m ay reportthe avera g e d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te a s g a s -liq u id ra tio fo r a w e ll b a s e d o n p re v io u s p ro d u c tio n te s t o r a n a v e ra g e d a ily ra te for the last3 0 d a y s ra th e r th a n o b ta in in g a c c u ra te p ro d u c - tio n te s t m e a s u re m e n ts d u rin g th e s u rv e y . F lo w in g p re s s u re g ra d ie n t c u rv e s a n d c o m p u te r c a lc u latedflow ingpressuresatdepthw hicharebasedona p ro v e n m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n w ill assure consistent p re d ic tio n s i n th e s ta b le flo w ra n g e o f th e c o rre la tio n . W hen th e actual reported f i e l d d a ta a re in c o n s is te n t a n d n o t re p e a ta b le , th e flo w in g p re s s u re a t d e p th p re d ic tio n s b a s e d o n c o m p u te r c a lc u la tio n s a re g e n e ra lly m o re a c c u -

rate thanth e“ s oc a lle d ” fie ld m e a s u re m e n ts . A n o p e ra to r s h o u ld a lw a y s d o u b le -c h e c k th e fie ld d a ta b e fo re condem nin g a w id e ly p ro v e n m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n . P U B L IS H E D V E R T IC A L , H O R IZ O N T A L A N D IN C L IN E D M U L T IP H A S E FLO WC O R R E L A T IO N S T h is d is c u s s io n is n o t in te n d e d to re p la c e a te x t b o o k o n m u ltip h a s e flo w . O n ly th e m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s t h a t h a v e r e c e i v e d a t l e a s tl i m i t e d a c c e p t a n c e b y t h e p e t r o - le u m in d u s try a re m e n tio n e di nth is c h a p te r. T h e s e v e rtic a l m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s a re th e P o e ttm a n n and C arpenter3, B axendelland Thom as4,D uns andR osJ,J o h n s o n 6 , H agedornandB row n7,O rkiszew ski*,andM oreland9. T h e n u m b e r o f d e ta ile d in v e s tig a tio n s o f h o riz o n ta l a n d in c lin e d m u ltip h a s e flo w a re le s s n u m e ro u s in th e lite ra tu re . T h e m o re w id e ly a p p lie d c o rre la tio n s in c lu d eB a k e rlo , L o c k h a rt a n d M a rtin e lli” , F la n ig a n 1 2 , E a to n 1 3 , D u k le r, e t ali4,and Beggs and Brilll5.TheBeggs a n d B rill c o rre la tio n fo r in c lin e d flo w m a y b e u s e dfo r vertical flow

c a lc u la tio n s b y a s s ig n in g a9 0 d e g re e a n g le o f in c lin a tio n . T h e re p o rte d d a ta b a s e , a p p lic a tio n a n d p o s s ib le lim ita tio n s a re n o t a lw a y s a v a ila b le fo r a ll m u ltip h a s e c o rre la tio n s . G e n e ra lly , in te rn a l c o m p a n y im p ro v e m e n ts a n d m o d ific a tio n s in m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s and com puterprog ra m s a re n o t p u b lic k n o w le d g e . O n ly p u b lis h e d in fo rm a tio n c a n b e u s e d to d e s c rib e th e v a rio u s m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s . P a p e rs E v a lu a tin g th e A c c u ra c yo f M u ltip h a s e F lo w C o r r e la tio n s T h e r e a r e t e c h n i c a lp a p e r s I h , 1 7 * lx * t h a tr e p o r t e d l y evaluate the accuracy of several w idely used correlations fo r v e rtic a l m u ltip h a s e flo w . G e n e ra lly , a u th o rs o f th e s e papers use published data from several sources. Thesem ay in c lu d e flo w in g p re s s u re s a td e p th a n d p ro d u c tio n d a ta fro m o rig in a l p u b lic a tio n s fo r m u ltip h a s e

flo w c o rre la tio n s being com pared. A statistical error a n a ly s is is p e rfo rm e d o n th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e published m easured pressure loss and the calculated pressure lo s su s in g c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s w ritte n b y th e s e a u th o rs . T h e c o n c lu s io n s fro m th is ty p e o f e rro r a n a ly s is c a n b e m is le a d in g to th e re a d e r. A m u ltip h a s e flo w d a ta b a n k a s a b e n c h m a rk te s t fo r a ll m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s d o e s n o ta lw a y s a p p ly .A s ig n ific a n t p o rtio n o f th e d a ta m a y b e o u t o f th e re c o g n iz e d p ro d u c tio n ra te o r p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e ra n g e s , n o te d b y th e in v e s tig a to rs , to b e a p p lic a b le to th e ir m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s . A n e x a m p le is th e u s e o f lo w p ro d u c tio n ra te d a ta to c h e c k th e B a x e n d e ll a n d T h o m a s c o rre la tio n s . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E rV T -b

74m 0732270

0 5 3 2 8 5 8 116 m M u ltip h a s e F lo w

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

P re d ic tio n 2 5 T he B a x e n d e ll a n d T h o m a s c o rre la tio n is a h ig h ra te e x te n s io no fth e P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r to ta l e n e rg ylo s s fa c to r c u rv e . A ll lo w ra te d a ta w o u ld be on th e P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r p o rtio n o f th e c u rv e a n d n o t o n th e e x te n s io n b y B a x e n d e lla n d T h o m a s .A n o th e rc o n s id e ra tio n isth e m a n n e r in w h ic h a c o m p u te r p ro g ra m is w ritte n a n d th e c o rre la tio n s th a t a r e b e in g u s e d to c a lc u la te th eflu id p ro p e rtie s . T heresultsfrom tw o com puterprogram sbased o n th e sam e m ultiphase flow c o rre la tio n c a n b e q u ite d iffe re n t. R o s -G ra y a n d D u n s -R o s C o rre la tio n s R osC o rre la tio n is b e in g c o m p a re d .T h e in itia l p a p e r, w h ic h w a s b a s e d o n a n e x te n s iv e la b o ra to ry in v e s tig a tio n b y

R os2

w a s p r e s e n te d a t a J o in t A I C h E - S P E S y m p o s iu m a n d a revised version ofthesam epaperw aspublished i n th e Journal of Petroleum Technology". T h e fin a l v e rs io n o f th e R ospaper was presented by D uns5. The D uns andR os p a p e risb a s e d o n la b o ra to ry d a ta o n ly a n d isn o tth e R o s -G ra y c o rre la tio n th a t w a s m o d ifie d to e lim in a te d is crepanciesbetw eencalculatedandaccuratelym easured data from o v e r6 0 0 a c tu a l s ta b iliz e d w e ll te s ts . T h e c o n c lu s io n re m a in s th a t o n e p a rtic u la r m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n m ay p ro v e to b e m o re a c c u ra te th a n o th e rs fo r c e rta in A u th o rs m ay in fe r th a t th e R o s -G ra y c o rre la tio n , w h ich p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e s a n d ra te s ; th e re fo re , a ra n k in g o f c a n be purchased from Shell O il C om pany, is being com th e a v a ila b le c o rre la tio n s in te rm s o f g e n e ra l o v e ra ll a p p lip a re d to o th e r c o rre la tio n s w h e n i n facttheD unsand c a b ility is q u e s tio n a b le . S IM P L IF IE D M U L T IP H A S E F L O W C O R R E L A T IO N S B A S E D O N T O T A L E N E R G Y L O S S F A C T O R SO R M O -S L IP H O M O G E N E O U S M IX T U R E S

 

A sim p lified m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n b a s e d o n a to ta l s in g le e n e rg y lo s s factor curve or as im p le h o m o g e n e o u s n o -s lip flo w m o d e ls h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d fo r c a lc u la tin g flo w in g p re s s u re s a t d e p th in a re a s o f h ig h ra te p ro d u c tio n w hen th e c o rre la tio n i s b a s e d o n a c c u r a te s ta b iliz e d flo w in g w ell d ata fro m th e sam e field o r sim ilar w e ll p ro d u c tio n rates and conduit sizes. The

c a lc u la tio n s fo r th is ty p e c o r r e la tio n a re s im p le a n d a re re p o rte d z 2 . 2 3 to b e m o re a c c u ra te in m a n y in s ta n c e s th a n th e m o re c o m p le x g e n e ra l ty p e o f c o rre la tio n s . P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r C o rre la tio n T h e firs t w id e ly a c c e p te d m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n w a s d e v e lo p e d b y P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r a n d w a s p u b lished in 1 9 5 2 .T h e w o rk o f P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r d id m o re to in itia te a d d itio n a l re s e a rc h in v e rtic a l m u ltip h a s e flo w th a n a ll p rio r p u b lic a tio n s c o m b in e d . T h e ir c o rre la tio n w a s b a s e d o n a to ta ls in g le e n e rg y lo s sfa c to r th a t a c c o u n ts fo r a ll lo s s e s in c lu d in g liq u id h o ld u p fro m g a s s lip p a g e a n d fo r fric tio n a n d a c c e le ra tio n . T h e e n e rg y b a la n c e e q u a tio n c o m b in e d a p s e u d o n o -s lip h o m o g e n e o u s m ix tu re d e n s ity g ra d ie n ta n d th e F a n n in g e q u a tio n fo r s in g le - p h a s e flo w w here th e fric tio n

factor w as replaced b y th e to ta l e n e rg y lo s s fa c to r. B a x e n d e ll a n d T h o m a s C o rre la tio n B a x e n d e lla n d T h o m a s m o d ifie d th e P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r c o rre la tio n u s in g m e a s u re d d a ta fro m h ig h ra te w e lls in V e n e z u e la . T h e to ta l e n e rg y lo s s factor curve w as e x te n d e d fo r d a ily m a s s ra te s w h ic h w e re s ig n ific a n tly h ig h e r th a n th e o rig in a lP o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r d a ta . T h e e n e r g y lo s sfa c to r fo r v e rtic a l a n d h o riz o n ta l m u ltiphase flow approached a near constant value at very high daily m ass rates in a m a n n e r a n a lo g o u s to h ig h R e y n o ld s n u m b e rs fo r fu lly tu rb u le n t s in g le -p h a s e flo w on a M oody d ia g ra m .T he a u th o rs a s s u m e d th a t th e fla tte n e d p o rtio n o f th e e n e rg y lo s s fa c to r c u rv e re p re s e n ts th e tru ly tu rb u le n t c o n d itio n s w h e re l i t t l e or no g a s s lip p a g e occurs. The c a lc u lated flow ing pressures at depth for high rates based o n th e e x te n d e d to ta l e n e rg ylo s sc u rv e p ro v e d to b e e x c e e d in g ly a c c u ra te fo r w e lls in V e n e z u e la . S in c e e x te n s io n o fth e e n e r g ylo s scurve w as based on w elldata from the sam e

fie ld si nw h ic h th e c o rre la tio n w a s b e in g u s e d , re a s o n a b le a c c u ra c y in flo w in g p re s s u re a t d e p th p re d ic tio n s c o u ld b e a n tic ip a te d . T h e n u m b e r of variableswhichaffectthese pressure predictions are reduced because the fluid propertie s a n d c o n d u it s iz e s a re th e s a m e fo r th e c o rre la tio n a n d th e a c tu a lw e lls . T he o rig in a lP o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te r to ta l e n e rg y lo s s fa c to r c u rv e a n d th e e x te n s io n b y B a x e n d e ll a n d T h o m a s is s h o w n in F ig .3 -1 . O I 2 S 4 & 6 7 4 oux 1 0 -4 O F ig .3 -1 -

Extension ofth e energy lo s s factor curveb y B a x e n d e lla n d T h o m a s 4 ( C o p y r ig h t 1 9 6 1 , S P E -A IM E , First published i nth e JP T1 9 6 1 ) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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API T IT L E S V T -6 9 4

 

 

   

 

   

 

m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 5 9 0 5 2 m 2 6 G as L ift T w o -P h a s e H o m o g e n e o u s N o -S lip M ix tu re C o rre la tio n s S e v e ra l te c h n ic a l p a p e rs h a v e b e e n p u b lis h e d th a t illu s tra te th e a p p lic a tio n of two-phasehom ogeneousno-slip c o rre la tio n s fo r h ig h ra te w e lls . B ro w n 2 2 n o te s th a t a sim p lified c o rre la tio n d e v e l o p e d f r o m m u l t i p h a s e f l o w d a t a for an a c tu a l p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e m ay assure m ore a c c u ra te p re s s u re lo s s c a lc u la tio n s th a n th e m o re c o m p li- c a te d g e n e ra l ty p e o f c o rre la tio n b a s e d o n la b o ra to ry c o n - tro lle d m u ltip h a s e flo w d a ta fo r c o n d u it s iz e s w h ic h a re g e n e ra lly s m a lle r a n d s h o rte r th a n th e a c tu a l c o n d u its . T h e im p o rta n c e o f p ro p e rly d e fin e d flu id p ro p e rty

re la tio n s h ip s fo r c a lc u la tin g flo w in g p re s s u re g ra d ie n ts w a s d e m o n s tra te d by Cornishz3.Theadvantagesand a c c u ra c yo fa sim p lified to ta l s in g le e n e rg y lo s s fa c to r c o rre la tio n or a tw o-phasehom ogeneousno-slipflow m odelbasedon a c tu a lm e a s u re d d a ta fro m h ig h ra te p ro d u c tio n w e lls s h o u ld not be overlooked. Total energy lo s sfa c to rs a re easilycalculatedfrom flow ingpressuresurveys,andan e n e rg y lo s s fa c to r c u rv e c a n b e s h ifte d to im p ro v e th e accuracy of the calculated flow ing pressures at depth. G E N E R A L T Y P E M U L T IP H A S E F L O W C O R R E L A T IO N S Ag e n e ra l ty p e o f m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n is re p o rte d ly a p p lic a b le fo r a ll s iz e s o f ty p ic a l o il fie ld p ro d u c tio n c o n d u its a n d fo r th e liq u id a n d g a s ra te s e n c o u n te re di n o il f i e l d o p e ra tio n s . T h e g e n e ra l c o rre la tio n re q u ire s a n id e n tific a tio n o f th e flo w re g im e ,o r flo w p a tte rn , to d e fin e th e p ro p e r e q u a tio n s fo r c a lc u la tin g the flow ing pressure grad ie n t in th e in c re m e n ta l p ip e le n g th u n d e r in v e s tig a tio n .

T h e re m a y b e m o re th a n o n e flo w p a tte rn e x is tin gb e tw e e n th e lo w e r e n d o f th e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it and the surface. T h e flo w re g im e may be single-phaseorbubble flo w a t the higher pressuresnearer the surface.The flo w p a tte rn s c h e m a tic fro m M o re la n d 9 in F ig .3 -2 for vertical flow of g a s -liq u id m ix tu re s illu s tra te s th e n e e d fo r p ro p e r flo w reg im e id e n tific a tio n . T h e p re s s u re g ra d ie n t e q u a tio nfo r a t le a s t o n e flo w re g im e w ill in c lu d e liq u id h o ld u p b a s e d o n g a s s lip p a g e .L iq u id h o ld u p re p re s e n ts th e re la tio n s h ip b e tw e e n th e v o lu m e o c c u p ie d b y th e liq u id a n d th eto ta l v o lu m e o f th e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it w ith in th e in c re m e n ta l p ip e le n g th u n d e r in v e s tig a tio n . T h e a c c u ra c y

o f th e m e th o d fo r p re d ic tin g liq u id h o ld u p is p a rtic u la rly im p o rta n t fo r th e g a s a n d liq u id v e lo c itie s a s s o c ia te d w ith the lo w e r p ro d u c tio n ra te s . L iq u id a n d g a s v is c o s ity d s u rfa c e te n s io n a r eu s u a l l y r e q u i r e d in p u to ra re d e fa u ltv a lu e s in th e c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s fo rth eg e n e ra l ty p e s o f m u ltiphase flow correlations.Accurate pressures atdepth p re d ic tio n s a re c la im e d b y th e d e v e lo p e rs of m ostgeneral c o rre la tio n s fo r e v e n re la tiv e ly h ig h v is c o s ity c r u d e o il. T y p ic a l P re s s u re G ra d ie n t E q u a tio n fo rV e rtic a l F lo w A lth o u g h th e e x a c t fin a l e q u a tio n s a n d c o rre la tin g p a ra m - eters vary betw een investigators, the basic typical pressure g ra d ie n t e q u a tio n fo r v e rtic a l m u ltip h a s e flo w c o n s is ts o f

 

s a n

th e fo llo w in g term s: E q u a tio n3 .1 P r e s s u r e G ra d ie n t D en sity F ric tio n A c c e le ra tio n T erm T erm T erm T erm + + T h e d e n s ity te rm in c lu d e s a liq u id h o ld u p c o rre c tio n fo r g a s s lip p a g e . T h e a c c e le ra tio nte rm is o fte n n e g le c te d in a ll flo w re g im e s e x c e p t w h e re h ig h flu id v e lo c itie s e x is ts s u c h a s A N N U L A R M IS T FR O TH S L U G B U B B L E S IN G L E P H A S E L lO U lO Fig. 3 -2-

T y p ic a l flo w p a tte r n s fo r v e r tic a l flo w o fg a s liquid m ixtures9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API TITLErVT-6 74 m 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0 5 3 2 8 6 0 8 7 4 W M u ltip h a s e F lo w P re d ic tio n 2 7 in th e a n n u la r m is t re g im e . T h e c o n trib u tio n of acceleratio n is re p o rte d to be very sm alli n th e o th e r m u ltip h a s e flo w regim es. T h e flo w re g im e , o rflo w p a tte rn , m a p g e n e ra lly is d iv id e d in to a t le a s t th re e m a jo r re g io n s w h ic h a re d e fin e d by the c o n tin u ity ,o r la c k o f c o n tin u ity , o f th e liq u id a n d g a s

phases. Fig.3 -3 is th ep u b lis h e d R o s flo w re g im e m a p b a s e d o n la b o ra to ry d a ta .T h e liq u id p h a s e is c o n tin u o u s i n R e g io nI ; a n d g a s is th e c o n tin u o u s phasei n R egionI I I . T he pressure gradienti nth e tra n s itio n a re a b e tw e e n R e g io n sI I a n dI I I c a n b e a p p ro x im a te d b y lin e a r in te rp o la tio no n th e b a s is o f th e g a s v e lo c ity n u m b e r (R N ) v a lu eo n th e a b s c is s a , w here R is the ra tio o f th e in -s itu s u p e rfic ia l v e lo c ity o f th e g a s to liq u id p h a s e s . T h e flo w re g im e m u s t b e e s ta b lis h e d b e fo re th e p ro p e re q u a tio n s a n d c o rre la tio n sc a n b e s e le c te d fo r th e flo w in g p r e s s u r e g ra d ie n t c a lc u la tio n s . T h e R o s flo w re g im e b o u n d a ry e q u a tio n s h a v e b e e n u s e d b y o th e r in v e s tig a to rs . Y G as V e lo c lty N um ber R N F ig . 3 -3R o sflo wr e g i o n

boundaries based o n la b o r a to r y d a ta ’ P u b lis h e d G e n e ra lT y p e C o rre la tio n s T h e m u ltip h a s e c o rre la tio n s d e v e lo p e d b y R o s,O rk iszew ski, A ziz,et.al,areconsideredgeneral. T h e o rig in a l paper by H agedorn and Brow n’ stated thati t w as unnecessa ry to s e p a ra te tw o -p h a s e flo w in to th e v a rio u s flo w p a tte rn s a n d d e v e lo p c o rre la tio n s fo r e a c h p a tte rn . M any com puterprogram sbased on th e H agedorn a n d B ro w n c o rre la tio n i n c l u d e s e p a r a t e s e t s o f e q u a t i o n s f o r t h e d i f f e r - ent flow regim es and use the H agedorn and B row n correla- tio n s fo ro n lyth e s lu g flo w p a tte rn , w h ic h is R e g io nI I o n th e R o s flo w regim e m ap i nF ig .3 -3 . A n e x p la n a tio n fo r th is c o n c lu s io n b y H a g e d o rn c a n b e fo u n di n th e p a p e r b y

O rkiszew ski w h ic h n o te s th a ts lu g flo w o c c u rre d i n 9 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a s e s s t u d i e d . A p p a r e n t l y , H a g e d o r n d i d n o t e n c o u n te r th e b u b b le flo w re g im e d u rin g h is e x p e rim e n ta l w o rk b e c a u s e h is te s ts w e re c o n d u c te d i na s h a llo w 1 5 0 0 fo o t w e ll. T h e a c c e p te d c a te g o rie so r flo w r e g i m e s f o rt w o phase flow a re id e a lly d e p ic te d b y O rk is z e w s k i in F ig . 3 -4 . (A I IR I . . L I . . . :. . . v . B U B B L E F L O W \ - ,

SLUG FLOW S L U G -A N N U L A R A N N U L A R -M IS T \ - / T R A N S IT IO N FLO W F ig .3 -4 - I d e a l flo w regim es o r c a te g o r ie s fo r m u ltip h a s e flo w as illustrated by O rkiszew skP (C opyright1 9 6 7S P E A IM E , F ir s t p u b lis h e d in th e J P T J u n e1 9 6 7 ) D IS P L A Y S O F F L O W IN G P R E S S U R EA T D E P T H G R A D IE N T C U R V E S M o s t d is p la y s of flow ing pressure atdepth gradient curves use the sam e param eters b u t m a y b e p lo tte d som ew h a t d iffe re n tly . G e n e ra lly , a s e to f g ra d ie n t c u rv e s w ill b e d is p la y e d fo r a g iv e n c o n d u it s iz e , a p ro d u c tio n ra te , and a w a te r c u t w h ic h m a y b e z e ro ; i.e ., a ll o il p ro d u c tio n .F lo w - ing pressure at depth curves

w ill b e d ra w n fo r g a s -liq u id r a t i o s (R ,1 ) ra n g in g fro m z e ro fo r s in g le -p h a s e liq u id to a m a x im u m p ra c tic a l R ,], d e p e n d in g u p o n th e c o n d u it s iz e a n d p ro d u c tio n ra te . F o r e x a m p le , a m a x im u m R ,1 o f 1 0 ,0 0 0standard cubic feet of gasperstocktankbarrel (s c f/S T B ) w o u ld b e d is p la y e d fo r a p ro d u c tio n ra teo f o n ly 1 0 0 S T B /d a y th ro u g h 2 ’/rin c h O .D .tu b in g , w h e re a s aR ,I o f1 0 0 0 to2 0 0 0 s c f/S T B m a y b e th e m a x im u m fo r a h ig h e r p ro d u c tio n ra te o f2 0 0 0 S T B /d a y th ro u g h th e s a m e c o n d u it s iz e . In g e n e ra l, h ig h e r R glv a lu e s a r e a s s o c ia te d w ith lo w e r p ro d u c tio n ra te s a n d lo w e r R ,I v a lu e s w ith h ig h e r p ro d u c - tio n ra te s . C o n v e rtin gR g Ot o R g , T h is fa m ily ,o r s e t,o f c u rv e s s h o u ld a lw a y s b e d e fin e di n te rm s of R ,I a n d n o t g a s -o il ra tio(R g o ).T h e R g ois e q u a l to th e R ,] o n ly w hen th e w a te r c u t is z e ro . T h e f i r s t s t e p a fte r

s e le c tin g th e p ro p e r s e t o f g ra d ie n t c u rv e s is to c o n v e rt th e Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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2 8 %PI T I T L E x V T - b 9 4 m 0732290 0532863 700m G a s L ift to ta l R goto total R gl before determ ining a flow ing pressure a t d e p th . R gl = f o (R g o ) E q u a tio n 3 .2 W here: R ,I = gas-liquid ratio, scf/STB f,, = o il c u t( 1. O- w a te r c u t), fra c tio n R go = gas-oil ratio, scf/S T B T h e s eR ,]curvesalw aysrepresent to ta l R ,I,w h ic h

i s th e fo rm a tio n R ,I b e lo w th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n a n d is th e in je c tio n p lu s th e fo rm a tio n R ,Ia b o u t th ep o in t o f g a s in je c tio n . G ilb e rt’s C u rv e s G ilb ert1 p u b lis h e d o n eo f th e first setso f flo w in g p r e s s u r e at depth gradient curvesi n1 9 5 4 . A lth o u g h flo w in g p re s s u re gradient curves for several conduit sizes w e re p u b lis h e d b y G ilb e rt, th e o n ly fu ll-p a g e s iz e c u rv e s p re s e n te d in th e A P I paper w ere for 27/~-inchO .D .tu b in g . N o m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n w a s o ffe re d fo r c a lc u la tin g th e s e flo w in g p re s s u re s a t d e p th . G ilb e rt’s c u rv e s were based on numerous flo w in g p re ssu re su rv e y s ru ni n th e V e n tu ra F ie ld in C a lifo rn ia . T h e G ilb e rt flo w in g p re ssu re -d e p th c u rv e s w ereth efo re runnersforthepresentm ethod o f d is p la y in g g ra d ie n t

curves. O ne set of G ilbert gradient curves for 6 0 0b a rre ls per day through 27/8-in~hO .D . tu b in g is s h o w n in F ig . 3 -5 . N o te th a t th e d e p th a x is is shifted5 0 0 0 feet for the R gl c u rv e s o f3 0 0 0 ,4 0 0 0 a n d 5 0 0 0s c f/S T B .T h e o p tim u m R ,I, a s d e fin e d b y G ilb e rt fo r th is d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te o f 6 0 0 b a rre ls th ro u g h 2’/8-inch O .D . tu b in g , is 2 4 0 s c f/S T B . T he o p tim u m c u rv e r e p r e s e n ts th e m in im u m p o s s ib le flo w ing pressure at depth for a given conduit size and produc- tio n ra te . W h e n th eR ,Ie x c e e d s 2 4 0 0 s c f/S T B , th e flo w in g pressure gradient begins to increase rather than decrease. This increase in flow ing pressure gradient is referred to as a reversali nth e s lo p e o f a g ra d ie n t c u rv e . A h ig h e r flo w - in g p re s s u re a t d e p th is p re d ic te d fo r R ,Iof5 0 0 0 scf/S T B than for 2400 scf/ST B based on these gradient curves. M in im u m F lu id G r a d ie n t C u r v e M any published gradientcurvesaredisplayed

w ith a m in im u m flu id g ra d ie n tc u rv e ra th e r th a n s h iftin g th e o rig in o f th e d e p th s c a le t o p re v e n t o v e rla y in g and crossing over ofR ,] curvesatlow flow ing pressuresatdepth.A reversal inth es lo p eo f a h ig h R ,Ic u r v e w ill re s u lti n th e h ig h e r R ,Ic u r v e s c r o s s i n g o v e r t h e l o w R ,Ic u r v e s a t lo w flow ing pressures. A n e x a m p le o f o v e rla y in g of grad ie n t c u rv e s 2 4 is illu s tra te d in F ig . 3 -6 . and accurate press u re d e te rm in a tio n s a re d iffic u lt and confusing at thelow er flow ing pressures w here the curves are crossing over one a n o th e r. T h e m in im u m flu id g ra d ie n t c u rv e ig n o re s th er e v e r s a l s i n th e in d iv id u a l

R ,Icurvesandrepresentsaflow ing pressure gradient curve definedby th e lo c i o f ta n g e n c y ’so f th e h ig h e r R ,] curves to fo rm a s in g le c u rv e . As the R ,I increases, the flow ing pressure at the deptho f tangency for th e h ig h e r R ,,c u r v e s i n c r e a s e s w h i c h i n f e r s t h a t t h e s e p o in ts o f ta n g e n c y o c c u r a t in c re a s in g chart depths. A s e t o f ty p ic a l flo w in g p re s s u re g ra d ie n t c u rv e s fo r 600 STB day th ro u g h 2 3 /s-in c h O .D .tu b in g z 5 is s h o w n in F ig .3 -7 . T h e m inim um flu id g ra d ie n t c u rv e a n d h ig h e rR ,Ic u r v e s w ill be one andth es a m e a b o v e th e p o in to f ta n g e n c y . G ra d ie n t curves displayed w ith a m in im u m flu id g ra d ie n t c u rv e a re e a s ie r to a p p ly fo r c e rta in d e s ig n d e te rm in a tio n s . T he d e s ig n c a lc u la tio n s m a y lo s e som e accuracyi f gas lift opera-

tio n s s h o u ld o c c u r i n th e re v e rsa lp o rtio n o fa h ig h R ,] c u rv e .H o w e v e r,m o s te ffic ie n tg a s liftin s ta lla tio n s w ill o p e ra te w ith a to ta l R ,Ibelow therangeofasevere r e v e r s a l i n th e flo w in g p re s s u re g ra d ie n t c u rv e a n d th e a c tu a l flo w in g w e llh e a d p r e s s u r e w ill e x c e e d th e lower pressures w here a severe reversalw ould occur. G as lift installatio n d e s ig n s a n d a n a ly s e s h a v e b e e n b a s e d o n g ra d ie n t c u rv e d is p la y s w ith a m in im u m f lu id g ra d ie n t c u rv e w ith o u t a n y re p o rte d s ig n ific a n t e rro r i n p re d ic tio n so f flo w in g

p re s s u re s a t d e p th o r in je c tio n g a s re q u ire m e n ts . G r a d ie n tp r e s s u r e ,p si F ig . 3 -5 G ilbert’s flowing pressure gradient curves fo r 6 0 0B P Dth r o u g h 2 7 /g -in c h O .D . tu b in g ’ Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I

 

 

   

 

   

 

T IT L E x V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 6 2 b 4 7 9 M u ltip h a s eF lo w P re d ic tio n 2 9 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 -

1 6 2 4 3 2 4 0 4 0 6 6 V E R T IC A L F L O W IN Q P R E S S U R E

 

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P R E S S U R E1 0 0P S I 8

G R A D IE N T S (A L L O IL ) T U B IN G S IZ E 2 .4 4 1 IN .I.D . P R O D U C T IO N R A T E 1 5 0 0B L P D Q A 8 S P E C IF IC G R A V IT Y 0 .6 5 A V E R A Q E F L O W IN Q T E M P . 1 5 0 O F O IL G R A V IT Y 3 6 .0 O A P I W ATER S P E C IF IC Q R A V IT Y 1.O 7 F ig .3 -6 V e r tic a l flo w in g p r e s s u r e g r a d ie n t c u r v e s w ith o u t d e p th d is p la c e m e n t to e lim in a te o v e r la p p in g of

th e h ig h R ,Ic u r v e s 2 4 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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API T IT L E tV T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 6 3

 

 

   

 

   

 

5 8 3 3 0 G as L ift O 4 8 1 2 1 6 2 0 2 4 2 8 1 I V E R T IC A L F L O W IN G P R E S S U R E G R A D IE N T S (A L La u 23 4 T u b in gS iz e 2 in.1 .D . 1 P ro d u c in gR ate 6 0 0 B b lr/D a y O ilA P IG ravity 35"A P t I

G asS p e c ificG ravity 0 .6 5 8 F ig .3 -7 V e r tic a l f l o w i n g p r e s s u r e g r a d ie n t c u r v e s p lo tte d w ith a m in im u m flu id gradient curvez5 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 6 4 4 1 T M u ltip h a s eF lo wP re d ic tio n 3 1 O 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 2 5 3 0 1 0 Fig.3 -8 Vertical flow ing pressure gradient curves

 

 

 

   

 

basedo n the Shell Ros-G ray correlation with the higher Rg,c u r v e s d is p la c e do n the depth scale to prevent gradient reversal overlapping6 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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3 2

 

 

   

 

   

 

G as Lift D is p la y in g G ra d ie n t C u rv e s to P re v e n t C rO S S O V er fro m crossing over the preceding low erR E ,curve.A set of T h e m ost accurate d is p la y o f g ra d ie n t c u rv e s w ill in c lu d e R o s - G r a y c u r v e s h a r e show n i n F ig .3 -8 . F lo w in g p re s th ere v e rs a li n th e flo w in g p re s s u re s a t d e p th fo r th e h ig h e r sures at depth are determ ined i n the sam e m anner for th e R ,Ic u r v e s . T h e R ,,c u r v e w ill b e d is p la c e d s u ffic ie n tly d is p la c e d R ,I curvesa s for a set of gradient curves with a o n th e d e p th s c a le to p r e v e n tth e n e x th i g h e r R glc u r v e m inim um f l u i d g r a d i e n tc u r v e . S T A B IL IT Y O F F L O W C O N D IT IO N S A N D S E L E C T IO NO FP R O D U C T IO N C O N D U ITS IZ E

M u l t i p h a s ef l o wc o r r e l a t i o n sa r ed e v e l o p e d b a s e do n G ra p h ic a l D e te r m in a tio no f M in im u m S ta b iliz e d s ta b iliz e d flo w in g w e ll d a ta .A c o rre la tio n c a n b e e x te n d e d P ro d u c tio n R a te b e y o n d its ra n g e o f v a lid ity w ith o u t th e user recognizing th e lim ita tio n s . A lth o u g h s m o o th g ra d ie n t c u rv e s m a y b e p u b Ap lo t o f flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re a t6 0 0 0 fe e t v e rs u s lished for low liq u id ra te s w ith low to ta l g a s -liq u id ra tio s ,d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te fo r a c o n s ta n t R glo f4 0 0 sc f/S T B a c tu a l flo w c o n d itio n s m a y b e q u ite d iffe re n t th a n w o u ld b e a n d a flo w in g w e llh e a d p r e s s u r e o f1 0 0 p s ig is s h o w n i n

p re d ic te d fro m th e c u rv e s . F ig .3 -9 .A m inim um flo w in g b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e o f 1 8 1 7 1 6 1 5 1 4 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 0 9 $3 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 D a ily P r o d u c tio n R a te1 0 0 S T B /d a y W e llIn fo rm a tio n : 1 . T u b in g S iz e= 2 % - in c h O .D . 2 . T u b in g L e n g th =6 0 0 0 ft 3 .W a te r C u t (fo )=0% (A ll O il) 4 . F o rm a tio nR g ,=4 0 0 s c f/S T B 5 .F lo w in g W e llh e a d P r e s s u r e ( P w h ) =1 0 0p s ig F ig . 3 -9 F lo w in gB H P v e r s u s d a ily p r o d u c tio n r a tef o r a c o n s ta n t g a s -o il r a tio Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b Y Y m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 6 6 2 9 2 m M u ltip h a s e F lo w P re d ic tio n 3 3 a p p ro x im a te ly 8 6 0psiga t6 0 0 0 feet occurs at a daily prod u c tio n ra te s lig h tly g re a te r th a n 5 0 0 ST B day. T he flow in g

 

 

   

 

   

 

b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e increases at low er and h ig h e r d a ily liq u id p ro d u c tio n ra te s . T h e u n s ta b le flo w c o n d itio n s e x is t a t d a ily liq u id ra te s le s s th a n th e ra te fo r th e m in im u m flo w in g b o tto m h o le pressure. The u n s ta b le r a n g e s h o u ld b e avoided by producing a tad a ily rate that is safely a b o v e th e 5 0 0S T B d a y in th is e x a m p le to a s s u re n o t s lip p in g in to th e u n s ta b le re g io n .A c y c lic h e a d in g o rs u rg in g c o n d itio n d e v e lo p sa s th e d a ily p ro d u c tio n fa lls b e lo w the liquid rate fo r th is m in im u m flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re . T h e c y c lic c o n d itio n s a re p e rp e tu a te d a n d in te n s ifie db y th e flu id flo w p rin c ip le s d e fin in g av e rtic a lo r in c lin e d m u ltip h a s e flo w s y s te m a n d th e in tlo w p e rfo rm a n c e re la tio n s h ip d e fin in g

th e d e liv e ra b ilityo fareserv o ir. A s th e liq u id r a t e d e c r e a s e s , th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re in c re a s e s w h ic h i n tu rn r e s u l t si nafu rth e r d e c re a s ei n liq u id ra te . M o s t w e lls w ill r e a c hasevere surging condition that can best be described as alo a d in g a n d u n lo a d in g s ta te o fflo w b e fo re all flow ceases and the w ell is classified as dead. C o n d itio n s N e c e s s a ry to A s s u re S ta b le M u ltip h a s e F lo w A n e x p la n a tio n fo rth ec o n d i t i o n s n e c e s s a r y t o a s s u r e s ta b le m u ltip h a s e flo w c a n b e re la te d t o am in im u m free v o lu m e tric g a s ra te re q u ire m e n t fo r a g iv e n p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e . T h e

i n - s i t u g a s v e lo c ity m u s t e x c e e d a m in im u m v a lu e th a t p r e v e n ts e x c e s s iv e g a s s lip p a g e a n d c o r r e s p o n d in g ly h ig h liq u id h o ld u p w h ic h c a u s e s aw e ll to lo a d u p a n d d ie .S in c e th e re is th is m in im u m g a s rate requirem e n t, th e total gas-liquid ratio t os u s ta in s ta b le flo w m ust in c r e a s e a s th e d a ily liq u id p ro d u c tio n ra te d e c re a s e s fo r th e s a m e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e . F o r th is r e a s o n ,ac o m p a riso no fin je c tio n g a s -liq u id ra tio s i s not recom m ended for e v a lu a tin g th e g a slift o p e ra tio n si n w e lls th a t h a v e a w id e ra n g ei nd a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te . A ls o , a m in im u m g a s v e lo c i t y n e c e s s a r y

t o p re v e n t e x c e s s iv e liq u id h o ld u p e x p la in s w h y s ta b le flo w in g c o n d itio n s c a n b e e s ta b lis h e d in s m a lle r c o n d u i t s i z e s f o r l o w r a t e w e l l s . T h e g a sv e lo c ity in c r e a s e sa s th e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it s iz e d e c re a s e s fo r th e s a m e d a ily O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 D a ily P ro d u c tio n R a te1 0 0 S T B /d a y W e ll In fo rm a tio n : 1 . T u b in g L e n g th=6 0 0 0 fe e t 2 .F o rm a tio n R g,=4 0 0 s c f/S T B(A ll O il) 3 .F lo w in g W e llh e a d P re s s u re=1 0 0 p s ig F ig .3 -1 0 F lo w in g B H P v e r s u s d a ily p r o d u c tio n r a te fo r th r e e d iffe r e n t tu b in g s iz e s o f th e s u m e le n g th u n d ac o n -

stunt gus-oil ratio Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 O 5 3 2 8 6 7 L29

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

3 4 G as L ift v o lu m e tric g a s ra te .I n o th e r w o rd s , a tu b in g s iz e c a n b e to o large for a low c a p a c ity w e llo rto o s m a ll fo r a la rg e c a p a c ity w e ll. E ffe c t o f T u b in g S iz e o n M in im u m S ta b iliz e d F lo w R a te A w ell m ay flow w ith a 2’/s-inchO .D . tubing string and req u ire artificial lift w ith a la rg e r s iz e tu b in g . If the daily p ro d u c tio n ra te o c c u rs i nth e u n s ta b le ra n g e of flow for a g iv e n tu b in g s iz e , a lo w e r flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re c a n b e a tta in e d fo r th e s a m e d a ily p ro d u c tio n w ith a sm aller c o n d u it s iz e . F o r e x a m p le , th e p re d ic te d flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re is a p p ro x im a te ly 1 3 6 0 p s ig a t 6 0 0 0 f e e t fo r1O 0 S T B d a y th ro u g h 2 ’/s-in c hO .D . tu b in gi n F ig . 3 -9 . If1 6 6 0 - in c hO .D .(l’/a -in c h n o m in a l) tu b in g w ere run in the sam e

w e ll,th e p re d ic te d flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re w o u ld decrease to a p p ro x im a te ly 1 0 0 0p s ig fo rth e s a m e d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te o f1 0 0S T B d a y . T h e in ta k e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re v e rs u s d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te fo r th re e c o m m o n ly u s e d tu b in g s iz e s is illu s tra te d in F ig .3 -1 0 . A ccurate gradient curves can be used to select the proper conduit sizefor a w ell basedo n th e d e s ire d d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te . C O N C L U S IO N S T h e a b ility to p re d ic t a c c u ra te m u ltip h a s e flo w in g p re s sures at depthi na v e rtic a l p ro d u c tio n c o n d u ith a s im p ro v e d s ig n ific a n tly s in c e th e w o rk o f P o e ttm a n n a n d C a rp e n te ri n 1 9 5 2 . R e s e a rc hi n m u ltip h a s e flo w c o n tin u e s w ith in c re a s e d em phasisi n g a th e rin g s y s te m s in c lu d in g flo w lin e s

a n d in c lin e d flo w . T h e n u m b e r o f w e lls h a v in g d e v ia te d p ro d u c tio n c o n d u its w ill in c re a s e a s n e w w e lls a re d rille d fro m o ffsh o re p la tfo rm s. Im p ro v e d m u ltip h a se flo w c o rre la tio n s w ill b e d e v e lo p e d fo r d e v ia te d p ro d u c tio n c o n d u its . T h e c a lc u la tio n s fo r in c lin e d flo w w ill b e m o re c o m p le x b y re q u irin g p ro file s o f p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it le n g thv e rs u s a n g le o f d e v ia tio n . M a n y c o m p a n ie s h a v e th e ir o w n in -h o u s e m u ltip h a s e flo w com puter program s.T hese program s should b e u tiliz e d by fie ld p ro d u c tio n p e rs o n n e l fo r c o n tin u o u s g a s lift in s ta lla tio n d e s ig n a n d a n a ly s is . T h e m a jo rity o f th e g a s lift m a n u fa c tu re rs h a v e c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s a v a ila b le to d e s ig n a n d a n a ly z e g a s l i f tin s ta lla tio n s . T h e w id e ly

u s e d m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s in these com puter program s h a v e been verified by actual field m easurem ent to be reasonably a c c u r a te w hen re lia b le w e ll d a ta a re u s e d fo rin p u t. I n c o n c lu s io n ,th e a d v e n t o f m u ltip h a s e flo w c o rre la tio n s w h ic h a re a p p lic a b le t o th e c o n d u it s iz e s a n d th e d a ily p ro d u c tio n ra te s a s s o c ia te d w ith g a s l i f to p e ra tio n s h a s c h a n g e d th e d e s ig n a n d a n a ly s iso f c o n tin u o u s flo w g a sl i f t w ellsfro m a n art based o n e x p e rie n c e to a p re d ic ta b le s c ie n c e .

Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 Y m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

0 5 3 2 8 b 8 O b5 m G as A p p lic a tio n a n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G as L ift 3 5 C H A P T E R4 G A S A P P L IC A T IO N A N D G A S F A C IL IT IE S F O R G A S L IF T IN T R O D U C T IO N G a s h a n d lin g fa c ilitie s such asgascom pressors, d e h y - d ra to rs , m e te rs , a n d p ip e lin e s a re th e h ig h e s t c o s t p o rtio n s o f th e g a s lift s y s te m . T h is e q u ip m e n tu s u a lly re q u ire s m o re o p e ra tin g a n d m a in te n a n c e e ffo rt th a n a n y o th e r p a rt o f th e gas lift facilities. N aturalgas u s e d to p ro d u c e liq u id s b y g a s lift is c o n t r o l l e d ,m e a s u r e d ,c o m p r e s s e d ,a n d p r o c e s s e d w i t h m echanicaldevices.T herefore, a n u n d e rs ta n d in g of gas fu n d a m e n ta ls a n d

o p e ra tin g p ra c tic e s is n e c e s s a ry to the successful operation of a gas liftsystem .O perating p ra c tic e s in v o lv in g g a s a re d iffe re n t fro m those for oil because o f the increased pressure a n d c o m p re s s ib ility of the m ix- tu re s in v o lv e d . A ls o , a s a g a s th a t c o n ta in s e v e n s m a ll q u a n ti- tie s o f h y d ro g e n s u lfid e c a n b e very corrosive to certain e q u ip m e n t a n d p re s e n t a h a z a rd to h u m a n life . It is im p o rta n tt ou n d e rs ta n d th a t a s in g le com ponent g a s lik e n itro g e n a n d a m ix tu re o f c o m p o n e n ts s u c h a s n a tu ra l g a s w ill b e h a v e d iffe re n tly . In je c tio n g a s fo r g a sl i f t w e lls c a n b e a ffe c te d b y v a rio u s o p e ra tin g a n d p ro d u c in g c o n d itio n s in c lu d in g gas supply and productionsystem backpressure.Productionconditions such assurface w e llh e a d back pressure

and surface te m p e ra tu re a re u s u a lly e s tim a te d i n g a s lift d e s ig n a n d p la n n in g because actualm easurem ents w ill n o t b e a v a ila b le . G a s liftv a lv e s d o w n h o le w ill re s p o n d to in je c tio n g a s p r e s s u r e a n d p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re i n th e w e llb o re as w ell as pressure and tem perature inside th e b e llo w so f th e g a s liftv a lv e . T h e s e c o n d itio n s m ustbeaccurately p re d ic te d . B A S IC F U N D A M E N T A L SO F G A S B E H A V IO R T he pressureof a liquid or gas system can be m easured. A p r e s s u r e g a g e i s t h e d e v i c e t h a t i s c o m m o n l y u s e d t o m e a s - ure the pressure o fth e liq u id /g a s m ix tu re p ro d u c e d fro m th e w e ll a s w e ll a s th e p re s s u re o f th e g a s in je c te d in to th e w e ll. T h e p re s s u re is ta k e n w ith a g a g e a n d is re fe rre d to

a s gage pressure.I n th e U n ite d S ta te s it is m e a s u re d in p o u n d s p e r s q u a re in c h a n d d e s ig n a te d p s ig . Gage pressure plus atm ospheric pressure (usually about 15 psi) is referred to as absolute pressure and designated psia. The difference b e tw een gage pressure and absolute pressure is very sm all at high pressures.Forexam ple,1000psigconvertsto 1 0 1 5 psia,i f atm ospheric pressure is 15 psi. G as lift sy stem s u tilize g a s p r e s s u r e i n m o r e t h a n o n e t y p e o f a p p lic a tio n . In th e firs t ty p e o f a p p lic a tio n th e g a s c a n e x p a n d . In th is a p p lic a tio n , g a s g o e s fro m the com pressor, th ro u g h a p ip e lin e to th e w e ll, a n d th e n g o e s th ro u g h a g a s lift v a lv e , w h e re it e x p a n d s a n d m ix e s w ith th e p ro d u c e d liq u id s . A t e a c h lin k th e g a s e x p a n d s a n d lo s e s s o m e o f its p re s s u re e n e rg y . T h e s e c o n d ty p e o f a p p lic a tio n in v o lv e s a s e a le d g a s c o n ta in e r. A n e x a m p le o f th is is th e n itro g e n w h ic h is c o n ta in e d in th e b e llo w s o f a g a s lift v a lv e .In e a c h

of these c a s e s th e g a s behavior differs. Thesealed container is a system in w hich pressure, tem perature, and volum e are re la te d . I n th e s e a le d c o n ta in e r,o rb e llo w s ,a te m p e ra tu re in c r e a s e c a u s e s a p r e s s u r e in c r e a s e in s id e th e b e llo w s b e c a u s e th e n itro g e n c a n n o t e x p a n d o u ts id e th e b e llo w s . T h is is s ta te d in th e fo llo w in g e q u a tio n : P I = P 2 E q u a tio n 4 .1 " T I T z In g a s lift c a lc u la tio n s th is e q u a tio n c o u ld be used t o d e te rm in e th e c h a n g e th a t ta k e s p la c e in th e n itro g e n p re s s u r ei n th e b e llo w s w h e n a g a sl i f t v a lv e is s e t i na t e s tr a c k a t a te m p e ra tu re o f6 0 ° F a n d th e n

is p la c e d d o w n h o le a t a m uch highertem perature.H ow ever,before equation 4 .1 can be applied, the effects of tem perature m ust be review ed. T e m p e ra tu re a ffe c ts th e g a s in th e c lo s e d c o n ta in e r a s w ell asi nth e o p e n , e x p a n s iv e a p p lic a tio n . T h e in d ic a to r o f heat change is the m easured degree o f te m p e ra tu re . In a ll c a lc u la tio n s th ro u g h o u t th is c h a p te r, th e te m p e ra tu re s a re a b s o lu te , i.e ., d e g re e s R a n k in e( " F p lu s4 6 0 ). F o r e x a m p le , 150°F plus4 6 0is e q u a l to 6 1 0 " R a n k in e (a b s o lu te ). A gas expands w hen heated. Tem perature increase after com pression and the subsequenteffect o n flo w th ro u g h a p ip e lin e o r a g a s lift v a lv e a re th e m o s t c o m m o n e x a m p le s of these phenom ena. G as m easurem ent requires a re c o rd o f th e flo w in g te m p e ra tu re o f th e g a s th ro u g h a n o rific e m e te r. T h e g a s flo w e q u a tio n is a d ju s te d f o r th e flo w in g te m p e ra - ture of the gas and corrected to a s ta n d a rd te m p e ra tu re o f 6 0 °F . In th e c a lc u la tio n s show n

 

h e re ,th e te m p e ra tu re i n d e g re e s F a h re n h e it (F )i sc o n v e r t e d t o d e g r e e s R a n k i n e (R ). Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E U V T -b

34

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

07322 30 0 5 3 2 8 b 9 T T 1 3 6 G as L ift In th is e x a m p le , th e v a lv e b e llo w s p re s s u re i n the test rack D e v ia tio n fa c to rs c a n b e o b ta in e d fo rn itro g e n fro m a t 6 0 ° F is c a lc u la te d S O th a t th e v a lv e c a n b e s e tt o h a v e a Fig. 4-1 and for sw eet natural gases from Fig. 4-2 and 4-3. bellows pressureof 1000p s ig w h e n it is o p e ra tin g d o w n h o le D e v ia tio n is a fu n c tio n o f th e p r e s s u r e a n d te m p e ra tu re a n d , a t1 5 0 ° F . for natural gases, iti s also a fu n c tio no f g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity (gas specific gravityis based o n com position). T hese com P I

 

P Z (1 0 0 0p s ig+ 1 5 p s i) P ? p r e s s i b i l i t y fa c to rs (d e v ia tio n f a c to r s ) a c c o u n t fo r th e n o n ~ o r id e a l b e h a v io r o f g a s a n d im p ro v e th e a c c u r a c y o f T I T ?

( 1 5 0 ° F+ 4 6 0 ) (6 0 0 F + 4 6 0 " F ) c a l c u l a t i o n sf o ro i lf i e l d s y s t e m s . o r (1 0 1 5 p s ia ) PZ ( 61O R ) (520"R ) th e n P ?=8 6 5p s ia T h is is th e a b s o lu te p re s s u re w ith id e a lb e h a v io r.T h e a tm o s p h e ric p re s s u re is a p p ro x im a te ly1 5psi, therefore, the gage pressure is 850 psig. T h is e x a m p le d o e s n o t ta k e in to a c c o u n t th e d e v ia tio n fro m id e a l b e h a v io r. A c o m p re s s ib ility fa c to r(Z )is used to d e n o te d e v ia tio n fro m id e a l c o n d itio n s . T he d e v ia tio n o r c o m p re s s ib ility fa c to r (Z ) a p p e a r s in th e

 

fo llo w in g e q u a tio n : P1 V I P2 V ? ~ E q u a tio n 4 .2 Z I T I Z ? T ? T he v o lu m e(V ) is n o w includedi n the pressure, tem peratu re , a n d d e v ia tio n re la tio n s h ip . In th e e x a m p le i n w h ic h b e llo w s is c o n s id e re d a s e a le d c o n ta in e r th a t c h a n g e s v e ry little in sizeV Iis e q u a l to V Za n ds o v o lu m e is e lim in a te d fro m th e e q u a tio n . T h eZ fa c to r r e m a in s ,in o r d e r to im prove the accuracy of th er e s u l t s .To a p p ly th e Zfa c to r, th e ty p e o f g a s m u s t b e id e n tifie d b e c a u s e th eZfactor for m e th a n ei s different from th eZ fa c to r fo r n itro g e n , w h ic h i s a ls o different from

th eZfactor for a n a tu ra l g a s m ix tu re o f m any com ponents. S oth eZ fa c to r is re la te d t o th e p a rtic u la r g a s vapor. C harts a re a v a ila b le th a tlis td e v ia tio n (Z )fa c to rsfo rn itro gen and for natural gas m ixtures denotedby som e property (u s u a lly s p e c ific g ra v ity ). T h e s e c h a rts a n d ta b le s a re n o t v a lid if s ig n ific a n t q u a n titie s o f im p u ritie s a re p r e s e n t i n th e naturalgasm ixture.Specialchartsareneededforthose c o n d itio n s . It becom es very apparent that the accuracyof the calcula tio n d e p e n d s o n h a v in g re lia b le in fo rm a tio n fo r p re s s u re , te m p e ra tu re , a n d Z factors. T he user should be careful to e n s u r e th a t th e ta b le o r c h a r t b e in g u s e d r e p r e s e n

ts th e actual gas stream being considered. T h e p re v io u s e x a m p le is m o d ifie d a s fo llo w s : T h e g a s is n itro g e n . A t c o n d itio n 1 : P I = 1 0 1 5 p s ia(1 0 0 0 p s ig+1 5 p s i) T I 1 5 0 ° F F ro m F ig . 4 -1 ,Z I= 1 .0 1 3 A t c o n d itio n 2 : P ? = u n k n o w n( b u ta s s u m e8 6 5p s i a ) T z = 6 0 ° F 2 2 = 0 .9 9 2 N ow a p p ly e q u a tio n 4 .2 1 0 1 5 p s ia Pz (1 .0 1 3 ) x [(1 5 0 " F ) +4 6 0

 

1

(0 .9 9 2 ) x [(6 0 " F ) +4 6 0 P2= 847psia(U sethis P Zto e s tim a te a n o th e r Z 2 a n d re p e a t c a lc u la tio n ) If s im ila r c a lc u la tio n s a re m ade with natural gas, Fig. 4-2 a n d 4 -3 a re a v a ila b le fo re s tim a tin g th e Z F a c to r.F o r e x a m p le , a s s u m e th e g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity is 0.7 a tc o n d itio n 1 : P I = 1 0 1 5p s ia (1 0 0 0p s ig ) T I = 1 5 0 ° F F ro m F ig . 4 -3 , (u s e th e a b o v e d a ta ),Z I=0 .8 8 5 A tc o n d i t i o n 2 , T ?=

 

1

6 0 ° F . P 2 i su n k n o w n ,b u ta n assum edpressureisneededtoestim ate Z Z .A ssum e PZ =8 5 0 p s ia (8 3 5 p s ig ), th e nZ 2 =0 .81 . N ow a p p ly e q u a tio n 4 .2 , 1 0 1 5 p s ia P2 (0 .8 8 5 ) x (610"R ) (0 .8 1 )x (520"R ) P Z= 7 9 2p sia(u seth is P Zto e s tim a tea n o th e r Z Z and repeat) N ote:N itrogen (N ?)isused i n th eg a s liftv a lv e b e llo w s b e c a u s eN 2b e h a v io ri s w e ll k n o w n .N 2i s n o n -to x ic a n d it is re a d ily a v a ila b le . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

0 5 3 2 8 7 07 1 3 m G as A p p lic a tio n a n d G as F a c ilitie s fo rG as L ift 3 7 N P R E S S U R E ,P S lA F ig .4 -1 C o m p re ssib ility fa c to r s fo r N itr o g e n , B u r e a u of M inesM onograph 1 0 V o lu m e2 , “ P h a s e R e la tio n s o f G as-C ondensateF lu id s ” Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E U V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 3 b 5 T m 3 8 G as L ift 1 PROBLEM EXAMPLE: G IV E N : T a v o=1 0 0 °F F ig . 4 -2 -

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

Z-Chart (1 0 0-3 0 0 psi) CourtesyE x x o n Production Research Company F ig . 4 - 3 Z-Chart(3 0 0- 2000 psi)datafr o m CNGAB u 1 T5-461 and Standing-Katz AIM E Transactions 1942 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E a V T -6 74

 

 

   

 

   

 

W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 2 576 G a s A p p lic a tio n a n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G a s L ift 3 9 A P P L IC A T IO NT O O IL F IE L D SYSTEM S G a s b e h a v io r a p p lic a tio n s a re im p o rta n t in th e p ro d u c - tio n o f o il a n d g a s b e c a u s e th e re a re c h a n g e s in te m p e ra tu re and pressure as the oil and gas m ove from reservoir to the s u r f a c e . C o n c e iv a b ly th e “ g a s ” m ay b e a liq u id i n th e reservoir at high pressure and tem perature and change to th e g a s p h a s e in s id e th e w e llb o re a s it m o v e s to w a rd th e s u r f a c e . O ffset w ells in the sam e reservoir can be a good source o f in fo rm a tio n re la tin g to c ru d e o il a n d d is s o lv e d g a s c h a ra c te ris tic s s u c h a s g a s -liq u id ratios and gas com positio n . V a rio u s c o rre la tio n s a re a v a ila b le fo r estim atin g th e c h a n g e si n the properties of crude oils as the pressure and te m p e ra tu re o f th e p ro d u c tio n s y s te m change. These correla tio n s m a k e

i tp o s s ib le to p re d ic t th e a m o u n t o f fre e g a s th a t w ill b e p re s e n t in th e s y s te m u n d e r a n y g iv e n c o n d itio n of pressure and tem perature. A n o th e r a re a re la te d to g a s b e h a v io r o c c u rs in th e d e s ig n and sizing of surface com pressors a n d d e h y d ra tio n fa c ilitie s. M illio n s o f d o lla rs a re s p e n t to d e s ig n , in s ta ll, a n d o p e ra te th e s e s u rfa c e fa c ilitie s . T h e re fo re , g o o d d a ta o n g a s properties are necessary to accurately predict gas behavior w ith in ra n g e s in te m p e ra tu re a n d p re s s u re . In o rd e r to m o re a c c u ra te ly d e s c rib e g a s b e h a v io r, a re s e rv o ir flu id s a m p le is a n a ly z e d in th e la b o ra to ry fo rP V T (p re s s u re ,v o lu m e , te m p e ra tu re ) re la tio n s h ip . T h is a n a ly s is p ro v id e s th e g a s a n d liq u id c o m p o s itio n a s w e ll a s o th e r u s e fu l in fo rm a tio n o n g a s a n d o il p ro p e rtie s s u c h a s g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity , liq u id g ra v ity , a n d g a s -o il ra tio . If asam ple fro m th e re s e rv o ir c a n n o t b e o b ta in e d , a re c o m b in e d s e p a ra to r liq u id a n d g a s s a m p le is used. O ften m u ltip le gas sam ples are taken for c h ro m a to g ra p h c o m p o s itio n a n a ly s e s

a n d u s e d forcom p re s s o r s iz in g and design.These c o m p o s itio n values are c r u c ia l fo r th e d e s ig n of centrifugal com pressors because th e in te rn a l w h e e l d e s ig n is h ig h ly d e p e n d e n t u p o n g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity a n d th e c h a n g e s th a t o c c u r in th e g a s a s it goes from a low pressure to a high pressure. T he reciprocat- ing com pressoris a ls o d e p e n d e n t u p o n th is g a s c o m p o s itio n b u t is n o t a s s e n s itiv e to c h a n g e s . S u b s u rfa c e A p p lic a tio n s T e c h n iq u e s fo r e s tim a tin g g a s b e h a v io r m a y b e a p p lie d to s u b s u rfa c e a p p lic a tio n s in c o m p u tin g in je c tio n g a s p re s - s u re p ro file s , e s tim a tin g th e g a s p a s s a g e th ro u g h a g a s lift v a lv e a n d , a s p re v io u s ly m e n tio n e d , i n s e ttin g a b e llo w s (d o m e ) p re s s u re in a g a s lift v a lv e .I n all cases the fundam entalm ethodsdescribed hereare u s e d to e s tim a te g a s

behavioralchanges.M ost o f th e tim e , e q u a tio n s a re n o t u s e d d ire c tly . T a b le s a n d c h a rts p ro v id e th e d a ta n e e d e d fo r c a lc u la tio n s .C o m p u te rs a re o fte n u s e d ,p ro d u c in g a d a ta g ra p h fo r e s tim a te s . P re s s u re C o rre c tio n T he dom e, o rb e llo w s , in th e g a s lift v a lv e is used t o p ro v id e a c o n tro lle d c lo s in g p re s s u re s oth a t th e gas lift ~ ~ valve operates m uch like a back pressure valve on a separa- to r. T h e c lo s in g fo rc e in th e v a lv e is p ro v id e d b y th e n itro - gen pressure in the bellow s for m ost valves, although som e valves use a springo r n itro g e n p re s s u re p lu s a s p rin g . T h e v a lv e m e c h a n ic s e q u a tio n s , e s tim a te s o f d o w n h o le g a s p re s - sure,dow nhole flu id p re s s u re , a n d d o w n h o le te m p e ra tu re are used to c a lc u la te th e b e llo w s p re s s u re n e e d e d fo r th e closing force.A s p re v io u s ly d is c u s s e d , th is n itro g e n p re s - sure w ithin th e b e llo w s (a p p ro x im a te ly c o n s ta n t v o lu m e sealed dom e) is dependent upon tem perature. T he pressure in s id e th e b e llo w s w ill v a ry

a s th e te m p e ra tu re v a rie s . T e m p e ra tu re C o rre c tio n T h e te m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n is a c tu a lly a n a d ju s tm e n t fro m w e llb o re te m p e ra tu re t o a test ra c k te m p e ra tu re o f 6 0 °F .T h e w e llb o re te m p e ra tu re e s tim a te is c ritic a l b e c a u s e th e n itro g e n p re s s u re s e ttin g in th e v a lv e is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th is te m p e ra tu re e s tim a te . A n o th e r p o s s ib le e rro r m ay re s u lt fro m p o o r b e h a v io r p re d ic tio n o f th e b e llo w s g a s . A s m e n tio n e d p re v io u s ly , n itro g e n is used to lessen c h a n c e s of error becausei th a s w e ll-k n o w nc o m p re s s ib ility fa c to rs a n d is s a fe to h a n d le . M ost m anufacturers cool the gasl i f tv a lv e s to 6 0 ° Fi n a c o o le r a n d th u s h a v e a c o n s is te n t a n d re p e a ta b le te m p e ra - ture at w hich to set the nitrogen p r e s s u r e i n

th e b e llo w s : h o w e v e r, th e g a s lift v a lv e in th e w e ll w ill n o t b eo p e ra tin g a t 6 0 “ . I tw ill b e a t s o m e h ig h e r te m p e ra tu re a n d th e d o w n hole bellowspressure (P b d t) a t t e m p e r a t u r e m ust be converted to a bellow s pressure (Ph”) at6 0 ° F .O n e c o rre c tin g m e th o d is to u s e T a b le 4 -1 b y H .W . W in k le r a n d th e fo llo w in g re la tio n s h ip : p h v =CT x Phdt E q u a tio n 4 .3 W here: Pbv =B ellow s Pressure (psig)@ 6 0 ° F C T = T e m p e r a t u r eC o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r , f o r ad o w n h o le te m p e ra tu re a t v a lv e (fro m T a b le4 -1 ) P M = B e llo w s P r e s s u r e

(p sîg ) @ D o w n h o le T em perature(from valvem echanicscalculatio n ) A san exam ple, calculate the dom e pressure at6 0 ° Fi n a test racki f Pmt= 820 psig at 140°F. P b v =(0 .8 4 8 ) x(8 2 0 p s ig )= 6 9 5 p s ig T h is c a lc u la tio n g iv e s th e b e llo w s p re s s u re s e ttin g at a la b o ra to ry (s h o p ) s ta n d a rd c o n d itio n .I nth e s h o p th e v a lv e is p la c e d in a s p e c ia l te s t ra c k fix tu re a n d th e v a lv e is s e t by calculating a test rack opening pressure and th e ns lo w ly b le e d - in g th e n itro g e n fro m th e b e llo w s u n til th e te s t ra c k o p e n in g pressure just barely opens the valve. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T IT L E rV T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 3 Y 2 2 m 4 0 L ift T A B L E4 -1 T E M P E R A T U R E C O R R E C T IO N FACTORS FOR N IT R O G E N B A S E D O N 6 0 °F Pbv= 1 0 0 0 p s i g " F C t " F C I " F C l " F

C l " F C l " F C , 6 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 7 0 7 1 7 2 7 3 7 4 7 5 7 6 7 7 7 8 7 9 8 0 8 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7

8 8 8 9 9 0 9 1 9 2 9 3 9 4 9 5 9 6 9 7 9 8 9 9 1O 0 ,9 9 8 ,9 9 6 ,9 9 3 .9 91 ,9 8 9 ,9 8 7 .9 8 5 .9 8 2 ,9 8 0 .9 7 8 .9 7 6 .9 7 4 .9 7 2 .9 7 0 .9 6 8 ,9 6 5 .9 6 3

.9 61 .9 5 9 ,9 5 7 .9 5 5 .9 5 3 .9 51 .9 4 9 .9 4 7 .9 4 5 .9 4 3 .9 41 .9 3 9 .9 3 7 ,9 3 5 .9 3 3 .9 3 1 .9 2 9 .9 2 7 .9 2 5 .9 2 4 .9 2 2 ,9 2 0 .9 1 8 1 0 1 1 0 2 1 0 3 1 0 4 1 0 5 1 0 6 1 0 7

1 0 8 1 0 9 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 12 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 5 1 1 6 1 1 7 1 1 8 1 1 9 1 2 0 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 1 2 4 1 2 5 1 2 6 I2 7 1 2 8 1 2 9 1 3 0 1 3 1 1 3 2 1 3 3 1 3 4 1 3 5 1 3 6 1 3 7 1 3 8 1 3 9

1 4 0 .9 1 6 ,9 1 4 .9 1 2 .9 1 0 .9 0 9 .9 0 7 .9 0 5 ,9 0 3 .9 0 1 ,8 9 9 .8 9 8 .8 9 6 .8 9 4 ,8 9 2 .8 9 0 .8 8 9 ,8 8 7 .8 8 5 .8 8 3 .8 8 2 .8 8 0 .8 7 8 .8 7 6 .8 7 5 .8 7 3 .8 7 1 .8 7 0 .8 6 8 .8 6 6 .8 6 5 .8 6 3

.8 6 1 .8 6 0 ,8 5 8 .8 5 6 .8 5 5 .8 5 3 .8 51 .8 5 0 .8 4 8 1 4 1 1 4 2 1 4 3 1 4 4 1 4 5 1 4 6 1 4 7 1 4 8 1 4 9 1 5 0 1 5 1 1 5 2 1 5 3 1 5 4 1 5 5 1 5 6 1 5 7 1 5 8 1 5 9 1 6 0 1 6 1

1 6 2 1 6 3 1 6 4 1 6 5 1 6 6 1 6 7 1 6 8 1 6 9 1 7 0 1 7 1 1 7 2 1 7 3 1 7 4 1 7 5 1 7 6 1 7 7 1 7 8 1 7 9 1 8 0 .8 4 7 .8 4 5 .8 4 3 .8 4 2 .8 4 0 .8 3 9 .8 3 7 .8 3 6 .8 3 4 .8 3 2 .8 3 1 .8 2 9 ,8 2 8

.X 2 6 ,8 2 5 .8 2 3 .8 2 2 .8 2 0 .8 1 9 .8 1 7 ,8 1 6 ,8 1 4 ,8 1 3 .8 11 .a 1 0 .8 0 8 .8 0 7 .8 0 5 .8 0 4 .8 0 3 .8 0 1 ,8 0 0 .7 9 8 .7 9 7 .7 9 5 .7 9 4 .7 9 3 .7 9 1 .7 9 0 ,7 8 8 1 8 1 1 8 2

1 8 3 1 8 4 1 8 5 1 8 6 1 8 7 1 8 8 1 8 9 1 9 0 1 9 1 1 9 2 1 9 3 1 9 4 1 9 5 1 9 6 1 9 7 1 9 8 1 9 9 2 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 2 2 0 3 2 0 4 2 0 5 2 0 6 2 0 7 2 0 8 2 0 9 2 1 0 2 11 2 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 4 2 1 5 2 1 6

2 1 7 2 1 8 2 1 9 2 2 0 ,7 8 7 ,7 8 6 ,7 8 4 ,7 8 3 .7 8 1 .7 8 0 .7 7 9 .7 7 7 .7 7 6 .7 7 5 ,7 7 3 .7 7 2 .7 71 .7 6 9 .7 6 8 .7 6 7 ,7 6 5 .7 6 4 ,7 6 3 .7 61 .7 6 0 .7 5 9 .7 5 8 .7 5 6 .7 5 5 ,7 5 4

.7 5 3 .7 51 .7 5 0 .7 4 9 ,7 4 7 ,7 4 6 .7 4 5 .7 4 4 .7 4 3 .7 4 1 .7 4 0 .7 3 9 .7 3 8 ,7 3 6 22 1 2 2 2 2 23 2 2 4 2 2 5 2 2 6 2 2 7 2 2 8 2 2 9 2 3 0 2 31 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 4 2 3 5 2 3 6

2 3 7 2 3 8 2 3 9 2 4 0 2 41 2 4 2 2 4 3 2 4 4 2 4 5 2 4 6 2 4 7 2 4 8 2 4 9 2 5 0 2 51 2 5 2 2 5 3 2 5 4 2 5 5 2 5 6 2 5 7 2 5 8 2 5 9 2 6 0 .7 3 5 .7 3 4 .7 3 3 .7 3 2 .7 3 0 .7 2 9

.7 2 8 ,7 2 7 .7 2 6 .7 2 4 .7 2 3 .7 2 2 .7 2 1 ,7 2 0 .7 1 9 .7 1 7 .7 1 6 .7 1 5 .7 1 4 .7 1 3 .7 1 2 . 7 1 1 ,7 1 0 .7 0 8 .7 0 7 .7 0 6 ,7 0 5 ,7 0 4 .7 0 3 .7 0 2 .7 0 1 .7 0 0 .6 9 8 ,6 9 7

.6 9 6 .6 9 5 .6 9 4 .6 9 3 .6 9 2 .6 91 2 61 2 6 2 2 6 3 2 6 4 2 6 5 2 6 6 2 6 7 2 6 8 2 6 9 2 7 0 2 71 2 7 2 2 73 2 7 4 2 7 5 2 7 6 2 7 7 2 7 8 2 7 9 2 8 0 2 8 1 2 8 2 2 8 3 2 8 4 2 8 5

2 8 6 2 8 7 2 8 8 2 8 9 2 9 0 2 91 2 9 2 2 9 3 2 9 4 2 9 5 2 9 6 2 9 7 2 98 2 9 9 3O 0 ,6 9 0 .6 8 9 .6 8 8 .6 8 7 .6 8 6 .6 8 5 ,6 8 3 .6 8 2 .6 81 ,6 8 0 .6 7 9 .6 7 8 .6 7 7 .6 7 6 .6 7 5

,6 7 4 .6 7 3 ,6 7 2 .6 71 .6 7 0 .6 6 9 .6 6 8 ,6 6 7 ,6 6 6 .6 6 5 .6 6 4 .6 6 3 .6 6 2 .6 61 .6 6 0 .6 5 9 ,6 5 8 .6 5 7 .6 5 6 ,6 5 5 .6 5 4 .6 5 4 .6 5 3 .6 5 2 .6 51 W here: C l=1 /[1. O+ (" F -6 0 )xM Pb] A n d f o r Pbv l e s s t h a n 1 2 3 8 p s i a a n d f o r Pbv g r e a t e r t h a n 1 2 3 8 p s i a M

=3 .0 5 4 X P b ~ 2 /10 0 0 0 0 0 0+ 1 .9 3 4X P b v /1 0 0 0- 2 .2 6 /1 0 0 0 M =1 .8 4 0X P ~ v 2 / 10 0 0 0 0 0 0+ 2 . 2 9 8X P b v /lO O O- 0 . 2 6 7 B ased on SPE paper 18871 byH .W . W in k le r a n d P.T . E a d s , A lg o r ith m fo r m o re a c c u r a te ly p r e d ic tin g n itr o g e n -c h a r g e d g a s lift valve operation at high pressures and tem peratu res.P re s e n te d a t S P E p ro d u c tio n o p e ra tio n s s y m p o s iu m in O k la h o m a C ity ,O K ,M arch 13-14, 1989 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 4 369 G a s A p p lic a tio n a n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G a s L ift 4 1 Test R ack S e ttin g s T h is m e th o d of setting testrack opening pressure P ,, a llo w s a ir p re s s u re to b e a p p lie d to th e v a lv e s e a t a s th e draw ing show si nF ig . 4 -4 . T h e p re ssu re i nth e b e llo w s a c ts d o w n w a rd (o v e r th e b e llo w s a re a ) a n d th e te s t ra c k o p e n in g pressure acts

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

upw ard (o v e r th e b e llo w s a re a le s s th e p o rt a re a ). T h e c a lc u la te d test rack openingP ,, pressure is as fo llo w s: E q u a tio n 4 .4 E q u a tio n 4 .5 The test rack o p e n in g c a lc u la tio n is based o n th e c o rre c te d bellow s pressure a t6 0 ° F Pb a n d th e v a lv e d a ta Ab a n d A ,. B e llo w s A T M O S P H E R E P a Fig.4 -4 Setting test rack opening pressure G as In je c tio n in th e A n n u lu s or T u b in g H ig h p re s s u re g a s fo r in je c tio n in to th e w e ll is u s u a lly s u p p lie d to the gas system fro m the gas com pressor (or high pressure gas w ell) and thegaspressure

and rate m ust be m easured a n d re c o rd e d s oth a t a c tu a lv a lu e s a r e k n o w n ra th e r th a n assum ed.T he gas pressurew ill decreaseasit passes through th e a d ju s ta b le c h o k e u p s tre a m of the w ellhead assem bly. T h e w e llh e a d g a s p re s s u re is re q u ire d fo r d e sig n p u rposes. O ne aspect of design is the change of gas pressure w ith d e p th .I nm o s t c a s e s , in je c tio n g a s is p u t in to th e tu b - in g -c a s in g a n n u lu s o f th e g a s lift w ell and the gas pressure increases w ith d e p th d u e to th e w e ig h t (d e n s ity ) o f the gas. T ableso r figures, such as Figures4 -5 and 4 -6 give the increased pressures w ith depth. These curves show the gas pressure profile w ith d e p th a n d e a c h lin e re p re s e n ts a d iffe re n t su rfa c e gas pressure. A lthough the gas pressure u s u a lly in c re a s e s w ith d e p th , th e re a re c a s e si nw h ic h

 

gas pressure could decrease w ith depth. O n e o f th e s e c a s e s o c c u rs w h e n g a s is in je c te d a t v o lu m e t- ric flow rates high enough to cause frictionl o s s . T hat is, as th e v e lo c ity o f th e g a s in c re a s e s in s id e th e p ip e , th e p ip e resists the flow a n d fric tio n d e v e lo p s b e tw e e n th e g a s a n d th e p ip e w a lls . T h e e ffe c t o f fric tio n is p a rtic u la rly n o tic e a - b le i nm in ia tu riz e d c a s in g (fo r e x a m p le , 1 /4 -in c h n o m in a l tu b in g w ith 2 .3 0 -in c h O .D .c o lla rs u s e d in s id e 2 .4 4 1 -in c h I.D . casing). A n o th e r e x a m p le o f fric tio n lo s s o c c u rs a t h ig h a n n u la r (c a s in g ) flu id flo w ra te s w h e re g a s is in je c te d d o w n th e tu b - in g a n d in to th e a n n u lu s a t a h ig h ra te fo r liftin g p u rp o s e s . T h e s e h ig h ra te a p p lic a tio n s , s u c h a si n s o m e M id d le E a s t w e lls , c a n le a dt oa s ig n ific a n t fric tio n lo s si n th e g a s flo w - in g d o w n th e tu b in g . In th e G u lf C o a s t a re a , th e p ro b le m i s u s u a lly fo u n di nw e lls w ith sm all casing. G as pressure lo s si nm in ia tu riz e d c a s in g is m ade up of tw o c o m p o n e n ts : first, the friction caused by the gas flo w - in g b e tw e e n th e p ip e b o d y a n d th e s m a ll c a s in g a n d , s e c o n d , th e m o re s e rio u s p ro b le m

 

o f fric tio n c a u s e d b y g a s flo w in g b e tw e e n th e tu b in g c o u p lin g (c o lla r) a n d th e c a s in g . O fte n , th is s m a ll c le a ra n c e (a p p ro x im a te lyO .14-inch)causes a flow r e s t r i c t i o n and loss of pressure s im ila r to a c h o k e (som e- tim e s c a lle d g a s s ta c k in g ). T h e m e th o d s u s e d to p re d ic t th e p re s s u re lo s s in s id e th e s m a ll c a s in g a re o n ly a p p ro x im a te b e c a u s e th e n o n c o n tin u o u s o u ts id e d ia m e te r o n th e tu b in g i sd iffic u lt to m o d e l. U s u a lly , th e p ip e b o d y d ia m e te r is a s s u m e d to b e u n ifo rm a n d th e p re s s u re (fric tio n ) lo s s w ith d e p th is c a lc u la te d . A n estim ate of thepressure lo s sd u e to th e c o lla rs (s ta c k in g ) c a n b e m a d e . F irs t, a p ip e d ia m e te r e q u iv a le n t to th e tu b in g p ip e b o d y is used a n d th e p re ssu re p ro file is o b served. Second, a case is ru n w ith th e d ia m e te r e q u iv a le n t to th e c o lla r o u ts id e d ia m e te r. T h is e ffe c t is o b s e rv e d a n d results com pared. T he effect of excessive frictionlo s so n th e g a s lift v a lv e is a d o w n h o le g a s p re s s u re th a t is d iffe re n t fro m th e v a lu e u s e d i n th e d e s ig n . T h u s , th e v a lv e o p e ra tio n w o u ld b e e r r a tico rp e rh a p s th e v a lv e s w o u ld p re m a tu re ly

close be- c a u s e th e p re s s u re a t th e v a lv e is lo w e r d u e to th e c h o k in g effect of the collars. I na ty p ic a l w e ll, th e g a s p ro file w ill in c re a s e w ith d e p th because the w eight of the gas increases the pressure. H ow - e v e r, th e e x c e p tio n s a re th e c a s e s ju s t re v ie w e d w h e re s ig n if- icant friction losses a c tu a lly r e s u lti n a pressure decrease (w ith d e p th ) b e c a u s e th e fric tio n lo s s is g re a te r th a n th e w e ig h t-g e n e ra te d in c re a s e . S in c e th e ty p ic a l w e ll h a s n e g lig ib le fric tio n d u et ou se of largecasing,thedesign requirem entbecom esone o f e s tim a tin g th e p re s s u re a t d e p th fo r th e g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity u sed in the system . I n m ost system s com pressing low pressure separator gas to in je c tio n pressure, the high pressure gas specific gravity w ill be from 0 .7to0 . 8 . W h e n th e re s e rv o ir flu id h a s Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E + V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 5 2 T 5 m 4 2 G as L ift P ressu re,P S lG 8 0 0

 

 

   

 

   

 

900 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 7 0 0 O 1O00 2000 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 e6 0 0 0 tl 7 0 0 0 8000 9 0 0 0 1 0 O 00 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0

1 7 0 0 F ig . 4 -5 G a spressure profile w ithO .7 SG G as ~ ~ Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T I T L E + V T - b

74m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0

0 5 3 2 8 7 6

 

 

   

 

   

 

 

L 3 1 m G a s A p p lic a tio na n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G as L ift 4 3 P re s s u re , P S lG 8 0 0 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 7 0 0 O 1O 00 2000 3000 4 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 Q ) u, Gne 6 0 0 0 7000 8000 9 0 0 0

 

1 0 O 00 9 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 7 0 0 F ig . 4 -6 G aspressure profile w ith0 .8S C G as Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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4 4 A PI T IT L E x V T -6 74 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 7 0 7 8 m G as L ift d C D O m e O m O O d d ò d G a s G ra d ie n t, P S I/F T

lF r r (3 5ea2 ec! v ) v ) OOOO( o F ig . 4 -7 I n je c tio n G a s G r a d ie n ts Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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s ig n ific a n tC 4 toc6 c o m p o n e n ts , th e g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity a t in je c tio n p re s s u re w ill b e a p p ro x im a te ly0 .8 .G a s s a m p lin g a t th e in je c tio n g a s m e te r a n d c h ro m a to g ra p h a n a ly s is w ill g iv eare lia b le g a s g ra v ity . Figure 4 -5 show s gas pressure versus depth fora specific g ra v ity o f 0 .7w h ile F ig . 4 .6 g iv e s p re s s u re v e rs u s d e p th fo r as p e c ific g ra v ity o f 0 .8 . F o r o th e r c o n d itio n s , a g a s g ra d ie n t c h a rt is sh o w n in F ig . 4 -7 . T h e g ra p h c a n b e u s e d to e s tim a te th e g a s g ra d ie n t (p s i/ ft) fo r u se i n a g a s p re s s u re a t d e p th c a lc u la tio n . S ta rt w ith the surface injection pressure (1 0 0 0p s ig ), g o to th e g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity (0 .8 ),and read the gas gradient (0 .0 41 psi/ft). A ta depth

 

 

   

 

   

 

of5 0 0 0 ft., the gas pressure wouldbe 1 0 0 0+(0 .0 4 1x 5 0 0 0 )o r a p p ro x im a te ly 1 2 0 5 p s ig . The user can read the figures at 0 .7 and0 .8 gas specific g ra v ityo r u s e th e c h a rt to e s tim a te p re s s u re g ra d ie n t. T h is p re s s u re a t d e p th is im p o rta n t to d e s ig n a n d gas passage c a lc u la tio n s . F lo wT h ro u g h th e G as L ift V a lv e G asp a s s a g e t h r o u g h ag a s liftv a lv e i sth e c o m m o n m e th o d fo r in tro d u c in g g a s in to th e flu id s tre a m . If g a s flo w th ro u g h th e v a lv ei s re s tric te d , th e d e n s ityo f th e flu id c o lu m n (in c o n tin u o u s flo w )w ill n o t b e s u ffic ie n tly re d u c e d o rth e s lu g (in in te rm itte n tflo w ) w ill n o t b e e ffic ie n tly d is p la c e d . T h u s th is flo w th ro u g h th e g a s lift v a lv e is a c ritic a l ite m . H o w e v e r, fo r th elo w ra te w e lls ty p ic a l o f s o m e G u lf C o a s t lo c a tio n s , gas passage has not usually b e e n a p ro b le m .F o r th e

h ig h flo w ra te in te rn a tio n a l o il fie ld s , valve gas passage characteristics are im portant to successfu lo p e ra tio n o f th e w e ll. G aspassage through ap a rtic u la r v a lv e is d iffic u lt to p re d ic t. S o m e d a ta , b a s e do n s ta tic p ro b e te s tsa n d d y n a m ic flo w te s ts (m e n tio n e d i n th e s e c tio n o n g a sliftv a lv e m e c h a n ic s ), a re a v a ila b le . H o w e v e r, th is s e c tio n w ill c o v e r differential pressure: that is, the difference b e tw e e n th e g a s p re s s u re a tth e lo c a tio n a n d th e flu id p re s s u re a tth e s a m e lo c a tio n , a n d th e flo w c a p a c ity o f th e v a lv e a s a s q u a re -e d g e d o rific e . T h is o rific e a s s u m p tio n isn o t a lw a y s v a lid b e c a u s e th e s te m a n d th e s e a t d o n o t a lw a y s h a v e a n open area equal toasquare-edged orifice.

F ig .4 -8 t.4 ) G a s flo w c a p a c itie s (0 -9 7 5 0 M C F /D ) for known upstream pressure,downstream pressure,and O rìf ic e s iz e . C o u r te s y C a m c o Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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4 6 A P I T I T L E r V T - 6

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

79 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 7 9 4 0 G a s L ift D iffe re n tia l p re s s u re is th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e g a s pressure at the valve and the fluid pressure a t th e v a lv e . A h ig h d iffe re n tia lp re s s u re d riv e s th e g a s in to th e flu id colum n.C onversely,ata v e ry low differentialpressure, sufficient gas cannot pass a n d e n te r in to th e flu id . O fte n a m inim um o f5 0p s i i s u s e d a s a d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n th e operatinggaspressureandtheproduction.H ow ever, in a b ility t o a c c u ra te ly e s tim a te th e g a s p re s s u re a t d e p th and the fluid pressure at depth can result i n a d ifferen tial le s s th a n5 0 p s i. U n d e r s u c h a c o n d itio n , th e w e ll d o e s n o t u n lo a d ,o rth e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n

d o e sn o t tra n s fe r, to th e n e x t v a lv e . H ig h g a s flo w ra te s th ro u g h a v a lv e dem and h ig h e r in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re a n d h ig h e r d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re . At an o p e ra tin g p o in t, a m in im u m pressure differential of1 0 0t o 2 0 0 p s is h o u ld beusedbetw eenthegas a n d th e flu id colum ns for design purposes. G a sflo w c a p a c ity i s u su allyestim atedw ithth e T h o rn h ill-C ra v e r e q u a tio n s fo r flo w th ro u g h a square-edge orifice. A s q u a re -e d g e o rific e is th e d e v ic e u se di n p o s itiv e c h o k e s fo r c o n tro llin g th e p ro d u c tio n fro m flo w in g o il w e lls a n d g a s w e lls . A c c u r a c y d im in is h e s w h e n a p p lie d to

g a s lift v a lv e s . H o w e v e r, th e flo w e q u a tio n is u s u a lly th e best m ethod re a d ily a v a ila b le fo r e s tim a tin g g a s p a s s a g e through a valve orifice (port). Charts such as show n i n Fig. 4 -8 (A ) (B ) and (C)have b e e n p re p a re d u s in g th e T h o rn h ill-C ra v e r e q u a tio n . T h e y g iv e th e g a s flo w c a p a c ity fo r a k n o w n (u p s tre a m ) g a s p re ssu re , (d o w n stre a m ) flu id p re ssu re , a n d p o rt siz e (o rific e ). T h e s e c h a rts ty p ic a lly a re b a s e d o n a fix e d te m p e ra tu re (u s u a lly 6 0 ° F ) a n d g a s g ra v ity (u s u a lly 0 .6 5 ).G a s v o lu m e s m u st b e c o rre c te d fo r o th e r c o n d itio n s . V a ria tio n si ng a s g ra v ity a n d h ig h e r te m p e ra tu re s i nth e w e ll in f lu e n c e c h a r t a c c u r a c y . I f th e g a s te m p e ra tu re a p p ro a c h e s flu id flo w te m p e ra tu re ,v o lu m e flo w ra te s th ro u g h th e v a lv e a re le s s th a n th e e s tim a te o b ta in e d fro m the chart. B ecause o f th is , d o w n h o le g a s ra te s a re u s u a lly

G A S T H R O U G H P U T I N M C F D Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 00 5 3 2 8 8 0 b b 2 m G as A p p lic a tio n a n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G as L ift 4 7 c o rre c te d to th e c h a rt c o n d itio n s b e fo re e s tim a tin g th e p o rt siz e re q u ire m e n t fro m th e c h a rt. F ig . 4 -9p ro v id e s in fo rm a tio n fo r c o rre c tin g t h eg a s v o l u m e t o o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f g a s g ra v ity a n d te m p e ra tu re . T h e re s tric tio n to g a s flo w th ro u g h a gas lift valve i s c a u s e d b y a p o rt b e in g o n ly p a rtia lly o p e n .Are d u c tio ni n th e g a s p re s s u re o u ts id e th e b e llo w s c a u s e s th e s te m to s ta r t t o close in response t o t h en i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e

fo rc e i n s i d et h e b e llo w s . A s th e v a lv e g o e s fro m a fu ll-o p e n p o s itio n to a c lo s e d p o s itio n , th e e ffe c tiv e o rific e (p o rt) a re a never corre s p o n d s to a c o m p le te ly fu ll-o p e n s q u a re -e d g e o rific et h a t is th e b a s is fo r th e T h o rn h ill-C ra v e r c h a rts u n le s s th ev a lv e i sfu llo p e n . T his restrictiont og a s flo w m a y a ffe c t u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n s a n d th e w ell m ay n o t o p e ra te a c c o rd in g to in itia l design. T he sm all gas passage rate prevents aeration of the flu id c o lu m n o r p re v e n ts s lu g fo rm a tio n fo rin term itten t liftin g . T h e u s e r o f th e c h a rts s h o u ld b e a w a re th a t a g a s lift valve probably does not have the exact gas passage characte ris tic s in d ic a te d o n th e c h a rt. E ffo rts a reu n d e rw a y w ith in th e in d u s try to c o rre c t th is p ro b le m a n d o n e valvem anufactu re r h a s p u b lis h e d e m p iric a lly d e te rm in e d d y n a m ic v a lv e p e rfo rm a n c e d a ta fo r its c o n tin u o u s flo w v a lv e s . G A S

T H R O U G H P U T I N M C F D F ig .4 -8 (C )G asflo w capacities(0 -2 0 ,0 0 0 M C F /D ) fo r know n upstream pressure,dow nstream pressure, a n d o r ifice size.Courtesy F :í ?F o c h t Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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48 A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0532B B L 5 T 9 G as L ift 300 28 0 2 0 0 2 4 0 2 9 0 zo o 1a o 16 0 14 0 1 2 0 1O 0 6 0

 

   

 

6 0 4 0 .@ O B A 818: C o rre c tio n F a c to r=0 .0 6 4 4 W h e re : G=G a 8 G r a v ity (A ir =1 .0 ) T= T e m p e ra tu re , O R . 3 6 1.o 0 1.O 6 1 .1 0 1 .1 6 1 .2 0 1 .2 6 1 .3 0 C O R R E C T IO N F A C T O R 1 .3 6 1. i o 1. i 6 1 .5 0 1 .1 F ig . 4 -9 C orrection factor chartfor gaspassage charts. From C a m c o G a s L ift M a n u a l Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 74 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0 5 3 2 8 8 2 4 3 5 m G as A p p lic a tio n

 

 

   

 

   

 

a n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G a s L ift 4 9 S U R F A C E G A S F A C IL IT IE S S y s te m D e s ig n C o n s id e r a tio n s G a s lift w e lls a re n o t th e o n ly c o m p o n e n t, th e y a re p a rt of a gas lift system th a t in c lu d e s th e re s e rv o ir, flo w lin e , in je c tio n lin e , s e p a ra to rs , tre a tin g facilities, com pressors a n d m eters. M axim um production, effectiveuse of gas, and low est investm ent and operating e x p e n s e r e s u l tw h e n t h e e n t i r e s y s te m is p la n n e d p ro p e rly . C u rre n t c o m p u te r te c h n o lo g y p ro v id e s m e th o d s to a n a - lyze system ss othat the“best” values for separatorpressure, in je c tio n p re s s u re , flo w lin e s iz e a n d tu b in g c a s in g s iz e c a n be selected.G as requirem ents now and for the future can be e s tim a te d . T h e m oney s p e n t fo r c o m p u te r te c h n o lo g y i s re p a id b y h ig h e r p ro d u c tio n ra te s , fe w e r o p e ra tin g p ro b - le m s , a n d lo w e r in v e s tm e n t. H o w e v e r, in v e s tm e n t fo r g a s l i f t f a c i l i t i e s d e p e n d s o n g a s s o u r c ea

n d q u a l i t y . A good source for gaslift gas is a constant pressure,dry gas such asthatobtainedfrom agasprocessing (N G L ) plant. T his gas source is good because the pressure is con- stant and the gas canb e com pressed to a higher pressure,i f necessary. Secondly, a dry gas w ithout hydrocarbon liq u id and w ater reduces operational problem s such as corrosion, h y d ra te fo rm a tio n (fro z e n w a te r a n d hydrocarbons), and liq u id d ro p -o u t (c o n d e n s a tio n ) a c c u m u la tin g i nlo w s p o ts i n the line. If other sources m ust be used, such as gas w ell gas or separatorgas, th e n a n y one of a num ber of processes such as com pression, dehydration, hydrocarbon p ro c e s s in go r s w e e te n in g m ig h t b e re q u ire d b e fo re tra n s p o rtin g th e g a s to th e w e lls . T h e g a s d is trib u tio n system can be one of two b a s ic designs: (1 ) A direct connection from the com pressor statio n to e a c h w e ll, a n d(2 )Am a in tru n k lin e w ith in d iv id u a l

d is trib u tio n h e a d e rs to lo c a l w e lls . T h e a d v a n ta g e o f a d ire c t c o n n e c tio n s y s te m is th a t a n y p ip e lin e p ro b le m a ffe c tso n ly o n e w e ll. Itis v e ry u se fu l fo r sm all system s that have a lim ite d n u m b e r o f w e lls a n d s h o rt p ip e lin e s . T h e s e c o n d , o rtru n k lin e , m e th o d is a p p lic a b le to la rg e la n do roffshore (rem ote w ellhead platform ) system s. It p ro v id e s lo c a l d is trib u tio n to e a c h w e ll a n d p e rm its s e v - eral com pressor stations to be connectedi np a ra lle ls o th a t th e lo ss o f a n y o n e s ta tio n d o e s n o t s h u t d o w n th e e n tire system . W ith such a system gas is m ade up from th e o th e r s ta tio n s (p ro v id e d th a t s u ffic ie n t c o m p re s s io n c a p a c ity e x i s t s ) w h e n o n e p a r to f t h e s y s t e m i s d o w n f o r a n y r e a s o n . A m o d ific a tio n to th e m a in tru n k lin e system is the use of a d is trib u tio n rin g s oth a t g a s c a n flo w to a lo c a l d is trib u tion header from e ith e r d ire c tio n . A t th e ta k e -o ff p o in t, th e d is trib u tio n h e a d e r s e n d s th e flo w to e a c h w e ll th ro u g h a

d ire c tly c o n n e c te d p ip e lin e . T h is tru n k lin e o r rin g m e th o d ty p ic a lly m in im iz e sin v e s tm e n t re q u ire m e n t fo r a la rg e f i e l d area because the m a in tru n k lin e is le s s e x p e n s iv e th a n a la rg e n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l lin e s . H o w e v e r, m a jo r fie ld s tu d ie s s h o u ld in c lu d e a c o m p a ris o n of the econom ics of each m e th o d s in c e th e c o s t o f p ip e a n d in s ta lla tio n varies w ith th e lo c a tio n . G as C o n d itio n in g W a t e r V a p o r a n dth e h e a v i e r g a sh y d r o c a r b o n s w i l l c o n d e n s e i n a d is trib u tio n s y s te m a n d c a u s e e ith e r h y d ra te s (fre e z in g ) o r liq u id s lu g g in g . S o m e tim e s th e h e a v y h y d ro c a rb o n c o m ponents m ust be rem oved by local field processing. A re frig e ra tio n s y s te m , o ra c o m p re s s io n le x p a n s io n c o o lin g m ethod, can be used to coolth e gas stream and condense th e liq u id h y d ro c a rb o n s . O n ly a v e ry ric h g a s c o m p o s itio n c a u s e sliq u id h y d ro c a rb o n c o n d e n s a tio n .T y p ic a ls itu a tio n s w h e re th is o c c u rs

a r e : (1 )s e p a ra tio n a tv e ry lo w pressures w here the gas stream going to com pression has a high fraction of heavy hydrocarbons,(2 ) w h e re c o ld e n v i- ro n m e n ta lte m p e ra tu re s c o o lth e g a s a n d c o n d e n s e th e heavy elem ents.Hydrocarbon rem oval m ay not be neces- s a r yi nall cases but w ater should alw ays be rem oved for good s y s te m perform ance. A c o o lin g f a c i l i t y t o r e m o v e hydrocarbonsoften rem oves a s i g n i f i c a n t a m o u n t o f w a t e r v a p o ri n th e g a s . I f a p r o c e s s in gfa c ilityisu n n e c e s s a ry , th e n g a sd e h y d ra tio n w ith trim e th y le n e g ly c o l a b s o rp tio n is m o s t c o m m o n ly used to rem ove the w ater vapor from th e g a s s tre a m . W a te ri n a gas lift system causes corrosion, liquid slugs, and hydrates. H ow ever, w hen sour gases are not present,

the gas does not have to be “bone”dry. If no sour gases are p re s e n t, th e a c c e p ta b le a m o u n t o f w a te r i s u s u a lly set by th e o p e ra to r, u s in g a n e s tim a teo f lo w e s t p o s s ib le g a s te m p e ra tu re s o n c o ld w in te r n ig h ts . T h e lo w e s t a n tic ip a te d te m p e ra tu re c a n b e used to pre- d ic t h y d ra te s w ith th e K a tz c u rv e s , F ig . 4 -1 0 . If “ fre e z in g ” occurs at the low er tem peratures, w ater rem oval (1 0 5l bI m illio n s c f g a s ) c a n b e e s tim a te d , F ig .4 -11 . F o r e x a m p le , a t1 0 0 0psia and 1 2 0 ” F ,th e w a te r c o n te n t is 1 0 5 lb/ m illio n scf gas. A t a “freezing” (hydrate) c o n d itio no f4 0 ° Fa n d1 0 0 0 p s ia , th e w a te r c o n te n t is 9lb/ m illio n s c f. D e h y d ra tio n m ust rem ove9 6 lb/ m illio n scf fo r th e g as to flo w at 4 0 ° F w ith o u t “ fre e z in g .” I f th e “ fre e z in g ” te m p e ra tu re o c c u rs in fre q u e n tly , m e th a n o l c a n b e in je c te d fo r a lim ite d tim e u n til th e g a s te m p e ra tu re ris e s a b o v e th e “ fre e z in g ” p o in t.M e th a n o l (a n d o th e r liq u id s ) d e p re s s e s th e “ fre e z in g ” te m p e ra tu re . C a ta ly tic h e a te rs m a y a ls o b e u s e d a t in p u t c h o k e s o r o th e r p o in ts w h e re g a s e x p a n d s a n d c o o ls b e lo w

th e “ fre e z in g ” tem perature.T hese m ethodscan reduce th e size ofthe r e q u i r e d g l y c o l d e h y d r a t i o n s y s t e m i l l u s t r a t e d i n F ig .4 - 1 2 . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A PI T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 0732290 0532883 371 m 5 0 G as L ift G a s w ith e x c e s s iv e c a rb o n d io x id e (C O Z )or hydrogen s u lfid e (H zS )can cause operating problem s such as corro- sion, excessive com pressor m aintenance, a n d fu e l c o n ta m in a tio n . T h e s e im p u ritie s a re a ls o potential safety hazards. O ne ty p eo f s w e e te n in g fa c ility , a p p lie dw h e n g a s c a n n o t b e u s e di n t h e f i e l d , e x t r a c t sb o t hC 02 a n dH zS ( s o u r a c i d g a s ) w ith a n a m in e a b s o rp tio n p r o c e s s .I n th is s y s te m , th e a m in e s o lu tio n s a re c o n ta c te d b y th e g a s flo w s tre a ma n d th e a c id g a s c o n s titu e n ts a re e x tra c te d . T h e sw eetgasreturnsto th e s y s te m w h ile th e a m in e s o lu tio n s a re tre a te d rem ove th eC 0 2a n d H 2S. W h e n p ro p e r in h ib itio n s y s te m sa n d m e ta llu rg y a re u s e d

i nth e g a s lift a n d w e ll fa c ilitie s , g a s w ithH 2S a n do rC O 2 can be used p ro v id e d a g o o d g ly c o l d e h y d ra tio n fa c ility rem ovesthew atervapor.H ow ever, c a r e f u l m o n ito rin g should be used to assure that such system s are functioning properly at all tim es. R e c ip r o c a tin g C o m p r e s s io n T h e re c ip ro c a tin g c o m p re s s o r isa v e ry fle x ib le m a c h in e in g a s lift a p p lic a tio n s and has proven very popularover E X A M P L E : l .G a s a t1 0 0 0 p s ia ,7 0 ”F ,0 .7 s p . g ra v ity d o e s n o t “fre e z e ” (th is p o in t is ju s tb e lo w th e h y d ra tefo rm a tio n c o n d itio n fo r 0 .7 s p . g r. g a s ) 2 . G a s a t1 0 0 0 p s ia ,4 0 ” F , 0 .7s p . g ra v ity w ill “fre e z e ” F ig . 4 -1 0 H y d r a te -fo r m a tio n c o n d itio n s fo r n a tu r a l g a s . K a tz , e t a l., H a n d b o o k of N aturalG as E ngineering

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F ig A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

0732290 0 5 3 2 8 8 4 2 0 8 m G a s A d i c a t i o n a n d G a s F a c ilitie s fo r G a s L ift 1 .G a s a t1 0 0 0 p s ia , 1 2 0 "F h a s a w a te r C o n te n tO f 1 0 5 Ib /m illio ns c f 2 .G a s a t1 0 0 0 p s ia , 4 O °F h a s a w a te r C o n te n tO f 9Ib /m illio ns c f -7 0 -60- 5 0-40-30 -20-10O 10 203 0 4 0 60 80 100 120 1401 6 0 200 2302 6 0 3 0 0 4 0 0 5 0 0 6 0 0 7 0 0 Tem peroture, degF W ater contento f naturalgar in e q u ilib r iu m

 

w ith liq u id w a te r . .4 -1 1 W a te r c o n te n tof n a tu r a l g a s in e q u ilib r iu m w ith w a te r . K a tz , e t a l., H a n d b o o ko f N a tu r a l G as E n g in e Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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5 2 G as L ift th e y e a rsi n m ost G ulf C oast system s. R eciprocating com presrate. C urvesi n Fig4-1 3 can be used to estim ate horsepow er s io n is ty p ic a lly u s e d w h e re a lo w s u c tio n p r e s s u r e gas m ust re q u ire m e n ts . T h e e s tim a tin g te c h n iq u e re q u ire s a n o v e ra ll be com pressed t o ah igh discharge pressureand the volum e com pression ratio (discharge absolute pressure divided b y flo w r a t e is s u ffic ie n tly lo w th a t ac e n trifu g a lm a c h in e suction absolute pressure) a n d a breakdow n o fth isr a t i o w o u ld n o t a p p ly . R e c ip ro c a tin g com pressors are capable o f in to s ta g e s . T y p ic a lly , th e c o m p re s s io n ra tio p e r s ta g e s h o u ld handling varying suction discharge pressures

and changes b e b e tw e e n2 .0a n d3 .8 . H ig h e r ra tio s te n d to ra is e th e d is i ng a s s p e c ific g ra v ity o r g a s flo w ra te . c h a rg e te m p e ra tu re i nth e c o m p re s s o r c y lin d e r to a v a lu e T h e s e com pressors can b e s k id -m o u n te d a n d in s ta lle d o n lo c a tio n q u ic k ly th e n m oved w hen s e rv ic e is te rm in a te d . T h e h ig h s p e e d -s k id m o u n te d u n its ty p ic a lly h a v e a s e p a ra - ble com pressor driven by a1 0 0 0rpm engine of1 5 0 0 (or less) h o rse p o w e r. T h e la rg e r, lo w speed,integralunits(pow er and com pressor cylinders on the sam e fram e) are installed i n stations w ith n u m e ro u s s u p p o rtu tility s y s te m s .T h e s e 3 0 0rp m u n its a re a v a ila b lei n s iz e s u p to3 0 0 0 h o rs e p o w e r. T h e d riv e rs fo r the com pressors are usually gas engine u n its b u t m a y b e e le c tric m o to rs if th e p ro p e r v o lta g ep o w e r

s o u rc e is a v a ila b le . T h e re c ip ro c a tin g c o m p re s s o rs a tta in th e ir ra te fle x ib ility (a n d fie ld d e s ira b ility ) b y u n lo a d in g c y lin d e r e n d s o r b y a d d in g c le a ra n c e c h a m b e rs (b o ttle s ). T h e ir p rim a ry lim ita tio n is th e ir lo w th ro u g h p u t g a s v o lu m e . F o r h ig h flo w ra te s a t in te rn a tio n a l lo c a tio n s , o r o ffs h o re , a c e n trifu g a l m a c h in e m a y b e tte rf i t th ea p p lic a tio n . H o r s e p o w e r w ill d e p e n d o n th e p re s s u re c h a n g e fro m s u c tio n to d is c h a rg e , g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity , a n d th ro u g h p u t that causes m aintenance problem s.T he horsepow eris read fro m th e c u rv e s (g iv e n a c o m p re s s io n ra tio and gas specific g ra v ity ) a s a n u n c o rre c te d h o r s e p o w e r p e rm i l l i o n c u b i c fe e t of gascom pressed.Horsepowerreadfrom thecurves i s c o rre c te d

u s in g th e te m p e ra tu re a n d d e v ia tio n fa c to rs o f th e g a s a t a c tu a l flo w in g c o n d itio n s . T h e s e c u r v e s , a lo n g w ith a m o re d e ta ile d d e s c rip tio n fo r estim atin g com pressor h o rs e - p o w e r, a re c o n ta in e d in th e G PSAE n g in e e rin g D a taB ook (see reference num ber 3 2 .) C e n trifu g a l C o m p re s s io n C entrifugal com pressors are m ore popular w here higher th ro u g h p u t v o lu m e s a re re q u ire d .A centrifugal com pressor isah ig h s p e e d ro ta tin g m a c h in e d riv e n b y a tu rb in e o r a n e le c tric m o to r th a t a ls o o p e ra te s a t h ig h ro ta tin g s p e e d s . T hecentrifugalcom pressorcan take th e g a s fro m a lo w F ig . 4 -1 2 G ly c o l D e h y d r a tio n U n itC ourtesyo fP E T E X Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T IT L E a V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 8 6 0 8 0 m G as A p p lic a tio n a n d G as F a c ilitie s fo r G as L ift 5 3 E X A M P L E : l .S u c tio n P re s s u re=5 5 p s ia(4 0 p s ig ) 2 . D is c h a rg e P re s s u re=1 2 5 0 p s ia (1 2 3 5 p s ig )

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

3 .O v e ra ll C R =1 2 5 0 /5 5=2 2 .7 4 .B ra k e H P /m illio n C U . ft. =1 9 5 ( T h is is g a s c o m p re s s io n o n ly . N e e d a d d itio n a l H P fo r c o o le rs /p u m p s ) 5 .S e e G P S A fo r te m p e ra tu re a n dZ fa c to r c o rre c tio n 6 . U s e3 s ta g e m a c h in e to k e e p d is c h a rg e te m p e ra tu re lo w e r a n d r e d u c em a in te n a n c e p r o b le m s . A p p ro x im a tep o w e rre q u ire dto c o m p re s s gases Fig.4 -1 3 -Approxim ate H orsepower Required t o Com press G ases. G PSA-Engineering D ata Book Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 8 7 T L 7 5 4 G as L ift a n e le c tric m o to r th a t a ls o o p e ra te s a th ig h ro ta tin g s p e e d s . T he centrifugalcom pressor c a n ta k e th e gas from a low suction pressure through a discharge pressure adequate for g a s lift in je c tio n p u rp o s e s if th e th ro u g h p u t v o lu m e is a d e q u a te fo r th e m a c h in e a n d if m u ltip le c o m p re s s o r w h e

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

e ls w ith in te rs ta g e c o o lin g are used. T h e centrifugal m achines, b e c a u s e o f th e ir h ig h ro ta tin g s p e e d , c a n d e v e lo p a s ig n ificant am ount of horsepow er and yet be a p h y s ic a lly sm all packageascom pared to reciprocating com pressors. I n a d d itio n , th e y d o n o t h a v e th e m a s s iv e fra m e s o f th e re c ip ro c a tin g m a c h in e s , n o r d o th e y h a v e th e v ib ra tio n s d e trim ental to offshore platform fa c ilitie s . O n e c ritic a l p o in t in c e n trifu g a l c o m p re s s io n : th e c o m p re s s o r w h e e ls d o n o t o p e ra te s a tis fa c to rily a t c o n d itio n s s ig n ific a n tly d iffe re n tth a n in itia ld e s ig n . F o re x a m p le , assum e the gas specific gravity d ra s tic a lly changes because of gas flo w s tr e a m a lte ra tio n . T h e m achine m ay operate at a

v e r y l o w e f f i c i e n c y o r p e r h a p s n o t a t a l l . T h u s ,t h e u s e r m u s t b e v e ry c o n s c io u s o f c h a n g e s th a t m ig h t a lte r e ith e r s p e c ific g ra v ity , te m p e ra tu re ,o rpressure of the gas. H orsepow er estim ates arebasedo nthe overall com press io n ra tio , p re s s u re , te m p e ra tu re , a n d s p e c ific g ra v ity o f th e g a s . T h e m e th o d s , fo r m a k in g th e s e in itia l e s tim a te s a re c o n ta in e d in th e G P S A E n g in e e rin g D a ta B o o k s e c tio n o n centrifugal com pressors. P ip in ga n d D is tr ib u tio n S y s te m P ip in g , s e p a ra tio n , c o o lin g , d e h y d ra tio n , and com pression, allm ust be designed lo g ic a lly to m in im iz e in v e s tm e n t a n d y e t p ro v id e g o o d o p e ra tin g a n d m a in te n a n c e q u a litie s . O n e o f th e m a in re q u ire m e n ts in g a s h a n d lin g fa c ilitie si st o p ro v id e separationand scrubbing th a t p re v e n tsl iq u id c a rry o v e r in to a c o m p re s s o r.T y p ic a lly ,b o th in le ts e p a ra tio n andsuctionscrubbersarenecessary.M anifoldsuction headersshouldm inim izepressurelosses t o 1 p s i.T h e s u c tio n d is c h a rg e p u ls a tio n b o ttle s fo r re c ip ro c a tin g c o m pressors m ust be designedtodam penpressurepulsesas w e ll a s w ith s ta n d v ib ra tio n ( t o

prevent cracks duet o vibratio n ). A n a d e q u a te d is c h a rg e d e liv e ry system , aw ay from the com pressors, is required in o rd e r to fe e d g a s to d o w n s tr e a m c o o le rs a n d s e p a ra to rs p rio r to g ly c o l d e h y d ra tio n . T h e g ly c o l s y s te m s h o u ld c o n ta in h e a t e x c h a n g e r c o o lin g b e tw e e n th e g a s s tr e a m a n d th e g ly c o l a s w e ll a s a m e th o d for easy access and m aintenance of the glycol reboiler. G as d is trib u tio n p ip in g s h o u ld a ls o c o n ta in fa c ilitie s fo r liq u id re m o v a l. The need fo r la te r liq u id re m o v a l m ay b e a v o id e d b y n o t p u ttin g liq u id in to a g a s s y s te m . F o r e x a m p le , d u rin g s y s te m te s tin g (a fte r c o n s tru c tio n ) a n itro g e n p u rg e a n d nitrogen pressure test can be used rather than w ater (how e v e r, te s ts w ith w a te r a re s a fe r). A n o th e r e x a m p le is liq u id hydrocarbons or w ater. W here w ater is used for testing, a M e th a n o lflu s h c a n b e u s e d to re m o v e a n y w a te rth a t re m a in s i n th e s y s te m . The system designshould a ls o

in c lu d e c o o lin g a n d d e h y d ra tio n p ro c e s s e s th a tw o u ld e lim in a te liq u id c o n d e n s a tio n i nth e s y s te m . E v e n w ith these p re c a u tio n s , liq u id re m o v a l ta p s s h o u c a te d a t c o n - v e n ie n t lo w e le v a tio n s p o tsi nth e no ri n th e p ip e lin e d is trib u tio n s y s te m . F re q u e n in g m a y a ls o b e re q u ire d to re m o v e w a te r s ta n d in sp o ts. G as M e te rin g O rifice m eter m easuring of gas lift gas is one of the easiest a n d m ost inexpensivem easurem entm ethods.H ow ever, o th e rm e a n ss u c h a sv o rte x s h e d d in g m e te rs ,tu rb in e m eters,o r p o s itiv e d is p la c e m e n t m e te rs can also be used. T his discussion w ill be lim ited to the use of orifice m eters w ith e ith e r c h a rt re c o rd e rso r flo w c o m p u te rs s in c e th e y a re th e m o s t c o m m o n ly u s e d devices for m easuring gas.T he orifice can be used to m easure gas because the flow ra teo f g a s is p ro p o rtio n a l to th e d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re a c ro s s th e o rific e p la te .T h e h ig h e r th e flo w ra te th ro u g h a g iv e n o rific e s iz e , th e g re a te r th e d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re a c ro s sth e o rific e . R a te e s tim a tin g e x a m p le s i nth eG P S A b o o k p ro v id e th is c a lc u la tio n in fo rm a tio n . ld b e lo s ta tio t p ig g gi nlo w

Fig. 4-14 show s G PSA n o m e n c la tu re u s e d in th e s e c a lc u la tio n s . T h e ty p ic a l m e th o d fo r re c o rd in g th e flo w ra teth ro u g h a n orifice is to use the chartrecorder.Charts c a n b e e ith e r square root chartsor standard chartsbut square root charts are m ost com m only used. Tw o readingsfrom thesquare root chart are used instead of the actual gas pressure atth e m eter and the differential pressure across th eo rific e . T h e differential reading can be set and adjusted by an adjust- able choke placed ju st dow nstream ofth e m eter. D ifferen tial re a d in g ,p re s s u re re a d in g ,te m p e ra tu re ,s p e c ific g ra v ity , o rific e s iz e , a n d o th e r fa c to rs a reu s e d to c a lc u la te th e flo w ra te (F ig . 4 -1 5 ). T h e s q u a re ro o t c h a rt e q u a tio n is : Q g(thousand scf/d) =C pxC h x (2 4 H o u r C o e ffic ie n t) E q u a tio n 4 .6 W here, C p=G as pressure reading for a square root chart C h=G a s d iffe re n tia l re a d in g fo r a sq u a re ro o t c h a rt 2 4 H o u r C o e ffic ie n t = A c o n s ta n t c a lc u la te d fo r th e m e te r tu b e , o rific e p la te , te m p e ra tu re a n d g a s s p e c ific

g ra v ity . T h e flo w ra te is p ro p o rtio n a l to c h a n g e s in th e d iffe re n tia l r e a d in g , m a k in g this an easy m e th o d fo r e s tim a tin g g a s th ro u g h o u t a n d a d ju s tin gth ec h o k e . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P IT IT L E *V T -6 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 8 8 9 5 3 W In te rm itte n t F lo w G a s L ift 5 5 a = A = P = C = C N T = C pI = c ,, = c , = C tl = c ,, = d

 

= D = e = E = F = F , = F b = F g = Fgt = F w l = F , = F ,, = F p b = F p m = Fpv = F ,

= F , = m a x im u m tra n s v e rs e d im e n s io n o f a s tra ig h te n in g vane passage cross sectional area of any passage w ithin an ass e m b le d s tra ig h te n in g v a n e ra tio o f th e o rific e d ia m e te r to th e in te rn a l d ia m e te r o f th e m e te r ru n , d im e n s io n le s s th e p ro d u c t o f m u ltip ly in g a ll o rific e c o rre c tio n fa c to rs v o lu m e in d ic a te d b y th ,e n u m b e r o f p u ls e s o r c o u n ts liq u id p re s s u re c o rre c tio n fa c to r. C o rre c tio n fo r th e c h a n g ei n v o lu m e re s u ltin g fro m a p p lic a tio no f p re s - s u re . P ro p o rtio n a l to th e liq u id c o m p re s s ib ility fa c - to r, w h ic h d e p e n d s u p o n b o th re la tiv e d e n s ity a n d te m p e ra tu re . S e e A P I, M a n u a l o f P e tro le u m M easurem ent S tandards, C hapter1 2 ,S e c tio n 2 correction factor for effect of pressure on steel g ra v ity c o rre c tio n factor for orifice w ell tester to c h a n g e fro m a g a s s p e c ific g ra v ity o f 0 .6 liq u id te m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n fa c to r. P ro p o rtio n a l to th e th e rm a l c o e ffic ie n t w h ic h v a rie s w ith d e n s ity a n d te m D e ra tu re F ,

= steam factor, m ercury m eter F sl = s e a lf a c t o rf o rl i q u i d .A p p l i e d o n l y t om ercury F tb = te m p e ra tu re b a s e fa c to r. T o c h a n g e th e te m p e ra tu re F tf = flo w in g te m p e ra tu re fa c to r to c h a n g e fro m th ea s - s u m e d flo w in g te m p e ra tu re o f6 0 " F to th e a c tu a l flo w in g te m p e ra tu re F, = te m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n fa c to r a p p lie d to d is p la c e m e n t m e te r v o lu m e s to c o rre c t to s ta n d a rd te m p e ra tu re G ,G I= s p e c ific g ra v ity a t6 0" F m eters base from6 0" F to another desired base G f = s p e c ific g ra v ity a t flo w in g te m p e ra tu re H = pressure, inches of m ercury h , =

differential pressure m easured across the orifice h , = d iffe re n tia l re a d in g o nL -IO c h a rt (s e e p . 3 -4 2 ) h , = d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re m e a s u re d a c ro s s th e o rific e p la te d h ,p r= pressure extension. T he square root of the differential pressure tim es the square root of the absolute p la tei n inches of m ercury at6 0" F in in c h e so f w a te r a t6 0" F c o rre c tio n fa c to r fo r e ffe c to f te m p e ra tu re o n s te e l o rific e d ia m e te r,in . ru n ,in . o rific e e d g e th ic k n e s s , in . m e te r static pressure c ific h e a t a t c o n s ta n t v o lu m e k = ratioo f specific heat at constant pressure to the spep ip ed ia m e te r (p u b lis h e d )O f O rifice m e te r K = a n u m e ric a l c o n s ta n t. P u ls e s g e n e ra te d p e r u n it v o l-

u rn e th ro u g h a tu rb in e o rp o s itiv e d is p la c e m e n t o rific e p la te th ic k n e s s , in . liq u id c o m p re s s ib ility fa c to r o rific e th e rm a l e x p a n s io n fa c to r. C o rre c ts fo r th e m e ta llic e x p a n s io no rc o n tra c tio n o f th e o rific e p la te . G e n e ra lly ig n o re d b e tw e e nO "a n d1 2 0" F basic orifice factor s p e c ific g ra v ity fa c to r a p p lie d to c h a n g e fro m a s p e cific gravity of 1.0 (air) to the specific gravityo f th e flo w in g g a s g ra v ity te m p e ra tu re fa c to r fo r liq u id s g a u g e lo c a tio n fa c to r m a n o m e te r fa c to r. A p p lie d o n ly to m e rc u ry m e te rs L = le n g th o f s tra ig h te n in g v a n e e le m e n t M = m e te r fa c to r, L -1 0 c h a rts M F = m e te r fa c to r, a n u m b e r o b ta in e d b y d iv id in g th e a c tu a l v o lu m e o f liq u id p a s s e d th ro u g h th e m e te r d u rin g p ro v in g b y th e v o lu m e re g is te re d b y th e m e te r P =

pressure, psia P f = static pressure at either the upstream or dow nstream P , = pressure reading on L -1 0 chart Q = g a s flo w ra te ,C U ftld a y Q h = rate of flow , usuallyi n C U ft/h ro r g a l/h r pressure tap, psia u n its c o n v e rs io n fa c to r fo r p ito t tu b e s R h = m a x im u m d iffe re n tia l ra n g e , in . o f w a te r pressure base factor applied to change the base presR , = m axim um pressure range of pressure spring, psi sure from 1 4 .7 3 p s ia p r e s s u r e fa c to r tom e te r v o lu m e st o O r r e c t Tb

 

= a b s o lu te te m p e ra tu re o f re fe re n c e o r b a s e c o n d itio n , t o standard pressure s u p e rc o m p re s s ib ility factor required tocorrect for T f = flo w in g te m p e ra tu re , d e v ia tio n fro m th e id e a l g a s la w s=d1 /Z R e y n o ld s n u m b e r fa c to r.T o c o rre c t th e c a lc u la te d b a s ic o rific e fa c to r to th e a c tu a l flo w in g R e y n o ld s num ber Y C R = c ritic a l flo w c o n s ta n t steam factor Z = c o m p re s s ib ility fa c to r S = square of supercom pressibility " R Y = e x p a n s io n fa c to r to c o m p e n s a te fo r th e c h a n g e in density as the fluid passes through an orifice F ig . 4 -1 4 G PSA N om enclature usedi ng a s m etering Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 0732290 0 5 3 2 8 8 9 8 9 T

 

 

   

 

   

 

5 6 G as L ift T h e flo w c o m p u te r, a n e le c tro n ic d e v ic e , is s o m e tim e s u se d la te d in c u b ic fe e t(o rs o m e m u ltip le ) m u c h lik e a p o s itiv e t o c a l c u l a t e g a s r a t e .I tc a n d i s p l a y t h e v a l u e a s a d is p la c e m e n t c o u n te r. T h is to ta liz e r m e th o d m e a s u re s th e c u m u la tiv e a m o u n t o r p ro v id e a n in s ta n ta n e o u s ra te re a d c u b ic fe e to f g a s in p u t in to th e w e ll fo r a n y la p s e d tim e , b e it in g . T h e d e v ic e h a s d ia ls th a t c a n b ea d ju s te d b y th e a six -h o u r te st,a fo u r-h o u rte s t,o r as e v e n - d a y p e rio d . T h is e le c tro n ic ss p e c ia lis t to c o rre s p o n d to te m p e ra tu re , m e te r fe a tu re is e x tre m e ly u s e fu lfo r b o th s h o rt te rm a s w e ll a s tu b e , o rific e d ia m e te r, a n d s p e c ific g ra v ity fa c to rs . lo n g te rm a n a ly s is o f th e w e ll b e c a u s e w e ll te s tin g a c c u ra c y A lth o u g hth e flo w c o m p u t e rd i s p l a y s t h e f l o w r a t ea sa is im p ro v e d .

p e rc e n to ffu ll s c a le , m o re im p o rta n tly , th e v o lu m ei s ta b u ? f r Io L o (S e e F ig u re 4 -1 4 fo r G P S A N o m e n c la tu re u s e d in th is s e c tio n ) EXAMPLE GASR A T E (F a c to rs fro m G P S A l Q(th o u s a n d s c f/d )=h u *P u *2 4H o u r C o e ffic ie n t 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . G a s P re s s u re a t M e te r (P r)= 8 8 8 p s ig fro m P g a t M e te r=( h u ) 2R p / lO0- 1 4 . 7 F P V=1 .O 9 8 fro mZ= 0 .8 3fo r P t = 8 8 8 p s ig , Tt=1O0" F F b= 2 1 0 .2 2 fro m o rific e=1 .0 0 0 , m e te r tu b e =2 .0 6 7 F tf=0 .9 6 3 6

 

fro mT ,=1 0 0" F F g= 1 .1 5 4 7 from G f=0 .7 5 ( G a s S P . G R .) M=3 .1 6 2 from Rh=1 0 0R p = 1 0 0 0 2 4 H o u r C o e ff=0 .0 2 4 .F p v -F b -F tf* F g .M =1 9 .5 Q=9 .5 .6 .5 .1 9 .5 =1 2 0 0 ( th o u s . s C f/d ) F ig . 4 -1 5 Example problem squarer o o t(L -IO ) chart. Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E m V T -b 74 m 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0 5 3 2 8 9 0 501 W G asL ift V alves 5 7 C H A P T E R5 G A S L IF TV A L V E S IN T R O D U C T IO N T h e h e a rt o f a n y g a sl i f t s y s te m is th e g a s lift v a lv e .G as lift valves are basically dow nhole pressure regulators. T he func- tio n a l e le m e n ts o f a pressureregulator a n d a g a s lift v a lv e a re s im ila r. A s p rin g in th e re g u la to r (F ig . 5 -1 A ), a sin th e g a s lift v a lv e ( F ig . 5 -1 B ), fo rc e s th e s te m tip a g a in s t th e s e a t. T h e d ia p h r a g m o f th e p re s s u re re g u la to r a n d th e b e llo w s o f th e g a s lift v a lv e p ro v id e an

area of influence forupstream pressuregreaterthantheportarea.T he force that results from this c o m b in a tio n o f u p s tre a m p re s sure and diaphragm o rb e llo w s a re a a c tsi n a d ire c tio n to o v e rc o m e th e fo rc e o f th e s p rin g . W h e n th is force of press u re tim e s a re a e x c e e d s th e fo rc e o f th e s p rin g , th e s te m tip m o v e s a w a y fro m th e s e a t, o p e n in g th e v a lv e . B o th th e p re s - s u r e r e g u la to ra n d th e g a s l i f t v a lv eillu s tra te d a re c o n tro llin g th e u p s tre a m pressure. The regulated upstream p r e s s u r e i safu n c tio n of springforce a n d e ffe c tiv e d ia p h ra g mo r b e llo w s a re a . P ra c tic a llya ll g a s lift v a lv e s u s e th e effect of pressureacting o n th e a re a o f a v a lv e e le m e n t (bellow s, stem tip , e tc ) to c a u s e th e d e s ire d v a lv e a c tio n . A know ledge of pressure, force, and area is required to under- s ta n d th e o p e ra tio n o f m o s t g a s lift v a lv e s . A P I S p e c . l l V l S 0 c o v e rs th e m a n u fa c tu reo fg a sl i f t v a l v e s .

D IA P H R A G M/ DOW NSTREAM P re s s u re re g u la to r (A ) G as Fig. 5 -1 E le m e n ts ofaP re ssu re R e g u la to r a n da G a s L ift + " U P S T R E A M l i f tv a lv e (B ) V a lv e V A L V E M E C H A N IC S Pressure is force per unit area. T he com m onoil f i e l du n it Force (Pounds)= Pressure (psi)x Area (sq. in.) of pressure is pounds per square inch (psi). T hepound is the f o r c e a n d o n e s q u a r e i n c h i s t h e u n i t a r e a . A s t h e v a l u e o f p s i I fA = in . changes, the force changes (not the one square incho f area). If a pressure and area are know n(F ig .5 -2 )., the total force (F )a c tio n o n th e e n tire a re a is fo u n d b y m u ltip ly in g th e p re s su re tim es th e area (A ). Then F

=10 x3 =3 0P o u n d s A ndP =10 psi E q u a tio n5 .1 F = P x A Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T IT L E x V T -h

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 7 1 4 4 8 5 8 G as L ift n A 1t F F ig . 5 -2 Force D iagram N o p is to ns e a l (A ) D O M E P IS T O N S T E M T IP P O R T B a s ic C o m p o n e n ts of G as L ift V a lv e s M ost valve designs use the sam e basic com ponents. T he a rra n g e m e n t o f th e c o m p o n e n ts m a y v a ry . T h e b a s ic v a lv e (F ig . 5 -3 C ) u s u a lly in c lu d e s a b e llo w s , a c h a m b e r (dom e) form ed by one endo fth e b e llo w s a n d th e w a ll a n d e n do f th e v a lv e , a n d a p o rt th a t is o p e n e do r c lo s e d b y a s te m tip . The stem tip is la rg e r th a n th e p o rt a n d is a tta c h e d to th e bellows by the stem . A ll o f th e illu s tra tio n s in F ig .5 -3 have thesam e

b a s ic c o m p o n e n ts . T h e p is to n in F ig .5 -3 (A )h a sn o s e a l,s o th e d o m e c a n n o t b e is o la te d . In F ig .5 -3 (B ), th e p is to n h a s a n O -rin g s e a l. F a ir is o la tio no fth e d o m e is o b ta in e d w ith th e O -rin g . S m a ll le a k a g e b y th e O -rin g o v e r lo n g p e rio d s a n d friction of the O -ring cause this form of piston sealing to be im p ra c tic a l.A m e ta l b e llo w s fo rm s th e s e a l in F ig . 5 -3 (C ). T h e lo w e r e n do f th e b e llo w s is w e ld e d to a s o lid p lu g . T h e u p p e r e n d o f th e b e llo w s is w e ld e d to th e v a lv e . C o n v o lu - tio n s (w rin k le s ) i n th e b e llo w s p ro v id e th e fle x ib ility re q u ire d fo r m o v e m e n t.A b e llo w s ty p e s e a l is u s e d in th e m ajority of gas lift valves. O -R in gp is to ns e a l (B ) B e llo w sp is to n s e a l (C) F ig . 5 -3 B a s icG as L ift V a lv e C o m p o n e n ts ~ ~ ~ ~ Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 9 2 3 8 4 m G as L ift V alves 5 9 C lo s in g F o r c e M any g a s lift v a lv e s (F ig . 5 -4 ) have gas pressure (P b )

 

 

   

 

   

 

tra p p e d in th e d o m e . T h is p re s s u re a c ts o n th e a re a o f th e b e llo w s a n d c re a te s a fo rc e (F b ) th a t is a p p lie d to th e s te m . T h e s te m tip is fo rc e d in to c o n ta c t w ith th e u p p e r e d g e (seat) of the port. T he stem tip a n d s e a t p o rtio n o f th e p o rt a re fin e ly m a tc h e d (o fte n la p p e d ) to fo rm a s e a l. W h e n th e dom e pressure (P b ) a n d b e llo w s a r e a (A b ) a re k n o w n , th e fo rc e h o ld in g th e s te m tip a g a in s t th e s e a t is : F , = Pb A b E q u a tio n 5 .2 F , = C lo s in g fo rc e . Pb = Pressure inside the dom e space sealed by the b e llo w s a n d v a lv e h o u s in g . A b = A rea of the bellow s.

S c h e m a tic (B) F ig .5 -4 Closing Force D iagram s O p e n in g F o rc e s A v a lv e (F ig . 5 -5 ) s ta rts to o p e n w h e n th e s te m tip m o v e s o u t o f c o n ta c t w ith th e v a lv e s e a t. T h is o c c u rs w hen th e o p e n in g fo rc e is s lig h tly g re a te r th a n th e c lo s in g fo rc e , therefore, just before opening (Fo= R ). Tw o forces usually w o rk to g e th e r to o v e rc o m e th e c lo s in g fo rc e (F c ). P re s s u re ( P I ) a p p lie d th ro u g h th e s id e o p e n in g a n d p re ssu re (P Z ) a p p lie d th ro u g h th e v a lv e p o rt a re th e pressure sources to p ro d u c e th e tw o o p e n in g fo rc e s . W hen the stem tip is s e a te d o n th e p o rt, P I d o e s n o t a c t o n th e e n tire b e llo w s a re a (A b ). T h e a re ao f th es te m t ip(A ,) i nc o n ta c t w ith th e s e a t (F ig . 5 -5 A ) fo rm s p a rt o f th e b e llow s area (Ab).A, is isolated from P I by the stem

tip and seat. The area acted onby pressure PI is the bellows area m inus the area of the stem tip isolated by the seat (A b-A ,). T h e o p e n in g fo rc e re s u ltin g fro m p re s s u re P I a p p lie d th ro u g h th e s id e o p e n in g is : F ol=P I (A b- A p) E q u a tio n 5 .3 T h e a re a o f th e s te m tip in c o n ta c t w ith th e s e a t (A ,)i s a c te d upon by pressure (Pz) applied through the port. The open- in g fo rc e c o n trib u te d b y th is c o m b in a tio n is : F02=P2 A p E q u a tio n 5 .4 T h e to ta l o p e n in g fo rc e is th e s u m of these tw o forces: F "= F n I+Foz E q u a tio n 5 .5 Fo=P I(A b- A p )+ P 2 A p E q u a tio n 5 .6 Just before the valve port opens, the opening force and th e c lo s in g fo rc e a re e q u a l. F ,=F ,

E q u a tio n 5 .7 P I (A b- A p )+ P 2 A p= P b & E q u a tio n 5 .8 S o lv in g f o r P I (in je c tio n p re s s u re re q u ire d to b a la n c e o p e n in g and closingforces p rio r to o p e n in g a n in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e u n d e r o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s . F ig . 5 -5 A ): P I (A b-A p )= Pb A b -P2 A p E q u a tio n 5 .9 D iv id e e a c h te rm b y A b : R a tio o f p o rt a re a to b e llo w s a re a . (O b ta in e d fro m m anufacturer sspecs.) D iv id e b o th s id e s b y 1-A ,: A b --

 

Pb- P 2 (A p /A b ) E q u a tio n 5 .1 1 -1-(A , /A b) I sth e p re s s u re in c o n ta c t w ith th e v a lv e b e llo w s . I sth e p re s s u re in c o n ta c t w ith th a t p o rtio n o f th e s te m tip sealed by the seat (port). I s the area of the portion the stem tip sealed by th e s e a t. O p e n in g fo rc e re s u ltin g fro m P I a c tin g o n th e bellow s area less the port area (Ab-A p). O p e n in g fo rc e re s u ltin g fo rm P Z a c tin g o n th e s te m tip area in contact w ith the seat (port). Total opening force. Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E tV T -6 9 4 0732290 0532893 210 6 0 G as L ift P ic to ria l (A ) S c h e m a tic (B ) F ig . 5 -5

 

 

   

 

   

 

O pening Force D iagram s T h e p re ssu re (P I)d e te rm in e d b y th is e q u a tio n is th e b a la n c e p re s s u re . A c tu a lly th e v a lv e s te m t i pi s still on seat a n d o n ly s lig h t le a k a g e by the stem tip a n d seat m aybe observed. A n in c re a s e i n P Io r PZw ill m ove the stem t i p p ro p o rtio n a te ly fu rth e r fro m th e s e a t a n d a llo w m ore gas p a s s a g e . A decrease in P Io r P2w ill lo a d th e s te m tip h a rd e r against the seat and causeatig h te r s te m tip to s e a t s e a l. T h is is th e c a s e a s th e v a lv e c lo s e s . V a lv e L o a d R a te O n e d e fin itio n o f lo a d ra te is th e m e a s u re o f th e a m o u n t of opening pressure required for each in c h o f v a lv e s te m

travel (psihnch).The re c ip ro c a l o f th e lo a d ra te , in c h e s o f stem travelperpsi of openingpressure(inchedpsi),is a n o th e r fo rm o f lo a d ra te p re s e n ta tio n . T h e c o m p re s s ib ility o f th e n itro g e n c h a rg ei nth e d o m e and the spring rate o f th e b e llo w s (lo a d increase per unit tra v e l), p re v e n ts ra p id fu ll o p e n in go fm o s t v a lv e s . S lig h t increases inP Io r P2n o rm a lly c a u s e o n ly s lig h t a d d itio n a l v a lv e o p e n in g . T h e a m o u n t th e v a lv e o p e n s w ith in c re a s e s o f P Io r P2d e p e n d s u p o n th e v o lu m eo f th e d o m e a n d th e s tiffn e s s o f th e b e llo w s . T h e s e tw o c o n d itio n s c a n v a ry betw een m anufacturers,a s w e ll a s b e tw e e n v a lv e s o f d iffe rentstyles, m ade by the sam e m anufacturer. A “stiff’ valve h a s s lig h t c h a n g e s in o p e n in g a n d c lo s in g s te m travel w ith respect to an increaseo rdecrease inP Io rPZ.A “soft” valve w ill h a v e g re a te r o p e n in g o r c lo s in g s te m tra v e l c h a n g e s w ith re s p e c t to th e s a m e in c re a s e or decrease in P Io r P2. T h e g a s lift d e s ig n re q u ire m e n ts d ic ta te th e ty p e v a lv e (h a rd o r s o ft) re q u ire d . A p ro b e te s t is u s e d to o b ta in th e lo a d

ra te o fap a rtic u la r v a lv e d e s ig n . P ro b e T e s t A p ro b e te s t o f g a sl i f t v a lv e w ill e s ta b lis h the load rate o f th e v a lv e . In a d d itio n , it e s ta b lis h e s th e m a x im u m s te m tip tra v e l (to m e c h a n ic a l s to p s ) a n d d is c lo s e s s ta c k in g o f th e c o n v o lu tio n s , e x c e s s iv e fric tio n , a n d b e llo w s y ie ld in g . T h e v a lv e p ro b e te s t c o n s is tso fa tta c h in g ad e p th ty p e m ic ro m e te r to a v a lv e i n afa s h io n th a t w illallo w th e m easurem ent of the stem t i p displacem ent from th e v a lv e seatw hilepressure is a p p lie d .P re s s u re is in c re m e n ta lly a p p lie d a b o v e a n d b e lo w th e s te m tipi nc o n ta c t w ith th e fu ll b e llo w s a re a . A d is p la c e m e n t m e a s u re m e n t is ta k e na te a c h pressure increm ent. P ro d u c tio n P re s s u re E ffe c t A s discussed earlier, the valve (Fig.5-5A ) is o p e n e d by

th e fo rc e so fP Ia c tin g o n th e a re ao f th e b e llo w s le s s th e a r e a o f t h e p o r t (A b-A p ), a n dP Z a c tin g o n th e s te m tip area th a t is s e a le d b y th e s e a t. W ith o u t P2 to a s s is t o p e n in g , P I w o u ld h a v e to b e s o m e w h a t g re a te r. T h e P ro d u c tio n P r e s sure Effect(P P E )re p re s e n ts th e a m o u n t th a t th e o p e n in g p r e s s u r e(P I)i s reduceda s a result of the assistance ofP Z . P P E (so m etim es referred toa stu b in g e ffe c t) is o b ta in e d b y m u ltip ly in g p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re (P z)b y th e a re a o v e r w h ic h it is a p p lie d (A p ) a n d d iv id in g th e fo rc e o b ta in e d b y t h e a r e a (A b-A P ) o v e rw h ic h th e v a lv e o p e n in g p re s s u re(P I) a c ts . T h e re s u lt o b ta in e d is th e a m o u n t th e v a lv e o p e n in g p r e s s u r e(P I)isr e d u c e d i np s i. P ic to ria l S c h e m a tic F ig .5 -6 C losing Pressure D iagram s Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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E q u a tio n 5 .1 2 E q u a tio n 5 .1 3 E q u a tio n 5 .1 4 T he ratio is c a lle d th e P ro d u c tio n ( 1-A d& ) Pressure E ffect Factor (PPE F). Som e texts refer to this

 

 

   

 

   

 

r a t i o as Tubing Effect Factor (TEF). Ifth e P P E Fi s re p o rte d a s a d e c im a l, P P E= Pz P P E F E q u a tio n 5 .1 5 A nd, if reported as a percentage, P P E F E q u a tio n 5 .1 6 1O 0 PPE= P2 C lo s in g P re s s u re The closing pressure of the valve (Fig.5 -6 ) w ill b e e q u a l to th e in je c tio n g a s o p e n in g p re s s u re ( P l) if th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re re m a in s c o n s ta n t. T h e m in im u m closing pressure is e q u a l to th e d o m e p re s s u re (P b ) o n ly a t a tim e w h e n th e p ro d u c tio n , in je c tio n a n d d o m e p re s s u re a re e q u a l. V A L V E C H A R A C T E R IS T IC S D y n a m icF lo wT e s t A d y n a m ic f l o wt e s t c o n s i s t s o f f l o w i n g g a s t h r o u g h a g a s l i f t valve and m easuring the gas passage at different press u re c o n d itio n s . In fo rm a tio n o b ta in e d fro m

th e d y n a m ic flo w test and the probe test for a particular valve are used to g e th e r to p re d ic t g a s p a s s a g e a n d v a lv e a c tio n a t c o n d itio n s o th e r th a n te s t c o n d itio n s . F ig .5 -7re p re s e n ts d a ta th a t w e re p lo tte d fro m a ty p ic a l d y n a m ic flo w te s t o f a n u n b a la n c e d s in g le -e le m e n t b e llo w s - c h a rg e d g a s lift v a lv e . In je c tio n g a s v o lu m e tric th ro u g h p u t is p lo tte d a g a in s t flo w in g p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re s u s in g a c o n s ta n t in je c tio n p re s s u re o f5 3 5psig and 5 5 0 p s ig . V a lv e s p e c ific a tio n s a n d p e rfo rm a n c e te s t c o n d itio n s a re in c lu d e d i n F ig . 5 -7 . T h e c u rv e shows that n o g a s flo w s a t e a c h o f tw o d i s t i n c t p r o d u c t i o n p r e s s u r e v a l u e s f o r e a c h i n j e c t i o np r e s - sure. O ne, at a production pressure equal to th e in je c tio n gas pressure of5 3 5a n d 5 5 0 p s ig . A t th is p o in t th e v a lv e is o p e n , b u t th ela c k o f a n in je c tio n p re s s u re to p ro d u c tio n p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e v e n t s g a s f l o w . T h e s e c o n d p o i n t o f no flowi s at a p ro d u c tio n p re s s u reo f2 1 8 a n d2 9 4 p s ig . T h is is th e p ro d u c tio n c lo s in g p re s s u re o f th e v a lv e .

V a lv eS p re a d S p re a d is th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n o p e n in g a n d c lo s in g pressure of an in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d g a s lift v a lv e w h e n its p rim a ry o p e n in g a n d c lo s in g a c tio n is c o n tro lle d b y c h a n g e s i nin je c tio n g a s p re s s u re .It is o b ta in e d b y s u b tra c tin g th e c lo s in g pressure from th e o p e n in g p r e s s u r e . V a lv e s p re a d c o n tro ls th e m in im u m a m o u n t o f g a s in je c te d in to th e tu b in g d u rin g e a c h c y c lei n an in term itten t g as lift in s ta lla tio n . E v e n if s u rfa c e in je c tio n g a s is s to p p e d a fte r th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e is o p e n e d , th e p re s s u re i nth e a n n u lu s m ust bleed dow n from th e o p e n in g p re s s u re to th e c lo s in g 2 3

4 5 6 Flowing P ro d u c tio n P r e s s u r e 1 0 0 p s ig G a sL ift V a lv e S p e c ific a tio n s : E ffe c tiv e B e llo w s A re a=0 .7 7s q . in . B a ll O .D . o n S te m =0 .6 2 5in c h e s P o r t I.D .=0 .4 1 in c h e s A n g leo f T a p e re d S e a t=4 5 " P e rfo rm a n c e T e s ts : C o n s ta n t In je c tio nG a s P re s s u re=5 3 5 a n d5 5 0 p s ig T e s t R a c k C lo s in g P re s s u re=4 8 5 p s ig S lo p e o f T h r o ttlin g R a n g e=9 .3 M s c f/D a y /p s i A p P f F ig . 5 -7 G a sl i f t v a lv e d y n a m ic flo w te s t (C ourtesy T eledyne M erla) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group

 

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A P I T IT L E w V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532895 0 9 3 9 6 2 G as L ift pressure of the valve.D epending

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

u p o n th e spread of the v a lv e a n d th e v o lu m e o f th e a n n u lu s , th e a m o u n t o f g a s in - je c te d d u rin g b le e d -d o w n m a y b e m o re th a n is re q u ire d fo r e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n . I n an interm ittentlift w ell, the v a lv e spread should be sets oth a t th e a m o u n t o f g a s in je c te di s less than the m inim um required to m ove the slug to the sur- f a c e .A t s o m e s u b s e q u e n tt i m e ,t h e a m o u n t o f g a s in je c te d in to th e tu b in g c a n b e in c re a s e d b y in je c tin g g a s in to th e a n n u lu s a t th e s u rfa c e w h ile th e v a lv e is o p e n . B e llo w s P r o te c tio n T h e b e llo w s in a g a s lift v a lv e e x te n d s a n d o r c o m p re s s e s to p ro v id e m o v e m e n to f the stem tip to o p e no r c lo s e th e v a lv e . I t is c o m m o n fo r th e b e llo w s to b e e x p o s e dt oe x te r- n a l p re s s u re s s ig n ific a n tly h ig h e r th a n n o rm a l o p e ra tin g p re s s u re . T o p re v e n t d a m a g e to th e b e llo w s d u rin g p e rio d of over pressure, all gas lift valves incorporate som e form of b e llo w s p ro te c tio n . S o m e o f th e te c h n iq u e s in c o rp o ra te d a re a s fo llo w s: 1 . L im it b e llo w s tra v e l. a . M e c h a n ic a l sto p s.

b . H y d ra u lic s to p u s in g a c o n fin e d liq u id . 2 . R e in fo rc e b e llo w s w ith s u p p o rt rin g s . 3 . H y d ra u lic a lly re fo rm b e llo w s c o n v o lu tio n s a t h ig h e r th a n norm al externalpressure. 4 . Isolate bellow s to prevent exposure to excessive press u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l s . W h e n a g a s lift v a lv e o p e n s , p re s s u re in th e v ic in ity o f th e c o n tro l e le m e n ts (b e llo w s a n d p o rt) c a n flu c tu a te d u e to th e d y n a m ic so f flow . These fluctuating pressures can result in v a lv e c h a tte r. C h a tte r is a s u s ta in e d h ig h o p e n in g a n d c lo s - in g c y c le ra te . C h a tte r c a n a lte r th e b e llo w s p h y s ic a l c h a r- a c te ris tic s , re s u ltin g in c h a n g e s o f th e v a lv e s o p e n in g a n d closing pressures. If n o t c o n tro lle d , c h a tte r w ill usually c a u s e d a m a g e to th e b a ll a n d seat, and can rapidly result in fatigue failure ofth eb e llo w s . H y d ra u lic d a m p e n in g (d a s h p o t)i sa c o m m o n m e a n s o f p re v e n tin g c h a tte r. Test Rack O p e n in g P re s s u re T h e d e s ig n o f a g a s lift s y s te m e s ta b lis h e s th e d e s ire d

 

 

o p e n in g a n d c lo s in g p r e s s u r e o fa v a lv e .V a lv e s m u s tb e adjusted in a shop test rack (Fig.5 -8 )to an opening pressure th a t w ill g iv e th e d e s ire d o p e n in g p re s s u re in th e w e ll. G as inside the fixed volum e dom e of a pressure charged v a lv e w illin c re a s e i n pressurew henheatedandw ill decrease in pressure w hen cooled. The pressure change that o c c u rsa sare s u lt o f h e a tin g o r c o o lin g th e fix e d c o lu m no f g a s c a n b e c a lc u la te d . (S e e Tem perature C orrections, C h a p - te r4 ,a n d T a b le4 -1 .) It is n o t p ra c tic a l to s e t a v a lv e to th e re q u ire d o p e n in g p re s s u re a t th e te m p e ra tu re th e v a lv e w ill b e o p e ra tin g in th ew e ll. A lth o u g h a n y re a s o n a b le te m p e ra tu re c o u ld b e .P R E S S U R E S O U R C E , (P ,) F ig . 5 -8 T estr u c k u se d a s a re fe re n c e fo r a d ju s tin g th e v a lv ei n th e te s t ra c k , m o s t o f th is w o rk is d o n e a t6 0 * EIn p ra c tic e , a b e llo w s

c h a rg e d v a lv e is s u b m e rg e d in w a te r m a in ta in e d a t 6 0 ° F p rio r to a d ju s tin g th e o p e n in g p re s s u re to th e re q u ire d v a lu e .A s p rin g lo a d e d v a lv e d o e s n o t re q u ire c o o lin g before setting the test rack opening pressure. T h e o p e n in g p re s s u re (P I)o fa p a rtic u la r v a lv e i n th e w e ll, u n d e r o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n s , is d e fin e d b y th e g a s lift design. The design also specifies th e p ro d u c tio n p r e s s u r e a n d th e te m p e ra tu re a t th e v a lv e w h e n i t opens. The opening pressure (P I)o f th e v a lv e h a s b e e n d e fin e d a s fo llo w s : Pb1- P Z ( & / A b ) P I = E q u a tio n 5 .1 7 1-(A d & ) N o te :I n th is e q u a tio n , th e g e n e ra liz e d e x p re s s io n(P b " ) fo r th e p re s s u re in s id e th e d o m e h a s b e e n re p la c e d w ith the bellow s charge pressure(P b t) a t w e ll te m p e ra tu re . T h is e q u a tio n c a n b e re a rra n g e d to d e te rm in e th e v a lv e charge (dom e) pressure(P b I) required to obtain the speci- fied opening pressure(P I), Pbt=PI( 1- A d& )

+P2 (A d& ) E q u a tio n 5 .1 8 T h e d o m e p re s s u re(P b t) in th is c a s e is a t th e te m p e ra tu re o f th e v a lv e in th e w e ll. B e fo re o b ta in in g th e te s t ra c k o p e n in g p re s s u re , th e dom e pressure (P b ,) m ustbe corrected to th e te s t ra c k te m p e ra tu re o f6 0 ° F(P b 1@ 6 0 °F ).(S e e Temperature Corr e c tio n s ,C h a p te r4 , a n d T a b le4 -1.) T h e o p e n in g p re s s u re(P I) e q u a tio n w ithP b v @ 6 0 ° Fa n d the pressureP 2o fO p s ig a p p lie d o v e r th e s e a t a re a a t te s t ra c k c o n d itio n s(P v o )becom es: Pbv@ 6 0 ° F P " " -1-(A d A b ) E q u a tio n 5 .1 9 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

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API T I T L E * V T - b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 9 6 T 2 T G as L ift V alves 6 3 T Y P E SO F G A S L IF T V A L V E S C la s s ific a tio n o f G as L ift V a lv e sb y A p p lic a tio n In the w ell, a valve is exposed to two pressure sources th a t c o n tro l its o p e ra tio n . O n e is lo c a te d i nth e tu b in g a n d th e o th e ri nth e casing. T he v a lv e is p h y s ic a lly p o s itio n e d

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

b e tw e e n th e tw o p r e s s u r e s o u r c e s . B oth of the pressures are try in g to o p e n th ev a lv e . W h e n th e in je c te d lift g a s is i n c o n ta c t w ith th e b e llo w s (la rg e s t a re a o f in flu e n c e ), th e v a lv e is c a lle d a n in je c tio n pressureoperated valve (Fig.5 -9 A & B ).W h e n th e p ro d u c e d flu id is i n c o n ta c t w ith th e b e llo w s , th e v a lv e is re fe rre d to as a production pressure (flu id ) o p e ra te d v a lv e (F ig . 5 - 1 0 A & B ). T h e v a lv e m a y b e id e n tic a l in e ith e r c a s e .A ss e e n i n th e illu s tra tio n s , th e re c e p ta c le (m a n d re l) c a n c o n tro l h o w th etw o

p r e s s u r e sources are ported toth ev a lv e . A ll c a lc u la tio n s (o p e n in g pressure, closing pressure, etc.) fo ra p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re (flu id ) o p e ra te d v a lv e a re th e sam e as thosefo r a n in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e . It is n e c e s s a ry to in s u re th a t th e a c tio n o f th e tw o p r e s s u r e s o u rc e s o n th e v a lv e e le m e n ts is p ro p e rly re p re s e n te d . T h e o p e n in g p re s s u re fo r th e in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e (F ig . 5 -9A & B ) h a s b e e n d e te rm in e d to b e : Pbt- P 2 (A p /A b ) 1-(A p /A b ) P l = E q u a tio n5 .1 7 Injection pressure (P I)a c ts o n th e la rg e s t a re a of influ- e n c e (A b- A P )and production pressure (P 2 ) acts onthe area o f th e p o rt (A p ). P ro d u c tio nu p th et u b in gP ro d u c tio n u pt h e

a n n u lu s (A ) (B ) F ig . 5 -9Injection pressure operated valves P ro d u c tio n u p th e a n n u lu s (A ) P ro d u c tio n u p th e tu b in g (B ) F ig .5 -1 0 Production pressure operated valves Aproduction pressure operated v a lv e (F ig .5 -1 0A & B ) has the production pressure (P I)a c tin go n th e la rg e s t a re a o f i n f l u e n c e (A b-A p ).T h e in je c tio n p re s s u re (P Z )a c ts o n th e a re ao f th e p o rt (A p ). T he opening pressure for the production pressure O pera te d v a lv e is : P l = Pbt-P 2 (A p /A b ) E q u a tio n 5 .1 7 1-(A p /A b ) T h e o p e n in g p re s s u re (P I)e q u a tio n

is th e s a m efo r b o th c a s e s . T h e c o n v e n tio n o fa p p ly in g P It o the largestarea o f in flu e n c e(A b- A P )a n d ( P Z )to th e s m a lle s t a re a o f in flu e n c e (A ,)m u st b e fo llo w e d . V a lv e s U s e d fo r C o n tin u o u sF lo w A v a lv e u s e d fo r c o n tin u o u s flo w s h o u ldm e te ro r th ro ttle th e g a s th ro u g h p u t. T h e in je c te dg a s v o lu m e is c o n tro lle d a t the surface. V a lv e s U s e d fo r In te rm itte n t L ift In term itten t lift u su ally req u iresalarge volum e of gas for a sh o rt p e rio d o ftim e . U n lik e valves used i nc o n tin u o u s flo w , a v a lv e u s e d fo r in te rm itte n t lift s h o u ld fu lly o p e n d u rin g in je c tio n a n d s n a p c lo s e d . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 9 7 9 6 6 m 6 4 G as L ift B a s ic V a lv e D e s ig n s l . U nbalanced Pressure C harged V alve: A n u n b a la n c e d s p rin g v a lv e w ith n o dom epressure (F ig .5 -1 2 ) h a s

 

 

   

 

   

 

th e fo llo w in g fo rc e b a la n c e , ju s t a s th e v a lv e s ta rts to o p e n : T h is v a lv e (F ig .5 -11 ) u s e sa n itro g e n c h a rg e d d o m e a s PspA b= P I (A b-A p)+ P2 A p E q u a tio n 5 .2 0 th e o n ly lo a d in g e le m e n t to c a u s e c lo s u re . A ll earlier discussion w as directed t o th is v a lv e . T he e q u a tio n m ay be rearranged t o s o lv e fo r P S ,b a s e d u p o n th e d e s ire d c o n d itio n s a t v a lv e d e p th a n d fo r p a rtic u la r v a lv e s p e c ific a tio n s . P sp=P I( 1- Ap /A b)+ P2 (A , /A b) E q u a tio n5 .2 1 T h e c a lc u la tio n s a re the sam e for an injection pressure o p e ra te d v a lv e , s o

lo n g a s th e p r e s s u r e s a r e p r o p e r ly id e n tifie d w ith re s p e c tto th e a re a e le m e n ts th e y a re a c tin g o n . After Pspis determ ined, the test rack opening pressure m a y b e c a lc u la te d : PSP P ”,= E q u a tio n 5 .2 2 ( 1-A p /A b ) P * P re s s u re v a lv e T h is e q u a tio n is th e s a m e fo r th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d a n d th e in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e . T est ra c k p re s s u re c o n ta c ts th e b e llo w s in b o th c a s e s a n d th e area of the stem tip in c o n ta c t w ith th es e a t is a a tm o s pheric pressure in each case. 3 . P ilo t V a lv e s : Fig. 5 -1 1U nbalanced pressure charged valve A p ilo t v a lv e (F ig .5 -1 3 ) o ffe rs th e a d v a n ta g eo f a la rg e

p o rt c o m b in e d w ith c lo s e c o n tro l o v e rv a lv e s p r e a d . T h e c o n tro l s e c tio n is a n u n b a la n c e d g a s lift v a lv e . C a s in g 2 . U n b a la n c e d S p rin g V a lv e : T h e d o m e o f th is v a lv e (F ig . 5 -1 2 ) d o e s n o t c o n ta in a c h a rg e . F o r th is re a s o n , te m p e ra tu re e ffe c ts a re n e g lig i- b le a n d a re n o rm a lly not considered when setting the v a lv e ’ s o p e n in g p r e s s u r e .T y p ic a l h ig h s p rin g ra te s (force increase per u n it s te m tra v e l), c a u s e th e s p rin g v a lv e to fu n c tio n lik e a v a ria b le o rific e . T h is c h a ra c te ris tic p ro v id e s a n in fin ite s e rie s o f a re a s fo r g a s p a s s a g e . A fixed orifice is n o t n o rm a lly u s e d . S p rin g s a re m o s t c o m m o n ly a p p lie d w ith in a v a lv ei n a fa s h io n th a t c a u s e sa c lo s in g fo rc e . If th is s p rin g fo rc e (F

c )i n p o u n d s is d iv id e d b y th e a re a o f th e b e llo w s (A b ) i n square inches, a value for pressure (psi) is obtained. T h is p re ssu re is referred to as Spring P ressure E ffect, a n d is d e n o te d P S ,. A p re s s u reo f th is m a g n itu d e p la c e d i n th e b e llo w s w o u ld p ro v id e th e s a m e v a lv e c lo s in g fo rc e as the spring. F o r th e p u rp o s e o f c a lc u la tio n s , P s p is u s e d a s a fic titio u s re p la c e m e n t of dom e(bellows)chargepressure. S in c e te m p e ra tu re e f f e c t is n e g lig ib le , P, represents the S p rin gv a lv e dom e charge i n th e te s te r a s w e ll a s a t th e o p e ra tin g d e p th . F ig . 5 -1 2 U n b a la n c e d s p r in g

v a lv e Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E x V T -b 9 4

 

 

   

 

   

 

0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 8 9 8 A T 2 G asL ift V alves 6 5 a n d tu b in g p r e s s u r e a c t o n th e c o n t r o l s e c t i o ni n t h e sam e w a y th a tth e y d o o n a n u n b a la n c e d in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e . W h e n th e c o n tro l v a lv e o p e n s , th e m a in v a lv e (la rg e p o rt) o p e n s :a n d w h e n th e c o n tro l v a lv e closes, the m ain v a lv e c lo s e s . G asflo w in g th ro u g h th e sm all porto f th e c o n tro l s e c tio n a c ts o n th e

p isto n of the m ain v a lv e to o p e n it. W hen th e c o n tro l v a lv e c lo s e s , a s p rin g re tu rn s th e m a in v a lv et oa c lo s e d p o s itio n . C O N T R O L V A L V E M A IN V A L V E P IS T O N B L E E D P O R T P ilo tv a lv e F ig . 5 -1 3P ilo t v a lv e 4 .O ther Typeso f V alves: N ew ty p e s o f v a lv e s a re c o n s ta n tly b e in g d e v e lo p e d t o k e e p p a c e w ith th e g e n e ra l e v o lu tio n o f g a s lift te c h n o logy. There are m any ty p e s

o f s p e c ia l a p p lic a tio n v a lv e s , to o n u m e ro u s to in c lu d e i nth is m a n u a l. T he p rin c ip le s o f o p e ra tio no f m ost special valves are s im ila r to th o s e o f th e m o re w id e ly u s e d ty p e so f v a lv e s d is c u s s e d in th e fo re g o in g . It s h o u ld a ls o b e n o te d th a t a lm o s t a ll ty p e s o f v a lv e s a re a v a ila b le in b o th re trie v a b le o rn o n -re trie v a b le fo rm a n d w ith v a rio u s ty p e s o f check valves. W ir e lin e R e tr ie v a b le V a lv e a n d M a n d r e l T h e s e v a lv e m a n d re ls a re c o m m o n ly c a lle d R e tr ie v a b le o rS id e p o c k e tM a n d r e ls . R e trie v a lin th e n a m e c o m e s fro m the w ireline retrievabilityo f th e v a lv e . U n lik e c o n v e n tio n a l v a lv e s a n d m a n d re ls (F ig . 5-1 6 ),th e v a lv ei sin s ta lle d w ith in th e in te rio r p o rtio n o f th e s id e pocket m andrel (Fig.5 -1 5 B ).The valvei s reached by wirelin e ru n th ro u g h th e in s id e o f th e tu b in g (F ig . 5 -1 4 A ).A valve receiver (Pocket) form s a parto f the m andrel and i s o ffse tfro m th e m a in b o re

o f th e tu b in g a n d m a n d re l (F ig . 5 -1 5 B a n d 5 -1 5 C ). In m ost cases, no through tubing restriction results. T o o lsth a t a re n o rm a lly ru n th ro u g h th e tu b in g c a n s till b eru n . F ig .5 -1 4 A illu s tra te s a w ell e q u ip p e d w ith s id e p o c k e t m a n d re ls . W ire lin e m e th o d s a re b e in g u se d to ru n a n d p u ll v a lv e s . F ig .5 -1 4 B illu s tra te sa ty p ic a l w ire lin eto o l s trin g u s e d to ru n o r p u ll v a lv e s in re trie v a b le m a n d re ls . In a d d i- tio n to s ta n d a rd w e ig h t b a r an d w irelin e jars, a kickover to o l o f s o m e ty p e is u s e d . F ig .5 -1 4W ire lin eto o l s tr in g s a n d r e tr ie v a b le m a n d r e ls Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E tV T -h 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532899 739 W 6 6 G as L ift T he k ic k o v e r to o l h a s a m e a n so f a tta c h in g a p u llin g to o l fo r re trie v in g v a lv e s o r a ru n n in g to o l w ith a v a lv e c o n - n e c te d to it (F ig . 5 -1 7 A ) to a llo w in s ta llin g a v a lv e in th e m a n d re l. K ic k o v e r to o ls a ls o h e lp lo c a te th e m andrel and

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

a lig n th e v a lv e o r p u llin g to o l w ith th e m a n d re l p o c k e t (F ig . 5 -1 7 B ). A fte r th e m a n d re l h a s b e e n lo c a te d a n d th e v a lv e o r to o l a lig n e d , th e k ic k o v e r to o l w ill “ k ic k ” (o r s w in g ) th e v a lv e o r to o l in to th e o ffs e t p o rtio n o 7 u a f th e m a n d re l in lin e w ith th e m a n d re l p o c k e t (F ig . 5 -1 A ).A t th is tim e , ja rrin g u p o r d o w n w ith w ire lin e te c h n iq e s w ill p u ll o r in s ta ll th e s id e p o c k e t (re trie v a b le ) v lv e . S id e p o c k e t

m a n d re ls (F ig . 5 -1 5 ) m u st h a v e a re c e iv e r (p o c k e t) fo r th e g a s lift v a lv e . T h e p o c k e t w ill n o rm a lly h a v e tw o d is tin c t b o re s to a c c o m m o - d a te th e v a lv e p a c k in g . T h e p a c k in g b o re s a res m o o th a n d c lo s e ly c o n tro lle d d im e n s io n a lly . B e tw e e n th e tw o s m o o th p a c k in g b o re s is lo c a te d o n e o f th e p o rts th a t w ill a llo w a p a th fo r c o m m u n ic a tin g b e tw e e n th e tu b in g a n d th e a n n u - lu s . T h e b o tto m (a n d s o m e tim e s th e to p ) o f th e p o c k e t p ro v id e s a s e c o n d p o rt th a t c o m m u n ic a te s w ith th e tu b in g (s e e F ig . 5 -1 5 C ).T h e g a s lift v a lv e , w ith its p a c k in g , s te m , a n d s e a t, c o n tr o ls a n y c o m m u n ic a tio n b e tw e e n th e tu b in g b o re a n d th e a n n u lu s . In a d d itio n to c o n ta in in g s e a l b o re s a n d p o rtin g , a p o c k e t m u s t h a v e a fa c ility to a c c o m m o d a te a n d e n g a g e th e v a lv e la tc h . A s h o u ld e r o r u n d e rc u t in th e pocket m aybeused fo rth is p u rp o s e (F ig .5 -1 5 C a n d 5 -1 7 A ). In a d d itio n to th e p o c k e t, m any sidepocketm andrels h a v e a id s th a t a re d e s ig n e d to fa c ilita te lo c a tin g

th e m a n d re l w ith w ire lin e to o lsa n d a lig n in g th e v a lv e c a rrie d b y th e to o ls w ith th e m a n d re l p o c k e t. A n o rie n tin g s le e v e (F ig . 5 - 1 7 C ) w ith in th e m a n d re l is often used tocause fo rc e d a lig n m e n t. A c o n tro lle d s h o u ld e r w ith in th e m a n d re l c a n a ls o e n g a g eth e w ire lin e to o ls to a id in lo c a tin g th e m a n d re l. T h is s to p w ill p ro p e rly p o s itio n th e to o lsi na v e rtic a l p o s i- tio n a b o v e th e m a n d re l p o c k e t. F ig . 5 -1 7 C shows a stopfor th is p u rp o s e lo c a te d i nth e m a n d re l. I I L A T C H L A T C H R E T A IN IN G S H O U L D E R P A C K IN G (V A L V E T O P O C K E T S E A L ) PORTS TO ANNULUS V A L V E P A C K IN G (V A L V E T O POCKET SEAL) .S ID E P O C K E T (V A L V E R E C E IV E R ) P O R T T O T U B IN G F ig . 5 -1 5

D e ta ilso f w ire lin e r e tr ie v a b le v a lv e VALVE MOUNTED O U T S ID E T H E M A N D R E L (T U B IN G rR1 ACCESS TO THE VALVE) MUST BE PULLED T O H A V E C O N V E N T IO N A L G A S L IF T V A L V E REVERSE FLOW C H E C K T H R E A D F O R IN S T A L L IN G V A L V E A N D C H E C K TO MANDRE’ (C) F ig . 5 -1 6 D e ta ilso f c o n v e n tio n a l v a lv e ,K IC K O F TOOL (A ) VALVE LATCH S ID E P O C K E T M A N D R E L G A S L IF T

V A L V E V E R T IC A L L Y A N D R A D IA L L Y A L IG N E D A N D K IC K E D O V E R . R E A D Y T O E N T E R T H E M A N D R E L S ID E P O C K E T . = l“ L A T C H t P O R T S S ID E P O C K E l S T O P S H O U L D E R P O S IT IO N S K IC K O V E R T O O L A N D V A L V E V E R T IC A L L Y W IT H S ID E P O C K E T RESPECT TO THE M ANDREL F IN G E R S L O T H E L IC A L S U R F A C EI SE N G A G E D B Y T H E L O C A T IN G F IN G E R O F T H E K IC K O V E R TO O L.

T H E UPW ARD F O R C E A P P L IE DT O T H E F IN G E R A G A IN S T T H IS S U R F A C EC A U S E S T H E K IC K O V E R TOOL TOROTATE IN T OA L IG N M E N T W IT H T H E F IN G E R S L O T . F ig .5 -17 Sidepocket mandrel, kickover to o l and valve (V a lv e r e a d y to b e in s ta lle d in to m a n d re l s id e p o c k e t) C o u r tesy C am co,I n c . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 0 02 8 0 W G as L ift V alves 6 7 V a lv e s (F ig .5 -1 8 B ) u s e d in re trie v a b le m a n d re ls h a v e th e s a m e b a s ic c o m p o n e n ts a s th e v a lv e s(F ig . 5-18A ) used i n c o n v e n tio n a l m a n d re ls . M a n y of the parts are identical. In a d d itio n to th e b a s ic p a rts , a re trie v a b le valve m ust have som e m eans (latch) to locki t in to p o s itio n w ith in th e m a n - d re l p o c k e t. T h e v a lv e m u s t a ls o h a v e s e a ls th a t a c t b e tw e e n th e v a lv e a n d m a n d re l p o c k e t to p re v e

 

 

   

 

   

 

n t le a k a g e b e tw e e n th e tu b in g a n d c a s in g a n n u lu s in e ith e r d ire c tio n . P A C K IN G (S E A L ) P A C K IN G (S E A L ) REVERSE FLOW CHECK C o n v e n tio n a l g a s lift v a lv e (A ) R e trie v a b le g a s lift v a lv e (B ) Fig. 5 -1 8 R e tr ie v a b le a n d c o n v e n tio n a l g a sl i f t v a lv e s . C ourtesy C am eo,Inc. M a n d re l a n d V a lv e P o rtin gc o m b in a t io n ^ ^ ^ It is o fte n in e ffic ie n t o r im p ra c tic a l to u s e o n e c o m b in a tio n of m andrel and v a lv e p o rtin g t o s a tis f y a ll g a s lift in s ta lla tio n d e s ig n re q u ire m e n ts . T h e re a re tw o b a s ic c o n fig u ra tio n o f m a n d re ls a n d fo u r c o n fig u ra tio n s o f gas lift valves. Fig. 5 -1 9s h o w s th e tw o m a n d re l ty p e s . T h e ty p e1 o r standard m andrelhas th eh o le s in th e p o c k e t d rille d

fro m th e o u ts id eo rc a s in g s id e ,a n d th e b o tto m o f th e p o c k e t i si nc o m m u n ic a tio n w ith th e tu b in g . T y p e2 h a s th e h o le s in th e p o c k e t d rille d fro m th e in s id e o r tu b in g s id e , a n d th e b o tto mo f th e p o c k e t isin c o m m u n ic a tio n w ith th e o u ts id eo rcasing (annulus) side. T h e fo u r c o n fig u ra tio n s o f g a s lift v a lv e s a re show n i n F ig .5 -2 0 . T y p e 1i saw e ll-k n o w n c o n v e n tio n a l in je c tio n pressure operated v a lv e , a n d T y p e2is a p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e . T h e o th e r tw o a r e n o t a s fa m ilia r. A c tu a lly , th e o n ly d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n T y p e s 1a n d2 a n d T y p e s3 a n d4 i s t h a t t h e c h e c k v a l v e h a s b e e n t u r n e d u p s i d e dow ni nth e la tte r tw o . A ls o , ty p e2 a n d ty p e4 h a v e c ro s s - o v e r s e a ts . T h is r e s tr ic ts th e s e a t s iz e a v a ila b le i n th e s e v a lv e s .

T w o b a s ic g a s liftm a n d r e ls in c lu d e ty p e lin w h ic h th e s id e o fth e p o c k e tis in c o m m u n ic a tio n w ith th e a n n u lu s a n d th e b o tto mo f th e p o c k e ti s in c o m m u n - ic a tio n w ith th e tu b in g , a n d ty p e2in w h ic h th e c o m m u n ic a tio n c o n fig u r a tio n is r e v e r s e d . R ." ." . "0 1 ". llo w F ig . 5 -1 9 Basic gasl i f t m andrel types (After Focht, W orldO i l ,J a n u a r y1 9 8 1 ) O f th e s e b a s ic ty p e so f v a lv e s , ty p e s1 a n d 4 a r e p re s s u re o p e ra te d . T y p e s2 a n d 3 a re flu id o p e ra te d .N o te th a tth e c h e c k v a lv e s in ty p e s 3 a n d 4 o p e ra te in th e o p p o s ite d ire c tio n fro m ty p e s1 a n d2 . F ig .5 -2 0 C o n fig u r a tio n so f g a s lifr v a lv e s (A fte r F o c h t, W o rld O il, J a n u a r y1 9 8 1 ) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 0 3 1 1 7 6 8 G as Lift T h e re a re e ig h tp o s s ib le c o n fig u ra tio n s u s in g th e fo u r o c c u r. T h e c ro s s o v e r s e a t re s tric ts th e p o rt s iz e a v a ila b le to v a lv e ty p e s a n d tw o m a n d re l ty p e s (s e e F ig .5 -2 1 ).I nF ig . 3 /l~ -in ~ h fo r th e o n e -in c h v a lv e a n d to s /l6 -in c h fo r th e 1 h -in c h 5 -2 1 ,C o n fig u ra tio n sA a n dB are recognized a sth e s ta n -

 

 

 

 

   

 

v a lv e . C o n fig u ra tio n G is p ro b a b ly b e tte r fo r th is p u rp o s e . d a rdty p eo f c o m p le tio n .F o r tu b in g flo w th e y a re u s u a lly p re fe rre d .N o rm a lly ,p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re -o p e ra te d in s ta lM a n d re ls w ith m o re th a n o n e p o c k e t, m o re th a n tw o p a c k la tio n sa reu n d e s ira b lefo r h ig hp ro d u c tio nra teb e c a u s ein gs e c tio n sin o n ep o c k e t, a n dw itho th e rp o rtin gc o n th e y te n d toc a u s eh e a d in g o r s l u g g i n g t y p e p r o d u c t i o n .f i g u r a t i o n s h a v e b e e n u s e d .N e w c o m b i n a t i o n s a r e c o n W hen they are used, a problem w ith c o n fig u ra tio n B m ay tin u a lly being considered. G as A . . E G as . .B

I IF m dl C T3 D -o3 DP a . -H B y c o m b in in g th e fo u r v a lv e ty p e s w ith th e tw o ty p e s o f m a n d re ls , e ig h t c o n fig u ra tio n s a re a v a ila b le . T h e y a re a s fo llo w s : & v a lv e 1 ,m a n d re l1 , tu b in g flo w , pressure operated;B-valve2 ,m a n d re l1 , tu b in g flo w , flu id o p e ra te d ; C -v a lv e3 , m a n d re l1 , a n n u la r flo w , flu id o p e ra te d ; D -v a lv e4 , m a n d re l 1 , a n n u la r flo w , P re s s u re o p e ra te d ;E -v a lv e1 I m a n d re l2 . a n n u la r flo w . p re s s u re o p e ra te d ; F -v a lv e 2 , m a n d r e l2 , a n n u la r flo w , flu id o p e ra te d ; G -v a lv e3 , m a n d re l2 , tu b in g flo w , flu id o p e ra te d ; a n d H -v a lv e4 , m a n d re l 2 , tu b in g flo w , p re s s u re o p e ra te d . F ig . 5 -2 1 C o m b in a tio n so f v a lv e ty p e s a n d m a n d r e l ty p e s

(A fte r F ocht,W orld Oil,J a n u a ry1 9 8 1 ) Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 6 9 CHAPTER 6

   

 

 

 

   

 

C O N T IN U O U S FLO WG A S L IF T D E S IG N M E T H O D S IN T R O D U C T IO N G as lift is a process of lifting fluids from a w ell by the c o n tin u o u s in je c tio n o f re la tiv e ly h ig h p re s s u re g a s to re d u c e th e flo w g ra d ie n t (c o n tin u o u s flo w )o r b y th e in je c tio n of gasunderneath a n a c c u m u la te d liq u id s lu g in a re la tiv e ly s h o rt p e rio d o f tim e to m o v e th e s lu g to th e surface (interm ittent lift). Both types are show n schem atic a lly in F ig . 6 -1 . C o n tin u o u s flo w gas lift design w ill be d is c u s s e d in th is c h a p te r. In te rm itte n t l i f td e s i g n w ill be d is c u s s e d in a la te r c h a p te r. C o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift is e s s e n tia lly a c o n tin u a tio n o f n a tu ra lflo w .G a s is in je c te d at som epoint in th e flo w

p a tte rn c a u s in g an increase in g a s -liq u id ra tio a b o v e th a t p o in t. T h is in c re a s e d g a s -liq u id ratio results in a reduced flo w in g g ra d ie n t. T h is is s h o w n g ra p h ic a lly in F ig . 6 -2 . F o r m a x im u m b e n e fit th e g a s s h o u ld b e in je c te d a s d e e p ly a s p o s s ib le . T h e b e s t c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift is a c c o m p lis h e d b y in je c tin g g a s a t th e b o tto m o f th e tu b in g . B e c a u s e o f p re s s u re lim ita tio n s , h o w e v e r, v a lv e s a re g e n e ra lly n e e d e d to e s ta b lis h th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n a n d th is p o in t m a y b e th ro u g h a v a lv e o r orifice som ew here above to ta l d e p th . Ifin je c tio n is th ro u g h v a lv e s , it is g e n e ra lly in te n d e d th a t o n ly o n e v a lv e b e o p e n d u rin g in je c tio n . D e s ig n o f c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift in s ta lla tio n s u s in g in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e s is c o v e re d in A P I R P 11V 652. L

IN J E C T E D f

_ I L IN J E C T E D Q A I r F ig .6 -1 (A )C o n tin u o u s g a s lift p e r fo r m a n c e . (B )In te r m itte n tg a s lift p e r fo r m a n c e T Y P E S O F IN S T A L L A T IO N S C o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift m ay b e u tiliz e d i n num erous ty p e s o f in s ta lla tio n s a s w e ll a s n u m e ro u s c o m b in a tio n so f tu b in g a n d c a s in g s iz e s .I n g e n e ra l, th e flo w m a y b e c la s s if ie d a s tu b in g o ra n n u la r flo w . F lo w u p th e tu b in g s t r i n g covers a range of sizes from ’/.,-in c h to 4 -in c h e s , a n d la rg e r. S lim -h o le c o m p le tio n s p la c e g re a t e m p h a s is o n c o n tin u o u s flo w i n sm allpipe.

V a rio u s w a te r-flo o d o p e ra tio n s a n d w a te r-d riv e re s e rv o irs p la c e e m p h a s is o n h ig h p ro d u c in g ra te s re q u irin g la rg e tu b in g s iz e s . A n n u la r flo w is th e in je c tio n o f g a s d o w n th e tu b in g s trin g a n d th e p ro d u c tio n o f flu id s th ro u g h th e tu b in g casing annular space. Typical sizes range from 1 -in c h tu b - in g in sid e 2’/% -inchO .D . casin g to 3V z-inch O .D .tu b in g in s id e 1 0 3 /4 -in c h O .D .,o r la rg e r, c a s in g . T o ta l flu id p ro d u c in g ra te s in e x c e s s o f5 0 ,0 0 0B /D h a v e b e e n re p o rte d th ro u g h th e a n n u lu s o f 3 Ih -in c h O .D .tu b in g in s id e la rg e c a s in g . T h e p rin c ip le s o f tu b in g a n d a n n u la r flo w g a s lift ‘a re th e s a m e . T h e p re d ic tio n o f a n n u la r flo w g ra d ie n ts is p ro b a b ly a little le s s a c c u r a te th a n th a tth ro u g h tu b in g .A ls o ,th e tu b in g s h o u ld b e la rg e e n o u g h to h a n d le th e d o w n w a rd g a s flo w w ithout excessive pressure drop. T he exam ples used in th is

c h a p te r w ill b e tu b in g flo w . A c o n tin u o u s flo w in s ta lla tio n th ro u g h tu b in g w ith o u t a p a c k e r o r s ta n d in g v a lv ei sc la s s ifie d a s a n o p e n in s ta lla tio n . T h is ty p e o f in s ta lla tio n is s e ld o m recom m ended, but w e ll c o n d itio n s m a y b e such that running a packer is unde- s ira b le . T h is ty p e o f in s ta lla tio n h a s c e rta in d is a d v a n ta g e s . A n y tim e th e w ell is p la c e d b a c k o n p ro d u c tio n , th e flu id s m ust be unloaded from th e a n n u la r s p a c e . T h is m e a n s th a t th e g a s lift v a lv e s w ill b e s u b je c te d to c u ttin g b y liq u id flo w u n til th e w e ll h a s u n lo a d e d to its w o rk in g flu id le v e l. A varying injection gas line pressure w ill also cause the fluid le v e l to ris e a n d fa ll. T h is o fte n re s u lts i n “ h e a d in g ” o r “ s lu g g in g ” o f th e p ro d u c e d flu id s in s te a d o f a s m o o th c o n tin u o u s flo w . E a c h tim e th e flu id level is low ered,som e

flu id is p u s h e d th ro u g h a n y g a s lift v a lv e b e n e a th th e flu id Copyright American Petroleum Institute

L

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A P I T IT L E tV T -b 914 M 0732290

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0 5 3 2 9 0 3 T 9 T m 7 0 G as L ift le v e l. E v e n tu a lly , th is v a lv e m a y b e c o m e flu id -c u t. A n o th e r flu id h a s b e e n u n lo a d e d fro m th e a n n u la r s p a c e , th e re is n o p o s s ib ility is that som eo fth e a c tu a l p ro d u c tio n m a y ris e re -e n try o f flu id s in to th e a n n u lu s. T h e re fo re ,a s ta b iliz e d a n d c o m e th ro u g h th e g a s lift v a lv e s b e n e a th th e o p e ra tin g le v e l is m a in ta in e d . v a lv e b e c a u s eo fle s s fric tio n in th e la rg e a n n u la r s p a c e . E x p e rie n c e h a s s h o w n th a t g a s lift v a lv e s lo c a te d b e n e a th th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e w ill g e n e ra lly b e flu id -c u t w h e n a n o p e n in s ta lla tio n is p u lle d . R e v e rs e c h e c k v a lv e s o n th e g a s lift v a lv e s p re v e n t flu id s fro m e n te rin g th e c a s in g -tu b in g a n n u la r s p a c e a n d a re re c - om m ended fo ra ll c o n tin u o u s flo w in s ta lla tio n s . W h e n a A s e m i-c lo s e d in s ta lla tio n is o n e in w h ic h a p a c k e r is ru n s e m i-c lo s e d in s ta lla tio n is in o p e ra tiv e , th e flu id s d o n o t b u t n o s ta n d in g v a lv e is u s e d . T h is ty p eo f installation is

ris e in th e a n n u la r s p a c e a n d , th erefo re, th e w ellw ill s ta recom m ended form ostcontinuous flo w w e lls . O n c e th e b iliz e m u c h q u ic k e r w h e n p la c e d b a c k o n o p e ra tio n . C O N T IN U O U S F L O W U N L O A D IN G S E Q U E N C E C o n tin u o u s flo w u n lo a d in go f a tu b in g -flo w in s ta lla tio n d u e to the pressureexerted b y th e liq u id c o lu m n in the is illu s tra te d in F ig . 6 -3 . U n til th e to p v a lv ei nF ig . 6 -3 (A ) is tu b in g .I n F ig .6 -3 (B ) a ll v a lv e s a re o p e n . T h e to p v a lv e is u n c o v e re d ,flu id fro m th e c a s in g is tra n s fe rre d in to th e u n c o v e re d , a n d in je c tio n g a s is e n te rin g th e tu b in g th ro u g h tu b in g th ro u g h o p e n v a lv e s a n d U -tu b e d b y in je c tio n g a s th is v a lv e . U n lo a d in g c o n tin u e s fro m th e to p v a lv e w h ic h pressure being exerted on the topo f th e liq u id c o lu m n in th e

re m a in s o p e n u n til th e s e c o n d v a lv e is u n c o v e re d . c a s in g .N opressure draw dow n across the form ation occurs d u rin g U -tu b in g o p e ra tio n s b e c a u s e th e tu b in g p re s s u re a t In F ig . 6 -3 (C ) a ll v a lv e s a re o p e n . In je c tio n g a s is e n te rin g to ta l d e p th e x c e e d s th e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re . T h is isth e tu b in g th ro u g h th e to p a n d s e c o n d v a lv e s .W ith th e P R E S S U R E,PSI 1O O O 2 0 0 03 0 0 0tW 4 0 0 0 fU 5 0 0 0 6000I! -\ 1 I I I F ig . 6 -2 F u n d a m e n ta lso fg a s lift d e s ig n Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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A P IT IT L E a V T -6 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 0 4 926 C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 7 1 flu id le v e li n th e c a s in g b e lo w th e d e p th o f th e s e c o n d v a lv e , I nF ig . 6 -3 (E ) th e to p v a lv e is c lo s e d a n d a ll o th e r v a lv e s th e tu b in g p re ssu rei s less than the casing pressure at valve a re o p e n . The second and third valves are uncovered, and

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d e p th , a n d in je c tio n g a s e n te rs th e tu b in g th ro u g h th e in je c tio n g a s is e n te rin g th e tu b in g th ro u g h b o th v a lv e s . T h e s e c o n d v a lv e . T h e flo w in g tu b in g p re s s u re a t th e d e p tho f flo wo f in je c tio n g a s th ro u g h th e s e c o n d v a lv e h a s lo w e re d th e to p v a lv e is d e c re a s e d b y in je c tin g a h ig h v o lu m e o f g a s th e flo w in g tu b in g p re s s u re a t th e d e p th o f th e s e c o n d v a lv e . th ro u g h th e to p v a lv e t o u n c o v e r th e s e c o n d v a lv e . T h is T h is a llo w s th e in je c tio n g a s to e n te r th e tu b in g th ro u g h th e h ig h in je c tio n g a s -liq u id r a t i o i s re q u ire d fo r o n ly as h o rt th ird v a lv e . tim e , a n d th e v a lv e m u s t b e c a p a b leo fp a s s in g th is g a s v o lu m e . In F ig . 6 -3 (D ) th e to p v a lv e is c lo s e d a n d a ll o th e r v a lv

e s In Fig. 6-3(F) the top and second valves are closed, and a re o p e n . In je c tio n g a s is e n te rin g th e tu b in g th ro u g h th e th e th ird a n d b o tto m v a lv e s a re o p e n . In je c tio n g a s is e n s e c o n d v a lv e . T h e th ird a n d b o tto m v a lv e s are notu n te rin g th e tu b in g th ro u g h th e th ird v a lv e . T h e b o tto m v a lv e c o v e re d . B e fo re th e to p v a lv e w ill c lo s e , th e c a s in g p re s s u re is b e lo w th e flu id le v e l in th e c a s in g . T h e p ro d u c in g c a m ust decrease slightly. T he second valve m ust rem ain open p a c ityo fth e in s ta lla tio n is reached w ith th e a v a ila b le in u n til th e th ird v a lv e is u n c o v e re d . je c tio n -g a s p re s s u re b e fo re th e b o tto m v a lv e is u n c o v e re d . fe rre d in to tu b ln g th ro u g h a ll v a lv e s

(A )F lu id fro m c a s in g b rin g tra n s s u rfa c e b y in je c tio n g a s th ro u g h to p (B )F lu ld In tu b ln g b e m g a e ra te d to (C )In je c tio n g a s e n te rin g tu b ln g a n d u -tu b e d b y in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re th ro u g h to p a n d s e c o n d v a lv e lm m e d valve as flu id i n a n n u l u si s t r a n s f e r r e d to s u rfa c e . In to tu b in g th ro u g h lo w e r v a lv e s . la te ly a fte r s e c o n d v a lv e u n c o v e re d . (D )F lu id In tu b in g b e in g a e ra te d to s u rfa c e b y in je c tio n g a s th r o u g h s e c - o n d v a lv e a s flu id in a n n u lu s is tra n s - fe rre d in to tu b in g th ro u g h th ird a n d b o tto m v a lv e s th ro u g h s e c o n d a n d th ir d v a lv e s im (E ) In je c tio n g a s e n te rin g tu b in g m e d ia te ly a fte rth ird v a lv e is u n c o v e re d . (F )P ro d u c ln g ra te e q u a ls c a p a c lty o f tu b in g fro m th ird v a lv e f o r a v a ila b le v a lv e c a n n o tb eu n c o v e re d .

in je c tio n p re s s u re . T h e re fo re , b o tto m F ig . 6 -3 C o n tin u o u s u n lo a d in g s e q u e n c e Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. -, ,, ,,, , , ,,,- - ,, ,, , ,, ---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m

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0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 0 5 8 6 2 m 7 2 G as L ift D E S IG N O F C O N T IN U O U SFLO W IN S T A L L A T IO N S T o d e s ig n a c o n tin u o u s flo w in s ta lla tio n , a s m u c h o f th e fo llo w in g in fo rm a tio n a s p o s s ib le s h o u ld b e o b ta in e d : 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 1o . 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 5 . T u b in g a n d c a s in g s iz e D e p th to th e c e n te r o f th e p e rfo ra te d in te rv a l A P I g ra v ity o f th e o il F o rm a tio n g a s -o il ra tio S p e c ific g ra v ity o f th e in je c tio n a n d fo rm a tio n g a s

D e s ire d d a ily p ro d u c in g ra te (o il a n d w a te r) S p e c ific g ra v ity o f th e w a te r F lo w in g w e llh e a d tu b in g p re s s u re In je c tio n g a s p re s s u re a v a ila b le a t w e ll V o lu m e o f in je c tio n g a s a v a ila b le S ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re P ro d u c tiv ity in d e x o r in flo w p e rfo rm a n c e re la tio n s h ip B o tto m h o le te m p e ra tu re F lo w in g w e llh e a d te m p e ra tu re T y p e o f re s e rv o ir w ith e x p e c te d d e p le tio n p e rfo rm a n c e It is c o m m o n p ra c tic e to u s e th e a n n u la r s p a c e b e tw e e n th e c a s in g a n d tu b in g to c o n d u c t th e in je c tio n g a s d o w n to th e p o in t o f in je c tio n . If g a s lift v a lv e s a re in s ta lle d , th e y a re p la c e d o n th e tu b in g s trin g to le t g a s fro m th e a n n u lu s jo in th e w e ll flu id s th a t flo w u p th e tu b in g . O th e r a rra n g e m e n ts o f e q u ip m e n t, s u c h a s a n n u la r flo w a n d p a ra lle l tu b in g s trin g s , c a n be used w ith th e o n ly lim ita tio n s b e in g th a t there m ust be a passagew ay for gas to travel dow nw ard to th e p o in t o f in je c tio n a n d th e re m u s t b e a c o n d u it th ro u g h w h ic h th e g a s a n d w e ll flu id s flo w u p a n d o u t o f th e w e ll.

T y p e so f D e s ig n P r o b le m s In g a s lift d e s ig n , th e re a re th re e d is tin c t ty p e s o f d e s ig n p ro b le m s . F irs t is th e c a s e w h e re v a lv e sa reto b e d e s ig n e d (spacing and pressure setting) and run w ith the tubing in an e x is tin g w e ll. A s e c o n d c a s e , e n c o u n te re d p rim a rily in o ff- s h o re o p e ra tio n s , is w h e re w ire lin e m a n d re ls a re s p a c e d in th e tu b in g s trin g fo r la te r in s ta lla tio n o f g a s lift v a lv e s . T h is m a y in c lu d e a c o n s id e ra b le p e rio do f tim e in w h ic h th e w ell flo w s p rio r to th e n e e d to in s ta ll g a s lift valves. M andrel s p a c in g d k n o w le d g e o f th e w ird ty p e o f p ro b le m is ls . T h e m a n d re l s p a lift d e s ig n e r m u s t d is fre q u e n tly d o n e w e ll's p ro d u c tiv ity is s e ttin g v a lv e s in e x c in g is fix e d . In th is e te rm in e if v a lv e s a h e n o n ly lim ite k n o w n . T h e th is tin g m a n d re c a s e , th e g a s re n e e d e d

in a ll th e e x is tin g m a n d re ls a n d th e n determ ine the set pressures for the valves. T h e in itia l d e s ig n w ill b e fo r th e firs t ty p e o f p ro b le m a n d w ill c o n s id e r th e c a s e w h e re c o m p le te k n o w le d g eo f th e w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity is k n o w n . T h is w ill illu s tra te g a s lift d e s ig n p rin c ip le s . T h is w ill b e fo llo w e d b y th o s e c a s e s w h e re le s s th a n c o m p le te k n o w le d g e o f th e w e ll p a ra m e te rs is k n o w n . A s s u m e c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift d e s ig n is n e e d e d fo r th e c o n d itio n s lis te d in T a b le 6 -1 . B y fa r th e m o s t im p o rta n t in fo rm a tio n n e e d e d in g a s lift d e s ig n is th e w e ll's p ro d u c in g c h a ra c te ris tic s . If e x a c t a n d c o m p le te k n o w le d g e o f th e w e ll is k n o w n , a n o p tim u m design can be readily m ade. Unfor- tu n a te ly , th is is s e ld o m , if e v e r, th e c a s e . In th e fo llo w in g d e s ig n , it is a s s u m e d th a t w e ll in fo rm a tio n is e x a c t. A ls o , th e d e s ig n is m a d e w

ith o u t a n y s a fe ty fa c to r. T h e n e e d o f, a n d th e m e a n s fo r in c lu d in g , a s a fe ty fa c to r w ill be dis- c u s s e d la te r. D e p th -p re s s u re g ra d ie n t d a ta is e s s e n tia l to th e design.Itis assum ed that gradientcurves o r a c o m p u te r p ro g ra m fo r c a lc u la tin g g ra d ie n t d a ta is a v a ila b le to th e d e s ig n e r. TA B LE6 -1 C O N T IN U O U S F L O W G A S L IF T D E S IG N C O N D IT IO N S P ro d u c tio n D esired -q M a x im u m W e ll D e p th-D , 1 0 ,0 0 0 ' S ta tic B H P -P ,, 3 ,6 0 0 p s ig P ro d u c tiv ity In d e x-J Form ation R, 3 0 0 C F /B W a te r C u t-F , 6 5% O il G rav ity 35"A PI

W a te r G ra v ity-SG , 1.O 5 G as G ravity- S G g 0 .6 5 C asing S iz e 5 '/2 in. O D T u b in g S iz e in. O D S u rfa c e W e llh e a d P r e s s u r e-Pw h 1O 0 p s ig A v a ila b le G a s P r e s s u r e-P g 1 2 0 0 p s ig G a s In je c tio n R a te-q i 5 0 0 M C F /D S ta tic F lu id G ra d ie n t*-g , 0 .4 6 5p s i t f t B o tto m H o le T e m p e ra tu re-T r 1 9 0 ° F F lo w in g T e m p e ra tu re-Tw h F ig . 6 - 9 Type R eservoir W aterdrive (G ro ss F lu id )

0 .4 B L P D /p s i * S ta tic F lu id G ra d ie n t is th e g ra d ie n t o f th e flu id e x p e c te d in th e tu b in g a n d a n n u lu s a t th e tim e u n lo a d in g s ta rts . E x a m p le G r a p h ic a l D e s ig n G a s lift d e s ig n is b e s t illu s tra te d g ra p h ic a lly . F ig u re s 6-4, 6-5, and 6-6 show a graphical solution for design based o n th e c o n d itio n s o f T a b le 6 -1 . A s te p -b y -s te p e x p la n a tio n fo llo w s: Copyright American Petroleum Institute

Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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A P I T IT L E x V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532qO b 7 T q C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 7 3 1. O n a convenientscale m ake a depth versus pressure chart. D raw a lin e 're p re s e n tin g to ta l d e p th o f th e w e ll. P lo t th e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re (3 6 0 0 p s i) v e rs u s to ta l d e p th (1 0 ,0 0 0 fe e t). A

static fluid g ra d ie n t lin e (0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft.) is d ra w n fro m the static b o tto m h o le p re s s u re p o in t a t to ta l d e p th . T h is c u ts the depth scale at about 2250 feet and represents the flu id le v e l a t s h u t-in c o n d itio n s w ith n o s u rfa c e p re s - s u re . T h is a s s u m e s th a t th e fo rm a tio n w ill fre e ly ta k e flu id w h e n th e p re s s u re is h ig h e r in th e c a s in g th a n in th e fo rm a tio n . T h is is n o t a lw a y s th e c a s e a n d th e flu id le v e l m ig h t s ta n d h ig h e ri nth e w e ll th a n in d icated here. 2. A n a v a ila b le g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re lin e is draw n. S ta rtin g at 1200psig, the pressureincreases w ith d e p th d u e to th e s ta tic g a s c o lu m n . F o r th e c o n d itio n s d e s c rib e d , th e p r e s s u r e w ill in c re a s e a p p ro x im ately 30 psi per thousand feet of depth. The gas p re s s u re a t to ta l d e p th w ill b e 1 5 0 0 p s ig . T h is re p re s e n ts th e m a x im u m g a s p re s s u re a v a ila b le

at any d e p th . In o rd e r to in je c t g a s a t th e b o tto m o f th e w e ll, th e p ressu re i n th e tu b in g m ust be som ething less th a n 1 5 0 0 p s ig . A t 1 5 0 0 p s ig b o tto m h o le p re s s u re , th e w e ll w o u ld p ro d u c e 8 4 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y . (D ra w - dow n=3 6 0 0- 1 5 0 0 =2 1 0 0 p s i. P ro d u c tio n =0 .4x 2 1 0 0= 8 4 0 B A I). A s s u m in g5 0 0 M C F A ) is in je c te d a t 1 0 ,0 0 0 fe e t, th e tu b in g g a s -liq u id ra tio w o u ld re q u ire o v e r 2 ,0 0 0 p s ig flo w in g p re s s u re a t th e b o tto m o f th e tu b in g . T h e re fo re , it w o u ld n o t b e p o s s ib le to in je c t g a s a t 1 0 ,0 0 0 fe e t. G a s w o u ld h a v e to b e in je c te d a t s o m e h ig h e r p o in t in th e tu b in g s trin g . 3 . A s s u m e a p ro d u c in g ra te o f 4 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y to ta l flu id . T h e fo rm atio n has a w ater cut of 65 percent a n d a g a s -o il ra tio o f 3 0 0 c u b ic fe e t p e r b a rre l. T h is re p re s e n ts a p p ro x im a te ly a 1 0 0 g a s -liq u id ra tio . A t 4 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y to ta l liq u id p ro d u c tio n and a

p ro d u c tiv ity in d e x o f 0 .4 , th e w ell w ill requirea draw dow n of 1000 psi below th e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re o f 3 6 0 0 p s ig . A p o in t c a n b e lo c a te d a t to ta l d e p th a n d 2 6 0 0 p s ig . A g ra d ie n t c u rv e s ta rtin g a t th a t pointcanbedraw nupw ardasrepresented i n F ig . 6 -4 . T h is lin e , if d ra w n a ll th e w a y toOp re s s u re , w o u ld c u t th e d e p th c u rv e s o m e w h e re b e tw e e n 3 0 0 0 and 4000 fe e t.A b o v e th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n a to ta l g as-liq u id ratio o fa p p ro x im a te ly 1350 scf/stb w ill e x is t. T h is c o n s is ts o f th e fo rm a tio n g a s p lu s th e 5 0 0 M C F p e r d a y b e in g in je c te d . S in c e a w e llh e a d p re s - sure of 100 psig has been specified, a gradient curve c a n b e d ra w n s ta rtin g a tOd e p th a n d1 0 0 p s ig fo r th is h ig h e r g a s -liq u id ra tio . T h is g ra d ie n t lin e in te rs e c ts th e p re v io u s ly d ra w n g ra d ie n tlin ea t a p p ro x im a te ly 5 2 0 0 fe e t. T h e re fo re ,i f gas is injected at the rate of 5 0 0 M C F per day at 5200 feet, th e fo rm a tio n g a s liq u id ra tio g ra d ie n t lin e w ill e x is t fro m to ta l d e p th to th e p o in t o f in je c tio n a n d th e h ig h e r ra tio g ra d ie n t lin e a b o v e th a t p o in t. T h e w e ll w o u ld p ro d u c e th e s p e c ifie d4 0 0 barrels per day. The pressure in the

c o lu m n a t th e p o in t o f in je c tio n w o u ld b e a b o u t7 0 0 psig. Therefore, som e gas pressure greater than this a m o u n t w o u ld h a v e to b e a v a ila b lei no rd e r to in je c t. A s sh o w n in F ig . 6 -4 , a pressure of over 1300 psig w o u ld b e a v a ila b le a t th a t p o in t a n d c o u ld e a s ily in je c t in to th e tu b in g . F o llo w in g th e s a m e p ro c e d u re , a gradient curve m ay be draw n fo r 6 0 0 b a rre lsp er day. This has been d o n ei n F ig . 6 -4 and show s an in te rs e c tio n b e tw e e n th e tw o c u rv e s a ta p p ro x im a te ly 8 2 0 0 fe e t.T h e p r e s s u r e p o i n t i s a b o u t 1375 psig. The available gas pressure from th e g a s g ra d ie n t lin e is s lig h tly o v e r 1 4 0 0 p s ig a n d w ith s u c ha p r e s s u r e i tw o u ld b e p o s s ib le to in je c t a lim ite d a m o u n t o f g a s a t th is p o in t b e c a u s e o f th e la c k o f pressure differential at 8200 feet. A ssum ing no pres- sure drop has been taken for safety factor, w hich w ill be discussed later,i tw o u ld b e p o s s ib le to m a k e a m a x im u m of 600 barrels per day from this w ell by g a s liftin g . 4 .I fth e a b o v e p ro c e d u re is re p e a te d fo r v a rio u s ra te s , a s e rie s o f p o in ts c a n b e p lo tte d o n th e d e p th p re s s u re c u rv e re p re s e n tin g in je c tio n p o in ts fo r d iffe re n t p ro - d u c tio n ra te s .T h is

has been d o n e in F ig . 6 -5 fo r p ro d u c tio n in c re m e re s u ltin r iu mc u r in je c tio n g v n ts o f 1 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y to ta l flu id . T h e lin e fro m c o n n e c tin g th e s e p o in ts is called ane q u ilib e .This represents a con- tin u in g s e rie s o f p o s s ib le p o in ts fo r d iffe r- e n t p ro d u c tio n

rates. It should beem phasized th a t th is is n o t a g ra d ie n t c u rv e . A p o in t o n th e e q u ilib riu m c u rv e re p re s e n ts a s ta b iliz e d c o n d itio n of gas in je c tio n fo r a s p e c ific s e t o f c o n d itio n s . C o n s id e r th e p o in t o n th e c u rv e fo r4 0 0b a rre ls p e r d a y . T h e p o in t is at 5200 feet and7 0 0 p s ig . T h is p o in t is v a lid o n ly fo r th e s p e c ifie d c o n d itio n s o f tu b in g s iz e , w e llh e a d back pressure,gas in je c tio n ra te , w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity and other reservoir conditions. T he gas system p re s s u re is n o t n e c e s s a ry fo r d e v e lo p in g a n e q u ilib riu m curve. It is only necessary that adequate pressure be a v a ila b le to in je c t a t th e d e s ire d p o in t. A n e q u ilib - riu m c u rv e c a n b e v e ry u s e fu l in s tu d y in g g a s lift. F o r e x a m p le , w h e n g a s lift is s e le c te d a s a n a rtific ia l lift m e th o di n a field, a system pressure m ust be selected. T h re e d iffe re n t gas system pressures are shown at

800, 100, and 1 6 0 0 p s ig in F ig . 6 -5 . F o r th e g iv e n w e ll,8 0 0 p si g a s c o u ld b e in je c te d a t a b o u t 6 0 0 0 fe e t a n d a p ro d u c tio n ra te o f 4 5 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y w o u ld re s u lt. T h e 1 2 0 0 p s ig s y s te m g iv e s a p ro d u c tio n ra te of about 600 barrels per day. If a system pressure of 1 6 0 0 p s ig is s e le c te d , g a s c o u ld b e in je c te d at the b o tto m o f th e tu b in g s trin g a n d a p ro d u c tio n ra te o f a p p ro x im a te ly 700 barrels per day w ould result. It w o u ld b e o f n o b e n e fit f o r th is w e ll to h a v e a s y s te m p r e s s u r e g re a te r th a n 1 6 0 0 p s ig . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E tV T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 0 7 6 3 5 m 7 4 G as L ift 5 .O th e r p a ra m e te rs m a y a ls o b e s tu d ie d w ith th e e q u ilib riu m c u rv e . F o r a fie ld s tu d y it w o u ld b e n e c e s s a ry to s e le c t a ty p ic a l w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity a n d a ls o b e n e fi- c ia l to h a v e a n tic ip a te d m a x im u m a n d m in im u m p ro d u c tiv ity w e lls to e x a m in e . O th e r fa c to rs th a t

c o u ld b e e v a lu a te d w o u ld in c lu d e tu b in g size. For e x a m p le , if th e w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity o f T a b le 6 -1i s assum ed and the 1200 psi gas system is used, changin g th e tu b in g to 2 7 /s -in c h O .D . w ill re s u lt in a p ro d u c tio n ra te o f a b o u t7 0 0 b a rre ls p e r day. Further in c re a s in g th e tu b in g s iz e to 3 lh -in c h O .D . w ill re s u lt in a p ro d u c tio n ra te of about7 5 0b a rre ls p e r d a y . A n o th e r p a ra m e te r to c o n s id e r is th e a m o u n t o f g a s t o b e in je c te d .A rate of5 0 0 M CFperday w as a rb itra rily s e le c te d i n th is c a s e . T h is c o u ld b e th e to ta l a v a ila b le g a s o r it m ig h t b e th a t m o re g a s is a v a ila b le . In th e e x a m p le s h o w n

in Table6 -1 ,a n in c re a s e in in je c tio n g a s to7 5 0M C F p e r d a y w o u ld result in an increaseo f3 5b a rre ls p e r d a y liq u id p ro d u c tio n to a to ta l o f6 3 5 b a r r e ls p e r d a y . A fu rth e r in c re a s e in th e a m o u n t o f g a s to 1 0 0 0M CF p e r d a y w o u ld in c re a s e p ro d u c tio n o n ly a n a d d itio n a l5b a rre ls p e r d a y . F u rth e r in c re a s e s in the am ounto f g a s in je c te d w o u ld re s u lt in n o in c re a s e in p ro d u c tio n a n d a c tu a lly w o u ld s ta rt to c a u s e lo s s o f p ro d u c tio n . This dem onstratesaveryim portant p o in t in g a s lift d e s ig n . M any o p e ra to rs s im p ly a s s u m e th a t if s o m e g a s in je c te d d o e s s o m e g o o d th e n m o re g a s w o u ld d o m o re g o o d .A sg a s is in je c te d , it re s u lts in lig h te n in g th e c o lu m n b u t e v e ry c u b ic fo o t o f gas causes an increm ental increase in friction.A s g re a te r a n d g re a te r a m o u n ts o f g a s a re in je c te d , a p o in t is re a c h e d w h e re th e in c re a s e in fric tio n e q u a ls o r e x c e e d s th e re d u c tio n in p re s s u re d u e to th e re d u c e d d e n s ity in th e c o lu m n . S till a n o th e r fa c to r th a t c o u ld b e in v e s tig a te d w ith th e e q u ilib riu m c u rv e is th e e ffe c t o f tu b in g h e a d p re s s u re . In th e e x a m p le show n, a constant w ellhead pressure of1 0 0psig has b e e n a s s u m e d . T h is is re a lis tic if a v e ry s h o rt flo w lin e ex istssu chasano ffsh o rep latfo rm w ereth e

p ro d u c tio n fa c ilitie s m a y b e lo c a te d w ith in2 5o r5 0 fe e t o f th e w e llh e a d . T h is w o u ld n o t b e a re a lis tic a s s u m p tio n fo r a flo w lin e s e v e ra l th o u s a n d fe e t lo n g , p articu larly if th e flo w lin e is sm all in co m p ariso n to tu b in g s iz e .A h o riz o n ta l flo w m o d e l c a n b e in tro - d u c e d w h ic h w o u ld c a u s e th e tu b in g p re s s u re to v a ry w ith flo w ra te . T h is w o u ld a ffe c t th e e q u ilib riu m c u rv e a n d th e re s u ltin g p ro d u c tio n th a t c o u ld b e o b ta in e d fro m th e w e ll. T h e g re a te r th e tu b in g p re s - s u re , th e le s s p ro d u c tio n th a t w ill b e o b ta in e d fo r a g iv e n s e t o f c o n d itio n s . T h e e q u ilib riu m curve con- c e p ts le n d s its e lf p a rtic u la rly w e ll to m o d e lin g o n th e com puter, w here a large num ber of param eters can b e in v e s tig a te d ra p id ly . D e s ig n c o n s id e ra tio n s in P R E S S U R E ,P S I G7 F ig . 6 -4 G r a p h ic a l s o lu tio nf o r d e s ig n b a s e do n c o n d itio n so f T a b le6 -1 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 0 8 5 7 1 m C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 7 5 c lu d e d e te rm in in g w h a t s iz e tu b u la rs to p la c e in th e w ell and the volum es and pressures needed from the g a s in je c tio n s y s te m .T h e s e c o n s id e ra tio n s a re e q u a lly o r m o re im p o rta n t th a n d e s ig n o f s p a c in g a n d v a lv e s e ttin g . A n e ffic ie n t a n d p ro p e rly w o rk in g s y s - te m c a n n o t b e in s ta lle d u n le s s b o th a re d o n e .

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6 . T h e g r a d ie n t c u r v e a b o v e a n d b e lo w th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n fo r 6 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a ya s s h o w n in F ig . 6 -4 has been redraw n in F ig . 6 -6 to d e m o n s tra te v a lv e s p a c in g d e s ig n . T h e v a lv e s p a c in g c o u ld h a v e b e e n c o n tin u e d in F ig . 6 -4 b u t th e m u ltip lic ity o f lin e s w o u ld te n d to c re a te a degree of confusion. Two c o n s id e ra tio n s c o n tro l v a lv e s p a c in g . F irs t, it m ust b e p o s s ib le to d is p la c e liq u id fro m th e a n n u lu s to th e tu b in g d o w n to th e d e s ire d o p e ra tin g d e p th w ith th e available gas pressure. Secondly, it m ust be possible to o p e n a n y v a lv e u n d e r p ro d u c in g c o n d itio n s w ith - o u t o p e n in g th e v a lv e a b o v e it in th e s trin g . T h e d e p re s s e d d u e to th e d iffe re n c e in c a s in g a n d tu b in g pressure at the surface. The gas colum n pressure is s h o w n g ra p h ic a lly b y th e a v a ila b le g a s p re s s u re lin e . If a straight line is draw n from Od e p th a n d tu b in g head pressure w ith as lo p e e q u a l to th e

assum ed liq u id g ra d ie n t o f .4 6 5 p s i p e r fo o t th e m a x im u m p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n w illbew herethese lin e s in te rs e c t. T h is is s h o w n g ra p h ic a lly to b e a t2 5 3 0fe e t.I f th e w e ll c a n b e u n lo a d e d in to a p it a g a in s t a tm o s p h e ric p r e s s u r e ,th efirs t v a lv e c o u ld b e p la c e d a p p ro x im ately2 3 0 fe e t d e e p e r. If th e s ta tic flu id le v e li n th e w e ll is d e e p e r th a n th e c a lc u la te d lo c a tio n o f th ef i r s t v a lv e , th e firs t v a lv e c o u ld b e p la c e d a t th e s ta tic flu id le v e l. T h is w o u ld e n ta il s o m e ris k if th e fo rm a tio n w ill n o t fre e ly ta k e flu id w h e n th e tu b in g a n d c a s in g a n n u lu s a re lo a d e d . lo c a tio no f th e first v a lv e is s im p ly an exercise in U -tu b in g .I fin je c tio n pressure is put on the casing a n n u lu s ,th e flu id le v e l i n th e a n n u lu sw illb e 7 . T h e s a m e c rite riao f U -tu b in g fro m th e first v alv e to the second valve also exists. H ow ever, surface casin g a n d tu b in g p re s s u re a re n o lo n g e r a p p lic a b le . T h e T P 1 0 0P S I

4 o o P R E S S U R EP S I 0 1 8 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 O 2 0 0 c 4 0 0 C Wu. I Ibwn 6 0 0 C 8 0 0 C 1 0 ,o o cF ig .6 -5 G r a p h ic a ls o l u t i o n f o r d e s ig n b a s e do n c o n d itio n s o f T a b le 6 -I (C o n tin u e d ) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. -, ,, ,,, , , ,,,- - ,, ,, , ,, ---

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A P I T I T L E x V T - L 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532909 408 W 7 6 G as L ift c a s in g p re s s u re a v a ila b le is s till th e g a s g ra d ie n t lin e . T h e p re s s u re in th e tu b in g w ill d e p e n d o n h o w m u c h the pressure is draw n dow ni nth e tu b in g d u e to th e in je c tio no fg a sf r o m th e c a s in g . F ro m th e e q u ilib riu m c u rv ei nF ig . 6 -5 , it w o u ld a p p e a r th a t if g a s is injected at 2500 feet a production rate of a little less than 200 barrels per day w ill result. The pressure in th e tu b in g w ill b e re d u c e d to a b o u t 2 8 0 p s i. H o w e v e r, it is com m on practice to use the higherpressure

re s u ltin g fro m a g ra d ie n t lin e e x p e c te d fro m th e a n tic ip a te d p ro d u c tio n ra te o f 6 0 0 b a rre ls a d a y . T h is is a b o u t 4 2 0 p s i. T h e e q u ilib riu m c u rv e th e o re tic a lly c o u ld b e u s e d in s p a c in g th e v a lv e s w o rk in g d o w n - h o le . H o w e v e r, w h e n th e w e ll s ta rte d to p ro d u c e a t the expected 600 barrel per day rate, a higher pres- s u r e w o u ld e x is t o p p o s ite th e to p v a lv e th a n th e p r e s s u r e u s e d i n s e ttin g th e s e v a lv e s . T h is c o u ld cause valve interference. The higherpressure u s e d fo r spacing represents som e degree of safety factor. Subsequent valves are designed in the sam e m anner a s v a lv e s1a n d2 . F ig . 6 -6 s h o w s th e lo c a tio no f th e s e v a lv e s re s u ltin g in a d e s ig n o f7v a lv e s w ith th e b o t- to m v a lv e lo c a te d a t 8 2 5 0 feet. V alves are spaced c lo s e r to g e th e r a t d e p th in c re a s e s b e c a u s e th e m in - im um tu b in g p re s s u re g e ts n e a re r th e .a v a ila b le c a s in g p r e s s u r e . I tis c o m m o n p ra c tic e to c a rry th e s p a c in g d e s ig n d o w n to th e p o in t w h e re p re d ic te d tu b in g a n d c a s in g p re s s u re d iffe re n tia l is5 0p s i.A s p o in te d o u t la te r, o n e o r tw o m o re v a lv e s at som e m inim um

spacing m ay be added. 8. T he closing force (spring or dom e pressure) to be set o n e a c h v a lv e is d e te rm in e d u s in g c a s in g a n d tu b in g p re ssu re s fro m T a b le 6 -2 . F o r exam ple,suppose P R E S S U R E ,P S I O 4 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 2 0 0 c WWL L S O O C I' oI&W 6 0 0 C 8 0 0 C 1 0 ,o o c ~ F ig . 6 -6 G r a p h ic a l s o lu tio n f o r d e s ig n b a s e d o n c o n d itio n s o f T a b le 6 -1 ( c o n tin u e d ) Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 L O L 2 T m C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 7 7 c o n v e n tio n a l v a lv e s w e re s e le c te d w ith o u t a s p rin g

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a n d w ith a v a lv e s te m a re a th a t i s 1 0 percent of b e llo w s a re a . T h e n v a lv e2w o u ld h a v e a c a lc u la te d dom epressureof1 2 7 3 p s ig (1 3 3 4 ~ 0 .9 0 + 7 1 5 ~ 0 .1 0 = 1 2 7 3 ).T he valve pressure w ould be set in the shops o th a t it w o u ld h a v e1 2 7 3 p s i a t th e o p e ra tin g te m p e ra - tu re a t4 5 0 0fe e t. A ll g a s lift c o m p a n ie s h a v e c h a rts fo r m a k in g th e p ro p e r c o n v e rs io n . T h u s th e v a lv e s trin g w o u ld b e (A s s u m in g v a lv e p o rt a re a=1 0p e rcent bellows area): T A B L E 6 -2 T A B U L A T IO NO F P R E S S U R E W IT H D E P T H D e p th C asing P r e s s . Tubing Press. D om e P ress. fe e t P sig P sig P sig 2 5 3 0 1 2 7 5 4 2 0 1 1 9 0 4 5 0 0 1 3 3 5 7 1 5

1 2 7 3 5 9 0 0 1 3 7 5 9 5 0 1 3 3 3 6 9 0 0 1 4 0 5 1 1 2 0 1 3 7 7 7 5 0 0 1 4 2 5 1 2 4 0 1 4 0 7 7 9 0 0 1 4 3 5 1 3 2 0 1 4 2 4 8 2 5 0 1 4 4 5 1 3 9 0 1 4 4 0 S a fe ty F a c to rs in G as L ift D e s ig n A s s ta te d p re v io u s ly , th e e x a m p le d e s ig n h a s b e e n m a d e c o m p le te ly w ith o u t s a fe ty fa c to r e x c e p t a s d e s c rib e d u n d e r ite m7 .B e c a u s e o f th is , it is a lm o s t a c e rta in ty th a t it w o u ld n o t w o rk if in s ta lle d in a w e ll. A ll g a s lift c o m p a n ie s p u t som e safety factori nth e ir re c o m m e n d e d d e s ig n b u t d o it b y differentm eans.A lso, th e y g e n e ra lly d o n o t la b e l it a s

s a fe ty fa c to r.T h e fo llo w in g d is c u s s io n c o n ta in s v a rio u s w ays of a d d in g s a fe ty fa c to r. T he first elem ent of dangeri nth e d e s ig n is th e g a s p re s - sure used. The available pressure is listed at1 2 0 0p s i a n d this w as used. If this is m axim um , then som e low er pressure s h o u ld b e u s e d t o a llo w for m inor losses and control of in je c tio n rate. T he pressure decrease w ill d e p e n d o n fie ld c o n d itio n s b u t s h o u ld n e v e r b e le s s th a n5 0 psi. Therefore, 1 15 0 psigo r less should have been used as w orking casing p r e s s u r e if1 2 0 0 p s ig is a b s o lu te m a x im u m a v a ila b le . T h e re a re tw o m a in c o n s id e ra tio n s i n g a s liftv a lv e d e s ig n . It m u s t b e p o s s ib le to d is p la c e liq u id fro m th e c a s in g in to th e tu b in g dow n to th e d e s ire d o p e ra tin g d e p th w ith the available gas pressure, and it m ustbe p o s s ib le to o p e n a n y v a lv e u n d e r p ro d u c in g c o n d itio n s w ith o u t o p e n in g th e v a lv e a b o v e iti nth e s trin g . S p a c in g d e s ig n in th e e x a m p le s h o u ld b e c a p a b

le o f a c h ie v in g th e firs t c o n s id e ra tio n . H ow ever, if all dom e pressure w ere set exactly as designed, a n d if th e w e ll p ro d u c tio n w a s e x a c tly a s e x p e c te d w ith th e g ra d ie n t a n tic ip a te d , tu b in g a n d c a s in g p re s s u re s w o u ld c a u s e a ll v a lv e s to o p e n s im u lta n e o u s ly . T h is , of course, w o u ld b e a v e ry u n d e s ira b le c o n d itio n a n d s o m e s a fe ty factorm ust b e in c lu d e d i n o rd e r to p re v e n t th is fro m o c c u rrin g . O ne m eans o f in c lu d in g s a fe ty fa c to r i n th e d e s ig n is illu s tra te d in F ig . 6 -7 .T h is m e th o d in tro d u c e s a s a fe ty factor by re d u c in g th e c a s in g p re s s u re re q u ire d to o p e n e a c h v a lv e s u c c e s s iv e ly dow n th e h o le . I n

F ig .6 -7 ,th e exam ple design is redone using a drop in casing pressure of 2 0psi ateach valve. (The 2 0 psi drop is an arbitrary am ount s e le c te d h e re .) T h u s th e firs t v a lv e is lo c a te d in e x a c tly th e sam e m anner as previously since m axim um casing pressure w ill b e a v a ila b le to o p e n th is v a lv e . H o w e v e r, th e o p e ra tin g p re s s u re re q u ire d to o p e n th e s e c o n d v a lv e w ill b e d ro p p e d 2 0p s i b e l o w th a t re q u ire d fo r th e firs t v a lv e . T h is c a n b e done by draw ing an available gas pressure lin ep a ra lle l to th e e x is tin g lin e a tth ereduced pressure.T he spacing is c a rrie d o u t g ra p h ic a lly in th e s a m e m a n n e r a s b e fo re . H o w - e v e r, th e a v a ila b le d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re fo r U -tu b in g a t e a c h v a lv e is reduced because o f th e d ro p in casing pressure d e e p e ri nth e w e ll. T h u s th e s p a c in go f th e v a lv e s b e lo w th e top valve is reduced because of the drop in casing pressure d e e p e r in th e w e ll. T h e re fo re th e s p a c in go fth e v a lv e s b e - lo w th e to p v a lv e is s lig h tly c lo s e r to g e th e r. A s c a n b e s e e n fro m th e d e s ig n , th e p o in t a t w h ic h a m in im u m 5 0 psi diffe re n tia l b e tw e e n c a s in g p re s s u re a v a ila b le a n d tu b in g p re s sure occurs

a t a s h a llo w e r d e p th in the w ell. In this case th e b o tto m v a lv e w o u ld b e lo c a te d a t 7 8 0 0 feetw here a tu b in g p re ssu re o f a p p ro x im a te ly 1 2 7 0p s i g a n d c a s i n g pressure of 1 3 2 0 p s ig w o u ld e x is t. P ro je c tin g a g ra d ie n t lin e fro m th is p o in t b a c k to th e p ro d u c in g d e p th at a gas liq u id ra tio o f 1 0 0 results in a n e s tim a te d p ro d u c in g bottom hole pressure of2 1 8 0p s ig a n d a p ro d u c tio n ra te o f 5 7 0b a rre ls p e r d a y . T h u s th e d is a d v a n ta g e o f th is m e th o d is th a t le s s p ro d u c tio n w ill b e o b ta in e d fro m th e w e ll w h e n th e re is n o t s u ffic ie n t g a s p re s s u re to in je c t a ll th e w a y to

th e b o tto m o f th e h o le . In th is c a s e u s in g th e s a m e a m o u n t o f g a s b u t in je c tin g a t4 5 0f t .s h a llo w e r in th e h o le re s u lts in a p ro d u c tio n loss of3 0b a rre ls p e r d a y . T h is illu s tra te s th e d e s ira b ility o f a lw a y s in je c tin g g a s a tth em a x im u m depth possible.H ow ever, i fth e e x p e c te d tu b in g g ra d ie n t e x is ts in th e w e ll, th e n e a c h v a lv e c o u ld b e o p e n e d w ith a p p ro x im a te ly 2 0 psi lesscasing pressure th a n w o u ld b e re q u ire d to o p e n th e v a lv e im m e d ia te ly a b o v e it. T h u s , th e p u rp o s e o f b e in g a b le to s e le c tiv e ly o p e n th e v a lv e s fro m th e b o tto m u p w o u ld b e a c h ie v e d . A d iffe re n t m e a n s o f in c lu d in g s a fe ty fa c to rs is illu s tra te d in F ig .6 -8 .T h is w a s o rig in a lly in tro d u c e d u n d e r th e n a m e O p tiflo w d e s ig n . T h e V a ria b le G ra d ie n t d e s ig n is e s s e n tia lly

the sam e th in g . T h e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n is d e te rm ined as previously discussed and show n in Fig. 6 -4 .Som e p s e u d o flo w in g w e llh e a d p re s s u re h ig h e r th a n th e e x p e c te d w e llh e a d p re s s u re is s e le c te d . G e n e ra lly the pseudo w e llhead pressure selected w ill b e th e e x p e c te d flo w in g w e llhead pressure plus 2 0 percent of the difference b e tw e e n tubing and casing pressure.I nth e e x a m p le , th is w o u ld b e 1 0 0+ 0 .2 (1 2 0 0- 1 0 0 )= 3 2 0 p si.A straig h t lin e is d raw n fro m th is s u rfa c e p re s s u re to th e tu b in g p re s s u re a t th e p o in t o f a n tic ip a te d g a s in je c tio n . T h is b e c o m e s a p s e u d o flo w in g p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re lin e , a n d is referred to as “ V a ria b le Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. -, ,, ,,, , , ,,,- - ,, ,, , ,, ---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 V W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 1 1 0 6 6 W 7 8 G as L ift G ra d ie n t” d e s ig n . T h e firs t v a lv e is lo c a te d in e x a c tly th e sam e m anner as previously d is c u s s e d , u s in g th e e x p e c te d w e llh e a d pressure and a n tic ip a te d in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re .

H ow ever, below th is p o in t in s te a do fd e s ig n in g o n th e b a s is o f e x p e c te d flo w in g p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re w ith th e a n tic ip a te d g ra d ie n t, th e p s e u d o p ro d u c tio n p ressu re lin e is used. These production pressures are used both in spacing th e v a lv e s b e lo w th e firs t v a lv e a n d in s e ttin g th e d o m e pressures in the valve. T he dom e pressure w ill be sets o th a t th e v a lv e w ill n o t o p e n w ith o u t th e m in im u m pseudo production pressure.T hisbecom esthe m inim um pressure n e e d e d fo r U -tu b in g d o w n the nextvalve,andrequires closer spacing of valves. In this case,1 0 v a lv e s a re re q u ire d to s p a c e to th e s a m e d e p th th a t w a s o b ta in e d w ith7v a lv e s u s in g n o sa fe ty fa c to r.H o w e v e r,fu llc a sin g p re ssu re is a v a ila b le a t th e d e p th o f in je c tio n a n d th e a n tic ip a te d6 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y s h o u ld b e p ro d u c e d fro m th e w e ll.T h e lim ita tio n to th is m e th o d o f d e s ig n is th a t th e s a fe ty fa c to r is p la c e d o n th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re ; th a t is , w h e n th e w

e ll is p ro d u c in g fro m th e a n tic ip a te d d e p th o f in je c tio n , th is v a lv e w ill b e o p e n b u t a ll v a lv e s a b o v e it w ill h a v e le s s p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re th a n th a t re q u ire d to o p e n th e v a lv e . T h is p ro v id e s s u ffic ie n t s a fe ty fa c to r fo r v a lv e s w h ic h h a v e a high degree of production pressure effect. H ow ever, in the ty p e o f v a lv e c o m m o n ly u s e d w h e re th e p ro d u c tio n p re s - sure effect is1 0p e rc e n t o r le s s , th is d o e s n o t in tro d u c e a s u ffic ie n t s a fe ty fa c to r ig n . W ith n o rm a l in je c tio n -p re it is n e c e s s a ry to u s e th e m e th tio n g a s p re s s u re . T h e V a ria b e u s e d w ith p ro d u c tio n p re s sure operated valves.T hus,tw o m ethods o f in tro d u c in g s a fe ty fa c to r fo r o p e n in g th e v a lv e s a re a v a ila b le . H o w e v e r, th e m e th o d u s e d is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e ty p e o f v a lv e s è le c te d . T he am ount of safety factor w hich should be used in any g iv e n d e s ig n w ill d e p e n d o n fie ld c o n d itio n s . If fu ll a llo w PRESSURE, PSI O 4 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 6 0 0 to a llo w fo r a w o rk in g d e s s s u re -o p e ra te d v a lv e s o d o f d ro p p in g th e in je c le G ra d ie n t d e s ig n c a n b

1 2 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 O 2 0 0 0 FW~ 4 o o (l I ’ kLWo 6 0 0 8 8 0 0 C 1 0 ,0 0 0 I I 3 ’\6 7 6 0 ’ q p g : 7 8 0 0 ’ F ig .6 -7 Exam ple design using casing dropo f2 0 psi Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E + V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 3 2 T T 2 C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 7 9 a b le c a n b e m a d e o r g a s c a n b e in je c te d fro m b o tto m w itha d e s ig n e m p lo y in g s u b s ta n tia l s a fe ty fa c to r, th e n th e d e s ig n e n g in e e r h a s little e x c u s e fo r lo w e rin g th e s a fe ty fa c to r a n d ris k in g a n u n w o rk a b le d e s ig n . O n th e o th e r h a n d , if c o n s id e ra b le a d d e d p ro d u c tio n is a v a ila b le , th e n h a v in g to p u ll a n u n w o rk a b le s trin g o c c a s io n a lly m ay b e w ell w o rth w h ile d e p e n d in g o n th e c o s t

 

 

   

 

   

 

o f trip p in g th e tu b in g . S a v in g o n e v a lv ei nas trin g d e s ig n is c o m m e n d a b lei f m in im u m ris k is in v o lv e d b u t is n o ti nth e s a m e le a g u e w itha s iz a b le in c re a s e i np ro d u c tio n o ralarger decrease i n gas usage. D o w n h o le T e m p e ra tu re fo r D e s ig n P u rp o s e s T h e d o w n h o le te m p e ra tu re to b e u s e d in s e ttin g th e v a lv e s d e p e n d s u p o n th e ty p e v a lv e u s e d . I fav a lv e i s s e le c te d w h ic h d e p e n d s u p o n a s p rin g to p ro v id e th e c lo s in g fo rc e , th e te m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n is not required.W here n itro g e n c h a rg e d b e llo w s a re u s e d , th e te m p e ra tu re a t th e o p e ra tin g c o n d itio n m u s t be corrected.I fac o n v e n tio n a l m a n d re lis u s e d w ith th e g a s l i f tv a lv e m o u n te d i n th e c a s in g -tu b in g a n n u lu s

a n d n o t in th e flo w s tre a m of the tu b in g ,i ti sg e n e ra lly a s s u m e d th a t e a rth te m p e ra tu re w ill e x is t in th e v a lv e d o m e . T h is te m p e ra tu re is re a d ily a v a ila - ble in m ostfields a n d u s u a lly c o n s is ts o f a s tra ig h t lin e g ra d ie n tb e tw e e n b o tto m h o le te m p e ra tu re a n d g ro u n d te m p e ra tu reafew feet below th e s u rfa c e .I fa ty p e v a lv e is used w hich m o u n ts in s id e th e tu b in g a n d is e x p o s e d to th e flo w in g w ell flu id s,i t is g e n e ra lly a s s u m e d th a t th e te m p e ra - tu re in th e b e llo w .6 -9isa c h a rt te m p e ra tu re th e s u rfa c e a s tra ig h t lin e te m p e ra tu re g ra d ie n t w ill e x is t b e tw e e n s u rfa c e P R E S S U R E ,P S I WIWL L I t W P 1 .F ig . 6 -8 s is by K g ra is d e q u a l to th e irk p a tric k fo d ie n t. O n c e e te rm in e d it w e ll flu id te m p e r d e te rm in in g th th e flo w in g te m p is fre q u e n tly a s ra tu re . F e flo w - in e ra tu re a s u m e d th ig g t a t

 

V a r ia b le g r a d ie n t d e s ig n Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 0732290 0532933 9 3 9 80 G as L ift I I 1II lII 0.3 0.20.1O I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I 1 I L

1 2 3 4 5 a 7 a o 10 1 1 12 1 3 14 16 t e 1 7 10 l o 20 TO TA L F L U ID FLO W R A T E1 0 0 BBLW DAY F ig . 6 -9 Flowing tem perature gradientfor differentflow rates, geotherm al gradients, and tubing sizes Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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&PI T IT L E x V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 7 1 4 875 C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ie n M e th o d s 8 1 a n d b o tto m h o le te m p e ra tu re . T h is is s lig h tly in e rro r a s th e w e ll flu id s w ill le a v e b o tto m a t e a rth te m p e ra tu re .A s th e w e ll flu id s m o v e u p th e tu b in g , th e y w ill b e w a rm e r th a n th e su rro u n d in g e a rth te m p e ra tu re s a n d w ill b e c o o le d by the e a rth . T h is c o o lin g ra te w ill in c re a s e a s th e te m p e ra tu re d iffe re n tia l b e tw e e n th e w e ll flu id s a n d th e e a rth in c re a s e s . For a given flow rate this w ill usually increase to som e fixed d iffe re n tia l a n d th e n c o n tin u e a t th a t d iffe re n tia l u n til th e w ell fluids reach the surface or verynear the surface. A m o re re a lis tic te m p e ra tu re p ro file i sillu s tra te d in F ig . 6 -1 0 . V a rio u s p ro g ra m sfo re la b o ra te h e a t c a lc u la tio n s have been published, but these require a know ledge of heat tra n s fe r c o e ffic ie n ts th a t is u s u a lly b e y o n d w h a t is a v a ila - b le . F ig . 6 -1 0a ls os h o w s th e s tra ig h t lin e a s s u m p tio n th a ti

s u s e d i n m ost design c a lc u la tio n s . In a c tu a lity , th e s tra ig h t lin e te m p e ra tu re g ra d ie n t w ill p ro v id e s o m e a d d itio n a l A c tu a l C o n d itio n s D iffe r e n tF ro m D e s ig n C o n d itio n s T he ll p 6-11 th a previous design discussion has assum ed exact know l- e d g e o f th e w e ro d u c tiv ity .I na c tu a l c a s e s , th is s e ld o m happens. Fig. show s the effect on an actual productiv- ity g re a te ro rle s s th a n t w h ic h w a s u s e d

i nm a k in g th e g a s lift d e s ig n . I f , for the assum ed case,the p ro d u c tiv ity tu rn e d o u t to b e o n ly h a lf w h a t w a s a s s u m e d , th a t is , a P I o f . 2in s te a d o f. 4 B L P D /p s i, th e s y s te m w ill readily u n lo a d d o w n to th e b o tto m v a lv e . B e c a u s e o f th e lo w e r p ro d u c tiv ity , th e w e ll w ill m a k e s u b s ta n tia lly le s s p ro d u c tio n th a n e x p e c te d . In th is c a s e , o p e ra tin g o ff th e b o tto m v a lv e , th e w e ll w o u ld p ro d u c e a b o u t 3 6 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y . T h is p o in ts u p th e b e n e fit o f v a lv in g som ew hatlow er

th a n e x p e c te d n e e d .I nth is c a s e , if th e w e ll is v a lv e d to b o tto m ,i t w o u ld m a k e s o m e th in g o v e r 4 0 0b a rre ls a d a y o p e ra tin g n e a r b o tto m . safety factorsince th e te m p e ra tu re o f a ll v a lv e s a b o v e th e If, o n th e o th e r h a n d , th e p ro d u c tiv ity tu rn e d o u t to b e o p e ra tin g v a lv e is p ro b a b ly s o m e w h a th ig h e r th a n w as g re a te r th a n e x p e c te d , a d iffe re n t c o n d itio n w o u ld e x is t. assum edi n setting it. T his w ill cause the dom e pressure to A s s u m e th a t th e p ro d u c tiv ity is d o u b le w h a t w a s p re d ic te d , b e h ig h e r th a n a n tic ip a te d a n d w ill g iv e a d d itio n a l fo rc e to that is, a PI of. 8in s te a d o f. 4 B L P D /p s i. T h e e q u ilib riu m k e e p th e v a lv e c lo s e d w hen o p e ra tin g a t a lo w e r p o in t. c u rv e fo r th is c o n d itio ni sp lo tte d a ls o o n F ig .6 -1 1 .I f th e T h e s e h ig h e r te m p e ra tu re s m a y n o t o c c u r if o p e ra tin g a t th e w e ll is d e s ig n e d fo r th is h ig h e r p ro d u c tiv ity , a p ro d u c

tio n lo w e r flo w ra te s . r a teo f c lo s e to8 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y w ill re s u lt, w ith g a s b e in g T E M P E R A T U R E- * F O 4 0 8 0 1 2 0 1 6 0 2 0 0 0 1 F L O W IN G G R A D IE N T F R O M F IG . 6 -9 0 .7 " /1 0 0F T . 2 0 0 0A S S U M E D T E M P .P R O F IL E IF S T R A IG H T L IN E I S U S E D tW E 4 0 0 0 cXI WOn

A C T U A LI S C U R V E D (E S T IM A T E-N O T C A L C U L A T E D ) 6 0 0 0E A R T H G R A D IE N T 1 .2 " /1 0 0F T . 1 0 .0 0 0

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F ig . 6 -1 0 S tr a ig h t lin ea n d a c tu a l te m p e r a tu r e p r o file s Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E + V T -6 9 4 0732290 0532935 703 8 2 G as L ift in je c te d a t a b o u t6 8 0 0 fe e t. A lth o u g h th e re is a v a lv e a t6 9 0 0 fe e t, in je c te d g a s w ill n o t re a c h th is d e p th w ith th e e x is tin g s p a c in g d e s ig n . T h e w e ll w ill n o t b e a b le to u n lo a d b e lo w th e v a lv e a t5 9 0 0 fe e t a n d th is w ill re s u lt in a p ro d u c tio n ra te o f ju s t o v e r7 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y . T h e fo u r b o tto m v a lv e s w ill b e o f n o b e n e fit u n le s s th e p ro d u c tiv ity la te r d e c lin e s a n d th e w e ll w o rk s d o w n to o n e o f th e s e v a lv e s . T h is p o in ts u p th en e e d to a lw a y s o v e r-p re d ic t ra th e r

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

th a n u n d e r-p re d ic t th e w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity i fexact data are n o t a v a ila b le . T h e p e n a lty fo r o v e r-p re d ic tin g th e p ro d u c tiv ity is th a t m o re v a lv e s w ill b e p la c e d in th e h o le th a n w o u ld h a v e o th e rw is e b e e n u s e d . T h a t is , s p a c in g w o u ld b e c lo s e r to g e th e r in th e s trin g . U n d e r-p re d ic tin g p ro d u c tiv ity , o n th e o th e r h a n d , r e s u ltsi nle s s p ro d u c tio n . A ls o , th e e ffic ie n c yo f th e s y s te m is re d u c e d d u e to in je c tin g h ig h e ri nth e h o le . S o m e tim e s th e m is ta k e o f u n d e re s tim a tin g p ro d u c tiv ity m ig h t be over- c o m e b y in je c tin g g a s in h ig h e r q u a n titie s th a n a n tic ip a te d . H o w e v e r, th e p ro b le m o f w o rk in g d o w n fro m o n e v a lv e to th e n e x t m a y s till p re v e n t th is b e n e fit. D E S IG N IN G G A S L IF T F O R O F F S H O R E IN S T A L L A T IO N S In m a rin e o p e ra tio n s , w h e re th e p u llin g o f tu b in g c a n b e d u c tio n is a n tic ip a te d . A ls o , o n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f m u ltiv e ry e x p e n s iv e , it is c o m m o n p ra c tic e to in s ta ll g a s lift w ell p latfo rm s it m ay be n e c e s s a ryt od o th e d e s ig n s p a c in g m a n d re ls in th e tu b in g s trin g a t th e tim eth ew e ll is com o f th e m a n d re ls w ith o n ly m in im u m p ro d u c tiv ity in fo rm a -

p le te d e v e n th o u g h a c o n s id e ra b le p e rio d o f flo w in g p ro tio n . V a rio u s te c h n iq u e s h a v e b e e n d e v e lo p e d o v e r th e T P 1 0 0P 81 P R E S U R E- P S I O ~ ~ 40 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 6 0 0 2 0 0 0 O 2 0 0 c kWWI SW L 4 o o a tn e o o a 1so o a 1 0 ,0 0 0 \ /U 0 0 B /D B ID P I=0 .8 F ig .6 -1 1 -

Actual vs. assumed productivity profiles Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 ’9 L b 6 4 8

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

m C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift D e s ig n M e th o d s 8 3 y e a rsi n a n o m e ra n g eo c e a n u p p e ll. U s u a lly n is d e v e lo e ffo rt to s a tis fa c to rily s o lv f w ell productivity m ust be assum ed. r lim it o n w h a t m ig h t b e e x p th is u p p e r lim it is a s s u m e d p e d w h ic h c o u ld h a n d le e th is p ro b le m . S Iti s necessary to p la e c te d fro m th e w e a n d th e n a d e s ig

w e lls o f le s s p ro d u c tiv ity as efficiently as possible. A g e n e ra lly a c c e p te d m e th o d o f d o in g th is ist od e s i g n th e first tw o o r th re e v a lv e s u s in g th is h ig h e s t a s s u m e d p ro d u c tiv ity o r p ro d u c tio n ra te . T h e n as valves are placed progressively deeper in the w ell a gra- d ie n t fro m v a lv e to v a lv e is a s s u m e d b a s e d o n lo w e r p ro d u c tiv ity . A n a lte rn a te s o m e tim e s used is to space on an assum ed p ro d u c tiv ity u n til som e m inim um m andrel spacin g is re a c h e d . M a n d re ls a re th e n p la c e d a t th is m in im u m (u s u a lly 2 0 0t o 5 0 0 feet)spacing for s e v e ra l a d d itio n a l v a lv e so rto p a c k e r d e p th . T o s e t v a lv e si n e x is tin g m a n d re ls , th e

d e s ig n e r d e te rm in e s th e m a x im u m d e p th o fth e firs t v a lv e . T h e v a lv e is p la c e d in th e firs t m a n d re l th a t is a t th a t d e p th o rh ig h e r i n th eh o le . T h e n th e n e x t v a lv e m ust be spaced from th e a c tu a l lo c a tio n of the first v a lv e e v e n th o u g h th is m ig h t b e s u b s ta n tia lly h ig h e r th a n th e m a x im u m d e p th th a t th e firs t v a lv e c o u ld h a v e b e e n p la c e d . F o r e x a m p le , in m a n y o ld e r fie ld s in th e G u lf o f M e x ic o , m a n d re ls a re in p la c e th a t w e re d e s ig n e d w ith e x p e c te d s y s te m p r e s s u r e s u b s ta n tia lly lo w e r th a n a c tu a lly e x is ts a t th is tim e . I n som e cases,itispossible to skip m andrels

a n d p la c e th e v a lv e s a t th e n e x t lo w e s t m a n d re l. T h e p ro c e s s c o n tin u e s d o w n h o le i n th is m a n n e r: fro m th e p re v io u s v a lv e lo c a tio n d e te rm in e th e m a x im u m d e p th th a t th e n e x t v a lv e c o u ld b e s p a c e d a n d th e n p ic k th e n e x t h ig h e r m a n d re l a b o v e th a t d e p th . A D V A N T A G E S O F C O N T IN U O U S F L O W O V E R IN T E R M IT E N T F L O W G A S L IF T T h e te c h n o lo g y fo r p re d ic tin g c o n tin u o u s flo w g ra d ie n ts o f flu id b e in g p ro d u c e d in to th e s u rfa c e e q u ip m e n t h a s d e v e lo p e d g re a tly o v e r th e la s t 20 to3 0y e a r s . T h e a t a v e ry h ig h ra te . T h e v a ria tio n in flo w rate from a b ility to p re d ic t in te rm itte n tflo w such as occurs in interth e fo rm a tio n is not asgreatbutsom evariation m itte n t g a sl i f t is le s s h ig h ly d e v e lo p e d . C o n tin u o u s g a s lift o c c u rs a n d th is c a n b e d e trim e n ta li f a s a n d p ro b le m

h a s c e rta in a d v a n ta g e s o v e r in te rm itte n t lift. T h e s e a re : e x is ts . 1 . C o n tin u o u s g a s lift fu lly u tiliz e s th e fo rm a tio n g a s . T h e in je c te d g a s is a d d e d to the form ation g a s to a rriv e a t th e to ta l o p tim u m ra tio n e e d e d a b o v e th e p o in t o f in je c tio n . In te rm itte n t g a s lift w astes any fo rm atio n g a s e n e rg y b e c a u s e th e g a s is a llo w e d to ris e th ro u g h a c c u m u la tin g liq u id h e a d d u rin g th e b u ild u p p e rio d a n d m o v e s o n u p th e tu b in g . A ll g a s u s e d i nth e liftin g p ro c e s s m u s t b e s u p p lie d . 2 .C o n tin u o u s g a sl i f t p ro d u c e s a t a re la tiv e ly c o n s ta n t ra te . A lth o u g h g a s lift isi nth e s lu g flo w re g im e , th e s lu g s a re u s u a lly re la tiv e ly s m a ll in s iz e a n d p ro d u c tion rate to the separator and other surface facilities is fa irly c o n s ta n t. T h is is n o t th e c a s e w ith in te rm it- te n t lift. T h e p ro d u c tio n ra te v a rie s w id e ly w ith a s lu g 3 .If th e w e ll is m a k in g s o m e s a n d a lo n g w ith th e liq u id p ro d u c tio n , th e s h u ti n period in w hich flow is n o t o c c u rrin g w ill a llo w th e s a n d to fa ll b a c k a ro u n d a n y e q u ip m e n t in th e h o le a n d c a n b e a s e rio u s p ro b le m . W h e re s a n d is b e in g p ro d u c e d , c o n tin u o u s g a s lift is a d v a n ta g e o u s .

4.I nc o n tin u o u s g a s lift, th e g a s is in je c te d at a rela- tiv e ly c o n s ta n t ra te . T h is c a n b e d o n ei nin te rm itte n t lift a lth o u g h c o n tro l o f th e in te rm itte n t lift c y c le w o rk s b e tte ri n m ost cases ifa tim e c y c le c o n tro lle r is used at the surface and gas is injected into the w ell p e rio d ic a lly . If th e g a s lift s u p p ly g a s s y s te m is rela- tiv e ly s m a ll, it is v e ry d iffic u lt to m a in ta in a c o n s ta n t s y s te m pressure with these periodic surges of gas. DUAL GAS L IF T IN S T A L L A T IO N S D u a l g a s lift (th e p ro d u c in g o f tw o z o n e s fro m the sam e w e llb o re b y g a s lift w ith o u t c o m m in g lin g th e w ell fluids in th e w e llb o re ) w ill b e d is c u s s e d b rie fly . D u a l c o m p le tio n s b e c a m e fa irly w id e s p re a d d u rin g th e 1 9 6 0 sp rim arily because ofvery restrictive allow ables. W hen artificial lift becam e necessary, dual gas lift w as one of the m ore com - m o n m e th o d s s e le c te d . A lth o u g h d u a l g a sl i f t is o n e o f th e b e s tm e th o d s o f d u a la rtific ia llift,itis u s u a lly v e ry in e ffic ie n t. A s m e n tio n e d e a rlie r, th e w e ll p ro d u c tiv ity m u s t b e e s

tim a te d w h e n a g a s lift d e s ig n is m a d e . If, a s u s u a lly o c c u rs , th e p ro d u c tiv ity is n o t a s e s tim a te d , th e d e s ig n w ill selfadjust by o p e ra tin g fro m a d iffe re n t v a lv e o r a t a s lig h tly different casing pressure. In m ost dual system s, both tubing stringstake gasfrom the sam e com m on gassource, th e a n n u lu s . In try in g to a d ju s t to th e d iffe re n t p ro d u c tiv itie s , th e s y s te m w ill fre q u e n tly a llo w e x tra g a s t o g o i no n e tu b in g s trin g w h ile s ta rv in g th e o th e r s id e . T h is r e s u lts i n o n eo r b o th z o n e s p ro d u c in g a t le s s th a n o p tim u m ra te . T h e m o s t c o m m o n d e s ig n p ro c e d u re is to u s e v a lv e s o f s ig n ifi- c a n tly d iffe re n t o p e ra tin g c h a ra c te ris tic s in je c tio n pressure-operated in one string and production pressure o p e ra te d i nth e o th e r. H o w e v e r, e ffic ie n t d u a l g a s lift h a s

p ro v e d to b e a fa irly ra re o c c u rre n c e . I n th e a b s e n c e o f r e s t r i c t i v e a llo w a b le s , m o s t o p e ra to rs h a v e c o n c lu d e d th a t s in g le z o n e c o m p le tio n s a re p re fe ra b le to d u a ls w h e n a rtificial lift is required. ~ ~ Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -h 9 4 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 3 7 5 8 4 8 4 G as L ift C H A P T E R7 A N A L Y S IS A N D R E G U L A T IO N O F C O N T IN U O U S FLO W G A S L IF T IN T R O D U C T IO N C o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift m a k e s u p th e v a s t m a jo rity(9 0 p e rc e n t) o f a ll w e lls th a t a re a rtific ia lly lifte d by g a s lift. A s p re v io u s ly m e n tio n e d , th e c o n tin u o u s flo w p rin c ip le s a re v irtu a lly th e s a m e a s th o s e a t w o rk in a n a tu ra lly flo w in g w e ll; b u t w ith g a s lift, th e v o lu m e o f g a s c irc u la te d to th e w e ll is c o n tro lle d . H e n c e , th e to ta l g a s -liq u id ra tio is c o n - tro lle d . T h e s e p rin c ip le s a re g e n e ra lly a p p lic a b le to p ro d u c tio n ra te s ra n g in g fro m 1 0 0 b a rre ls p e r d a y to o v e r 5 0 ,0 0 0b a rre ls p e r d a y . T h e y a re a p p lie d b y c irc u la tin g lift g a s d o w n th e a n n u lu s fo r tu b in g flo w p ro d u c tio n o r d o w n th e tu b in g fo r c a s in g flo w p ro d u c tio n .

F ro m th e s c h e m a tic s in F ig . 7 -1 , it is o b v io u s th a t th e term s casing pressureo r tubing pressure are am biguous and m ay m ean gaspressure or producedfluidpressure.For c la rity , th is c h a p te r w ill u s e production pressure to id e n tify the pressure of the produced fluids. Injection gas pressure w ill b e u se d to id e n tify th e lift g a s p re s s u re a t th e w e ll. O p e ra tio n , m a in te n a n c e a n d tro u b le -s h o o tin g of gas lift in s ta lla tio n s a re c o v e re d in A P IR P llV 5 5 ’. R e c o m m e n d e d P r a c tic e s P r io rt o U n lo a d in g A fte r a c o n tin u o u s flo w d e s ig n is c o m p le te d a n d th e e q u ip m e n t is in s ta lle d in th e w e ll, s e v e ra l th in g s s h o u ld b e d o n e p rio r to u n lo a d in gth e w e ll b y g a s lift. If a w e ll is lo a d e d w ith m u d it s h o u ld b e c irc u la te d c le a n o f m u d d o w n to th e p e rfo ra tio n s p rio r to ru n n in g g a s lift valves. A brasive m a te ria lsin th e w e ll flu id s c a n d a m a g e th e g a s lift v a lv e s e a ts a n d /o r m a y re s u lt in v a lv e m a lfu n c tio n d u rin g u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n . If v a lv e s a rein je c tio n g a s p re s - sure operated, reverse circulation shouldnot be used since c irc u la tio n w ill o c c u r th ro u g h

th e v a lv e s . If m u d o r d irty flu id m u st b e c irc u la te d o u t, s o m e ty p e o f c irc u la tin g v a lv e TVW AL TFLO W a O IIW A T * : TVW AL CA. r 1,

IL F ig . 7 -1C a s in g a n d tu b in g flo w in s ta lla tio n s s h o u ld b e p la c e d i n th e m a n d re l a n d re trie v e d a fte r th e c irc u la tio n is c o m p le te d , o th e rw is e th e flu id c o u ld c u t th e p o lis h e d b o re in th e m a n d re l w h e re th e v a lv e w ill s e a l. If th e in je c tio n g a s lin e is n e w , it s h o u ld b e b lo w n c le a n o f s c a le , w e ld in g s la g , e tc ., b e fo re b e in g c o n n e c te d to th e w e ll. T h is p re c a u tio n p re v e n ts p lu g g in g o f s u rfa

c e c o n tro ls , a n d th e e n tra n c e o f d e b ris in to th e w e ll c a s in g . S e p a ra to r c a p a c ity , s to c k ta n k liq u id le v e l, a n d a ll v a lv e s b e tw e e n th e w e llh e a d a n d th e ta n k b a tte ry s h o u ld b e checked. It is im p o rta n t to c h e c k th e p o p -o ff s a fe ty re le a s e v a lv e fo r th e g a s g a th e rin g s y s te m if th is is th e first g as lift installation in the system . R ecom m ended G as L iftIn s ta lla tio n U n lo a d in g P ro c e d u re C a re in u n lo a d in g a g a s lift w e ll is e x tre m e ly im p o rta n t s in c e m o re g a s lift v a lv e sa red a m a g e d a t th is tim e th a n a t a n y o th e r tim e d u rin g th e lift o f th e w e ll. P re v e n tin g e x c e s - s iv e p re s s u re d iffe re n tia ls a c ro s s g a s lift v a lv e s re d u c e s th e c h a n c e fo r e q u ip m e n t fa ilu re d u e to s a n d c u ttin g a n d liq u id c u ttin g . T h e fo llo w in g p ro c e d u re a v o id s e x c e s s iv e p re s s u re d iffe re n tia l a c ro s s th e v a lv e s a n d is re c o m m e n d e d fo r in itia l u n lo a d in g . 1 .Install a tw o pen pressure recorder to record the w ell gas pressure and production pressure at the surface. 2 . B le e d th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re d o w n to flo w lin e p r e s s u r e . 3 , R e m o v eo r o p e n th e flo w lin e c h o k e d e p e n d in g o n th e w e ll’s e x p e c te d re a c tio n to g a s lift. (A n a d ju s ta b le choke should b e le ft o n th e w e llh e a d c o n n e c tio n to

th e flo w lin e o n ly if th e w e ll is e x p e c te d to flo w naturally after it is “ k ic k e d o f f ’ w ith g a s lift.) 4 . S lo w ly c o n tro l th e lift g a s in to th e w e lls o th a t it ta k e s 8 -1 0 m inutes for a5 0 psi increase in w ell gas pressure. C o n tin u e th is ra te o f in je c tio n u n til th e a b s o lu te w e ll gas pressure is about4 0 0 p s i. 5 . In c re a s e th e lift g a s ra te in to th e w e lls o th a t it ta k e s a b o u t8 -1 0 m in u te s fo r 1 0 0 p s i in c re a s e in th e w e ll g a s p re s s u re . C o n tin u e th is ra te u n til g a s p a s s e s in to th e tu b in g th ro u g h th e to p v a lv e . 6 .T h e g a s lift d e s ig n w ill h a v e b e e n b a s e d o n a c e rta in d a ily v o lu m e o f g a s in je c te d in to th e w e ll. A t th is tim e adjust the rate to be only ‘ /2 t o o f th e d e s ig n e d g a s in je c tio n ra te . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

I

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A n a ly s is a n d R e g u la tio n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift 8 5 7 . A fte r 1 2 -1 8 h o u rs a t th e re d u c e d in je c tio n ra te , a d ju s t in s ta n c e s o n eo r m o re o f th e fo llo w in g m e th o d s o f o b ta in th e g a sra tet o th e fu ll d e s ig n e d ra tefo r th e w e ll. i n g d a t a w i l lb e u s e d : A n a ly z in g th e O p e ra tio no f A C o n tin u o u sF lo wW e ll

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In o rd e r to p ro p e rly e v a lu a te th e e ffic ie n c y o f o p e ra tio n o f th e c o n tin u o u s flo w w e ll, it is n e c e s s a ry to a n a ly z e th e in s ta lla tio n . In m any in s ta n c e s th e o p e ra to r is c o n te n t t o le a v e th e w e ll a lo n e a s lo n g a s h e th in k s i tis m a k in g a ll th e flu id s th e w e ll is c a p a b le o f p ro d u c in g . Q u ite o fte n , if th e in s ta lla tio n w e re p ro p e rly a n a ly z e d , a n im p ro v e m e n t c o u ld b e m a d e in th e in je c tio n g a s -o il ra tio . It is a ls o a c o m m o n te n d e n c y fo r th e fie ld o p e ra to r to in c re a s e in je c tio n g a s ra te s i n a n a tte m p t to p ro d u c e m o re o ilfro m th ew e ll. E x c e s s iv e in je c te d g a s v o lu m e m a y a c tu a lly increase the flo w in g p re s s u re g ra d ie n t, th e re b y d e c re a s in g p ro d u c tio n . Surface D ata 1 . Recording surface pressure in the tubing and casing

2 .M e a s u re m e n t o f lift g a s c irc u la te d to th e w e ll 3 . M easurem ent of surface tem perature 4 .V is u a l o b s e rv a tio n o f th e s u rfa c e in s ta lla tio n 5 .T e s tin g th e w e ll fo r o il, w a te r a n d g a s p ro d u c tio n Subsurface D ata 1 .P r e s s u r e s u r v e y s 2 . Tem perature surveys T here are several m ethods w hich m ay be used for obtain3 .F lu id le v e l d e te rm in a tio n b y a c o u s tic a l m e th o d s i n g ap r o p e ra n a l y s i s o f a g a sl i f ti n s t a l l a t i o n . I n m ost 4 .C o m p u te r c a lc u la te d p re s s u re si n th e w e ll M E T H O D S O F O B T A IN IN G S U R F A C E D A T A F O R C O N T IN U O U S F L O W G A S L IF T W E L L S R e c o r d in g S u rfa c e P re s s u re in th e T u b in g a n d C a s in g T w o-pen pressure recorders are relatively inexpensive in s tru m e n ts usingtw o pressure e le m e n ts o f th e p ro p e r p re s -

sure range to re c o rd th e s u rfa c e tu b in g and casing pressures of thew ell. This instrum entw illrecord on achartany c h a n g e in th e w e llh e a d p re s s u re o f th e tu b in g o rc a s i n g d u rin g th e o p e ra tio n a l p e rio d o fth e c h a rt. T h e m a x im u m p r e s s u r e rangeof the recordershould be ' / 4 t o ' / 3 h ig h e r th a n th e m a x im u m o p e ra tin g p re s s u re o f th e w e ll. F o r e x a m p le , if th e m a x im u m w ellhead pressure is7 0 0psig, the recorder should have1 ,0 0 0 p s ig m a x im u m ra n g e e le m e n ts . T h isw ill p e rm it s u ffic ie n t s e n s itiv ity in th e in s tru m e n t to in d ic a te any sm all pressure change on the chart. S o m e o f th e im p o rta n t fa c to rs t o

b e n o te d fro m th e recordings* of tubing and casing pressures are: 1 .Increased flow ing production pressure w o u ld in d icate an increase in separator back pressure, paraffin d e p o s itio n , o r s e d im e n ti n th e flo w lin e s .It c o u ld a ls o in d ic a te th a t a c h o k e has been in s ta lle d i nth e flow line, an increasehas been m adei n th e v o lu m e o f in je c tio n g a s , a n o th e r w e ll h a s b e e n a d d e d to th e flo w system ,o r th a t th e w e ll h a s s ta rte d to flo w n a tu ra lly . 2 . Decreased production pressure could indicate a drop in s u p p ly gas pressureo rv o lu m e , in je c tio n g a s fre e z in g , flu c tu a tin g s y s te m g a s p r e s s u r e , t h e w e l l h a v i n g b e e n s w itc h e d t o a test separator, readjustm ent of the in je c tio n g a s c o n tro l,o r a b ro k e n flo w lin e . * C h a rts 7 A 1 th ro u g h 7 A 1 4 ,A p p e n d ix 7 A ,illu s tra te s o m e o ft h e s e c o n d itio n s . T h e a c tu a l p ro b le m s e n c o u n te re d

a re th o s e g iv e n in th e c h a rt in te rp re ta tio n s . O th e r in te rp re ta tio n s m ig h t b e g iv e n if th e e x a c t tro u b le is not know n. 3 .A c o n tin u o u s flo w w e ll o n p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re c o n tro l w o rio d s o c o n tro predeterm u ld h a v e th e p e rio d s o f g a s in je c tio n a n d th e p e f n a tu ra l flo w re c o rd e d . (P ro d u c tio n p re s - s u re l is a m e a n s o f in je c tin g g a s in to th e w e ll at a ineddropi n p ro d u c tio n

pressure, utiliz in g th e g a s l i f t v a lv e s to p u rg e th e tu b in g o f a liq u id lo a d in g c o n d itio n .) T h e p e rio d s o f n a tu ra l flo w a n d g a s in je c tio n w o u ld b e c le a rly in d ic a te d b y b o th th e production and well gaspressure. 4 . T h e c h a n g in g fro m o n e o p e ra tin g v a lv e to a n o th e r m a y b e d e te c te d . 5 . T h e sanding upo rw a te r lo a d in g o f a w e ll w ill b e in d ic a te d . 6 . A h o lei n th e tu b in g ,o r a b a d g a s lift v a lv e w ill be in d ic a te d . 7 .Excessive gas usage may be indicated. 8 . D e c re a s e d p ro d u c tio n m a y b e in d ic a te d . M e a s u r e m e n to f G a s V o lu m e s

M easurem ent of injectiongasvolum esisnecessary i n o rd e r to d e te rm in e th e e ffic ie n c yo f th e g a s lift o p e ra tio n s . T his is accom plished by the use of an orifice m eter or orifice flo w c o m p u te r w h ic h s h o u ld b e lo c a te d n e a r th e in je c tio n g a s c o n tro l to th e w e ll. T h e m e te r ru n s h o u ld b e e le v a te d to p re v e n t c o n d e n s a tio n fro m c o lle c tin g . S o m e c o m p a n ie s fa v o r a p e rm a n e n t m e te r c o n n e c te d to th e m e te r ru n . O th e r c o m p a n ie s e q u ip Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E S V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532919 357 8 6 G as L ift th e m e te r ru n w ithq u ic k c o n n e c to r s to facilitate the use of a p o rta b le m e te r. T h e o rific e m eter consists of a static press u re e le m e n t in d ic a tin g the line pressure fro m the orifice p la te , a n d a d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re e le m e n t in d ic a tin g th e p re s s u re d ro p a c ro s s th e o rific e p la te . T h is is s c h e m a tic a lly illustrated in Fig.7 -2 . P e rio d ic in je c tio n g a s m e a s u re m e n t is re q u ire d in m o s t s ta te s a n d w ill g iv e a re lia b le e v a lu a tio n of the efficiency of the gas lift o p e ra tio n s . In e ffic ie n t g a s in je c tio n m a y b e c o rre c te d b y c h a n g in g th e ra teo fg a sin - je c tio n and carefully m easuring th e to ta l flu id p ro d u c tio n a g a in s t th e in je c te d g a s v o lu m e fo r e a c h c h a n g e , th u s p ro - v id in g a m e a n s o f d e te rm

in in g th e m o s t e ffic ie n t g a s o il ra tio . F ig . 7 -2 C o n tin u o u s flo w sem i-closed installation T he static pressure elem enton th e m e te r is u s e fu l i n d e te rm in in g a n y p re s s u re flu c tu a tio n in th e g a s s y s te m th a t m ay be detrim ental to the e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio no f th e g a s lift. O rifice m eters arei nstalled at thetest separators tom easure th e to ta l g a s o u to f th e w e ll u n d e r te s t. T h e d iffe re n c e in the in je c tio n g a s in p u t a n d th e to ta l g a s o u tp u t w ill re p re s e n t th e fo rm a tio n g a s . D ire c t re a d in g g a s flo w c o m p u te rs a re available for instantaneousm easurem ent of gas. S u rfa c e a n d E s tim a te d S u b s u rfa c e T e m p e ra tu re R e a d in g s S u rfa c e te m p e ra tu re re a d in g so f th e p ro d u c e dflu id a t th e w e llh e a d m a y s o m e tim e s a id in a n a

ly z in g th e tro u b le in a g a s lift w e ll. W h e r e it h a s b e e n d iffic u lt to d e te rm in e th e c a u s e o f in e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n , k n o w in g th e te m p e ra tu re a t e a c h v a lv e m ig h t a ls o d is c lo s e th a t th e te m p e ra tu re e ffe c t o n th e v a lv e s is p re v e n tin g the w ell from p ro d u c in g a t its m ost efficient rate. If a straight line relationship is assum ed, it is a s im p le m a tte r to p lo t a g ra p h o f th e te m p e ra tu re gradient when th e b o tto m h o le te m p e ra tu re a n d flo w in g s u rfa c e te m p e ra tu rea rek n o w n . T h e d e p th lo c a tio no f e a c h v a lv e m a y th e n b e lo c a te d o n th e c h a rt a n d th e te m p e ra tu re a t e a c h v a lv e m a y b e e s tim a te d fro m th e te m p e ra tu re c u rv e . M o s t g a s lift v a lv e m a n u fa c tu re rs h a v e c h a rts fo r te m p e ra - ture and gas weight corrections. These charts m ay be used to determ ine the surface operating pressure of each valve. F ig .7 -3illu s tra te s a c o n tin u o u s flo w w e ll th a t is n o t p ro - d u c in g a t its c a p a c ity b e c a u s e th e p ro d u c in g flu id te m p e ra - tu re h a s ra is e d th e p re s s u re o f th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e to n e a r system pressure.T he producing fluid tem perature has raised the pressure of the valve (at 1 ,9 0 0 ft.) to th e p o in t th a t th e d iffe re n tia l p re s s u re a c ro s s th e v a lv e w ill n o t p e rm it re d u c in g th e flo w in g flu id g ra d ie n t to a p re s s u re th a t w o u ld p e rm it g a s e n tra n c e th ro u g h th e v a lv e a t 2 ,3 5 0ft. E q u ip m e n t p ro b le m s lik e th is c a n s o m e tim e s b e e lim in a te d b y u s in g s p rin g a d ju s te d v a lv e s th a ta re n o ta ffe c te d b y te m p e ra tu re . V is u a l O b s e rv a tio no f th e S u rfa c e In s ta lla tio n

V is u a l o b s e rv a tio n o f a g a s lift in s ta lla tio n m ay som e- tim e s u n c o v e r c o n d itio n s th a t a re d e trim e n ta l to th e o v e ra ll e ffic ie n c y o f th e in s ta lla tio n . M a in ta in in g h ig h s e p a ra to r back pressure, longo r im p ro p e rly d e s ig n e d flo w lin e s , re - s tric tio n s in th e w e llh e a d , p a ra ffino r s e d im e n t in th e flo w - lines, and too m any sharp-angled bends m ay be the cause of e x c e s s iv e b a c k p r e s s u r e a s in d ic a te d b y th e p ro d u c tio n T U B IN G C A S IN G B D O I T E M P E R A T U R E l0 5 'F 6 o o o 41; 2 0 0 4 0 0 600 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 6 0 0 le o 0

2 & 2xK )2400-m 2000 2 5 1 0 D E S IR E D F L O W IN G P R E S S U R EP S IG F L O W IN G 6 .H .P R E S S . D E S IR E D P R O D U C T IO N i 1 ,2 0 0 B ID T O T A L F L U ID P R E S E N T P R O D U C T IO N : 4 6 5 B /D T O T A L F L U ID S T A T IC B O T T O M - H O L E P R E S S U R E : 2,800 P S lG P R O D U C T I V I T Y I N D E X (P I1

2 1 .5 T U B IN G S IZ E i 2-718-11 E U E B O T T O M - H O L E T E M P E R A T U R E : !7 2 F P R E S E N TF L O W IN G S U R F A C ET E M P E R A T U R E . 1 0 5 F S Y S T E M G A SP R E S S U R EA TW E L L : 6 1 0 P S lG F ig . 7 -3C o n tin u o u sflo w e q u ip m e n t p r o b le mfor tu b in g flo ww e ll Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. -, ,, ,,, , , ,,,- - ,, ,, , ,, ---

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A P IT IT L E *V T -h 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 2 00 7 ’ 7m A n a ly s is a n d R e g u la tio n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift 8 7 w e llh e a d pressure. The possibility ofw et gas freezing at sary forthe p ro p e r a n a ly s iso fth e o p e ra tio n of a gas lift p o in ts o f re s tric tio n , flu c tu a tin g s y s te m gas pressure, an w e ll. In m a n y fie ld in s ta lla tio n s o n ly o il p ro d u c tio ni s m eas-

in s u ffic ie n t d iffe re n tia l b e tw e e n s y s te m gas pressure and u re d a n d a s h a k e o u t is ta k e n to d e te rm in e th e p e rc e n ta g e o f w e llh e a d o p e ra tin g pressure, and im proper surface control w a te r. T h is c a n b e v e ry in a c c u ra tei n m any w ells because of fo r th e ty p e o f g a sl i f tv a lv ei n th e w e ll s h o u ld b e e x a m in e d th e flu c tu a tio n s in th e a m o u n to f w a te ri n th e flo w stream . w h e re in e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n is in d ic a te d . K n o w in g th e s p e c ific g ra v ity of the oil and w ater is also im p o rta n t if th e in s ta lla tio n re q u ire s re d e s ig n . T h is in fo rT e s tin gW e llf o r O il a n dG a sP r o d u c tio n m a tio n is e s s e n tia l to d e te rm in et h ee ffic ie n t p o in t o f g a s A c c u r a t e g a u g i n g f o r o i la n d w a te r p ro d u c tio n is n e c e s in je c tio n fo r th e w e ll c o n d itio n s M E T H O D S O F O B T A IN IN G S U B S U R F A C E D A T A F O R C O N T IN U O U SFLO W

G A S L IF T A N A L Y S IS S u b s u rfa c e P re s s u re S u rv e y s Subsurface pressure surveys offer ag ood m eans of prope rly a n a ly z in g gas liftinstallations. A s ta tic s u rv e y w ill d e te rm in e th e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re (o r fo rm atio n pressure), the static fluid l e v e l , a n d t h e s t a t i c g r a d i e n t o f t h e w ell fluids. A flow ing pressure surveyw illlo c a te th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n , le a k si n th etu b in g , v a lv e fa ilu re s ,o r m u lti- p o in t in je c tio n . It w ill a ls o d e te rm in eth eflo w in g g ra d ie n t b e lo w a n d a b o v e th e p o in to f g a s in je c tio n , a n d th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re . B y a c c u ra te ly te s tin g th e w ell at the tim e th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re is b e in g ta k e n , th e p ro d u c tiv ity in d e x ( P I ) o f th e w e ll m a y b e e s ta b lis h e d .It is a c o m m o n fa lla c y to w a it u n til tr o u b le d e v e lo p s b e fo r e m a k in g a p r e s s u r e s u r v e y .T he survey m ight locate the source of tro u b le ,b u tth e in fo rm a tio n n e c e s s a ry to im p ro v e th e in s ta lla tio n will not beobtained.Therefore,

a p r e s s u r e survey should be run while the well is supposedly performin gs a tis fa c to r ily .T h e in fo rm a tio n o b ta in e d m ig h t in d ic a te th a t re s p a c in g th e v a lv e s w o u ld a p p re c ia b ly im p ro v e th e p ro d u c tio no f th e w e ll. O n w e lls w ith h ig h P I’S , a n d p ro d u c ing from a v e ry a c tiv e w a te r d riv e re s e rv o ir, i t is recom m e n d e d th a t v a lv e s b e s p a c e d c lo s e to g e th e r n e a r th e e s tim a te d p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n . A very com m on errori ng a s liftd e s ig n is fa ilu re to s p a c e th e v a lv e s c lo s e e n o u g h to g e th e r. F ig . 7 - 4 s h o w s a w e ll m a k in g 1 ,0 0 0 b b l o f o il a n d w a te r p e r d a y(9 0p e rc e n t w a te r). F ro m all surface indicatio n s , th e w ell w as p erfo rm in g satisfacto rily . It w as, how e v e r, im m e d ia te ly e v id e n t fro m th e flo w in g p r e s s u r e s u rv e y

th a t b y re s p a c in g th e v a lv e s th e re w o u ld b e a n in c re a s ei n flu id p ro d u c tio n . It w a s n o te d th a t th e flu id le v e l i n th e c a s in g la c k e d o n ly a f e w f e e t o f u n c o v e rin g th e n e x t v a lv e w ith th e a v a ila b le lin e p re s s u re .I n th is e x a m p le , th e v a lv e s w e re e q u ip p e d w ith fixed orifices and no increase of gas v o lu m e c o u ld b e m a d e th ro u g h th e v a lv e s . S in c e the w ell had a PI o f 1 0 B L P D /p s i,o r g re a te r, th e p ro d u c tio n ra te w a s in c re a s e d to 1 ,6 0 0 B /D b y re s p a c in g th e lo w e r v a lv e s o th a t it w o u ld o p e ra te 6 0 f t .n e a r e r t h e s u r f a c e . B y c h e c k i n g th e s ta tic flu id le v e l,it w a s p o s s ib le to re lo c a tev a lv e s1a n d 2fro m th e s u r f a c es o th a t tw o v a lv e s c o u ld b e p o s itio n e d b e lo wth ep o in t o f in je c tio n . S in c e th e

b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e w as show ing v e ry little d ro p w ith tim e ,th e s p a c in g w as satisfactory for 1 ’1 2t o2 y e a r s . O 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 k! 4 0 0 0 r kWk 5000 n 6 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 I T C o s i n g P re s s u re F lo w in g T u b in g = 2; ’ - \ c I1F lu id=1 0 0 0

B b ls /O o y In p u t G o s -F lu idR a tio =4 0 0 /1 ” ” C a s in g F lu idL e v e l 9 0 0 0I I I I I l I I O 4 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 6 0 02 0 0 0 2 4 0 02 8 0 0 P R E S S U R E , PSlG F ig .7 -4 Valve spacing from flowing pressure survey F ig . 7 -5 s h o w s a w e lli n w h ic h th re e g a s lift v a lv e s w e re a d m ittin g g a s . T h is c o n d itio n

o f m u lti-p o in t in je c tio n is v e ry in e ffic ie n t, s in c e e ffic ie n c y i nc o n tin u o u s flo w is the re s u lt o f in je c tin g th e p ro p e r v o lu m e o f g a s a t th e d e e p e s t p o in t fo r th e available pressure. T he flow ing pressure grad ie n t in d ic a te d th a t to o m uch g a s w a s b e in g in je c te d . A m e a s u re m e n t o f th e in je c tio n g a s -liq u id ra tio s h o w e d it t o b e 8 0 0 :1 . T h is w a s h ig h i n com parison w ith n e ig h b o rin g w e lls o p e ra tin g u n d e r s im ila r c o n d itio n s . T h e p r e s s u r e s u r - v ey d id n o t in d ic a te a n e e d fo r v a lv e re s p a c in g ,b u t ra th e r a need for the repair of valves2a n d3 . A ls o v a lv e s 6 a n d7 c o u ld b e g ro u p e d c lo s e r to th e p o in t o f in je c tio n . F ig . 7 -6 s h o w s aw e lli nw h ic h it s e e m s th a t t o o m a n y g a s l i f t valves were used fo r th e in s ta lla tio n . T h is w ell w as Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E S V T -6 9 4 0732290 0532921 T 0 5 D 8 8 G as L ift T U B IN G=2" F L U ID=7 0 0B B L S ./D A Y IN P U TG A S -F L U ID R A T IO=8 0 0 -

   

 

 

 

   

 

I I 2 0 0 0I \ V A L V F D L P -T a 3 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 1 " " -2 . 2 8 5 0 . 3300 M U L T I-P O IN T 5000 G A S IN J E C T IO N m @ I o & o lo b o t im & ;F L O W IN G B .H ,P R E S S . P R E S S U R E P S lG W ell D a ta :2 %

in .O D tu b in g in5 % in . c a s in g G as-liquid ratio-8 O O :l P r o d u c tio n 7 0 0b b lflu id p e r d a y O il p r o d u c tio n=1 2 0B /D F ig . 7 -5 Flowing pressure survey for valve repair O 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 k! 4 0 0 0 IWII; 5 0 0 0 o 6 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 r C asing P re s s u reF lo w in g C a s in g F lu id L e v e l --9 0 0 0 1

I I I I 1 I O 4 0 0 8 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 6 0 02 0 0 0 24002 8 0 0 P R E S S U R E , P S lG F ig . 7 -6Flowing pressure surveyfor valve spacing d e s ig n e d fo r e ith e r c o n tin u o u s flo w o rin te rm itte n t flo w g a s lift. U n d e r th e p re s e n t o p e ra tin g c o n d i t i o n s , f o u r v a l v e s w o u ld b e e n o u g ht ota k e c a re o fth e w e ll. T h is w a s a w e ll, h o w e v e r, in w h ic h th e w a te r p e rc e n ta g e w a s e x p e c te dt o in c re a s e c o n s id e ra b ly .T h is w o u ld re s u lt in lo w e rin g th e p o in to fg a s in je c tio n a n d u tiliz in g th e lo w e r v a lv e s inth e in s ta lla tio n . F ig. 7-7 show s how a flow ing pressure survey w as used to lo c a te a tu b in g le a k . T h e t u b i n g l e a k i s p l a i n l y in d ic a te d b y

th e b re a k in th e flo w in g g ra d ie n t a t 2 ,0 7 0 ft. The norm al p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n is th ro u g h th e v a lv e o p e ra tin g a t 2 ,9 3 5 f t .Ac h e c k o n th e v a lv e in s ta lla tio n s h o w e d th a t th e re w a s n o g a s lift v a lv e c lo s e to th e 2 ,0 7 0 ft. d e p th . P R E S S U R E I N 1 0 0 P S lG O 2 4 6 8 I O 12 14 I 6 18 2 0 0 I I I , I , I , I I , l , r , l , r , l , l

, l l , l l , 1 , 1 1 1 , ~ 5 0 0In ie c tio n G or P rrs s u rr WIA 2 5 0 0 z 3 0 0 0 I t3 5 0 0 W 4 0 0 0 45 0 0 a " V .I*e t1 9 3 5 5 0 0 01 F lo w in gB H P

 

= 1 7 7 0p ig 5 5 0 0 _ _ T .D . = 5 5 4 0 W ELL D A T A : IN J E C T IO NG A S -L IO U IDR A T IO =5 5 0 :l 2 -IN . T U B IN GIN 5 -1 1 2 -1 N . C A S IN G P R O D U C IN GW E L L H E A DT U B IN GP R E S S U R E =110 P S IG S U R F A C EIN J E C T IO NC A S IN GP R E S S U R E =6 4 0 P S lG P R O D U C T IO N=640 B 8L F L U I0 P E R

 

D A Y O IL P R O D U C T IO N=5 B /D F ig .7 -7 F lo w in g p r e s s u r es u r v e y to lo c a te tu b in g le a k Apressure survey of ac a s i n g f l o w g a s l i f t w e l l c a n b e u s e d to d e te rm in e th ep o in t o f in je c tio n . F ig . 7 -8 s h o w s th e p re s s u re s u rv e y o f a c a s in g flo w w e ll. T h e tu b in g w a s 2 -in . EU Ea n d e x te n d e d4 ,0 0 0 ft. in to th e w e ll, w ith th e b o tto m o p e n -e n d e d . T h e g a g e w a s lo w e re d in to th e w e ll th ro u g h th e tu b in g . T h e firs t s to p w as at 4 ,0 0 0ft., ju st b e lo w th e b o tto m o fth etu b in g . N in e s to p s w ere m ade a t5 0 0 f t . in te rv a ls ,a n d n e a r th e b o tto m fo u r s to p s w e re m a d e a t

2 5 0 ft. in te rv a ls . T h ew e ll w a s p ro d u c in g4 ,0 0 0b b l o f flu id per day at the tim e the pressure surveyw as m ade, of w hich 97 percent w as salt w ater. T he g a s liq u id r a t i o w as v ery effic ie n t a t 9 0 C U . ft.o f gas per barrel of fluid. T he w ell w as Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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‘A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 2 2 9 4 1 m A n a ly s is a n d R e g u la tio n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift 8 9 p ro d u c in g its d e p th a llo w a b le o f 1 2 0b b l o f o il p e r d a y u n d e r th e s e c o n d itio n s . H o w e v e r,i t w as capable of producing a great deal m ore, and at one tim e produced over 7 ,0 0 0 b b l p e r d a y w h ilei t w a s b e in g re g u la te d . T h is w a s s till n o t th e m a x im u m rate for the w ell andno a tte m p t w a s m a d e to reach i t . O 2 o o c 40O C 6 0 0 C 800( 9 6 6 c - C A S I N G P R E S S U R E ‘~ T U B IN GP R E S S U R E

V A L V E D E P T H O F T U B IN G-4 0 0 0F T . 2000 3945 P R E S S U R E P S lG F L O W IN G 6 .H .P W ELLD ATA: 2 -IN T U B IN G IN 5 -1 1 2 -IN C A S IN G I N P U TG A S - F L U I D R A T IO i 9 0 .1 P R O D U C T IO N i 40 0 0 B B L F L U IDP E R D A Y ’ W I T E R P R O O U ( T 1 C N . 9 1 P E R C E N T F ig . 7 -8

F lo w in g pressure surveyo f c a s in g flo wg a sl i f t w e llS u b s u rfa c e T e m p e ra tu re S u rv e y s in C a s in g F lo w W e lls Ate m p e ra tu re s u rv e y c a n a ls o b e m a d e in s id e th e tu b in g o f a c a s in g flo w in s ta lla tio n to d e te rm in e th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n . A s th e e x p a n d in g g a s w ill c o o l th e o u ts id e o f th e tu b in g d ire c tly a b o v e th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e , th e te m p e ra tu re g a g e w ill re c o rd th e te m p e ra tu re c h a n g e . T h e te m p e ra tu re s u rv e y s h o u ld b e ru n to th e b o tto m of the w elli no rd e r to e s ta b lis h a re lia b le te m p e ra tu re g ra d ie n t. P r e c a u tio n s W h e n R u n n in g F lo w in g P re s s u re a n d T e m p e ra tu re S u rv e y s S o m e p re c a u tio n s s h o u ld b e e x e rc is e d w hen ru n n in g flo w in g p re ssu re su rv e y s i n c o n tin u o u s flo w w ells. It is re c o m m e n d e d th a t th e w e ll b e p re p a re d p rio r to th e s u rv e y b y p la c in g th e lu b ric a to r fo r th e p re s s u re g a g ei n p la c e , w ith th e a d d itio n o f a m a s te r v a lv e a b o v e th e flo w in g w in g v a lv e .

It is im p o rta n t to p ro d u c e th e w e ll u n til a s ta b iliz e d flo w c o n d itio n h a s b e e n e s ta b lis h e d b e fo re m a k in g th e g a g e ru n . It isalsonecessarytoprovidea w e ig h te d s e c tio n t o th e p re ssu re g a g e in o rd e r to p re v e n t th e flo w stre a m fro m liftin gth ein s tru m e n t, w h ic h m ig h t re s u lti n its d a m a g e o r lo s s .I n s o m e h ig h v o lu m e w e lls w ith s m a ll tu b in g , it m a y b e necessary to shut the w elli na n d ru n th e g a g e to b o tto m a s fa s t a s p ra c tic a b le . T h e w e ll th e n m u s t b e re tu rn e d to s ta b iliz e d flo w and the survey can be started up th e h o le . It is recom m ended th a t a s to p b e m ade every 5 0 0t o 1 ,0 0 0f t . b e lo w th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n t o e s ta b lis h th e flo w in g

g ra d ie n ti nth a t re g io n o f flo w . S to p s s h o u ld th e n b e m a d e a p p ro x im a te ly1 0 ft. below e a c h v a lv ei n o rd e r to c o rre c tly lo c a te th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n . T h is w ill a ls o lo c a te v a lv e le a k s . S in c e th e h ig h e r flu id v e lo c itie s o c c u r n e a r th es u r - fa c e , c a u tio n s h o u ld b e ta k e n w hen a lig h te n in g o fth e w ire lin e lo a d w ill in d ic a te th a t th e flu id v e lo c itie s a re try in g to p ic k u p th e g a g e . T h e w e ll s h o u ld b e c lo s e di n at th is tim e, a n d th e g a g e s a fe ly re trie v e d .T h e im p o rta n ts e c tio n (b e lo w a n d a b o v e th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n ) w ill h a v e b e e n surveyed successfully. C o m p u te r C a lc u la te d P re s s u re S u rv e y s Pressure surveys that are com puter calculated from flo w c o rre la tio n s c a n b e th e b e st m e a n s o f a n a ly z in g th e p e rfo rm - a n c e o f c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift w e lls . T h e u s u a l firs t o b je c - tio n t o th is c o n c e p t is “ th o s e c o m p u te r p ro g ra m s d o n ’t m a tc h the w ell pressuresw hereIcom efrom .”B utthe c o m p u te r c a lc u la te d re s u lts c a n b e m a d e to f i t“ th e w e ll pressures w hereyou c o m e fro m ” w ith a c o o p e ra tiv e e ffo rt b e tw e e n th e fie ld

p e rs o n n e l a n d th e te c h n ic a l g ro u p s th a t a re in v o lv e d (L e., com pany e n g in e e rs o r c o n s u lta n ts ). O n c e a fit is a c c o m p lis h e d , th e b e n e fits a re re a d ily a v a il- able at a very sm all cost per run. T he results of a com puter c a lc u la te d p re s s u re s u rv e y c a n be used fo r re d e s ig n in g , tro u b le -s h o o tin g , im p ro v in g well perform ance, and updatin g P I d a ta . T h e p ru d e n t o p e ra to r w ill m a k e u seo fc o m p u te r c a lc u la te d p r e s s u r e s u r v e y s a s o f te n a s p o s s ib le .T h e y w ill decrease the num ber of w ireline pressure surveys that are re q u ire d w ith th e ir a tte n d a n t p ro b le m s a n d e x p e n s e . T e m p e ra tu re S u rv e y s in T u b in g F lo w W e lls T e m p e ra tu re p la y s a n im p o rta n t p a rti n th e o p e ra tin g o f a pressure-charged valve. For this reason i t is necessary to h a v e a c c u ra te b o tto m h o le te m p e ra tu re a n d s u rfa c e te m p e r- a tu re d a ta u n d e r b o th s ta tic a n d flo w in g c o n d itio n s . T h e s e d a ta a re n e c e s s a ry fo r th e d e s ig n o f a g a s lift in s ta lla tio n . They also m ay be u s e fu l la te r fo r lo c a tin g th e d e p th o f th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e . F ig . 7 -9 show s a surveyo f flow ing pressure and tem pera- tu rei na g a sl i f t w e ll. It is in te re s tin g to n o te th e c o m p a ris o n o f th e te s t

ra c k opening pressure o fth e v a lv e to th e o p e n in g p re s s u re s a t o p e ra tin g te m p e ra tu re , a n d fin a lly to th e surface operating pressure.A definite change in b o th th e p ro d u c in g flu id g ra d ie n t a n d th e te m p e ra tu re gradient can b e n o te d a t th e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n a t 4 ,0 0 0ft.A flo w in g te m p e ra tu re s u rv e y c a n b e v a lu a b le in lo c a tin g tu b in g le a k s a s w e ll a s lo c a tin g th e o p e ra tin g g a s lift v a lv e . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E 8 V T -6 9 4 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 2 3 8 8 8 m 9 0 G as L ift C A S IN G P R E S S . S U R F A C E TEM P. T U B IN G =2 " 2 6 2 G A S -F L U ID R A T IO =200I V A L V EO P E NIN GA T V A L V E T E S T D E P T H

W RFPCE 24"y Ií o00 9 9 0 1 1 5 0 I1 0 0 ID E P T H P R E S S .P F E S S .P R E S S . 6oooO 5 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5 0 0 2O O O 1 0 0 1 6 5 O P R E S S U R E P S IC . T E M P E R A T U R E F. F ig . 7 -9Tem perature a n d flo w in g p r e s s u r e s u r v e y o fg a s lift w ell I F lo w in gP re s s u re a n d T e m p e ra tu re S u rv e y T h e flo w in g p re ssu re and tem perature survey haslong

 

been oneo f th e p rim a ry w a y s o f d e te rm in in g th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e a n d fo rm a tio n p re s s u re d ra w d o w n .T h e fo llo w in g procedure is suggested to assure that enough useful inform a tio n w ill b e o b ta in e d from the s u rv e yt oa llo w y o u t o m ake good decisions. 1 .R u n s u rv e y u n d e r s ta b iliz e d flo w in g c o n d itio n s . 2 . Run a pressure and tem perature instrum ent in com b in a tio n , w ith th e te m p e ra tu re in s tru m e n t b e in g a t th e b o tto m . 3 .U s e e n o u g h s in k e r b a rs to a s s u re th a t th e in s tru m e n ts w ill m o v e fo rc e fu lly d o w n th e h o le a n d n o t b e p u s h e d u p th e h o le b y th e flo w in g flu id . 4 . M a k e th e fo llo w in g s to p s re c o rd in g th e tim e a n d d e p th re a d in g a t e a c h s to p . a. A t the surface. b . O n e o r tw o s to p s b e tw e e n m a n d re l s ta tio n s . 2 3 4 F ig .7 -1 0Typical acoustic surveyo f gasl i f t w ell ~ ~ Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E + V T -h 9 4

   

 

 

 

   

 

0732290 0 5 3 2 9 2 4 7 1 4 A n a ly s is a n d R e g u la tio n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo wG as L ift 9 1 c. Four stops around each m andrela s follows: S to p1-5 0a b o v e S to p2- 2 5 ‘a b o v e S to p35 ‘a b o v e S to p4-2 5 ‘ b e lo w d . F ro m b o tto m m a n d re l to p e rfo ra tio n sa s re q u ire d . e .A t p e rfo ra tio n s. 5 . T im e d d u ra tio n o f s to p s . 3m in . s to p s if u s in ga3 h r. c lo c k ;5 m in . s to p si f u s in g a6h r. c lo c k In te rp re ta tio n o fth e s u rv e y d a ta is best evaluated b y p lo ttin g th e re s u lts o n apressure depth diagram . On the s a m e d ia g ra m in d ic a te th e d e p th o f th e v a lv e s ta tio n s . F ig .7 -9 s h o w s th e p lo ttin g o f

a typicalpressure a n d te m p e ra tu re s u rv e y a n d e a s ily id e n tifie s th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e o r th e d e p th o f in je c tio n . F lu id L e v e l D e te rm in a tio nb y A c o u s tic a l M e th o d s O n e o f th e m o s t c o m m o n a n d e c o n o m ic a l m e th o d s o flo c a tin g th e flu id le v e l in th e a n n u lu s o fa tu b in g flo w c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift w e ll is th ro u g h th e u s e o f a c o u s tic a l w e ll-s o u n d in g d e v ic e s . T h e flu id le v e li n a closed or sem i- c lo s e d in s ta lla tio n w ill re p re s e n t th e d e e p e s t p o in t to w h ic h the w ell has been unloaded but m ay not represent the point o f o p e ra tio n a t th e p re s e n t tim e . Ina n o p e n in s ta lla tio n w ith no packer,thepressure in th e a n n u lu s at the fluid le v e l w o u ld b e e q u a lt o the pressure i nth e tu b in g (th isi s o fte n re fe rre d to a s th e “ p o in t o f b a la n c e ” ), a n d th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e w o u ld b e d ire c tly a b o v e . H o w e v e r,

i n a w ell c o n ta in in gapacker. Itm ay be th a t th e w e ll o rig in a lly u n lo a d e d to a lo w e r v a lv e ; a n d , a s th e fo rm a tio n flu id e n tered the w ell, the form ation g a s s u p p le m e n te d th e in je c tio n g a s , p e rm ittin g th e o p e n in g o f a n u p p e r v a lv e . W ith th e p a c k e r, c h e c k v a lv e s , a n d tu b in g a ll h o ld in g p e rfe c tly , th e a c o u s tic a l d e v ic e w o u ld s h o w th e w e ll u n lo a d e d to th e lo w e r v a lv e , in d ic a tin g afa ls e “ p o in t o f b a la n c e .” P e rio d ic s o u n d in g s h o u ld b e ta k e n under satisfactoryoperatin g c o n d itio n ss oth a t th e y c a n b e u s e d in c o m p a ris o n w ith fu tu re so u n d in g s. F ig .7 -1 0s h o w sa ty p ic a l a c o u s tic s u rv e y of a gaslift w ell. The sound im pulses decrease w ith d e p th b u t c le a rly s h o w

a ll th e p ro tru d in g s u rfa c e s o n th e tu b in g s trin g , su c h a sth e c o lla rs a n d g a s lift v a lv e s . A s th e g a s lift v a lv e s a re la rg e r a n d o ffe r m o re re fle c tiv e s o u n d s u rfa c e th a n th e c o l- lars, a greater im pulse is recorded o n th e c h a rt. T h e flu id le v e l in th e c a s in g is c le a rly s h o w n b y th e la rg e z ig -z a g in d ic a tin g th e p o in t of rebound.The re b o u n d re fle c ts a d u p lic a te o f th e firs t re c o rd in g b u t to ad im in is h e d d e g re e . T h e o p e ra tio n o f a c o u s tic a l e q u ip m e n t, a n d in te rp re ta - tio n o f th e c h a rts p ro d u c e d , s h o u ld b e d o n e b y e x p e rie n c e d p e rs o n n e l.I tta k e s p ra c tic e , a n d ac e rta in a m o u n t of art and experience, beforeap e rso n c a n c o rre c tly in te rp re t th e sound im pulses. V A R IO U S W E L L H E A D IN S T A L L A T IO N S F O R G A S IN J E C T IO N C O N T R O L F ig . 7 -1 1 illu s tra te sa w e llh e a d in s ta lla tio n u s in g o n lya chokea s a gas control. T hiscan be usedi n m ost cases w here th e s y s te m pressure is reasonably stable. The choking m ay b e a c c o m p lis h e d b y th e u s e o f a n in s e rt o r a d ju s ta b le ty p e c h o k e o r m e te rin g v a lv e . In m any cases choking m ay cause

fre e z in g p ro b le m s . T h is c a n b e re c tifie d b y u s in gad e h y d ra to r in th e g a s s y s te m , b y u s in g a g a s h e a te r a h e a d of the c h o k e , o r b y b u ild in g a heat exchanger around th e c h o k e . C H O K E T h is la tte r m e th o d w ill p e rm it th e h o t flo w lin e fluidsto pass o v e r th e g a s lin e , th u s a c tin ga s a h e a t tra n s fe r u n it. F ig . 7 -1 2 C h o k e -r e g u la to r c o n tr o l,tu b in g f l o w w e ll C A U T IO N : TH IS SYSTEM W IL L W ORK O N L Y W H E N TH E R E G U L A T O R C A N B E S E T H IG E R T H A N O P E R A T IN G IN J E C T IO N G A S P R E S S U R E ( g a s p r e s s u r e in c a s in g F ig . 7 -1 1

C h o k e c o n tr o l, tu b in g f l o w w e ll d o w n s tr e a m of choke control). Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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T IT L E x V T -6 q V m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532925 6 5 0 W 9 2 G as L ift P R E S S .E L E M E N T F ig . 7 -1 2 s h o w s a w e llh e a d in s ta lla tio n th a t is re c o m m e n d e d fo r m o s t ty p e s o f c o n tin u o u s flo w g a sl i f tv a lv e s w h e re th e re is a flu c tu a tin g g a s s y s te m p re s s u re . T h e re g u la to ri ss e t to o p e ra tea t a p re s s u re h ig h e r th a n th e in je c tio n gas pressure in the casing dow nstream of the choke control. T h e c h o k e is in s ta lle d in th e g a s lin e d o w n s tre a m fro m th e re g u la to r. T h e c o m b in a tio n o f th e tw o p e rm its a c o n s ta n t g a s v o lu m e to b e in je c te d in to th e w e ll. F ig . 7 -1 3 illu s tra te s a p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re c o n tro l in s ta lla tio n . T h is is g e n e ra lly u s e d o n w e lls th a t h a v e a te n d e n c y to flo w . T h e p re s s u re e le m e n t o n th e g a s c o n tro l v a lv e is s e t to in je c t g a s w h en th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re d ro p s b e lo w

i t s norm al flow ing pressure. Iti s recom m ended that a choke be u s e d w ith th e g a s c o n tro l v a lv e to p re v e n t s u rg in g o f th e w ell gas pressure. F ig .7 -1 3 P roduction pressure control o fth e in je c tio n g a s , tu b in g flo ww e l l W E L LIN J E C T IO N G A S P R E S S U R E F O R C O N T IN U O U S F L O W S Y S T E M S F o r m a n y y e a rs it w a s a g e n e ra l ru le th a t c o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift n e e d e d a w e ll in je c tio n g a s p re s s u reo f1 0 0 p si/lO O O ft. of lift.T his le d o p e ra to rs in m a n y fie ld s to s e le c t a n in je c tio n g a s s y s te m o f le s s th a n 1 0 0 0 p s ig . Today, thesepressuresareconsidered lo w fo r g a s lift p u rp o s e s . A ls o , th e a p p ro a c h to d e s ig n a n d s e le c tio n o f th e in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re is m o re s o p h is tic a te d . It is related s p e c ific a lly to th e h ig h e s t e x p e c te d flo w in g b o tto m h o le

p re s s u re in th e fie ld . T h is a p p ro a c h le d to h ig h e r p re s s u re system s of 1440 psig (A N S IS e rie s6 0 0 ) a n d h ig h e r. S o m e o f th e d e e p e r o il fie ld s a re p la n n e d for reservoir p re s s u re m a in te n a n c e b e fo re th e fie ld is c o m p le te ly d rille d . T y in g th e g a s lift s y s te m design to reservoirperform ance a llo w s e ffic ie n t p ro d u c tio n at h ig h e r flo w in g b o tto m hole pressures as high as2 3 0 0 psi. G a s lift v a lv e s a re e a s ily a d a p ta b le to 1 4 0 0 p s i w e ll g a s pressures and several vendors have valves fo r2 0 0 0 psi and higher gas system s. G E T T IN G T H E M O S T O IL W IT H T H E A V A IL A B L E G A S L IF T T h e e ffic ie n td is trib u tio n o f c irc u la te d g a s to e a c h w e ll p ro m ise fo re ffic ie n c y , but progress w ith th is m e th o d i s o n g as lift iso fp rim a ry c o n c e rnt o o p e ra tin g p e rs o n n e l. It is m oving slow ly. T herefore, the m ethods that are m ost com th is c o m p o n e n to fthe gas lift system w ith w hich the opera-

m o n ly u s e d to d a y w ill b e d is c u s s e d firs t. In a ll c a s e s , itw ill to r h a s d ire c t a n d d a ily c o n ta c t.S o ,iti s th e c o m p o n e n t o f be assum ed that a tw o-pen pressure recorded fo r re c o rd in g th e s y s te m th a t th e o p e ra to r u s e s to m a k e a s y s te m e ffic ie n t. b o th c a s in g a n d tu b in g p re s s u re s is o n th e w e ll a n d th a t a T h e p rin c ip le s g iv e n h e re a p p ly to b o th c o n tin u o u s flo w m e te rru n form easuring lift g a s is a t e a c h w e ll. d is c u s s e d in th is c h a p te r, a n d in te rm itte n t lift w h ic h w ill b e d is c u s s e di nth e fo llo w in g c h a p te rs . M anual C o n tro ls T he d e ta ilso f th is c o m p o n e n tw i l l b e d i s c u s s e d a s r e l a t e d T h e s e c o n tro ls aret he least efficient becauset hey require to th e m e th o d o f c o n tro l e x e rc is e d b y o p e ra tin g p e rs o n n e l. m anual changesi n adjustm ent w hen any system param eter T h e m e th o d s g e n e ra lly u s e d a re m a n u a l a n d s e m i-a u to m a tic c h a n g e s , a n d b e c a u s e th e ir d u ra tio n o f e ffic ie n c y is

o n ly a s c o n tro l.A fe w c o m p a n ie s h a v e im p le m e n te d a u to m a tic long as all system s param eters are constant. M anual conc o n tro ls . T h e a u to m a tic c o n tro l m e th o d o ffe rs th e g re a te s t tro ls a re d e ta ile d in F ig . 7 -1 4 . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 Y 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 q E ‘b 5 9 7 A n a ly s is a n d R e g u la tio n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift 9 3 A g a s in je c tio n c h o k e is c o m m o n ly u s e d fo r c o n tin u o u s flo w and so m etim es fo r in term itten t lift.C hokes in inter- m itte n t lift w e lls a re u s u a lly u s e d o n ly w h e n p ilo to r p ro - d u c tio n o p e ra te d v a lv e s a re e m p lo y e d . T h e c h o k e c o n tro ls th e ra te o f c irc u la te d g a s to th e w e ll a n d d o e s a g o o d jo b o n ly a s lo n g a s P , a n dPC rre m a in fix e d a fte r th e a d ju s tm e n t is m ade.P crs ta y s c o n s ta n t b e c a u s ei t is p a rtia lly c o n tro lle d b y th e g a s lift v a lv e s . B u t if P , in c re a s e s , in e ffic ie n c y is in tro - d u c e d b e c a u s e th e c h o k e w ill p a s s m o re g a s th a n n e e d e d . If P , d e c r e a s e s , th e c h o k e w ill re d u c e th e v o lu m e o f g a s c irc u - la te d a n d th e v o lu m e o f p ro d u c e d flu id w ill b e re d u c e d . S e m i-A u to m a tic C o n tro ls T h e m a n u a l s u rfa c e c o n tro ls m a y b e im p ro ll- in g a p re s s u re re d u c in g re g u la to r b e tw tro l a n d the high pressure gas source (Fig. 7 -1 5 ). T h c o n s ta n t u p s tre a m p re s s u re to e a c h a n d e in e f- ficiencies caused by increases in upstream p re s s u re . T h is c o n t r o lc o m p o n e n t m a y b e u s e d f o r c o n t i n u o u s f l o w a n d s o m e in te rm itte n t lift w e lls (if th e in te rm ittin g v a lv e s w ill o p e ra te p ro p e rly w ith c h o k e c o n tro l a n d h a v e c o v e d b y in s ta e e n th e c o n is p ro v id e s a e lim in a te s th

rre c t o p e ra tin g s p e e d ) a n d is a s ig n ific a n t im p ro v e m e n t o v e r th e “ c h o k e o n ly ” in s ta lla tio n w h e n in je c tio n g a s s y s te m p re s - su re v aries. T h e g as rate to th e w ell is a fu n ctio nof P g 2 .A n in c re a s e in P g w ill n o t b e h a rm fu l. B a s ic a lly , th e s e m i-a u to m a tic c o n tr o ls p re s e rv e e ffic ie n t g a s c o n tr o l a s lo n g a s th e in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re (Pg) rem ainsconstantorincreases.E fficiency is m a in ta in e d w ith a lim ite d (a n d d e fin e d ) d e c lin e inP ,, b u t th ere is stilln o p ro te c tio n a g a in s t a n e x c e s s iv e d e c lin e inP ,. r h ig h p re s s u re g a s s o u rc e O p tim iz in g G as L ift S y s te m s T h e g a s c o n tro ls d is c u s s e d p re v io u s ly h a v e b e e n im p ro v e d to th e p o in t th a t th e y re m a in e ffic ie n t u n til a d e fin e d lo s si n injection gas pressure(P ,) is reached. T herefore, if o p e ra tin g p e r s o n n e l c a n r e d u c eo re lim in a te th e o c c u rre n c e o f a d e g ra d in g P ,th e n a n o th e r im p ro v e m e n t i n s y s te m e ffic ie n c y is a c c o m p lis h e d .

F o rth is p u rp o s e th e fo llo w in g d e fin itio ni s a c c e p ta b le :A g a s lift s y s te m is o p tim iz e d w h e n th e m a x im u m p o s s ib le b a r r e lso fo i la r e p r o d u c e d w ith th e a v a ila b le c ir c u la te d g a s v o lu m e . 1 . E stablish P riority System T o a c c o m p lis h th is , th e operatingpersonnelm ust e s ta b lis h a p rio rity s y s te m d e fin in g w h ic h w e lls g e t c irc u la te d gas when th e re is a s h o rta g e o f c irc u la te d g a s v o lu m e . T h e b e s t b a s i sf o r a p r i o r i t y s y s t e m i s t h e c i r c u lated gas-oil ratio (o r the injected gas-oil ratio, IG O R ) f o r e a c h w e ll in th e s y s te m . E a c h tim e a w e ll is te s te d th e fo llo w in g d a ta a re a v a ila b le : B O P D b a rre ls o f o il/d a y(q o ) BW PD b a rre ls o f w a te r/d a y T G A S -

total gas from test separator, standard cuIG A S lift gas circulated to the w ell, S C F /D (ig) FG A S fo rm a tio n g a s p ro d u c e d , S C F /D A fte r th e te s t, c a lc u la te IG O R (R g o i= ig /q o ). T h e w e ll th a t h a s th e lo w e s t IG O R h a s to p p rio rity fo r c irc u la te d g a s .E v e ry e ffo rts h o u ld b e m ade to c irc u la te th e re q u ire d g a s toth is w e ll a s lo n g a s a n yg a s is a v a ila b le . bic feetper day (S C F /D ) . M e te r r u n C hoke 7 P c f 1 c L ‘ I F ig .7 -1 4 M a n u a lly a d ju s ta b le o r p o s itiv e c h o k e p re s s u re re d u c in g

re g u la to r / C hoke F ig .7 -1 5 Pressure reducing regulator and choke Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532927 423 m 9 4 G as L ift 2 . B y c a lc u la tin g a n IG O R fo r e a c h w e ll fro m its la te s t te s t, th e o p e ra to r c o m p le te s th e p rio rity lis t. T he highest IG O R ’s are now defined and th e y s h o u ld b e th e firstw ellsto l o s e c irc u la te d g a s w hen th e g a s v o lu m e is r e d u c e dd u e to alo s s in in je c tio n g a s lin e p r e s s u r e . Im plem enting P riority System K eeping the priority list up-to-date is a necessary part of the system . Iti su n lik e ly th a t a p a rtic u la r w e ll m o v e s fro m th e lo w e s t to th e h ig h e s t IG O R ; b u t p o s itio n s o n th e p rio rity lis t w ill c h a n g e a s w e ll c o n d itio n s c h a n g e . The status of the high pressure gas source can be recogn iz e d

b y th e p re s s u re . T a b le 7 -1 illu s tra te s lo g ic a l c o n c lu s io n s . T A B L E7 -1 S T A T U S O F H IG H P R E S S U R E GAS SOURCE Pressure of L o g ic a l S ta tu s o f H ig h H .P . G a s Sym bol P r e s s u r e G as S o u rc e N orm al N A ll is w e ll c irc u la te d g a s v o lu m e e q u a ls a v a ila b le g a s v o lu m e A bove A N M o re g a s v o lu m e a v a ila b le N orm al th a n is b e in g c irc u la te d to the w ells S lig h tly SB N

M o re g a s v o lu m e is b e in g B e lo w c irc u la te d th a n is a v a ila b le , N orm al b u t a ll w e lls a re p ro d u c in g D ra stic a lly M o re g a s v o lu m e is b e in g B e lo w D B N c irc u la te d th a n is a v a ila b le N orm al and som e w ells are not p ro d u c in g T h e s y m b o ls o f T a b le 7 -1 w ill b e u s e d to in d ic a te th e status of the higher pressure gas source. F ro m th e p rio rity lis t s e le c t2 0to 3 0 p e rc e n to f th e w e lls that have the highest IG O R ’s. W ith th e a b o v e p a ra m e te rs d e fin e d , a p rio rity s y s te m c a n b e im p le m e n te d m a n u a lly o r a u to m a tic a lly , a s d e s c rib e d in T a b le 7 -2 a n d T a b le 7 -3 . T A B L E 7 -2 M A N U A L A C T IO N T O O P T IM IZ E U S E O F C IR C U L A T E D L IF T G A S Status of H .P . A c tio n SB N R educeo rs to p c irc u la te d g a s to w e lls

w ith h ig h e s t IG O R ’s u n til s ta tu s returns to A N . Then restart gas to w e lls in a s c e n d in g p rio rity n u m b e rs u n til s ta tu s re tu rn s toN . D B N S to p c irc u la te d g a s to w e lls w ith h ig h e st IG O R ’s u n til statu s retu rn s to N . L ow p re s c te d o rd e lift g w ith s u re s h u t-in v a lv e s s h o u ld b e in s ta lle d o n th w e lls w ith h ig h IG O R ’s(2 0to3 0 p e rc e n to f th e w e r to s e m i-a u to m a tic a lly o p tim iz e th e c irc u - la a s . H a lf o f th e s e le c te d w e lls s h o u ld b e e q u lo w e se le lls ) in te d ip p e d

p re s s u re s h u t-in v a lv e s th a t a u to m a tic a lly re o p e n w hen the system pressure recovers. The otherhalf should be e q u ip p e d w ith lo w p re s s u re s h u t-in v a lv e s re q u irin g m a n u a l reset to reopen. T A B L E7 -3 S E M I-A U T O M A T IC A C T IO N T O O P T IM IZ E U S E O F C IR C U L A T E D L IF T G A S S ta tu s A c tio n N A ll w e lls ta k in g g a s a s a d ju s te d b y operating personnel SB N G asi ss to p p e d to h ig h IG O R w e lls w /a u to re o p e n . N o g a s w ill g o to th e m u n til s ta tu s re c o v e rs a b o v e S B N . T h e s e w e lls w ill th e n a u to m a tic a lly s ta rt ta k in g g a s a g a in . D B N

G a s h a s a lre a d y b e e n s to p p e d to w e ll w /a u to re o p e n p ilo ts . G a s w ill n o w b e s to p p e d to w e lls w /m a n u a l re s e t pilots. If this action allow s status to re c o v e r a b o v e S B N . th e w e lls w /a u to re o p e n p ilo ts w ill a g a in g e t c irc u la te d gas. O perating personnel m ust person- a lly re s e t th e o th e r w e lls b e fo re c irc u - la tin g g a s w ill b e restarted to them . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A n a ly s is a n d R e g u la tio n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L ift 9 5

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

A u to m a tic O p tim iza tio nof In jection G a s U se M a n u a la n d s e m i-a u to m a tic o p tim iz a tio n p la n sa re k e y e dt otr ig g e r a c tio n o n ly o n a lo s s o f p r e s s u r e in th e h ig h p re s s u re g a s s o u rc e s . T h e ir in h e re n t w e a k n e s s is th a t th e y re ly c o m p le te ly o n th e o p e ra tin g p e rs o n n e l t or e c o g n i z e c h a n g e s in th e w e ll’s c h a ra c te ris tic s o r m a lfu n c tio n s in the s u b s u rfa c e e q u ip m e n t.W ith to d a y ’s te c h n o lo g y ,m ic ro processorsandcom putersm aybeusedtom onitorthe w e ll’s p e rfo rm a n c e , e v a lu a te th e s ta tu s o f d o w n h o le e q u ip m e n t, m e a s u re th e v o lu m e of highpressuregasavailable a n d d is trib u te lift g a s i n th e m o s t e ffic ie n t m a n n e r a u to m a tic a lly . A few com panies have already used partso fth is te c h n o l- ogy. A n even few er num ber have planst oim p le m e n t c o m - p le te ly a u to m a tic o p tim iz a tio n s y s te m s . B u t a u to m a tic g a s lift s y s te m s c a n b e a n e c o n o m ic fie ld p ro v e n reality. U ntil then,operating personnelm ustdo the b e s t th e y c a n w ith

m anualandsem i-autom aticsurfacegascontrols,and o p tim iz a tio n p la n s , to g e t th e m o s t o il w ith th e a v a ila b le lift g a s . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

T IT L E *V T -b 9q W 0 7 3 2 2 9 00 5 3 2 9 2 9 2 T b W A P P E N D IX7 A EXAMPLESO F PRESSURE RECORDER CHARTS FROM C O N T IN U O U S F L O W W ELLS O p e ra tio n : C o n tin u o u s flo w , ca sin g c h o k e c o n tr o l, tu b in g flo w T y p e o fw e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o t t o m h o l ep r e s s u r e Trouble: N one Recommendation: Leave well alone T y p eo f gasl i p valves: Injection pressure-operated R e m a r k s : G o o d c o n tin u o u s flo w o p e r a tio n . W e ll has a high working fluidlevel. N o te th e lo w b a c k p r e s s u r e e ffe c t. W e ll p r o d u c in g2 ,1 0 0b b l o fflu id p e r d a y9 5 p e r c e n t w a te r - f r o m w ater drive reservoir, through2 % in . tu b in g . C hart 7 -A l O p e r a tio n : C o n tin u o u s flo w , casing pressure control withregulator, tubing flo w

T y p eo f w e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e Trouble: Inadequate p r o d u c tio n Recommendation: Reduceback pressure T y p e o fg a s lijit v a l v e s : P r e s s u r e o p e r a t e d Remarks: Excessive back pressurem ay b e d u et o o n e o r m ore o f th e fo llo w in g : 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . C h o k e i n f l o w lin e R e s tr ic tio n i n f l o w lin e (p a r a ffin , s n n d , e tc .) F lo w lin e t o o s m a ll o r to o lo n g Separator pressure to o high T o o m a n y sh a rp b e n d s in flo w lin e H ig h ly e m u ls ifie d flu id Excessive input gas C hart 7 -A 2

Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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E xam pleso f Pressure R ecorder C h arts fromC o n tin u o u sF lo w W ells 9 7 O p e r a t i o n : I n t e r m i t t e n t i n j e c t i o n v s . c o n t i n u o u s i n j e c t i o n , t u b i n g f l o w T y p e ofwell:Borderline production rate

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

Trouble: Inadequate p r o d u c tio n R e c o m m e n d a tio n s : A n in te r m itte n t a n d c o n tin u o u sf lo w p r o d u c tio nc o m p a r is o n T y p e o fg a slq t valves: Pressure operated Rem arks: Com pare interm ittent to continuous flow t o d e te r m in e m o s t e ffic ie n t p r o d u c tio n ra te C hart 7 -A 3 O p e r a t i o n : C o n t i n u o u s f l o w , c a s i n g c h o k e c o n t r o l , t u b i n g f l o w T y p e o f w e l l : H i g h p r o d u c t i v i t y , h i g h b o t t o m h o l e p r e s s u r e Trouble: N one R e c o m m e n d a tio n s : L e a v e w e ll a lo n e T y p e o f g a s l$ t v u l v e s : I n j e c t i o n p r e s s u r e - o p e r a t e d R e m a r k s : T h ew e ll h a d b e e n s h u t i n o v e r n ig h t, a n d th e g a s h a d b e e n tu r n e d o n sh o rtly beforethe chart was changed. The casing pressure w as at 46O psiga t th e b e g i n n i n g a t1 0 :1 5 a .m . T h e r e w a s a g r a d u a l p r e s s

u r e r i s e t o 4 6 8 p s i g d u e tofluid tem perature increase affecting valve.A t 2:45p.m . th e casingpressure increased to 48O psig anda“ k ic k ” c a n b e n o te do n th e tu b in g p r e s s u r e . T h is w a s d u e t oa n u p p e r v a lv e b e c o m in g th e o p e r a tin g v a l v e . A tI0:O O a .m . th e n e x t m o r n in g thec asing pressure had increased to 490 psig duet o tem perature effect. C hart7 -A 4 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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9 8 A P I T IT L E + V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 3 3 9 5 4 m G as L ift O peration:Continuousflow , casing choke control, tubingflow T y p eo f w e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e T r o u b le : C h o k e o n g a s lin ef r o z e R e c o m m e n d a tio n s :Ag a s h e a te r m ig h t b e in s ta lle d a h e a d o f th e c h o k e , or a ja c k e t m ig h t

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

be w elded around th e c h o k e t o p e r m it th e h o t flo w lin e fluids top ass over it, or the well m ight be placed on interm ittent injection T y p eo fgas lft valves: P ressure operated C hart 7 -A S O p e ra tio n : C o n tin u o u s flo w , tu b in g flo w T y p e o f w e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e T r o u b le : N o n e , w e ll isflo w in g R e c o m m e n d a tio n s : h a v e w e ll a lo n e T y p eo fgas lìjt valves: Pressure operated R e m a r k s : W e ll is f l o w i n g ; n og a s is b e in g in je c te d C hart7 -A 6 Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T I T L E + V T - b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 3 28 9 0 m Exam pleo f Pressures Recorder C h arts from C o n tin u o u s F lo w W ells 9 9 O p e ra tio n : C o n tin u o u s flo w ,c a sin g c h o k e c o n tr o l, tu b in gf l o w T y p eo f w e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o lep re ssu re Trouble: W ell w as closed in to repairflowline R e c o m m e n d a tio n : N o n e T y p eo fgas lyt valves: P ressure operated R em arks: W hen the m a s te r v a lv e

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

w a s o p e n e d th e tu b in g p r e s s u r e w as2 5 0 p s ig . F lo w im m e d ia te ly s ta r te d b u t th e pressure declined to2 1 0 p s ig a t th e p e a ko f U -tu b e .A s th e g a s c le a re d th r o u g h th e g a s lift v a lv e th e tu b in g pressure increased toam a x im u m of3 4 5psig, thenfell o ff a n d fin a lly stabilized at 2 8 5p s ig . C h a r t 7-A 7 O p e ra tio n : C o n tin u o u s flo w , tu b in g c o n tr o l, tu b in g flo w T y p eo fw e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o lep ressu re T r o u b le : W e ll is flo w in g , b u t lo a d s u p w ith w a te r p e r io d ic a lly R e c o m m e n d a tio n : O p e r a tin g s a tis fa c to r ily Rem arks: The tubing control elem entis set to inject gas into the well when the pressure decreasest o1 6 0psig. It can be n o te d b y t h er i s e i n c a s i n g p r e s s u r e o p p o s i t e t h e d r o p i n t u b i n g p r e s s u r e C hart 7 -A 8 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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O peration:C ontinuousflow , casing choke control, tubing flow T y p e o f w e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e T r o u b le : W e ll is b e in g te s te d in te s t s e p a r a to r Recommendation: Remove high normal back pressure,or testagainstsame high back pressurefor accurateflow test R e m a r k s : It w o u ld b e im p o s s ib le t o h a v e a n a c c u r a te p r o d u c tio n te s t o n th e w e ll u n d e r th e a b o v e c o n d itio n s C hart 7 -A 9 O peration:C ontinuousflow , casing choke control, tubing flow T y p e o f w e ll: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o le p r e s s u r e T r o u b le : W e ll is c lo s e d in

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s : C h e c kt o s e e w h y it is c lo s e d in T y p eo f g a s lijìt v a l v e s : P r e s s u r e o p e r a t e d R em arks:O n c h e c k in g ,i t w a s n o te d th a t th e w e ll h a d p r o d u c e d its m o n th ly a llo w a b le , a n d h a d b e e n c lo s e d in . T h is c a n h u r t s o m e o il w e lls. It is b e tte r to c u t th e d a ily p r o d u c tio n a n d p r o d u c e th e w e ll c o n s ta n tly . C hart 7 -A IO Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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Exam pleo f Pressures Recorder Charts fro m C o n tin u o u sF lo w W ells 1 0 1 O p e r a t i o n : C o n t i n u o u s f l o w ,c a s i n g c h o k e c o n t r o l , t u b i n gf l o w T y p e o f w ell: H ig h p r o d u c tiv ity , h ig h b o tto m h o le p re ssu re Trouble: N ot serious, well is “heading” R e c o m m e n d a tio n : C h e c kt o see if system gas pressure flu ctu a tes T ype ofgas lift valves: Pressure operated Remarks: Reasonably good o p e r a tio n . W e ll h a s a te n d e n c yt o “ h e a d ,” w h ic h c o u l d b e c a u s e d b y e r r a t i c v a l v e o p e r a t i o n o r a flu c tu a tin g system pressure. C hart 7 -A lI Achoke was used on th e g a sl in e to c o n tr o l th e g a s v o lu m e in to th e

c a s in g -tu b in g annulus. W hen th e g a s wasfirst turned on, an im m ed ia tes urge o fflu id returned fro m th e tu b in ga s th e w ell w a s c o m p le te ly fu ll o fsalt w ater. W hen th e liq u id volum e displaced in th e a n n u lu s s ta b iliz e d t o th e g a s v o lu m e rate of th ei n je c tio n g a s , th e tu b in g p r e s s u r e rem ained a t5 0 p s ig u n til th e to p v a lv e w as uncovered and gas entered the tubing.A surge in tubingpressureis noted as each valve is uncovered. The w ellfinallystabilized on the 4thvalve.

C hart 7 -A l2U n lo a d in g c o n tin u o u s f l o w w e ll Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

m 0732290 0532935 5 T T m 1 0 2 G as L ift C H A P T E R8 IN T E R M IT T E N T F L O WG A S L IF T IN T R O D U C T IO N C o n tin u o u s flo w g a s lift n o rm a lly is m o re e ffic ie n t th a n in te rm itte n t flo w gas liftand,therefore,shouldbe u s e d whenever possible.Thereare, h o w e v e r, m in im u m liq u id rates for each c o n d u it s iz e th a t can be lifted e ffic ie n tly w ith c o n tin u o u s flo w .M in im u m liq u id ra te u s u a lly occurs at a b o u t1 0 0t o 1 5 0B L P D in 2 3 /~ “ tu b in g ,2 0 0 to3 0 0 B L P D i n 2 7 /~ “

tu b in g a n d3 0 0 to4 0 0 in 3 ‘/2 ’’ tu b in g . W h e n th e m in - im u m ra te is re a c h e d , th e n in te rm itte n t lift s h o u ld b e c o n s id - ered. H ow ever, there may be a broad range of low er prod u c tio n ratesw here the tw o types of gas lift are a b o u t e q u a l. In s u c h a c a s e , th e rew o u ld b e little ju s tific a tio n for change u n le s s th e re w e re o th e r c o n trib u tin g fa c to rs . U s u a lly in te rm itte n t lift is c o n d u c te d i n 2 3 /~ “ tu b in g ; h o w e v e r, th e re a re m a n y s u c c e s s fu l in s ta lla tio n s u s in g2 7 /~ ” a n d 3 ’/2 “ tu b in g . In te rm u re g a term itu s h in itte s is te n g th n t lift is a d is p la c e m e n t p ro c e s s .H ig h p re s s in je c te d in to th e liq u id c o lu m n o n a c y c lico r in t b a s is c re a tin gag a s b u b b le w h ic h e x p a n d s p e liq u id a b o v e it to

the surface in a slug. W hilei t is n o rm a lly a s s o c ia te d w ith lo w v o lu m e p ro d u c e rs , in te rm itte n t lifth a s successfully lifted w ells at ratesi n excess of5 0 0 barrelso f liq u id p e r d a y (b lp d ), a lth o u g h s u c h a ra te c o u ld p ro b a b ly h a v e b e e n lifte d m o re e ffic ie n tly w ith c o n tin u o u s flo w . W e lls w ith h ig h p ro d u c tiv ity in d ic e s (P I) a n d lo w b o tto m hole pressureo r w e lls w ith lo w P I’S re q u irin g lo w flo w in g bottom hole pressuresare

m ost suited to th is ty p e of lift. In te rm itte n t lift s h o u ld a c h ie v e lo w e r a v e ra g e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re s th a n c a n b e o b ta in e d w ith c o n tin u o u s flo w in w e lls p ro d u c in g a t lo w flow rates a n d a t lo w flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re s . In te rm itte n t g a s lift w ith th e m o re c o m m o n ly used gas pressure operated valves requires periods o f h ig h in s ta n ta n e o u s g a s in je c tio n ra te s s e p a ra te d b y p e rio d so f no gas in je c tio n . W ith tim e c y c le c o n tro l, th e c y c lic h ig h in s ta n - ta n e o u s in je c tio n g a s d e m a n d ra te fro mth e in je c tio n lin e is h a rd o n th e in je c tio n g a s s y s te m . W h e n a w e ll d e m a n d s g a s , the pressure in the injection system is p u lle d d o w n . T h is c re a te s p ro b le m s a t th e com pression s ta tio n s in c e com pressors are

n o t w e ll s u ite d to a “ flo w -n o -flo w ” set of condi- tio n s . B e c a u s e o f th is p ro b le m , th e v o lu m e tric c a p a c ity o f th e in je c tio n s y s te m s h o u ld b e la rg e s oitcan actas an a c c u m u la to r to h e lp s m o o th o u t th e flo w surges. G asm easu re m e n t is a ls o v e ry d iffic u lt b e c a u s e o f th e c y c lic flo w . U sually interm ittent lift w ells require m ore attention than c o n tin u o u s flo w w e lls to k e e p th e m p ro d u c in g a t th e m a x i- m u m e ffic ie n t ra te . O P E R A T IN G S E Q U E N C E T he operating sequence o rc y c le a fte r u n lo a d in g o f a n in te rm itte n t lift in s ta lla tio n u s in g g a s p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e s is s h o w n in F ig .8 -l .In (A ), fo rm a tio n liq u id s a c c u m u late and rise inth e tu b in g . A ll g a s lift v a lv e s a re c l o s e d .A t a p re d e te rm in e d tim e (B ),th e in te rm itte ro r c o n tro lle r o n th e gas line at the surface opens and in je c ts g a s in to th e tu b in g c a s in g a n n u lu s . T h is in c re a s e s th e gas pressure in th ea n n u - lu s u n til th is p re s s u re a n d th e liq u id p re s s u re in th e tu b in g a re s u f f i c i e n t t o o p e n t h e o p e ra tin g v a lv e .A ll th e

r e s to f th e valves rem ain closed because the gas pressure aloneis not s u ffic ie n t to o p e n th e v a lv e s . G a s is in je c te d v e ry ra p id ly in to th e liq u id c o lu m n c re a tin g a g a s b u b b le . A sth e b u b b le e x p a n d s , it p u s h e s th e liq u id a b o v e it tothesurface. I n (C ), th e liq u id s lu g h a s re a c h e d th e s u r f a c e a t w h ich tim e th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e s h o u ld c lo s e . T h e in te rm itte ro r c o n tro lle r has already closed. I n(D ), th e slu g h a s m o v e d d o w n th e flo w lin e to th e s e p a ra to r, th e “ ta il g a s ” b e h in d th e s lu g h a s b le d o ff, a n d fo rm a tio n liq u id s a re a g a in a c c u m u la tin g in th etu b in g . S e v e ra lth in g s a re a p p a re n tfro m th is e x p la n a tio n . (1 )T h e g a s s h o u ld b e in je c te d ra p id ly . If n o t,i t w ill ju s t b u b b leu pth ro u g h th e liq u id w ith o u t liftin g a n y liq u idt o th e s u rfa c e . C o n s e q u e n tly , la rg e -p o rte d v a lv e s th a t te n dt o “snap” open rather than throttle open are recommended for th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e . (2 )T h e o p e ra tin g v a lv e s h o u ld b e th e b o tto m v a lv e a n d s h o u ld b e lo c a te d ju s t a b o v e th e p a c k e r. T h

is w ay th e lo w e st p o s s ib le flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re c a n b e a c h ie v e d . (3 ) T he back pressure atthe surface should b e a s lo w a s p o s s ib le to m in im iz e fa llb a c k , m a x im iz e th e in itia l s ta rtin g s lu g , a n d re d u c e th e a m o u n t o f g a s re q u ire d to lift th e liq u id s lu g to th e s u rfa c e . Id e a lly , th e flo w lin e s h o u ld b e la rg e i n diam eterand short i n le n g th .S m a ll d ia m e te r, lo n g flo w lin e s a re v e ry d e trim e n ta l to in te rm itte n t lift in s ta lla tio n sb e c a u s e th e y c a u s e h ig h w e llh e a d p re s sures. T his problem can som etim es bereduced by decreas- in g th e m a x im u m in je c tio n g a s c y c le fre q u e n c y in h ig h P I w e lls. Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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I API T I T L E r V T - b9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532736 4 3 6 m In term itten t F lo w G as L ift 1 0 3 [A )Im m e d io tc ly B e fo re G a r In je c tio n

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

V o lv e C lo s e d V a lv e C lo s e d V o lv e C lo s e d V a lv e C lo s e d O p e r e lin g V o lv e O pen V o lv eC lo s e d V o l v e C lo s e d V o lv eO pen O p c ro tin g [C )In je c tio nC o s E n te rin g T u b in g T h ro u g h V o lv e A fte r C o n tro lle r C lo s e d [D ) A fte r G o r In je c tio n Fig. 8 -1 In te r m itte n tl i f t c y c le o f o p e r a tio n f o r c o n v e n tio n a l c lo s e d in te r m itte n t in s ta lla tio n T Y P E S O F IN S T A L L A T IO N S T A e a h c b s e illu s tra tio n s in F ig .8 -1 s lo s e d in s ta lla tio n u s e sap e lo w th e b o tto m g a s lift v a n e ith e r a packer noras ta n d in h o w a c lo s e d in s ta lla tio n . a c k e r a n d a s ta n d in g v a lv lv e . A n o p e n in s ta lla tio n h g v a lv e . A

s e m i-c lo s e d in s ta lla tio n h a s a p a c k e r b u t n o t a s ta n d in g v a lv e . T h e c lo s e d in s ta lla tio n is re c o m m e n d e d fo r in te rm itte n t lift. S in c e p re s s u re a c ts

dow nw ard as w ell as upw ard th e s ta n d in g v a lv e p re v e n ts th e h ig h p re s s u re g a s fro m fo rc in g liq u id s b a c k in to th e fo rm a tio n o n e a c h c y c le . A s ta n d in g v a lv ei s norm ally recom m ended; how ever, it can cause problem s if the w ell produces s a n d . T h e s a n d c a n c o lle c t o n to p o f th e s ta n d in g v a lv e m a k - in g it d iffic u lt if n o t im p o s s ib le to p u ll. T h e o th e r tw o ty p e s o f in s ta lla tio n s (o p e n a n d sem i- c lo s e d ) w ill a llo w th e h ig h p re s s u re g a s to a c t o n th e fo rm a - tio n th e re b y d e c re a s in g th e e ffic ie n c y o f th e l i f t . An open in s ta lla tio n w ith o u t a p a c k e r is not recom m ended for interm ittent lift. F A C T O R S A F F E C T IN G P R O D U C IN G R A T E T h e p rim a ry fa c to rs a ffe c tin g th e m a x im u m p ro d u c in g ra te M a x im u m R a te in in te rm itte n t lift a re (1 )tu b in g s iz e , (2 ) depth of lift, T h e m a x im u m ra te a t w h ic h a n

in term itten t lift w ell can (3 )in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re , (4 ) w e llh e a d b a c k p r e s s u r e , be produced is lim ited b y th e m a x im u m n u m b e r o f tim e s (5 ) g a s p a s s in g a b ilityo f th e g a s lift v a lv e ,(6 ) g a s b re a k th e w e ll c a n b e c y c le d in a 2 4 -h o u r p e rio d . E x p e rie n c e h a s th ro u g h a n d fa ll b a c k , (7 )b o tto m h o le p re s s u re b u ild -u p s h o w n it ta k e s a b o u t3 m in u te s p e r1 0 0 0 fe e t o f lift to in je c t characteristics, and(8 ) o th e r u n u s u a l w e ll c o n d itio n s s u c h th e g a s , o p e n th e o p e ra tin g valve, lift the slug to the suras em ulsions. fa c e , a n d b le e d o ff th e ta il g a s . T h is tim e w ill v ary fro m Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532937 3 7 2 m 1 0 4 G as L ift installation to in s ta lla tio nb u t th e tim e o f3m in u te s p e r1 0 0 0 feet o f lift is a g o o d ru le to u se fo r estim atin g m a x im u m p ro d u c tio n ra te a n d m in im u m c y c le tim e . F a llb a c k

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

I n i n t e r m i t t e n t l i f t ,t h e g a s a l o n e d o e sn o t s w e e p a ll o f th e liq u id o u t o f th e tu b in g fro m th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e to th e s u r fa c e . S o m e liq u id a lw a y s fa lls b a c k . S o m e o f th is liq u id w e ts th e w a lls o f th e tu b in g a n d ru n s b a c k d o w n . A ls o , th e g a s h a s a te n d e n c y to b u b b le u p th ro u g h th e liq u id a llo w in g s o m e o f th e liq u id to d r o p b a c k d o w n . F a llb a c k c a n b e d e fin e d a s th e d iffe re n c e b e tw e e n the starting slug a n d th e p ro d u c e d s lu g . T h isis show n in Fig. 8 -2 . G a s b re a k -th ro u g h a n d fa llb a c k are affected b y th re e th in g s ; th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e g a s b u b b le , th e u p w a rd v e lo c ity o f th e liq u id s lu g , a n d re s tric tio n s a t th e w e llh e a d .

1 .D evelopm ento f the G as B u b b le If th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e h a s a s m a ll p o rt o r te n d s to th ro ttle o p e n ra th e r th a n s n a p o p e n , g a s w ill e n te r s lo w ly a n d te n d to rise up through th e liq u idw ith o u t p ro v id in g m u c h liftin g a c tio n . G a s s h o u ld e n te r th e tu b in g q u ic k lyto fo rm th e g a s b u b b le a n d to a c c e le ra te th e liq u id s lu g u p th e tu b in g . C o n s e q u e n tly , la rg e -p o rte d , s n a p -a c tin g g a s lift v a lv e s a re re c o m m e n d e d fo r th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e fo r in te rm itte n tflo w gas lift. 2 . V elo cityo f th eS lu g T h e s lo w e r th e s lu g m o v e s u p th e tu b in g , th e lo n g e r th e g a s h a s to b re a k th ro u g h th e liq u id . Am in im u m s lu g v e lo c ity of1 0 0 0fe e t p e rm in u te is re c o m m e n d e d to m in im iz e g a s b re a k -th ro u g h . 3 . R e s tr ic tio n s a t th e W e llh e a d T h e th ird fa c to r a ffe c tin g fa llb a c k is re s tric tio n s a t th e w e llh e a d . T h e u s u a l flo w p a th th ro u g h th e C h ris tm a s tre e in to th e flo w lin e is ra th e r to rtu o u s ; firs t th ro u g h a te e to

th e w in g v a lv e , th e n th ro u g h a n o th e r9 0 "e ll o r c h o k e te e ,th e n th ro u g h a t le a s t o n e m o re a n d p ro b a b ly tw o o r m o re 9 0 " e lls b e fo re re a c h in g th eflo w lin e . A ll th is s lo w s d o w n th e s lu g a llo w in g m o re liq u id to fa ll b a c k . T h e flo w p a tte rn th ro u g h th e C h ris tm a s tre e s h o u ld b e s tre a m lin e d a s m u c h a s p o s s ib le . F o r e x a m p le , th e flo w c o u ld b e o u t th e to p o f th etre e a n d th e n th ro u g h a sweeping p ip eb e n d to b rin g th e flo w lin e b a c k to th e g ro u n d a s s h o w n in F ig . 8 -3 . F o r e s tim a tin g p u rp o s e s , th e fa llb a c k o n a p ro p e rly a d ju s te d in te rm itte n t liftw e ll w ill b e a b o u t5to7 p e rc e n to f th e startin g slu g p er1 0 0 0 feet of lift. S T A R T IN G L IQ U ID S L U G A N D F A L L B A C K T O

S E P A R A T O R S T A R T IN G S L U G tT O S E P A R A T O R IN J E C T IO N G A S L " .

S L U G F A L L B A C K \I IN J E C T IO N G A S . , O P E R A T IN G V A L V E *. AJST AFTER C L O S IN G F A L L B A C K=STARTMG SLUG- PRODUCED SLUG F ig . 8 -2 I llu s tr a tio n so f s ta r tin g s lu g , p r o d u c e ds l u g , a n d f a llb a c k Copyright American Petroleum Institute

       

1

IO P E R A T IN G V A L V E P R O D U C E D

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API TITLE*VT-b q q 0 7 3 2 2 q O 0 5 3 2 9 3 8 2 0 7

 

 

   

 

   

 

m In te rm itte n t F lo w G a s L ift 1 0 5 U s eo f P lu n g e rs in In te rm itte n t L ift S y s te m s F a llb a c k c a n b e re d u c e d to a n a b s o lu te m in im u m b y u s in g a p lu n g e r w ith th e in s ta lla tio n . T h e p lu n g e r a c ts a s a n in te rfa c eo r p is to n b e tw e e n th e g a s a n d th e liq u id , m in im iz - ing gasbreak-through.Italso w ip e s th e liq u id fro m th e tu b in g w a ll re d u c in g th e a m o u n t le ft to fa ll b a c k . A tu b in g s to p a n d b u m p e r s p rin g a re in s ta lle d ju s t a b o v e th e b o tto m o r operating valve.A ftereach slug surfaces,the plunger fa lls b a c k to th e b u m p e r s p rin g to s ta rt a n o th e r trip .I ns u c h a system , th e p lu n g e r w o u ld b e in o p e ra tiv e if one of the u p p e r v a lv e s tu rn e d o u t to b e th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e . T h e re - fo re , th e in s ta lla tio n m u s t b e d e s ig n e d s o th a t n o n e o f th e u p p e r v a lv e s w ill o p e n w h ile o p e ra tin g fro m th e b o tto m v a lv e . If a n u p p e r v a lv e o p e n s , it m a y b lo w th e p lu n g e r b a c k d o w n p re v e n tin g p ro p e r o p e ra tio n o f th e in s ta lla tio n . S o m e c o n v e n tio n a l p lu n g e r e q u ip m e n t s h o u ld

n o t b e u s e d w ith w irelin eo r side pocket m andrels. H ow ever, specially des ig n e d p lu n g e rs fo r w e lls w ith s id e p o c k e t m a n d re ls a re a v a ilFig. 8 -3 S tr e a m lin e d w e llh e a d fo r in te r m itte n t in a b le .F o r a d d itio n a l in fo rm a tio no n p lu n g e rs , s e e th e u s e o f s ta lla tio n p lu n g e rs in g a s lift o p e ra tio n s in C h a p te r1 0 . D E S IG NO F IN T E R M IT T E N T L IF T IN S T A L L A T IO N S T h e re a re m any m e th o d s o f d e s ig n in g in te rm itte n t lift in s ta lla tio n s . M o s t o f th e m fall into tw o basic categories; a fa llb a c k g ra d ie n t m e th o d a n d a p e rc e n t lo a d m e th o d . F a llb a c k M e th o d T h e fa llb a c k gradientm ethod uses an average gradient of th e ta il g a s , liq u id f a llb a c k , a n d liq u id fe e d -in to p re d ic t th e m in im u m tu b in g p re s s u re o b ta in a b le . T h is a v e ra g e g ra d ie n to rin te rm itte n t s p a c in g fa c to r (S F ) is d e p e n d e n t o n th e tu b in g s iz e a n d a n tic ip a te d p ro d u c tio n ra te . G e n e ra lly

0 .0 4psi per foot o f d e p th is th e m in im u m th a t s h o u ld b e used for unloading. T his m ethod norm ally uses the sam e surface c lo s in gp re ss u re fo r a ll v a lv e s e x c e p t th e O p e ra tin g v a lv e w h ic h u s u a lly has a low er surface closing pressure. T he surface closing p r e s s u r e o f th e u n lo a d in g v a lv e s n o rm a lly s h o u ld b e 1 0 0 psi less than the system gas pressure. In1 9 6 3 W hitee t al36 d e te rm in e d th a t th e tu b in g p re s s u re a t th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e s h o u ld b e5 9 percent of the gas pressure a t th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e , a t th e in s ta n c e t h e v a l v e o p e n s , f o r t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t o p e r a tio n . T h e c o m m o n ly u s e d v a lu e is 6 0p e r c e n t . T h u s know ing the gas pressure a t th e v a lv e , th e tu b in g p re s s u re c a n b e c a lc u la te d w h e n th e v a lv e o p e n s . A fte r th e g a s p re s - s u re a n d th e p ro d u c tio n (tu b in g ) p re s s u re a t th e valve are

k n o w n , th eP ,, (valve closing pressure) of the valve can be c a lc u la te d . T h is w ill s h o w th a t th e P ,, i s5 0 to9 0 psi less th a n th e g a s p re s s u re a t th e v a lv e d e p e n d in g o n th e v a lv e characteristics. T herefore,selecting the surface closing pres- s u r e 1 0 0 psi less than th e s u rfa c e in je c tio n p re s s u re w ill b e o n th e safe sid e a n d a c c o u n t fo r flu c tu a tio n s i n g a s p r e s s u r e . B e c a u s e o f th e n o rm a lly lo w , irre g u la r p ro d u c in g ra te si n in term itten t lift w ells, th e tem p eratu re g rad ien t fo r d e s ig n purposes is assum ed to be geotherm al. A lsofo r in te rm ittent lift design purposes,the surface tem perature usually is assum ed to be7 4 ° Fi nth e U .S . G u lf C o a s t w h ic h is a p p ro x i- m a te ly th e te m p e ra tu re th a t w ould be m easured a b o u t5 0 feet below the ground level. H ow ever, surface te m p e ra tu re s v a ry b y re g io n , a n d th e c o rre c t te m p e ra tu re fo r th e re g io n

should be used. T h e in te rm itte n t lift s p a c in g fa c to r (u n lo a d in g g ra d ie n t) is d e te rm in e d fro m F ig . 8 -4 .T h is fig u re w a s d e v e lo p e d fro m m any flo w in g p re ssu re su rv e y s on m any in term itten tlift w ells. The spacing factor accounts for the increasei n press u re w ith d e p th o f th e g a s in th e tu b in g a b o v e th eliq u id le v e l, fa llb a c k fluid transfer from the casing t oth etu b in g a n d fe e d -in a fte r d ra w d o w n is a c h ie v e d . E x a m p le D esign U sin gF a llb a c k M e th o d : T h e fo llo w in g w e ll d a ta illu s tra te s th e fa llb a c k m e th o d d e s ig n : D epth=5 0 0 0 feet S y s te m gas pressure=7 0 0 p s ig(0 .6 5 g ra v ity ) S u rfa c e tu b in g p re ssu re=6 5 p s ig S ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re=7 7 5 p s ig B o tto m h o le te m p e ra tu re=1 5 0 ° F P ro d u c in g ra te=1 0 0 B L P D K ill flu id g ra d ie n t=0 .4 6 5p s i / f t . T u b in g s iz e=Z3/8-in.O .D . C asing size=5 h -in . O .D .

 

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 m 0732290 0532939

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

1 4 5 1 0 6 G as L ift G as lift v alv e=l /*-in. O .D .N 2 charged, /M in . s e a t, A ,/& =0 .2 0 1 ,1-A ,/& =0 .7 9 9 E x p la n a tio n o fG r a p h ic a l S o lu tio n U sin g F a llb a c k 5 . M e th o d : Ag r a p h i c a ls o l u t i o n is th ee a s ie s t w a y to s o lv e th e p ro b 6 . le m . T h e fo llo w in g is a s te p -b y -s te p p ro c e d u re . 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . P r e p a r eas h e e t o f g r a p h p a p e r w ith d e p th , p r e s s u r e 7 . and tem perature scales as show ni n Fig. 8 -5 .

 

 

P lo t th e w e llh e a d p re ssu re (6 5 psig) at zero depth ( s u r f a c e ) . D e te rm in e th e a p p ro p ria te s p a c in g fa c to r (u n lo a d in g g ra d ie n t) fo r th e p a rtic u la r w ell from F ig .8 -4 . T h is is a fu n c tio n o f th e a n tic ip a te d p ro d u c tio n ra te , tu b in g s iz e , e tc . (In th is e x a m p lei ti s0 .0 4p s i / f t ) . E x te n d th is g ra d ie n to f 0 .0 4p s i/ft fro m th e w e llh e a d 8 .

9 . p r e s s u r e(6 5p s ig ) a t th e s u rfa c e to th e b o tto m o f th e w ell (265 psig at5 0 0 0f t . ) . Plot the surface gas injection pressure. U se pressure 5 0psi less than system p re ssu re (6 5 0 p sig ). E x te n d th is p re s s u re to th e b o tto m o f th e w e ll a c c o u n tin g fo r th e g a s c o lu m n w e ig h t (7 2 0 p s ig a t 5 0 0 0f t . ) . P lo t7 0 0 at the surface; 150°F at 5 0 0 0 ft.and draw a s tra ig h t lin e b e tw e e n th e tw o p o in ts .

 

S u b tra c t1 0 0 psi from the surface injection pressure a n d p lo t th is a s th e surface closing pressure of the u n lo a d in g v a lv e s (5 5 0p sig ). E x te n d th e p re s s u re to th e b o tto m o f th e w e ll a c c o u n tin g fo r th e g a s c o lu m n w e ig h t (6 1 0 p s ig a t 5 0 0 0ft.). T h is lin e a n d th e o n e p lo tte di n s te p 6 a re a lm o s t p a ra lle l, b u t n o t q u ite . F ig . 8 -4 I n te r m itte n t lift s p a c in g f a c to r Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API TITLErVT-6 9 4 m 0732290 0 5 3 2 9 4 0 967 m In te rm itte n t F lo w G a s L ift 1 0 7 1 0 .D eterm ine the static gradient o f th e k ill flu id . F o r th is e x a m p le it is 0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft. 1 1 . E x te n d a 0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft g ra d ie n t lin efro m th e w e llh e a d pressure (65 psig)to intersectthe gas pressure a t d e p th lin e p lo tte d in s te p6 . 1 2 . T h is in te rs e c tio n is th e d e p th o f th e to p v a lv e (13 0 0 f t .) . 1 3 .D ra w a h o riz o n ta l lin e to

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

th e le ft t o th e s p a c in g fa c to r lin e p lo tte d i ns t e p4 . 1 4 . F ro m th ein te rs e c tio n o f th e h o riz o n ta l lin e a n d th e s p a c in g fa c to r lin e , d ra w a0 .4 6 5p s i/ft g ra d ie n t lin e to in te rs e c t th e P ,,lin e to lo c a te th e d e p th o f th e s e c o n d v a lv e (2 3 0 0 ft.). 1 5 .C o n tin u e th is p ro c e d u re to to ta l d e p th .F ig .8 -5 s h o w s th e d e p th s fo r th e re m a in in g v a lv e s . 1 6 . D e te rm in e th e te m p e ra tu re a t e a c h v a lv e d e p th . 1 7 . T h e fin a l ite m is to c a lc u la te th e s e t p re s s u re so fth e valves. R ead the pressures at the intersectionso f th e h o riz o n ta l lin e s a n d th eP ,,lin e . T h e s e a re th eP V C

of each valve. T he set pressure of a nitrogen charged v a lv e is c a lc u la te db y th e fo llo w in g e q u a tio n : E q u a tio n 8 .1 If th e v a lv e is s p rin g lo a d e d , th e e q u a tio n is : PVC P ,,=

 

s

I-A p /A b W here: E q u a tio n 8 .2 P ,, = V alve opening pressurei n tester P ,, = V alve closing pressure C T = T e m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n fa c to r 1-A ,/& = M a n u fa c tu re rs s p e c ific a tio n fo r th e v a lv e . P R E S S U R E1 0 0 P S I0 T E M P E R A T U R E-

O 2 4 6 8 7 0 8 0 9 0 1 0 0

 

F

1 1 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 5 0 D e p th 1 3 0 0 2 3 0 0 3 2 0 0 4 1 0 0 4 8 0 0 C ,=0 .8 4 1 P V C Tem p. c, p v o " 6 6 8 0 7 0 .0 3 8 6 6 5 5 7 8 1 0 7 0 .0 0 8 6 5 5 6 8 8 1 2 1 0 .8 8 4

6 5 0 6 0 0 1 3 6 0 .8 6 0 6 4 6 6 0 0 1 4 8 0 .8 4 1 6 4 0 U ee6 1 6 P S lG F ig . 8 -5 E x a m p le o f g r a p h ic a ls o lu tio n u s in g fa llb a c k m e th o d Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532743 B T 3 m 1 0 8 L ift 1 8 . D ecrease the set pressure o f th e b o tto m v a lv e 2 5 to 3 0 p s i. T h is i sc a lle d fla g g in g th e b o tto m v a lv e a n d is d o n es oth a t it c a n b e d e te c te d on a 2-pen pressure chart. A lso consider usingala rg e p o rte d p ilo t v a lv e o n b o tto m . 19. List the results as show n in Fig. 8 -5 . P e rc e n tL o a d M e th o d T he o th e r g e n e ra lm e th o d is c o m m o n ly c a lle d th e p e rc e n t lo a d m e th o d . A s m e n tio n e d e a rlie r, th e W h ite et al paper d e te rm in e d th a t th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re a t

th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e s h o u ld b e a p p ro x im a te ly6 0 percent of the gas press u re a t th e v a lv e a t th e in s ta n t th e v a lv e o p e n s fo r e ffic ie n t lift. T h is th e n b e c o m e s th e b a s iso f th is m e th o d . E x p la n a tio n o fg r a p h ic a l s o lu tio n u s in g p e r c e n t lo a d m ethod fo llo w s: (U s e th e s a m e w e ll d a ta g iv e n fo r fa llb a c k d e s ig n .) 1 . Prepare the graph paper as show ni n Fig. 8-6. P R E S S U R E-1 0 0P S lG 2 .P l o tw e l l h e a d p r e s s u r e (6 5p s ig )a tz e ro d e p th ( s u r f a c e ) . 3 . P lo t th e s u rfa c e g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re (6 5 0 p s ig ). 4 . E x te n d th is p re s s u re to th e b o tto m o f th e w e ll a c c o u n tin g fo r th eg a s c o lu m n w eight (720 psig at 5 0 0 0f t . ) . 5 . A t the surface plot 60 percentof th ,e in je c tio n g a s p r e s s u r e(0 .6x650= 390 psig at surface). 6 . A t th e b o tto m o f th e w e ll, p lo t 6 0 p e rc e n t o f th e g a s

pressure at th e b o tto m (0 .6x20= 432 psig at5 0 0 0 f t .) . 7 . E x te n d a 0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft g ra d ie n t lin e fro m th ew e llh e a d p r e s s u r e(6 5 psig) at the surface tothe gas pressureat d e p th lin e to lo c a te th e to p v a lv e ( 1 3 0 0 f t.) . 8 . D ra w a h o riz o n ta l lin e to th e le ft to in te rs e c t th ep e rc e n t lo a d lin e . T E M P E R A T U R E-O F O1 IWk !2 : 2t 3 OOIWn 4S D e p th 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 6 0 0 3 1 0 0 3 7 0 0 4 3 6 0 4 0 6 0 4 0 1 P S lG 4 0 8

P S lG 4 1 1 P S lG 4 1 6 P S I0 4 2 1 P S lG 4 2 8 P S lG 4 3 2 P S I0 P P P9 " 4 0 1 6 (1 0 4 0 6 6 7 7 4 1 1 6 8 6 4 1 6 6 7 3 4 2 1 7 0 2 4 2 6 7 1 6 4 3 2 7 1 0 P b t Tem p. 6 1 4 9 1

6 2 2 1 0 0 6 3 0 1 1 0 6 3 7 1 2 0 6 4 6 1 2 0 8 6 7 1 3 9 6 6 1 1 4 9 " Ç 0 .9 3 6 0 .9 21 0 .9 0 3 0 .8 8 6 0 .8 71 0 .8 5 6 0 .8 3 9 -p v o 7 2 0 7 1 6 7 1 0 7 0 6 7 0 6 7 0 0 6 7 6

U se 670 PSKi F ig . 8 -6 G r a p h ic a l s o lu tio n u s in g th e p e r c e n t lo a d m e th o d Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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A P I T IT L E + V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 2 7 3 T

 

 

   

 

   

 

m In te rm itte n t F lo w G a s L ift 1 0 9 9 . 1 0 . 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 4 . F ro m th is in te rs e c tio n d ra w a 0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft g ra d ie n t N o tic e th a t th e s p a c in g b e tw e e n v a lv e s in c re a s e s w ith lin e to in te rs e c t th e g a s p re s s u re a t d e p th lin e t o depth and seven valves are required w h e re a s th e fa llb a c k lo c a te th e d e p th o f th e s e c o n d v a lv e (1 9 0 0 ft.). m e th o d re q u ire d fiv e v a lv e s . C o n tin u e th e p ro c e d u re t o th e b o tto m o f the w ell. V a ria tio n so f P e rc e n t L o a dM e th o d F ig . 8 -6 s h o w s th e d e p th s o f th e re m a in in g v a lv e s .

M a n y v a ria tio n s o f th e p e rc e n t lo a d m e th o d h a v e b e e n A t each valve depth read the gas Pressures (pg) on the d e v is e d to re d u c e th e n u m b e r o f v a lv e s re q u ire d . P ro b a b ly g a s P re s s u re a td e p th lin e a n d th e P ro d u c tio n P re s th e m o s t c o m m o n ly u s e d p r o c e d u r e is c a lle d th e 4 0-6 0 S u re s ( P P ) o n th e P e rc e n tlo a d lin e a te a c h v a lv e p e rc e n t m e th o d . T h is m o d ific a tio n u s e s 40 percent of the d e p th . gas pressure at the surface and6 0 percent of the gas press u r e a t th e b o tto m of the w ell. In th is m e th o d , s p a c in g D e te rm in e th e te m p e ra tu re a te a c h v a lv e d e p th . b e tw e e n v a lv e s d e c r e a s e s w ith d e p th a n d fe w e r v a lv e s a r e T he set pressure for nitrogen charged valves is calcure q u ire d . la te d b y th e e q u a tio n s : S till a n o th e r p ro c e d u re is a c o m b in a tio n o f th e fa llb a c k ~ ~ ~ ~ ~i~ ~ 8 .3 a n dp e r c e n tl o a dm e t h o d s .

V a lv e s a r es p a c e df r o m th e surface usingthe fa llb a c k m e th o d u n tild ra w d o w n is E q u a tio n8 .4 a c h ie v e d . T h e n th e 6 0 p e rc e n t lo a d m e th o d is u s e d fro m P bt =Pg (1- Ap /A b)+ Pp(Ap/Ab) (P d( c f ) P "" = 1-(A p /A b ) th e re to th e b o tto m of the w ell. F o r a s p rin g lo a d e d v a lv e th e e q u a tio n s a re : P ro d u c tio nP re s s u re O p e ra te dG a s L ift V a lv e s P sp =Pg (1 -A p/ A b) +Pp( A p/ A b) E q u a tio n 8 .5 P " ,= T h e fo re g o in g e x a m p le s o f in te rm itte n tl i f t d e s ig n

a re in te n d e d fo r u s e w ith in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d gas lift PS, E q u a tio n 8 .6 valves. Production pressure operated g a s lift v a lv e s h a v e 1- (A p /A b ) a ls o b e e n u s e di n m a n y in te rm itte n t g a s l i f t in s ta lla tio n s . W here: P bt =P ressurei n bellow s at tem peratu re a t v a lv e d e p th , p s ig PP =G as pressure, psig ppd =Production pressure at valve d e p th 1 -A p /A b =V a lv e m a n u fa c tu re rs s p e c ific a tio n A P /A b =V a lv e m a n u fa c tu re rs s p e c ific a tio n P ", =V alve opening pressure i nte s te r a t 60"F, psig

CT =T e m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n fa c to r PSP =Spring pressure effect, psig N o rm a lly , w h e n p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d g a s lift valves are usedi n in term itten t lift in stallatio n s, th ere is no c o n tro l d e v ic e o n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e o th e r th a n a c h o k e a n dfu ll line pressure is used. The valves are set to o p e n w h e n th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re is w ith in1 5 0p si to 3 0 0p s i o f th e g a s p re s s u re a t th e s a m e d e p th . S p a c in g o f th e v a lv e s is d e te rm in e d b y th e p o in t o f b a la n c e b e tw e e n th e d iffe re n tia l pressure betw een the gas pressureand the production pressure on one hand and pressure caused by the static gradient on the load fluid o n th e o th e r. F o r e x a m p le , a s s u m in g a load fluid w ith a s ta tic g ra d ie n t o f 0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft a n d a 2 5 0 p s i differential betw een production pressure and gas pressure, th e s p a c in g b e tw e e n th e v a lv e s w ill b e2 5 0p si d iv id e d by D e c re a s e th e s e t p re s s u re o f th e b o tto m v a lv e 2 5 to3 0 0 .4 6 5 p s i/ft o r 5 4 0fe e t. T h is c lo s e s p a c in g re s u ltsin u s in g p s ig to b e a b le to d e te c ti t on a two-pen pressure m o re v a lv e s in a n in s ta lla tio n th a n w o u ld b e re q u ire d w ith c h a rt. in je c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e s .

C H A M B E R S C h a m b e rs a re a s p e c ia l ty p e o f in te rm itte n t lift in s ta lla tio n . U s u a lly th is s y s te m is u s e d in w e lls th a t h a v e g o o d P I Sb u t v e ry lo w b o tto m h o le p re s s u re s . C o n s e q u e n tly , th e reservoir pressure of such w ells w ill not support a lo n g c o lu m n o f l i q u i d . F i g . 8 - 7s h o w s a n i n s e r t o r " b o t t l e " c h a m b e r . F ig . 8 -8 s h o w s th e m o re c o m m o r c h a m b e r. L iq - u id s e n te r th ro u g h th e s ta a n d fill th e tu b in g a n d a n n u lu s . T h e b le e d n to v e n t th e g a s in th e a n - n u lu s a b o v e th e tu b in g to p re v e n t g a s lo c k in g th e a n n u la r e c h a m b e r. A t a p re d e te rm in e d tim e , th e tim e c y c le c o n t r o la t t h e s u r f a c e o p e n s i n j e c t i n g g a s i n t o th e tu b in g -c a s in g a n n u lu s . T h e c h a m b e r v a lv e th e n o p e n s a n d in je c ts g a s in to th e a n n u lu s b e lo w th e to p p a c k e r. T h e g a s p re s s u re a b o v e th e liq u id in c re a s e s a n d c lo s e s th eb le e d valve. A sthegaspressurecontinuestoincrease,the liq u id in th e a n n u lu s is p u s h e d d o w n th ro u g h th e p e rfo ra te d s u b ju s t a b o v e th e b o tto m p a c k e r a n d u p th e tu b in g . T h e s ta n d in g v a lv e p re v e n ts th e liq u id s fro m n tw o -p a c k e n d in g v a lv e v a lv e is o p e liq u id to th e p o rtio n o f th

 

b e in g fo rc e d b a c k in to th e fo rm a tio n . T h e g a s th e n fo llo w s th e liq u id in to th etu b in g fo rc in g th e liq u id to th e s u rfa c e . A t th is tim e Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,, ``,,,````,` ,```,,,-`-` ,,`,,`,`,,` ---

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T IT L E b V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 3 b 7 b W 1 1 0 G a s L ift th e c h a m b e r v a lv e c lo s e s , th e ta il g a s b le e d s o ff, th e b le e d v a lv e o p e n s a n d liq u id a g a in e n te rs th ro u g h th e s ta n d in g v a lv e . T h e b le e d v a lv e c a n b e e ith e r a d iffe re n tia l g a s lift v a lv e set at5 0t o 1 0 0 p si o r a ‘ k i n . h o le in a c o lla r. S o m e c h a m b e r v a lv e s h a v e th e b le e d fe a tu re b u ilt in tot h e m e lim in a tin g th e need for a separate bleed valve. A b o v e th e c h a m b e r, th e in s ta lla tio n is a standard interm itte n t lift in s ta lla tio n . T h e b o tto m u n lo a d in g valve m ust b e o n ly o n e jo in t o f tu b in g

a b o v e th e c h a m b e r v a lv e o th e rw iseth e in s ta lla tio n m a y n o t w o rk . T w o ite m s m u s t b e c a lc u la te d fo r a c h a m b e r; th e c h a m b e r le n g th a n d th e s e t p r e s s u r eo f th e c h a m b e r v a lv e . D e s ig no fA G a sL ift C h a m b e r In s ta lla tio n T hele n g th o f th e c h a m b e r is b a s e d o n e q u a tin g th e wellhead pressure (P w h ) p lu s th e h y d ro s ta tic h e a d (H y d )o f th e liq u id i n th e tu b in g a b o v e th e c h a m b e r ju s t a s th e c h a m b e r e m p tie s to 6 0 percent of the gas pressure (Pg)a t th e c h a m b e r v a lv e . P w hi -H yd =0 .6 0(P B ) E q u a tio n8 .7 H yd=0 .6 0(P P )P w h E q u a tio n8 .8 U N L O A D IN G G A S

B O T T O M U N L O A D IN G G A S L IF T V A L V E H A N G E R N IP P L E FO R D IP T U B E O P E R A T IN G C H A M B E R G A S L IF T V A L V E S T A N D IN GV A L V E F ig . 8 -7 Insert cham ber installation T h e h e ig h t (H )o f th e liq u id c o lu m n in th e tu b in g is th e h y d ro sta tic p re ssu re (H fl) d iv id e d b yth e s ta tic g ra d ie n to f th e w ell flu id s (g s). H= H y d /g s E q u a tio n8 .9 T h e c h a m b e r le n g th (C L ) is d e te rm in e d b y : H Rct+ 1 .0 C L = E q u a tio n 8 .1 0 R ct+ -v ,, V t E q u a tio n8 .1 1 W here: R ct -R a tio o f A n n u la r V o lu m e to T u b in g

V o lu m e V o lu m e o f A n n u lu s V o lu m eo f T u b in g If th e c h a m b e r is to o lo n g , it w ill b e d iffic u lt if n o t im p o s s ib le to U -tu b e th e liq u id o u to f th e c h a m b e r in to th e tu b in g . I t is a lw a y s b e tte r to h a v e a c h a m b e r th a t is too s h o rt th a n to h a v e o n e th a t is to o lo n g . B O T T O M U N L O A D IN G G A S L IF T V A L V E S O P E R A T IN G C H A M B E R G A S L IF T V A L V E S ta n d in gv a lv e m o d ifie dfa r (0 ) F ig . 8 -8T w o -P a c k e r c h a m b e r in s ta lla tio n Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 4 5 0 2 m In te rm itte n t F lo w G a s L ift 1 1 1 U s u a lly th e c h a m b e r v a lv e is a p ilo t o p e ra te d v a lv e . T h e o n ly p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re a v a ila b le t o a s s is t th e in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re in o p e n in g th e c h a m b e r v a lv e is th e w e llh

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e a d p re s s u re . T h e re is n o liq u id h e a d a b o v e th e c h a m b e r v a lv e . T h e e q u a tio n s fo r c a lc u la tin g th e s e t p re s s u re o f n itro g e n charged valve are: W here: P , = P w h (a p p ro x .) F o r a s p rin g lo a d e d v a lv e : PS,+P ,( 1 -& /A b ) +P , (A p /& ) E q u a tio n 8 .5 W here: P ",= P S , E q u a tio n8 .6 1-(A d A t,) If th e c h a m b e r v a lv e ,v e n t v a lv e a n d s ta n d in g v a lv e a re w ire lin e re trie v a b le , th e n it w ill n o t b e n e c e s s a ry to p u ll th e w e ll to c h a n g e th e m . T h e s ta n d in g v a lv e s h o u ld h a v e a h o ld -d o w n to p re v e n t itfro m b e in g b lo w n o u t o f its s e a tin g n ip p le b y th e h ig h d iffe re n tia l a c ro s s i t im m ed iately a fte r the slug surfaces. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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A P I T IT L E + V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 5 449 m C H A P T E R9 P R O C E D U R E S F O R A D J U S T IN G , R E G U L A T IN G

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A N D A N A L Y Z IN G IN T E R M IT T E N T F L O W G A S L IF T IN S T A L L A T IO N S IN T R O D U C T IO N T he d iffe re n c eb e tw e e n e ffic ie n t a n d in e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n o f a n in te rm itte n t flo w g a s lift in s ta lla tio n d e p e n d s la rg e ly u p o n th e m e a n s e m p lo y e d to c o n tro l th e in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e to th e w e ll. T h is c h a p te r d e s c rib e s d iffe re n t e q u ip m e n t a p p lic a tio n s a n d te c h n iq u e s fo r in je c tio n g a s c o n tro l. In a d d itio n , p ro c e d u re s a re o ffe re d to a s s u re u n lo a d in g a n in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n w ith o u t d a m a g e to the gaslift e q u ip m e n t. T he c o n t r o lo f t h e in je c tio n gas for an in term itten t in stalla tio n c a n b e d iv id e d in to tw o m a in c a te g o rie s , v iz ., tim e c y c le a n d c h o k e c o n tro l. T h e tim e c y c le c o n tro l w ith h ig h pressure cutoff, choke control, a pressure reducing regulato r, a n d o th e r p ie c e s o f e q u ip m e n t a re o n ly v a ria tio n s

o f th e tw o c a te g o r ie s , b u t th e s e r e f in e m e n ts a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r s o m e in s ta lla tio n s to a s s u re th e m o s t e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n . R ecording of the casing and tubing pressures is re c o m m e n d e d d u rin g u n lo a d in g a n d fo radaily reC O ~ -#rdof the g a s lift o p eratio n . It also a s s is ts th e o p e ra to r in d e te rm in in g th e p ro p e r a d ju s tm e n t o f th e in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e to th e w e ll. Pressure recorded and orifice m eter charts from num erous in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n s a re illu s tra te d in th is c h a p te r. S lu g v e lo c ity is ag o o d in d ic a tio no fth e o v e ra ll o p e ra tio n and properadjustm ent o f th e in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e . F o r m o st in s ta lla tio n s th is v e lo c ity s h o u ld b e 8 0 0t o 1 2 0 0 ft./m in . to assu re m ax im u m liq u id re c o v e ry p e r c y c le . In c re a s in g th e in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e d o e s n o t a lw a y s in c re a s e th e d a ily p ro d u c tio n

ratefro m an in term itten t in stalla tio n . C o rre c t re g u la tio n o f th e in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e p e r c y c le , c y c le fre q u e n c y , a n d o th e r c o n d itio n s s u c h a s p a ra f- fin , w e llh e a d c h o k e s , e tc ., c a n a p p re c ia b ly a ffe c t th e d a ily p ro d u c in g ra te a n d g a s re q u ire m e n ts . C O N T R O LO F T H E IN J E C T IO NG A S T h e T im e C y c le C o n tr o lle r T h e tim e c y c le o p e ra te d c o n tro lle r is the m ost w idely u s e d m eanso fin je c tio n g a s c o n tro l fo r in te rm itte n t lift in s ta lla tio n s . C o m p le te ly a u to m a tic tim e c y c le c o n tro ls c o n ta in in g m ic ro p ro c e s s o rs ,liq u id c ry s ta ld is p la y s , a n d lo n g life b a tte rie s a re n o w a v a ila b le fo r c o n tro llin g th e in je c tio n g a s c y c le . T h e s e e le c tro n ic tim e rs a re re p la c in g m any c lo c k d riv e n p ilo ts .T h e y im p ro v e a c c u ra c y fo r a d ju s tin g th e d u ra tio n a n d fre q u e n c y o f th e in je c tio n g a s c y c le , a n d th e re is le s s c h a n c e o f a c o n t r o l l e rn o t c l o s i n g d u e to c lo c k s to p p a g e . H o w e v e r, th e o ld m e c h a n ic a l tim e c y c le p ilo t w h ic h a u to m a tic a lly a c tu a te s a m o to r v a lv e (F ig .9 -1 )

o n th e in je c tio n g a s lin ea t d e s ire d s e t in te rv a ls is p ro b a b ly s till th e m o s t w id e ly u s e d ty p e o f s u rfa c e c o n tro l. T h etim e c y c le p ilo t u s u a lly c o n s is ts o f a tim in g w h e e l th a t is c lo c k d riv e n . T h en u m b e r o f g a s in je c tio n c y c le sp e r d a y is v a rie d b y a d d in g o r e lim in a tin g tim in g p in s , p u s h in g b a c k tim in g c lip s , e tc ., o n a tim in g w h e e l, d e p e n d in g u p o n its c o n s tru c - tio n . T h e c y c le frequency m ay also be changed by using d iffe re n t c lo c k s s u c h a s 2 -h o u r, 4 -h o u r, e tc ., ro ta tio n . T h e d u ra tio no f g a s in je c tio n is c h a n g e d b y c e rta in a d ju s tm e n ts in th e tim e c y c le c o n tro l. T im e c y c le c o n tro l o f th e in je c tio n g a s is a p p lic a b le fo r m o s t in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n sa n d is re c o m m e n d e d p a rtic u - la rly fo r e x tre m e ly h ig h c a p a c ity a n d v e ry lo w c a p a c ity w e lls . It is fle x ib le s in c e th e c y c le fre q u e n c y c a n b e e a s ily changed to m eet various desired p ro d u c in g rates (Fig. 9 -1 ). A D J U S T M E N T FO R R E V E R S E A C T IN G P R E S S U R EO P E N IN G M O TO R V A L V E F ig .9 -1 T im e c y c le c o n tr o lle r fo r in te r m itte n t g a s lift

in s ta lla tio n Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E *V T -6 9 Y m

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0732290 0532946 385 m P ro c e d u re fo r A d ju s tin g , R e g u la tin g a n d A n a ly z in g In te rm itte n t F lo w L ift In s ta lla tio n s 1 1 3 In sm all ro tativ e g as lift system s, tim e cycle control is u n d e s ira b le b e c a u s e o f th e h ig h in s ta n ta n e o u s in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e re q u ire d fro m the high pressure system . In such a system ultaneously,o rn e a r the sam e tim e, the and o n e o r m o re w e lls m a y n o t re e o f in je c tio n g a s fo r th a t c y c , if several controllers open sim high pressure system loses pressure c e iv e a s u ffic ie n t v o lu m le . B e tw e e n th e s e p e rio d

s o f g a s in je c tio n , n o g a s is n e e d e d to lift th e w e ll. C e n tra l tim e rs w ith s e v e ra l tim in g w h e e ls o p e ra te d b y a com m on d riv e s h a ft h a v e b e e n u s e d i n s o m e fie ld s to s ta g g e r th e p e rio d o f g a s in je c tio n . T h e c e n tra l tim e r h a s a tim in g w h e e l fo r e a c h in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio na n d th e in d i- v id u a l m o to r v a lv e o n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e is o p e n e d a n d c lo s e d b y a s o le n o id v a lv e w h ic h is a c tu a te d b y its c o rre - s p o n d in g tim in g w h e e l. E le c tro n ic tim e rs c a n e lim in a te th e n e e d fo r a c e n tra l tim e r. T h e a c c u ra c y o f th e q u a rtz m o v e - m enti n a n e le c tro n ic tim e r a llo w s p re c is e s ta g g e rin go f th e in je c tio n c y c le s fo r s e v e ra l w e lls . W h e n in s ta lla tio n s w ill o p e ra te w ith c h o k e

c o n tro lo f in je c tio n g a s ,h i g h - r a t e i n j e c tion gasrem ovalfrom thesystem is e lim in a te d . S u c h a s y s te m m a y re q u ire p ilo t o p e ra te d g a s lift v a lv e s i nth e w e lls. L o c a tio no f T im e C y c le C o n tr o lle r F o r m o re in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n s , th e c o n tro lle r s h o u ld b e lo c a te d a t th e w e ll ra th e r th a n a t th e ta n k b a tte ry t o a s s u re th e m o s t e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n s .W h e n th e c o n tro lle r is a t th e ta n k b a tte ry , b o th c a s in g a n d in je c tio n lin e to th e w e ll m u s t b e fille d in o rd e r to in c re a s e th e c a s in g p re s s u re .T h is s lo w s th e r a te o f in c re a s e in c a s in g pressureand m ay result i n a lo w e r o v e ra ll lift e ffic ie n c y . T h e in je c tio n g a s lin e c a n n o t b e in c lu d e d a s p a rt o fth e high pressurestorage u n le s sth ec o n tro lle r is a t th e w e ll. C h o k e C o n tro lo f th e In je c tio nG a s F o r c h o k e c o n tro l

of an in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n , th e re q u ire d in je c tio n g a si s d e l i v e r e d in toth e c a s in g th ro u g h a s m a ll c h o k e o r m e te rin g v a lv e in th e in je c tio n g a s lin e . T h e s e in s ta lla tio n s m a y h a v e in je c tio n g a so rp ro d u c tio n pressure operated valves. If gas pressure operated v a lv e s areused,thevalvesm usthavethedesiredspreadand o p e ra tin g c h a ra c te ris tic s n e e d e d fo r c h o k e c o n t r o lb a s e d o n th e c a s in g a n d tu b in g s iz e . P ilo t o p e ra te d g a sl ift v a lv e s a re the best typeofgaspressureoperated valvesforchoke c o n tro l. In s o m e c a s e s la rg e p o rte d s in g le e le m e n t v a lv e s have been successfully used. T h e in je c tio n c y c le fre q u e n c y is v a rie d b y c h a n g in g th e choke size. In c re a s in g th e c h o k e s iz e in c re a s e s th e c y c le fre q u e n c y . C h o k e c o n tro l is id e a lly s u ite d fo rsm all ro tativ e s y s te m s b e c a u s e th e in je c tio n g a s d e m

a n d ra te is c o n s ta n t. S m a lle r in je c tio n g a s lin e s c a n be used a n d th e s u r f a c e e q u ip m e n t is le s s e x p e n s iv e th a n th a t re q u ire d fo r tim e c y c le c o n tro l. A c c u ra te m e a s u re m e n t o f th e in je c tio n g a sis n o p ro b le m because ofth ec o n s ta n t d e m a n d o f th e w e lls . C h o k e c o n tro l re q u ire s a m in im u m o f a tte n tio n b y f i e l d p e rs o n n e l s in c e th e re is n o tim in g d e v ic e to w in do rc h e c k . T h e n u m e ro u s lim ita tio n s o f c h o k e c o n tro l a c c o u n t fo r th e p re d o m in a n c e o f tim e c y c le c o n tro l. A s s u m in g th a t th e g a s lift v a lv e s a n d a n n u la r c a p a c ity w ill p e rm it th is ty p e o f o p e ra tio n , p ro b le m s s u c h a s fre e z in g , liq u id s inth ein je c - tio n g a s lin e ,a n d w e ll d e liv e ra b ility w ill h a m p e ro rp re v e n t c h o k e c o n tro l. If th e in je c tio n g a s is w e t, a d e h y d ra tio nu n it s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d . O th e r s u g g e s tio n s fo r a lle v ia tin g fre e z in g a re ; in s ta lla tio n o f a h e a te r o r lo c a tin g th e c h o k e s n e a r th e c o m p re s s o r, a n d p a rtia lly o r c o m p le te ly b y p a s s in g th e a fte r-c o o le r.

T h e p ro b le m of freezing is apparent, but the effect of liq u idi nth e in je c tio n g a s c a n b e ju s ta s s e rio u s . A le n g th y p e rio d of tim e is required for any appreciable volum e of liq u id t op a s s t h r o u g h asm allchoke w ith th ep r e s s u r e d iffe re n tia ls e n c o u n te re d i n m o st g as lift system s. Therefo re , th e g a s s u p p lie d to th e w e ll is s h u t o ff d u rin g th istim e. S tra ig h t c h o k e c o n tro lo f th e in je c tio n g a s is n o t re c o m m e n d e d fo r v e ry lo w p ro d u c tiv ity o r e x tre m e ly h ig h c a p a c i t yin te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n s . F o r v e ry lo w p ro d u c in g ra te s , th e c h o k e s iz e b e c o m e s to o s m a ll fo r p ra c tic a l a p p lic a tio n ; a n d fo r v e ry h ig h p ro d u c in g ra te s , c h o k e c o n tro l lim its th e m axim um slug size and cycle frequency. U N L O A D IN G A N IN T E R M IT T E N T IN S T A L L A T IO N T h e in te rm ittin g c y c le is described in C h a p te r8 . T h is la tio n , it is lik e ly th a t th e d a m a g e to th e s e v a lv e s o c c u rre d s e c tio n s u p p le m e n ts th e o p e ra tio n s d is c u s s e d in th a t c h a p d u rin g u n lo a d in g .

te r b y o u tlin in g p ro c e d u re s a n d c o n s id e ra tio n s w h ic h a re R e c o m m e n d e d P r a c tic e s P r io r to U n lo a d in g im p o rta n t to th e o p e ra to rs in o rd e r th a t d a m a g e to e q u ip T h e re c o m m e n d e d p ra c tic e s p rio r to u n lo a d in g in te rm itm e n t m a y b e e lim in a te d a n d e ffic ie n t u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n s te n t lif t w e lls a re th e s a m e a s g iv e n in C h a p te r7for cona s s u re d . If g a s lift v a lv e s e a ts le a k in a n in te rm itte n t in s ta ltin u o u s flo w w e lls . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 0732290 0532947 211 m 1 1 4 G a s L ift In itia l U -T u b in g U n til th e to p v a lv e is u n c o v e re d , in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re e x e rte d o n to p o f th e liq u id c o lu m n in th e c a s in g c a u s e s flu id fro m th e c a s in g to U -tu b e in to th e tu b in g th ro u g h o p e n g a s lift v a lv e s . N o b o tto m h o le p re s s u re draw dow n o c c u rs d u rin g U -tu b in g operations because

th e tu b in g p re s s u re a t to ta l d e p th e x c e e d s th e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re d u e to the pressure exerted b y th e liq u id c o lu m n in the tu b in g . If th e in s ta lla tio n h a s a s ta n d in g v a lv e , th e v a lv e w ill b e c lo s e d . S in c e n o re s e rv o ir flu id fe e d -in is p o s s ib le d u rin g th e U -tu b in g , th is o p e ra tio n s h o u ld n o t b e h u rrie d . The casing pressure should be increased gradually to m a in ta inalo w jluid velocity through th e o p e n g a s lijì v a lv e s .If fu ll lin e p re s s u re is e x e rte do n to p o f th e flu id c o lu m n in th e c a s in g , a pressure differential that is a p p ro x im a te ly e q u a l to this lin e p re s s u re w ill o c c u r a c ro s s e a c hv a lv e in th e in s ta lla tio n . D a m a g e to th e v a lv e s e a ts c a n re s u lt fro m th e h ig h flu id v e lo c ity th ro u g h th e v a lv e s .A fte r th e to p v a lv e i su n c o v e re d ,th is c o n d itio n c a n n o tre c u r b e c a u s e th e to p v a lv e w ill a lw a y s o p e n b e fo re a

h ig h p re s s u re d iffe re n tia l c a n e x is t a c ro s s th e v a lv e s b e lo w th e flu id le v e l. T h e firs t in je c tio n g a s h e a d im m e d ia te ly a fte r th e to p v a lv e is u n c o v e re d c a n o v e rlo a d th e s u rfa c e fa c ilitie s i n som e in s ta n c e s , p a rtic u la rlyif th e p o r t s i z eo f t h e t o p v a l v e is large. Itm ay be a d v is a b le t o r e s t r i c t th e in je c tio n g a s in to th e flo w lin e d u rin g th e firs t h e a d . S o m e in s ta lla tio n s a re d e s ig n e d w ith u p p e r g a s lift v a lv e s h a v in g a s m a lle r p o rt th a n th e lo w e r v a lv e s to re d u c e th e g a s h e a d s fro m th e upper valves. T h e s e im p o rta n t fa c ts a b o u t p ro te c tin g th e g a s lift v a lv e s and the surface facilities are reasons e n o u g h to c o n c lu d e

th a t th is s te p s h o u ld b e d o n e m a n u a lly a n d s h o u ld b e personally observed by the operator. U n lo a d in g O p e r a tio n s U s in g a tim e C y c le O p e ra te d C o n tro lle r T h e tim e c y c le o p e ra te d c o n tro lle r o n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e s h o u ld n o t b e a d ju s te d to re m a in o p e n d u rin g in itia l U -tu b in g . It s h o u ld b e a d ju s te d fo r fre q u e n t but short d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio n to p e rm it a g ra d u a l in c re a s e i n c a s in g pressure. For exam ple, a 2 0 s e c o n d in je c tio n e v e ry4 o r5 m in u te s c a n b e u s e d u n til th e to p v a lv e is s u b je c te d to g a s a n d th e firs t g a s b u b b le e n te rs th e p ro d u c tio n tu b in g . M o re a c c u ra te ly s ta te d th e tim e c y c le c o n tro lle r s h o u ld b e s e t to in je c t g a s at a r a t e w h ic h w ill c a u s e a5 0psi increase in casing pressure in an 8-10 m in u te tim e in te rv a l. O n c e th e a b s o lu te c a s in g

pressure has reached a v a lu e o f4 0 0 p s i th e in je c tio n r a t e c a n b e in c re a s e d to c a u s e a 100p si increasei n c a s in g p re s s u re in th e s a m e 8 -1 0 m in u tetim e in te rv a l. T h is s e c o n d ra te s h o u ld b e c o n tin u e d u n til th e to p v a lv e is e x p o s e d to g a s a llo w in g th e g a s in the casing to flow into th e tu b in g a n d u p w a rd in to th e flo w lin e . A fter w itn essin g th e in itia l U -tu b in g th e o p e ra to r m ay a d ju s t th e tim e r to c o n tin u e th e u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n . l. Cycle frequency should be basedon the expectedo r d e sire d p ro d u c tio n fro m th e w e ll. E a c h lift c y c le s h o u ld d e liv e r fro m o n et o t w o b a r r e l s o f f l u i d p e r in c h o f tu b in g d ia m e te r.F o re x a m p le , in 2 -in c h tu b in g 1 2 c y c le s p e r d a y sh o u ld p ro d u c e fro m 2 4 to4 8 b arrels of flu id

p e rd a y . U s e th is re la tio n s h ip to d e te rm in e th e c y c le fre q u e n c y for a p a rtic u la r w e ll. H o w e v e r,d u rin g th e u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n s it is b e s t n o t to e x c e e d tw o o r th re e c y c le s p e r h o u r for the first 12 to 24 hours. 2 . In je c tio n tim e s h o u ld b e a d ju s te d to stop w hen the liq u id s lu g c le a rs th ew e llh e a d a n d th e g a s b u b b le firs t re a c h e s th e w e llh e a d . T h is , o f c o u r s e , w ill b e m o r e th a n e n o u g h g a s w h ile th e w e ll is o p e ra tin g fro m th e u p p e r v a lv e s , b u t w ill b e a b o u t r ig h t a s th e w e ll u n lo a d s to th e b o tto m v a lv e . T h e s e g u id e lin e s a re fo r u n lo a d in g o n ly . In o th e r w o rd s , they arestarting p o in ts . T h e w e ll s h o u ld b e c h e c k e d fo r im p ro v e d a d ju s tm e n tsth efo llo w in g d a y . U n lo a d in g w ith C h o k e C o n tr o l o f th e In je c tio n G a s N o ta llin te rm itte n tin s ta lla tio n s c a n b e u n lo a d e d

o r o p e ra te d w ith c h o k e c o n tro l o f th e in je c tio n g a s . T h e ty p e o f g a s lift v a lv e a n d th e ra tio o f c a s in g a n n u lu s c a p a c ity to tu b in g c a p a c ity m u s t b e s u ite d fo r th is ty p e o f o p e ra tio n . T he c h o k es iz e s e le c te d s h o u ld b e c o n s id e ra b ly s m a lle rth a n th e p o rt s iz e o f th e g a s lift v a lv e to p e rm it th e in je c tio n pressure in the c a s in g t o decreaset o the valve c lo s in g p re s s u r e a f t e r a v a l v e h a s o p e n e d . N o e x c e s s i v e p r e s s u r e d iffe re n tia l a c ro s s th e v a lv e s w ill o c c u r d u rin g in itia l U -tu b in g w hen the casing pressure is increasedslow ly. U s e th e s a m e g u id e lin e s a sfo r a tim e c y c le c o n tro lle r. S e t th e c h o k es o th a t th e c a s in g pressure increase w ill b e a b o u t 5 0 p s i in a b o u t 8 -1 0 m in u te s a n d c o n tin u e a t th is ra te u n til the casing pressure

is a b o u t4 0 0 psia.T hen increase the choke sizes o that the casing pressure increases 100 psi in 8 -1 0 m in u te s . M a in ta in th is c h o k e s e ttin g u n til th e to p v a lv e is u n c o v e re d to g a s . A fte r th e to p v a lv e is u n c o v e re d , a d ju s t th e g a s ra te t oth e w e lls oth a t it is a fu n c tio n o f th e d e s ig n o re x p e c te d p ro d u c tio n ra te fro m th e w e ll. F o r e x a m p le , fo r 1 0 0 b a rre ls per day from 6 ,0 0 0ft. o n e c o u ld e x p e c t to u se 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 sta n d a rd c u b ic fe e t p e r d a y . T h e re fo re , s e t th e in je c te d lift gas rate to be* ho f th e 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 o r 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 s ta n d a rd c u b ic f e e t p e r day. This m ay n o tw o rk the w elldow n to th e b o tto m v a lv e b u t it w ill u n lo a d s a fe ly a n d w ith o u t d a m a g e to th e g a s lift v a lv e s .A fte r 1 2 -1 8 h o u rs of reducedgas v o lu m e is c irc u la te d to th e w e ll, a d ju s t th e g a s to th e fu ll a m o u n t e x p e c te d to b e u s e d fo r liftin g th e w e ll’s p ro d u c tio n .

Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 8 L58 D P ro c e d u re fo r A d ju s tin g , R e g u la tin g a n d A n a ly z in g In te rm itte n t F lo wL ift In s ta lla tio n s 1 1 5 A D J U S T M E N TO F T IM E C Y C L E O P E R A T E D C O N T R O L L E R A fte r a n in s ta lla tio n is u n lo a d e d , th e tim e c y c le o p e ra te d c o n tro lle r s h o u ld b e a d ju s te d fo r m inim um in je c tio n g a s re q u ire m e n t fo r th e d e s ire d p ro d u c tio n . T h e n th e in je c tio n g a s c y c le fre q u e n c y a n d d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio n s h o u ld b e c h e c k e d p e rio d ic a lly fo r m o s t w e lls to a s s u re c o n tin u e d e ffic ie n t o p e ra tio n . If th e p ro d u c in g ra te fro m a w e ll

changes, surface control o f th e in je c tio n gas m ust also be c h a n g e d to m a in ta in a m inim um in je c te d g a s liq u id r a t i o (R ,)¡). If this ratio is excessive as a result of valve spread, a c h a n g e in c y c le fre q u e n c y s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d p rio r to re d e s ig n in g a n in s ta lla tio n . D e c re a s in g th e in je c tio n g a s c y c le fre q u e n c y in c re a s e s th e tim e flu id c a n a c c u m u la te a b o v e th e o p e ra tiv e v a lv e i n m o stin term itten tin stallatio n s . T h e in c re a s e d s lu g le n g th a t th e in s ta n t th ev a lv e o p e n s re s u lts in increased tu b in g p re s s u re a t v a lv e d e p th , th u s lo w e rin g th e o p e n in g p re s s u re o f th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e . T h e in je c tio n gas volum e per cycle is reduced because of decreased valve spread a n d m o re liq u id

is recovered p e r c y c le . T h e s e tw o th in g s w ork to g e th e r t o y ie ld a lo w e r in je c te d g a s liq u id ra tip (R g li). P ro c e d u re fo r D e te rm in in g C y c le F re q u e n c y T h e fo llo w in g p ro c e d u re is re c o m m e n d e d fo r d e te rm in in g th e proper cycle fre q u e n c ya n d d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio n im m e d ia te ly a fte r th e in s ta lla tio n i su n lo a d e d a n d a n y tim e d u rin g th e life o f th e w e ll. S te p1 A d ju s t th e c o n tro lle r fo r a d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio n w h ic h w ill a s s u re m o re in je c tio n g a s v o lu m e th a n is n o rm ally re q u ire d p e r c y c le (a p p ro x im a te ly 5 0 0 C U ft./b b l p e r1 ,0 0 0f t . o f lift). A d ju s tin g th e c o n tro lle r to s ta y o p e n

u n til th e s lu g re a c h e s th es u rfa c e w ill re s u lti n m o re g a s b e in g in je c te d in to th e c a s in g th a n is a c tu a lly n e e d e d . S te p2 R e d u c e th e n u m b e r o f in je c tio n g a s c y c le s p e r d a yu n til th e w e ll w ill n o lo n g e r p ro d u c e th e d e s ire d ra teo f liq u id p ro d u c tio n . S te p3 R e s e t th e c o n tro lle r fo r th e num ber o f in je c tio n g a s c y c le s p e r d a y im m e d ia te ly b e fo re th e p re v io u s s e ttin g in S te p2 . T h is e s ta b lis h e s th e p ro p e r in je c tio n g a s c y c le fre q u e n c y . S te p4 R e d u c e th e d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio n p e r c y c le u n tilth e production rate decreases, th e n in c re a s e th e d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio n b y5to 1 0 s e c o n d s fo r flu c tu a tio n s in in je c - tio n g a s lin e p re s s u re . Atim e c y c le o p e ra te d c o n tro lle r o n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e c a n b e a d ju s te d a s o u tlin e d ,p ro v id e d th e lin e p re s s u re re m a in s re la tiv e ly c o n s ta n t. If th e lin e p re s s u re v a rie s s ig n if- ic a n tly , th e c o n tro lle r is a d ju s te d to in je c t a m p le g a s v o lu m e w ith m inim um linepressure.W hen

th e lin e p re ssu re is a b o v e them inim um pressure, excessive i n j e c t i o n g a s i s u s e d e a c h c y c le . T h e fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n (T a b le 9 -1 ) g iv e s d a ta o b ta in e d fro m a n in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n a n d illu s tra te s th e e ffe c to f c y c le fre q u e n c y a n d d u ra tio n o f g a s in je c tio no no p e ra tin g e ffic ie n c y . TA B LE9 -1 DATA FROM A N IN T E R M IT T E N T IN S T A L L A T IO N In je c tio n D u ra tio n o f D u ra tio n T o ta l A p p ro x im a te G as C y c le T im e B etw een o f G as D a ily A verage F re q u e n c y , G asIn je c tio n s , In je c tio n , P ro d u c tio n

In je c tio nR g 1 i, C y c le s lD a y M in u te s S e c o n d s B /D C uF U B b l 7 2 2 0 5 6 1 7 5 3 ,0 0 0 4 8 3 0 5 6 1 8 6 2 ,2 0 0 3 6 4 0 6 3 1 7 4 1 ,8 0 0 2 4 6 0 8 5 1 7 0 1 ,3 0 0 A cyclefrequency of4 8 cycles per day(3 0 m in. per cycle) re s u lte di nth e m a x im u m p ro d u c in g ra te . A c y c le fre q u e n c y o f 2 4c y c le s p e r d a y (6 0m in . p e r c y c le ) re p re s e n te d th e le a s t am ount of

R g li.T h e re was considerabledifference i n th e in je c tio n R ,),. N o te th e b ig d iffe re n c e i n R g l, fo r7 2c p d a n d3 6 c p d ; y e t th e re w a s a lo s s o f o n ly 1B PD w ith the3 6 c p d s e ttin g . F in a lly , th e4 8 c p d u s e d o n ly 4 0 9 m c f/d fo r1 8 6 B PD w h ile th e7 2 c p d u s e d 5 2 5m c f/d fo r o n ly 1 7 5B P D , p ro v in g a g a in th a t m o re g a s c irc u la te d to a w e ll d o e s n o t a lw a y s p ro d u c e m o re flu id . S E L E C T IO NO F C H O K E S IZ E F O R C H O K E C O N T R O LO F IN J E C T IO N G A S T he initial surface c h o k e s iz e s e le c tio n fo r c o n tro llin g th e in je c tio n g a s is c a lc u la te d to p a s s th e lift g a s n e e d e d fo r th e

d e s ig n e d p ro d u c tio n ra te . T h e fin a l s e le c tio n of thesurfacechokeoropening th ro u g h a m e te rin g v a lv e is determ ined by trial and error u n til th e d e s ire d o p e ra tio n is a tta in e d . S in c e a n in je c tio n gas pressure o p e ra te d gas lift v a lv e s u ite d for choke c o n tro l is o p e n e d b y b o th in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re a n d p ro d u c tio n pressure, increasingthe injection gas pressure w ill decrease th e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re re q u ire d to o p e n th e v a lv e . A fte r a n o p e ra tin g v a lv e c lo s e s a n d th e s lu g s u rfa c e s ,th e in je c tio n gas and production pressure b e g in to in c re a s e . T h e ra te a t w h ic h th e g a s p re s s u re in c re a s e s is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e

choke sizei n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e , w h e re a s th e in c re a s ei n Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E m V T -b 9 4 m

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 4 9 0 9 4 m 1 1 6 G as L ift p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re a t v a lv e d e p th is a fu n c tio n o f w e ll d e liv e ra b ility a n d tu b in g s iz e . If th e in je c tio n lin e c h o k e s iz e is to o la rg e ,th e v a lv e w ill open at a higher gas pressure th a n th a t re q u ire d fo r a d e q u a te in je c tio n g a s s to ra g e in th e c a s in g . T h e p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re w ill n o t re a c h a v a lu e th a tw ill re s u lt in th e lo w e r gas pressure needed for m inim um in je c tio n g a s re q u ire m e n t. B y d e c re a s in g th e c h o k e s iz e , th e w e ll h a s a lo n g e r tim e in w h ich to d eliv er flu id

in to th e tu b in g w h ic h , in tu rn , increases the production pressure a tv a l v e d e p t h a n d r e d u c e s th e g a s p re s s u re re q u ire d to o p e n th e v a lv e . C hoke c o n tro lo f th e in je c tio n g a sis a ll th a tis n e e d e d fo r m o s t p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d v a lv e in s ta lla tio n s . T h e g a s p re s s u re is a llo w e d to v a ry w ith th e c h o k e s iz e ra th e r th a n a tte m p tin g to m a in ta in a fixed gas pressure for prod u c tio n c o n tro l, V A R IA T IO N IN T IM E C Y C L E A N D C H O K E C O N T R O LO F IN J E C T IO N G A S A p p lic a tio no f T im e O p e n in g a n d S e t P re s s u re C lo s in g C o n tro lle r W h e n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e p re s s u re v a rie s s ig n ific a n tly , a p ilo t, w h ic h o p e n s th e c o n tro lle r o n tim e a n d c lo s e s it after a p re d e te rm in e d increasei n casing

pressure,is recom m e n d e d . T h e in je c tio n g a s c y c l e f r e q u e n c y i s c o n t r o l l e d b y th e tim in g m e c h a n is m . T h e v o lu m eo fin je c tio n g a su s e d p e r c y c le is g o v e rn e d b y th e c a s in g p re s s u re c o n tro l. T h e p ip e i s a d j u s t e d f o r a l o n g d u r a t i o n o f g a s i n j e c t i o n a n d t h e c o n - tro lle r re m a in s o p e n u n til th e m a x im u m d e s ire d c a s in g pressure is reachedregardless o ftim e re q u ire d fo r th is in c re a s e . A p p lic a tio no f T im e C y c le O p e r a te d C o n tr o lle r W ithAC h o k e in th e In je c tio n G a s L in e W h e n th e in je c tio n g a s lin e p re s s u re g re a tly e x c e e d s th e o p e ra tin g c a s in g p re s s u re fo r a n in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n , a c h o k e m a y b e in s ta lle d in th e in je c tio n g a s lin e to in c re a s e th e d u ra tio no f g a s in je c tio n . T h is c o m b in a tio n a ls o e x te n d s th e a d v a n ta g e so fc h o k e c o n tro lto w e lls w ith v e ry lo w p ro d u c tio n ra te s . A p p lic a tio no fA C o m b in a tio n P r e s s u r e R e d u c in g R e g u la to r a n d C h o k e C o n tro l T h is ty p e o f c o n tro l is id e a lly s u ite d fo r

lo w c a p a c ity w e lls w h ic h w o u ld re q u ire a n e x tre m e ly s m a ll c h o k e to o b ta in th e m in im u m in je c tio n g a s re q u ire m e n t. A sm all c h o k e in c re a s e s th e p o s s ib ility o f fre e z in g a n d w ill p lu g e a s ily . W ith a p re s s u re re d u c in g re g u la to r, a m uch larger c h o k e th a n th a t n e e d e d fo r s tra ig h t c h o k e c o n tro l c a n b e u se d a n d th e s ta rtin g s lu g le n g th c a n b e c o n tro lle d b y th e s e t re g u la to r p re s s u re in m ost installations. The pressure re d u c in g re g u la to r c o n tro ls th e m a x im u m casing pressure b e tw e e n in je c tio n g a s c y c le s .T h e c o n tro lle d m a x im u m c a s in g p r e s s u r e causes the gas lift v a lv e to o p e n o n ly a fte r a p re d e te rm in e d tu b in g p re s s u re h a s b e e n re a c h e d i n

th e tu b in g . T h e tw o -p e n p re ssu re c h a rt in F ig .9 -2illu s tra te s ty p ic a lly g o o d in te rm ittin g o p e ra tio n fro m f o u r c o m m o n l y u s e d s u r face gas control system s. 1 .. 9 ." SURFACE GAS C O N TR O L SYSTEM S A . T im e C y c le C o n tr o lle r B . C h o k e C o n tro l C . C h o k e a n d P re s s u re R e g u la to r D . C h o k e a n d T im e C y c le C o n tr o lle r F ig . 9 -2 Two-pen pressurec h a r t Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E rV T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 7 0 0 5 3 2 7 5 0 8O b m P ro c e d u re fo r A d ju s tin g , R e g u la tin g a n d A n a ly z in g In te rm itte n t F lo wL ift In s ta lla tio n s

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

1 1 7 IM P O R T A N C EO F W E L L H E A D T U B IN G B A C K P R E S S U R E T O R E G U L A T IO N O F IN J E C T IO N G A S T h e m a x im u m w e llh e a d tu b in g p re s s u re a s s o c ia te d w ith th e s u rfa c in g o f a liq u id s lu g is a n in d ic a tio n o f th e s lu g le n g th a n d /o r re s tric tio n inth eflo w lin e s u c h a s a w e llh e a d c h o k e , p a ra ffin d e p o s itio n , e tc . It is d e s ira b le to h a v e w e ll- h e a d a n d flo w lin e c o n d itio n s th a t re s u lt in th e m a x im u m tu b in g p re s s u re b e in g a tru e in d ic a tio n o f th e s lu g s iz e . T he tw o surface c o n d itio n s a s s o c ia te dw ith w e llh e a d tu b - in g p re s s u re th a t a r e d e trim e n ta l to in te rm itte n t lift o p e ra - tio n a re : (1 )An excessive increasei n tubing pressure before th e e n tire liq u id s lu g c a n e n te r th e flo w lin e , a n d(2 ) a p ro - lo n g e d p e rio d o f tim e re q u ire d fo r th e w e llh e a d tu b in g pressure to decrease to separator pressure after a slug h a s surfaced. M axim um w ellhead tubing pressure should occur fo llo w in g th e s u rfa c in g o f a s lu g . If th e tu b in g p r e s s u r e reachesa m axim um before m ost o f th e s lu g e n te rs th e flo w lin e , th e s lu g v e lo c ity w ill b e re d u c e d a n d e x c e s s iv e g a s

b re a k -th ro u g h w ill o c c u r. If th e tim e re q u ire d f o r t h et u b i n g pressure to decrease after a slug has surfacedi se x c e s s i v e , th e m a x im u m in je c tio n g a s c y c le fre q u e n c y a n d p ro d u c in g c a p a c ity o f a h ig h c a p a c ity w e ll a re lim ite d . W e llh e a d C o n fig u r a tio n T h e w e llh e a d s h o u ld b e s tre a m lin e d t o prevent excessive in je c tio n g a s b r e a k - t h r o u g h f r o m a d e c r e a s i n g s l u g v e l o c i t y . A ll unnecessaryells, tees, bends,etc., n e a r th e w e llh e a d s h o u ld b e e lim in a te d . A s tre a m lin e d w e llh e a d is illu s tra te d in F ig .8 -3 , C h a p te r8 . S e p a ra to r P re s s u re Separator pressure should be m aintained a s lo w as poss ib le . T h e lo w e r th ef l o w i n g b o t t o m h o l e p r e s s u r e , t h em o r e im p o rta n t m in im u m separatorpressure becom es.H igh separator pressure reduces the starting slugl ength and prod u c tio n p e r c y c le . S u r fa c e C h o k e in F lo w lin e If a n in te rm itte n t in s ta lla tio n

m ust be choked to re d u c e th e ra te o f g a s e n try in to a lo w p re s s u re s y s te m , th e c h o k e should be located as far from the w ell as possible, prefera b ly n e a r th e ta n k b a tte ry . T h is a llo w s th e s lu g to le a v e th e v e rtic a l c o n d u it a n d a c c u m u la tei nth e h o riz o n ta l c o n d u it. A s m a ll w e llh e a d tu b in g c h o k e w ill s ig n ific a n tly re d u c e th e liq u id s lu g re c o v e ry p e r c y c l e a n d i n c r e a s e th e in je c tio ng a s re q u ire m e n t. F lo w lin e S iz e a n d C o n d itio n T h e tim e re q u ire d fo r th e w e llh e a d tu b in g p r e s s u r e t o d e crease to separator pressure after a slug surfaces is a p rim ary factori nth e m a x im u m p ro d u c in g ra te fro m som e in s ta lla tio n s . T h e s iz e a n d c o n d itio n o f th e flo w lin e a ffe c ts th is tim e . A flo w lin e s h o u ld b e

a s la rg e o r la rg e r th a n th e tu b in g . A c o m m o n flo w lin e fo r s e v e ra l w e lls is n o t re c o m - m endedi nm o s t in s ta n c e s . If m o re th a n o n e w e ll in te rm its sim ultaneously,excessive back pressure w ill result. T he flo w lin e m u s t b e k e p t c le a n o f p a ra ffin a n d o th e r d e p o s its to prevent excessive back pressure.I n som e w ells the pro- d u c tio n h a s b e e n m o re th a n d o u b le d b y re m o v in g p a ra ffin fro m th e flo w lin e . S U G G E S T E D R E M E D IA L P R O C E D U R E S A S S O C IA T E D W IT H R E G U L A T IO N O F IN J E C T IO N G A S T hereareseveralrem edialprocedures recom m ended b e fo re re s o rtin g to p u llin g th e tu b in g . In fo rm a tio n in d ic a tin g th e tro u b le m a y o fte n b e o b ta in e d fro m re c o rd in g s o f th e s u r f a c e tu b in ga n d c a s in g p re ssu re .If th e tro u b le c a n n o t be corrected by surface control, it isrecom m ended that an in s ta lla tio n b e s e rv ic e d a s s o o n a s p o s s ib le to p re v e n ta w a s te o f in je c tio n g a s a n d lo s si n p ro d u c tio n . In s ta lla tio n W ill N o t U n lo a d W h e n u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n s c e a s e b e fo re re a c h in g th e o p e ra tin g d e p th , r o c k in g a n in s ta lla tio n is re c o m m e n d e d . R o c k in g a g a s lift in s ta lla tio n is a c c o m p lis h e d b y a p p ly in g

in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re to th e to p o f th e flu id c o lu m n in th e tu b in g w ith lin e p re s s u re i nth e c a s in g . R o c k in g is recom m ended for tw o reasons: (1 ) To force fluid from th e tu b in g a n d c a s in g in to th e fo rm a tio n to u n c o v e r th e to p v a lv ei na w e ll w ith o u t a s ta n d in g v a lv e , o r (2 )T o in c re a s e th e tu b in g p re s s u re a t v a lv e d e p th to lo w e r th e v a lv e o p e n in g p r e s s u r e . In p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re o p e ra te d in s ta lla tio n s , ro c k in g th e w e ll w ill o p e n a n u p p e r v a lv e a n d p e rm it re s u m p tio n o f th e u n lo a d in g o p e ra tio n . V a lv e W ill N ot C lo s e A c o n tin u o u s high rate of decrease i n casing pressure b e lo w the surface closing pressure o f th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e m a y in d ic a te th a t th is v a lv e is s tu c k open. W hen th is o c c u rs Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 74 0732270 0532951 7 4 2 1 1 8

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

G a s L ift th e tu b in g s h o u ld b e s h u t in a n d th e c a s in g p r e s s u r e in c re a s e d t o a p o in t w e ll a b o v e th e o p e n in g p r e s s u r e o f th e v a lv e . T h e tu b in g is o p e n e d as fast as possible, preferably to a tm o s p h e re to p re v e n t o v e rlo a d in g s u rfa c e fa c ilitie s , a n d th e w e llh e a d tu b in g p re ssu re is p e rm itte d to d e c re a s e t o s e p a ra to r o r a tm o s p h e ric p re s s u re . T h e p ro c e d u re is repeated several tim es o r until the casing pressure decreases to th e v a lv e c lo s in g p re s s u re . T h is a c tio n c re a te s a h ig h p r e s s u r e d iffe re n tia l a c ro s s th e v a lv e s e a t a n d w ill g e n e ra lly re m o v e a n y tra s h h o ld in g th e v a lv e o p e n . S a lt c a n p lu g th e b le e d p o rt in a p ilo t v a lv e re s u ltin g in th e m a in v a lv e re m a in in g o p e n after the p ilo t s e c tio n c lo s e s .

M a n y tim e s s a lt d e p o s its c a n b e rem oved b y b a tc h in g o r p u m p in g fre s h w a te r in to th e c a s in g . E m u ls io n s A n e m u ls io n is d iffic u lt to lift a n d re q u ire s m o re in je c tio n g a s th a n w o u ld b e re q u ire d if it d id n o t e x is t. M a n y tim e s a n e m u ls io n c a n b e e lim in a te d o rth e s e v e rity re d u c e d b y a d d in g c h e m ic a l to th e in je c tio n g a s . W ays of lifting an e m u ls io n in c lu d e th e u s e o f a p lu n g e r, la rg e -p o rte d v a lv e s , p ilo t o p e ra te d v a lv e s , a n d /o r tim e c y c le o p e ra te d c o n tro lle r w ith a m a x im u m p re ssu re c o n tro l. C o rro s io n C o rro sio n in h ib itio n c a n b e e ffe c tiv e ly

a p p lie d t o gas lift system s. T he chem ical m ay be introduced ju st dow nstream o f th e c o m p re s s o rs to p ro te c t th e g a s d is trib u tio n lin e s t o e a c h w e ll a n d to p ro te c t th e s u b s u rfa c e c a s in g a n d tu b in g . I t is m o s t e ffe c tiv e w h e n a p p lie d to n e w s y s te m s . If e ith e r c o rro s io n in h ib itio n o r e m u ls io n b re a k in g c h e m ic a ls a re in je c te d d ire c tly in to th e g a s , c a r e s h o u ld b e ta k e n to e n s u re th a t th e c h e m ic a l c a rrie r is n o t o f th e ty p e th a t w ill b e d is s o lv e d in th e g a s , o th e rw is e th e h e a v y e le m e n ts o f th e c h e m ic a ls m a y p lu g th e g a s lift v a lv e s a n d in je c tio n c h o k e s .

If a system is operated w ith corrosive g a s w ith o u t p ro te c - tio n fo r a n e x te n d e d p e rio d o f tim e , p ro d u c ts o f c o rro s io n w ill a c c u m u la tei nth e g a s d is trib u tio n lin e sa n d s u b s u rfa c e e q u ip m e n t. A d d itio n o f a c o rro s io n m itig a tio n p ro g ra m w ill resulti na c le a n u p o f th e “ d irty ” s y s te m a n d a c o n tin u e d p ro te c tio n o f th e s y s te m . T h e f i r s t p h a s e , t h e c l e a n u p , c a n c a u s e t e m p o r a r y o p e ra tio n a l p ro b le m s . A s th e p ro d u c ts o f c o rro s io n a re re m o v e d fro mth e s y s te m , th e y w illte n d to p lu g th e g a s lift v a lv e s a n d m a k e th e v a lv e s p e rfo rm e rra tic a lly . A s m e n tio n e d , th e s e problem s are tem poraryand m ust be w eathered to cleanup th e s y s te m . T R O U B L E -S H O O T IN G T h e b a s ic p rin c ip le in tro u b le -s h o o tin g is to k n o w w h a t to expect w hen a system is fu n c tio n in g c o rre c tly ,th e n is o la te d e v ia tio n s fro m th is e x a m p le a n d d e te rm in e p o s s ib le c a u s e s fo r th e p a rtic u la r m a lfu n c tio n s o b s e rv e d . In m any cases, a n d g a s lift is n o e x c e p tio n , o b s e rv a tio n of asystem

i n a c tio n re q u ire sth e a s s is ta n c e o f re c o rd in g in s tru m e n ts . T h e fo llo w in g b a s ic in fo rm a tio n s h o u ld b e o b ta in e d w h e n th e in s ta lla tio n is o p e ra tin g p ro p e rlys o that it m ay be com pared w ith la te r in fo rm a tio n w h e n tro u b le o c c u rs . 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . T h e v o lu m e o f flu id b e in g p ro d u c e d fro m the w ell p e r d a y (w a te r, o il, g a s ) T he num ber of cycledday and the barreldcycle T h e in je c tio n p e rio d /c y c le T h e a m o u n t o f g a s in je c te d in to th e w e ll p e r d a y , th e scfkycle and the R ,s T he lift gas system line pressure V ariations of casingpressureandtubingpressure d u rin g

th e c y c le T h e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n in to th e tu b in g (d e p th o f th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e ) T h e s ta tic b o tto m h o le p re s s u re a n d flo w in g b o tto m hole pressure T h e p re s s u re g ra d ie n t o f th e p ro d u c e d flu id s Ite m s 1 th ro u g h 6c a n b e d e te rm in e d w ith a 2 4 -h o u r p ro d u c tio n te s t fro m th e w e ll. T h e v o lu m e o f flu id p ro d u c e d is m e a s u re d a t th e ta n k b a tte ryo r a m e te rin g s ta tio n . A lo w p re s s u re g a s m e te r is n e e d e d a t th e s e p a ra tio n p o in t to m e a s u re th e v o lu m e o f g a s lib e ra te d fro m th e p ro d u c e d flu - id s .Ahigh pressure m eter run at the w ell is required to m ea- s u re th e v o lu m e o f lift g a s u s e d .Atw o-pen pressure recorder w ill illu s tra te th e c y c le fre q u e n c y a n d p re s s u re c h a n g e s a t the w ell. A flowing pressuresurvey is th e o n ly p o s itiv e way of d e te rm in in g th e o p e ra tin g le v e l a n d th e fo rm a tio n p re s s u re d ra w d o w n . T h e p re fe rre d p ro c e d u re fo r m a k in ga n o p e ra t- in g p re ssu re su rv e y is to ru n th e p re s s u re g a g e (b o m b ) d u r i n g t h e f e e d - i n p e r i o d , t o a d e p t h j u s t b e l o w th e b o tto m v a lv e . T h e g a g e

s h o u ld b e le ft b e lo w th e b o tto m v a lv e th ro u g h th re e c o m p le te g a s lift c y c le s . I t is im p o rta n t th a t the norm al cycle frequency a n d in je c tio n p e rio d b e u s e d d u rin g th is s u rv e y to o b ta in re p re s e n ta tiv e d a ta . If the o p e ra to r is re a s o n a b ly c e rta in that the w ell is not lifting fro m th e b o tto m v a lv e , h e m a y m o v e th e g a g e u p th e h o le o n eo rt w o v a l v e s . T h e w ell m ay b e o p e ra te d th ro u g h s e v e ra l c y c le s w ith th e g a g ei nth is p o s itio n ; h o w e v e r, th e w ire lin e s p e c ia lis t s h o u ld b e c a u tio n e d t ow a t c h f o r t h e lo s s o f w e ig h t o n th e w ire lin e . T h is in d ic a te s th a t th e g a g e i s b e in g b lo w n u p th e tu b in g , a n d th e o p e ra to r s h o u ld b e p re p a re d to s h u t th e tu b in g w in g v a lv e a t th e f ir s t s ig n o f th is tro u b le .

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A P I T IT L E *V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 5 2 689 m

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

P ro c e d u re fo r A d ju s tin g , R e g u la tin g a n d A n a ly z in g In te rm itte n t F lo wL ift In s ta lla tio n s 1 1 9 A fte r c o m p le tin g th e o p e ra tin g p o rtio n of the pressure p ro c e d u re ,i n a d d itio n to o p e n in g th e v a lv e w id e , d e v e lo p s su rv e y , th e o p e ra to r m a y lo w e r th e g a g e to th e b o tto m o f a h ig h p re s s u re d iffe re n tia l a c ro s s th e v a lv e w h e n th e tu b th e tu b in g a n d s h u t th e w e lli n fo r a p r e s s u r eb u i l d u p c u r v e . in g is b le d d o w n ra p id ly . T h e s e c o n d itio n s fa v o r th e p a s In te rp re ta tio n o f th e b o tto m h o le p re s s u re re c o rd s h o u ld s a g e o f t r a s h . I f t h i s t e c h n i q u e f a i l s a f t e r t w o t r i e s , b l e e d a l l d e te rm in e th e v a lu e o f ite m s7th ro u g h9 . th e p re s s u re o ff th e tu b in g a n d c a s in g . T h is s te p a llo w sth e e v a lu a te d b y p lo ttin g th e re s u lts on a graph. The pressure trash that m ay be betw een

th e v a lv e a n d s e a t. T h e n , w ith v a lv e , th e p ro d u c in g g ra d ie n ts th a t e x is t a b o v e a n d b e lo w l i f t v a l v e o p e n s . S h u to f f t h e in je c tio n g a sa n d w a i t u n t i l t h e th eo p e ra tin gv a lv e ,a n d th eflo w in gb o tto m h o le casing pressures tabilizes b e fo rei n c re a s in g the casing presT he o p e ra tin g c y c le sa n d b u ildu pc u rv es h o u ld b e s u r e a g a i n .R e p e a tt h i s p r o c e d u r e t w i c e . If th isp ro c e d u re i s p l o t t e d o n a p r e s s u r e t i m e d i a g r a m . I n t h e s e f o r m s , t h e d a t a n o t s u c c e s s fu l, it m a y b e a d v is a b le to in je c t flu id d o w n th e are m uch easier to analyze. c a s in g to c le a naleaking valve. A detergenti n fresh water is particularly successfuli n areas w hereiron sulfide deposT h e in fo rm a tio no b ta in e dfro m apressure survey is best t og o O n s e a t,s oth a ti t te n d st ob r e a k O r c r u s h

d e p t hd i a g r a m w i l l i l l u s t r a t et h el o c a t i o no f th e o p e ra tin g th et u b i n g O P e n ,in c r e a s eth e c a s i n gP r e s s u r e th eg a s T he f i r s t s ig n O f a i n th eg a s l i f t

its arecom m on and fresh w ater w ill w ash salt deposits from g e n e ra lly o c c u rs w hen the production O perator v a lv e s , T h is flu id s h o u ld b ep ro d u c e d th ro u g h th e v a lv e si n th a t th e flu id p ro d u c tio n is b e lo w n o rm a l. E a c h w e lli n th e an o rm a l m anners o th a ti t te n d st o w ash th e v a lv e s a n d s y s te m m u s t b e c h e c k e d to d e te rm in e w h ic h w e ll is n o t p ro c a rryo u ttr a s h

 

y s te m

th a t w asi nth ev a l v e s , d u c in g p ro p e rly . A t th is p o in t, th e tw o -p e n p re s s u re re c o rd e d a t th e w e ll b e c o m e s a m o s t im p o rta n t in s tru m e n t. In a d d i- A c h e c k to d e te rm in e th e c a u s e o fam a lfu n c tio n is to a p tio n to lo c a tin g th e w e ll th a t is h a v in g tro u b le ,th etw o -p e n p ly p r e s s u r e o n th e tu b in g w ith n o p r e s s u r e o n th e c a s in g . A re c o rd e r is th e firs t in s tru m e n t th a t th e o p e ra to r uses to dele a k f r o m th e tu b in g w o u ld in d ic a teale a k in g tu b in g c o u te rm in e w h a ti sw ro n g . If in v e s tig a tio n in d ic a te s th a t a g a s p lin g o r h o le in th e tu b in g s in c e th e g a sl i f t v a lv e s h a v e lift v a lv e is fa ilin g to c lo s e tig h tly , th e fo llo w in g p ro c e d u re back checks. is recom m ended: R aise the pressure i nth e c a s in g a n d tu b in g to th e o p e n in g p re s s u re o f th e g a s lift v a lv es o th at it is T able 9 -2 lists som e com m on m alfunctions of gas lifts y s w id e o p e n , th e n re d u c e th e tu b in g p re s s u re ra p id ly . T h is

tem s and suggestspossiblecauses and possiblecures. TA B LE 9 -2 P O S S IB L E C A U S E S A N D C U R E S O F S O M E C O M M O N M A L F U N C T IO N SO F G A S L IF T S Y S T E M S M A L F U N C T IO N C A U S E C U R E C O M M U N IC A T IO N A . V a lv e s tu c k o p e n Rock the well, flush the valve B E T W E E N C A S IN G B .P a c k e r le a k in g X eset packer A N D T U B IN G C .T u b in g le a k Pull, inspect and rerun O P E R A T IN G A . O perating v a lv e c h a n g e d to A d ju s t in je c tio n g a s fo r m a x im u m P R E S S U R E S h ig h e r v a lv ei nin s ta lla tio n p ro d u c tio n IN C R E A S E B . V a lv e p lu g g e d P u ll w e ll D . C irc u la tin g s le e v e

o p e n C lo se i t C. Tem perature risei n w e ll Exchange for valves w hich are not affected a ffe c tin g v a lv e s b y te m p e ra tu re , o r lo w e r th e te s t ra c k opening pressure of bellow s charged v a lv e s . D . S m all flu id h e a d s R educe c y c le fre q u e n c y F L U ID S L U G A . F lu id load very heavy I n c r e a s e c y c le fre q u e n c y V E L O C IT YL E S S B . L o w in je c tio n lin e p r e s s u r e I n c r e a s e p r e s s u r e or space v a lv e s

c lo s e r T H A N 1 ,0 0 0 C . V a lv e p a rtia lly p lu g g e d Flush w ith fresh w atero r solvent F E E TP E RM IN U T E D . T u b in gp a rtia lly p lu g g e d R u n p a ra ffin k n ife o r c le a n w ith s o lv e n t E . T oo sm all v a lv e p o rt E x c h a n g e fo r la rg e p o rte d v a lv e s H IG H B A C K A . P lu g g e d flo w lin e L o o k fo r p a rtia lly c lo s e d v a lv e s , fo u le d PRESSURE AT c h e c k s , p a ra ffin ,

s a n d a c c u m u la tio n s W ELL H E A D B . H ig h s e p a ra to r p r e s s u r e R eset back pressure valve or add gas a c c u m u la to r ta n k s la rg e r lin e C . F lo w lin e to o s m a ll L o o p flo w lin e o r re p la c ei t w ith D . W e ll u s in g to o m u c h g a s A d ju s t in je c tio n c o n tro l e q u ip m e n t SU D D EN D R O P IN A . P lu g g e d fo rm a tio n C le a n o u t w e ll P R O D U C T IO N B . P lu g g e d tu b in g C h e c k tu b in g b e lo w o p e ra tin g v a lv e (V a lv e O p e n a n d C . L o w e r v a lv e s p lu g g e d W asho r p u ll C lose N ear D . T o o m u c ho r to o little g a s R e a d ju s t in je c tio n g a s c o n tro ls

N o rm al) E . S ta n d in g v a lv e s tu c k o p e n P u ll a n d c le a n Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P IT IT L E *V T -6

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 5 3 5 1 5 W A P P E N D IX 9 = A T W O -P E N R E C O R D E R C H A R T S S H O W IN G E X A M P L E S O FIN T E R M IT T E N T G A S L IF T M A L F U N C T IO N S A p p e n d ix9 -A c o n ta in s e le v e n tw o -p e n re c o rd e r c h a rts In e a c ho f th e c h a rts , th e o u te r tra c e re p re s e n ts a re c o rd in g that illustratem ost o fth ec o m m o n p ro b le m sth a t m ay o fth ec a s in g p re s s u rea n d th ein n e rtra c ere p re s e n tsa o c c u ri na n in te rm itte n t g a s lift o p e ra tio n . T h e s e m ay be re c o rd in go f th e tu b in g p re s s u re . A s o th e r m a lfu n c tio n s a re u s e d b y th e o p e ra to r i n s p o ttin g p ro b le m s b e fo re th e y e n c o u n te re d ,re p re s e n ta tiv e c h a rts c a n b e a d d e d fo rfu tu re b e c o m e t o o s e v e r e . T h e c h a r t s w ere hand draw n

s ot h a t r e f e r e n c e . e x a m p le so f m a lfu n c tio n s c o u ld b e e x a g g e ra te d fo r c la rity . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT

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A: C Y C LE F R E Q U E N C Y T O O LO N G ,

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

T U B IN G K IC K S A R E L O W A N D T H IC K . B: INCREASED CYCLEFREQUENCY Y IE L D S T A L L T H IN T U B IN G K IC K S A N O M O R E P R O D U C T IO N . C: C Y C L EF R E Q U E N C YT O O F A S T . T U B IN G PRESSURE W ES N O TH A V E TIM E TO R E D U C E T O N O R M A L . F ig . 9 -A l A: IN J E C T IO N R A T E T O O H IG H .M A Y C A U S E M O R E THAN ONEW L IF TV A L V E T O CHANGE IN THEPRESSURE D E W N E R ATEA F T E RAG A SL IF T VALVECLOSES. O P E N . T H IS C O N D IT IO N IS M D E N C E O O N T H E C A S I N G P R E S S U R EB Y

A T H E M U L T IP L E "P O IN T S " O N T H E T U B IN G P R E S S U R EA L S O M D E N C E T H IS M m w nO N . B : TO O M U C HG A S .T U B IN GK IC K S A R ETO O H IG H A N D T O O T H IC K .C A S I N G P R E S S U R E D E C L IN EISR A T H E R SLO W . E R R A T IC G A S S Y S T E M P R E S S U R E . T H E P R E S S U R E H A S D E C L IN E DA F T E R T IM E R W AS A D J U S T E DS O T H A T N O W2 IN J E C T IO N S A R E R E Q U IR E 0 P E R C Y C L E . T IM E RI S T H E N O P E N E D F O R L O N G E R IN J E C T IO N . W H E NG A S S Y S T E M P R E S S U R E IN C R E A S E S , T O O M U C H G A S ISU S E D . T O H E L P S T A B IL IZ EG A S S Y S T E M P R E S S U R E , U S E C H O K E A N O T IM E R IN J E C T IO N F R E Q U E N C V T O O F M .G A SL IF T V A L V EIS N O T L O A D E D S O W ES N O T O P E N U N T IL S E C O N D IN J E C T IO N . T O O M U C HW ISM D E N T

I N T U B IN G K IC K . R E D U C E IN J E C T IO N F R E Q U E N C Y F O R B E T T E R O P E R A T IO N . F ig .9 -A 2 A: W E L L L O A D IN G U P . M D E N C EO FE X C E S S R lE F L U ID L O A D W E NG A S L IF T V A L V E W ENS E A R L Y .AST H IS C O N T IN U E S .P R O B L E M ISSHOW N B Y SHORTER AND W lD E R T U B IN G K IC K S U N T IL T H E L O W E R V A L V E B E C O M E S S U B M E R G E D A N D O P E R A T IO N C O N T IN U E S O N A N U P P E R V A L V E .A D E C L IN EI N P R O D U C E D F L U ID ISE X P E R IE N C E D . B : W ELL U N L O A D IN G . T H IS IL L U S T R A T E S H O W T H E F L U ID L O A D D E C R E A S E S F R O MA M A X IM U M W H E NAW L IF T V A L V E OPERATES THE F IR S T T IM E T OA M IN IM U M W H E N T H E V A L V E SO P E R A T E T H E L A S T T IM E J U S T B E F O R ET R A N S F E R R

IN G T O T H E N m LW YER V A L V E F ig . 9 -A 4 F ig .9 -A 3 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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1 2 2

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

A P I T I T L E + V T - 6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 5 5 3 9 8 G as L ift A: C H O K E D W E LL. R E S T R IC T IO N O F C H O K E C A U S E S S L U G V E L O C IT Y T O B E S L O W A N D P R E S S U R E R E D U C T IO N P E R IO D T O B E L O N G . A L S O . T U B IN G P R E S S U R EIS TO O H IG H . B: F L O W L IN E R E S T R IC T IO N . A B O U T T H E S A M E E F F E C T A S C H O K E . T U B IN GP R E S S U R E C H A N G E S A R E G R A D U A L B E C A U S E R E S T R IC T IO NIS D IS T A N T F R O M W E L L H E A D . F ig . 9 -A S A: L E A K H IG HI N T U B IN G . LEAKI S SM ALLS IN C E T U B IN G K IC K S A R EN O R M A L . F IR S T S IG N O F L E A K ISE V ID E N C E D W H E N C A S IN G P R E S S U R E C O N T IN U E S T O

DECREASE AFTERG A SL IF T V A L V E C L O S E S .W H E N G A ST O C A S I N G ISS H U T O FF C A S IN G D E C L IN E S T OAVALUE NEAR THE TUBING PRESSURE. B: L E A K L O W I N T U B IN G . O P E R A T IN G P R E S S U R EABW T T H E S A M EA SA B O V E . M F - F E R E N C E SHOW S W H E NG A S T O C A S IN GI S S H U T M F . T H E N C A S IN G P R E S S U R E D E C L IN E S T OAV A L L E W ELL A B O Y E T H E T U B IN G P R E S S U R E . (F L U IDS E A LO V E R THE V A L V E ). A: L E A K I N S U R F A C E IN T E R M IT T E R . G O O D O P E R A T IO N ISM A IN T A IN E D . B: S M A L L L E A KI N T U B IN G S T R IN G . B E M E N E A C H C Y C L E . T H E C A S IN G P R E S S U R E V E R YG O O D . D E C L IN E S S L O W L Y A F T E R T H E G A S LIFT VALVECLOSES. T U B IN G K IC K S A R E F ig . 9 -A 6 U R G E L E A K I N T U B IN G S T R IN G . A T F IR S T . IT SHOW SA SA SM ALL LEAK. THEN G A S L IF T V A L V E . W H E N T H E L E A K E X C E E D S T H E C Y C L E G A S R E Q U IR E M E N T ,T H E L E A KIS S U C H T H A T T H E C A S IN G P R E S S U R E S O M E T IM E S F A IL ST O O P E N T H E C A S IN G P R E S S U R E D E C L IN E S W E L L B E L O W T H E NORMAL RANGE AND

A S A W TOOTH PATTERNIS TRACED. THET U B IN G P R E S S U R E R E A C H E S A S T E A D Y , ELEVATED PRESSURE. Fig. 9 -A 8 F ig . 9 -A 7 Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E x V T -6

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 5 6 2 2 4 W T w o -P e n R ecorder C h arts S h o w in g E x a m p le s o f In term itten t C as L ift M a lfu n c tio n s 1 2 3 G A S L IN E P R E S S U R EB E C O M E ST O O LO W . C A S IN G P R E S S U R E F A IL S T O G E T H IG HE N O U G H . T U B IN G K IC K S C H A N G EF R O M G O O D S L U G S , T O S M A L L S L U G S . T OAM lS lYS P R A Y . F ig .9 -A 9 A: PLUGGED VALVE.VERY S L O W D E C L IN E O F C A S IN G P R E S S U R E ISA N IN D IC A T O R O F T H IS P R O B L E M .T H E T U B IN G P R E S S U R E K IC K S A R E R O U N D E D A N D M IS T Y

B E C A U S EO F E X C E S S IV E F A L L B A C K .A S C O N D IT IO N G E T S W O R S E . T H E U S IN G PRESSURE STAYSA B O V E V A L V E C L O S IN G P R E S S U R E A N D T U B IN G P R E S S U R E S S T A B IL IZ E . T H E N , O N L Y G A SI SO B T A J N E DF R O M F L U ID . B: P L U G G E D T U B IN G . V E R YS IM IL A R T O S IT U A T IO NA , B U T T U B IN G P R E S S U R E R E F L E C T S IN J E C T IO N C Y C L E S . V E R Y Ll l l l E F L U IDI S P R O D U C E D . Fig. 9 -A IO A: N O TE N O U G H W .F A L LB A C K ISE X C E S S IV EW ) F L U ID R E C O V E R YI S S M A L L . T U B I N G P R E S S U R E H A S R O U N D E D , S L U G G I S H K I C K S . C A S I N G P R E S S U R E O P E R A T IN G S P R E A DIS T O O S M A L L , B : N O T E N O U G H F L U ID . C A S IN G P R E S S U R EO P E R A T IN GS P R W DI S NOR" , B U T T U B IN G P R E S S U R EI SR O U N D E D A N D S L U G G IS H . Fig. 9 -AII Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API

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A P I T IT L E x V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 5 7 L b 0

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

C H A P T E R1O T H E U S EO F P L U N G E R SI N G A S L IF T S Y S T E M S IN T R O D U C T IO N T h e fu n c tio n o f p lu n g e r lift e q u ip m e n t is to p ro v id e fo r m o re e ffic ie n t u tiliz a tio n o f liftin g g a s e n e rg y i na n y w e ll th a t is o r c a n b e p r o d u c e d i n ac y c lic m a n n e r s im ila r to in te rm itte n t g a s lift. P lu n g e r lift in c o rp o ra te s ap is to n th a t n o rm a lly tra v e ls th e e n tire le n g th o f th e tu b in g s trin g , p ro v id in gas o lid a n d s e a lin g in te rfa c e b e tw e e n th e liftin g g a s a n d th e p ro d u c e d liq u id .T h is in te rfa c e c h a n g e s th e flo w p a tte rn d u rin g a lifting cycle from th e fa m ilia r b u lle t s h a p e o f g a s p e n e tra tio n o f th e liq u id s lu g to a p a tte rn w h e re b y g a s flo w is p o s s ib le o n ly b e tw e e n th e p lu n g e r’s o u ts id e d ia m e te r a n d th e tu b in g w a lls . T o lift th e p lu n g e r a n d th e liq u id lo a d a b o v e th e p lu n g e r, th e g a s p r e s s u r e m ust be

g re a te r th a n th e s e lo a d s . T .h e s m a l l q u a n tity o f g a s th a t b y p a s s e s th e p lu n g e r d u rin g ac y c le flo w s u p th ro u g h th e a n n u la r s p a c e a n d a c ts a sasw eept o m in im iz e liq u id fa llb a c k . T he use o f p lu n g e r e q u ip m e n t, b y m in im iz in g liq u id fa llb a c k a n d e lim in a tin g p o s s ib le g a s p e n e tra tio n th ro u g h th e c e n te r o f th e liq u id s lu g , p ro v id e s fo r th e m o s t e ffic ie n t fo rm o f in te rm itte n tg a s lift p ro d u c tio n a v a ila b le . A P P L IC A T IO N S N u m e ro u sa p p lic a tio n se x is t fo rp lu n g e ri n s ta lla tio n s i n th ro u g ht h el iq u idc o lu m na n dl o s e lift e ffic ie n c y .A b o th a r e : I . 2 . 3 . 4 . g a s lift a n d

n a tu ra l flo w w ells. T he m ost com m on u s e s T o m a in ta in p ro d u c tio n b y c y c lin g in ah ig h g a s liquid ratio w ell. T o u n lo a d a c c u m u la te d liq u id ina g a s w e ll. T o re d u c e fa llb a c k ina w e ll b e in g p ro d u c e d b y in te rm ittent gas lift. T o im p ro v e e ffic ie n c y i n g as liftw ells w ith s e v e r e em u lsio n p ro b lem s. In su ch w ells, th e frictio n o f th e e m u ls io n p re v e n ts e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e re q u ire d liftin g v e lo c ity . T h e s lo w v e lo c ity a llo w s g a s to c h a n n e l p lu n g e r lift s y s te m c a n h e lp e lim in a te th is p ro b le m . 5 .T oc le a n th e tu b in g in b o th g a s lift a n d n a tu ra l flo w w ellsproducing paraffin,scale,and otherdeposits. N o rm a l p ro d u c tio n d o e s n o t h a v e to b e c y c lic , b u t th e w e ll m u s t b e s h u ti n p e rio d ic a lly to a llo w

th e p lu n g e r to o p e ra te . 6 . F o r d e e p in te rm itte n t g a s lift w ith lo w in je c tio n g a s p r e s s u r e . 7 . T o a llo w in term itten tg a s lift w ith su rface restrictio n s. T h is c h a p te r is p rim a rily c o n c e rn e d w ith th e u s e o f p lu n g e rs in in te rm itte n t g a s lift a p p lic a tio n s . T Y P E SO F P L U N G E R L IF T T h re e p o s s ib le ty p e s o f d o w n h o le in s ta lla tio n s a re : 1 . In term itten t G as L ift W itha P a c k e r N o rm a lly th e w e ll’s b o tto m h o le p re s s u re iss o lo w that the liquid fill-in from th e fo rm a tio n is n o t su ffic ie n t to p r e v e n t g a s b re a k -th ro u g h o f th e liq u id c o lu m n d u rin g an in te rm itte n t lift c y c le . T h is ty p e o f a p p lic a tio n is o n e w h e re in s u ffic ie n t P lu n g e r a p p lic a tio n a llo w s m u c h g re a te r u tiliz a g a s i n a v a ila b le fro m th e fo rm a tio n a n d a llg a s i s tio n o f th e e n e rg y b e in g p ro v id e d a n d le s s fa llb a c k , provided byas u p p le m e n ta l s o u rc e in v o lv in g a n o u tth u sa c o rre s p o n d in g d e c re a s e in b o tto m h o le p re s -

side sourceof energy. sure anda nin c re a s ei n liq u id p ro d u c tio n . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T I T L E S V T - 6 9 4

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

0732290 0 5 3 2 9 5 8 O T7 T he U se o f P lu n g e rs in G a s L ift System s 1 2 5 \ T O S A L E S I T y p e W e ll: In s u ffic ie n t g a s fro m fo rm a tio n . W e ll b e in g g a s lifte d o n p a c k e r. A ll flo w th ro u g h tu b in g . E q u ip m e n t R e q u ir e d : @ F u ll b o r e m a s te r v a lv e@ F lo wv a lv e @ L u b ric a to r @ T im e c y c le c o n tr o l v a lv e @ S e c o n d flo w o u tle t @

F lo w v a lv e S ta n d a rd O p e ra tio n : 1 .P lu n g e r a t b o t t o m o f w e ll. 2 .G a s flo w th ro u g h tim e c y c le in te rm itte r o p e n s th e g a s lift v a lv e d o w n h o le , th e re b y c re a tin g th e d iffe re n tia l n e c e s s a ry to lift the liq u id a n d p lu n g e r to th e s u rfa c e . 3 .G a s a n d liq u id d e liv e re d th r o u g h u p p e r o u tle t. 4 .G a sl i f t v a lv e c lo s e s . 5 .P lu n g e r a rriv e s in lu b ric a to r, p a rtia lly c lo s in g o ff 6.T a il g a s is r a p id ly d is s ip a te d th r o u g h lo w e r o u tle t. 7 .P lu n g e r fa lls to b o tto m a n d c y c le re c o m m e n c e s . u p p e r o u tle t. Fig. 1 0 -1 T y p ic a lw e l l in s ta lla tio nf o rg a sl i f t 2 . C o n v e n tio n a l P lu n g e r L ift W ith o u t a P a c k e ro r W ith C o m m u n ic a tio n B e tw e e n C a s in g a n d T u b in g Just A bove the Packer. In s ta lla tio n s o f th is ty p e a re b y fa r th e m o s t w id e ly used. They are n o rm a lly a p p lie d w h e re th e w e ll s u p - p lie s a llo f the energy. H ow ever, m any system s using s u p p le m e n ta ry g a s a re n o w b e in g in s ta lle d . 3 . P lu n g e r L ift w ith a P a c k e r

(N oC o m m u n ic a tio n Betw een C asing and Tubing) a n o th e r a p p lic a tio no f p lu n g e rs . T h is ty p e o f in s ta lla tio n re q u ire s th a t a ll g a s m u st c o m e d ire c tly fro m th e fo rm a tio n d u rin g th e liftin g c y c le : a n d n e c e s s ita te s th a t th e fo rm a tio n R g lf b e g re a tly i n e x c e s s o f th a t re q u ire d fo r c o n v e n tio n a l p lu n g e r lift s in c e th e g a s required per cycle m ust be produced during the cycle. N ostorage periodo r external sourceof gas is possible. S in c e th is te x t is c o n c e rn e d w ithg a s lift a p p lic a tio n o f p lu n g e rs , fu rth e r d is c u s s io n o f p lu n g e r a p p lic a tio n w ith o u t a d d itio n a l g a s w ill b e o m itte d . Aty p ic a l s u rfa c e in s ta lla tio n T h is is n o tag a sl i f t in s ta lla tio n , b u t d o e s re p re s e n t fo r g a s lift u s in g a p lu n g e r is s h o w ni n F ig .1 0 -1 . S E L E C T IN G T H E P R O P E R E Q U IP M E N T H a v in g d e te rm in e d th a t a w ell can be produced w ith a p lu n g e r a n d h a v in g d e te rm in e d

w h a t flo w p a tte rn w ill be used,theproperequipm ent m ust bechosen.Figs.10-2, 1 0 -3 ,a n d 1 0 -4s h o w p o s s ib le v a ria tio n s in d o w n h o le in s ta lla tio n s w h e re gas liftis u s e d i nc o n ju n c tio n w ith the p lu n g e r. U sing these figures as a b a s e a n d s ta rtin g a t th e b o tto m o f th e w e ll, th e e q u ip m e n t is e x p la in e d u n d e r th e fo llo w in g h e a d in g s . I R e tr ie v a b le T u b in g (o r C o lla r ) S to p W hen th e w e ll’s tu b in g is n o t e q u ip p e d w ith a s e a tin g n ip p le , a w ire lin e s e t s to p c a n b e

u s e d fo r p o s itio n in g th e s ta n d in g v a lv eo r b u m p e r s p rin g . F ig .1 0 -5 s h o w s a ty p ic a l tu b in g s to p . S ta n d in g V a lv e A s ta n d in g v a lv e p re v e n ts liq u id in th e tu b in g fro m fa llin g b a c k a n d c o n trib u te s to a n in c re a s e in e ffic ie n c y o f a p lu n g e r in s ta lla tio n . A lth o u g h th e s ta n d in g v a lv e is s h o w n Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E *V T -b 9 4 W 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 5 9 T 3 3 m 1 2 6 G as L ift i nF ig .1 0 -2 , it is o fte n o m itte d fro m s u c h in s ta lla tio n s . H o w e v e r, th e s ta n d in g v a lv e s h o u ld a lw a y s b e ru ni nin s ta l- la tio n s s u c h a s th o s e s h o w n in F ig s .1 0 -3and 10-4.In these ty p e so f in s ta lla tio n s , th e s ta n d in g v a lv e p re v e n ts th e h ig h p r e s s u r el i f tgas from fo rc in g th el iq u id b e lo wth e s ta n d in g v a lv e b a c k in toth efo rm a tio n .I t s h o u ld b e n o te d th a t if th e p lu n g e r c a n f a ll to b o tto m d ry , a n in d iv id u a l s to p s h o u ld be used to s e t th e s ta n d in g v a lv e in d e p e n d e n tly o f th e b u m p e r s p rin g . E x p e rie n c eh a s s h o w n th a t a p lu

n g e r fa llin g dryonabum perspring,standingvalve,andstopset to g e th e r w ill s e t u p a v ib ra tio nt h a t ra p id ly c a u s e s a fa ilu re o f th e s ta n d in g v a lv e b a ll a n d s e a t. B u m p e r S p rin g T h e b u m p e r s p rin g , s h o w n in F ig .1 0 -6 , is a n e s s e n tia l p a rt o f a p lu n g e r in s ta lla tio n . It p re v e n ts excessives hock on th e p lu n g e r w h e n fa llin g to th e b o tto m , p a rtic u la rly if the w e ll d o e s n o t h a v e liq u id a b o v e th e tu b in g s to p . P lu n g e rs T h e re a re fiv e o p e ra tin g c h a ra c te ris tic s to b e c o n s id e re d w h e n c h o o s in g th e ty p eo fp lu n g e r to be used in a w ell. T h e s e a re lis te d b e lo w : l .H igh shock and w ear resistance. 2 . R e s is ta n c e to s tic k in gi n th e tu b in g . E q u lp m e n t R e q u ir e d 1 . S u b -s u rfa c e p lu n g e r 2 .B u m p e r S p rin g 3 . R e tr ie v a b le S ta n d in g V a lv e 4 .R e trie v a b le T u b in g S to p *

5 .G a s L ift V a lv e

e e lim in a te d F ig . 1 0 -2 D o w n h o le e q u ip m e n t v a r ia tio n s , g a s lift a n d p l u n g e r lift E q u ip m e n t R e q u ir e d 1 . S u b -s u rfa c e p lu n g e r 2 .B o tto m B u m p e r S p rin g 3 .S ta n d in g V a lv e 4 .P a c k e r 5 .U n lo a d in g C o n v e n tio n a l G a s L if t V a lv e s 6 .O p e ra tin g G a s L ift V a lv e 7 .L u b ric a to r a n d B u m p e r S p rin g 8 . P lu n g e r C a tc h e r 9 . T im e C y c le C o n tr o lle r F ig . 1 0 -3 D o w n h o le e q u ip m e n t v a r ia tio n s , g a s l i f ta n d p lu n g e rl i f t Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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I fs e a tin g n ip p le is in s ta lle d i n w e ll, tu b in g s to p m a y b

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A P I T IT L E a V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 6 0 7 5 5 m

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

T he U se of Plungersi n G as L ift System s 1 2 7 3 . H ig h d e g re eo f re p e a ta b ility o f v a lv e o p e ra tio n . 4 .A b ility t o p ro v id e a g o o d s e a l a g a in s t th e tu b in g d u rin g u p w a rd tra v e l. 5 .T h e a b ility to fa ll ra p id ly th ro u g h g a s a n d liq u id . F ig s .1 0 -7 ,1 0 - 8 ,1 0 -9 , a n d 1 0 -1 0s h o w th re e d iffe re n t p lu n g e r ty p e s . E q u ip m e n t R e q u ir e d 1 . S u b -s u rfa c e p lu n g e r 2 .B u m p e r S p rin g 3 .R e trie v a b le T u b in g S to p 4 .R e tr ie v a b le D u p le x S ta n d in g V a lv e 5 .G a s L ift V a lv e s 6. P ro d u c in g G as L ift V a lv e 7 .P a c k e r 8 . S e a tin g N ip p le 9 .S e a tin g N ip p le 1 0 .R e trie v a b le G a s L if t V a lv e in C e n te r M o u n t M a n d re l F ig .1 0 -5 -

T y p ic a l tu b in g s to p F ig .1 0 -4 D o w n h o le e q u ip m e n t v a r ia tio n s ,gasl i f t a n d p lu n g e r lift F ig .1 0 -6 Typical bum per spring Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E m V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 6 3 691 m 1 2 8 G as L ift E ssentially, there are six v a ria tio n s o fp lu n g e rs a v a ila b le a n d th e c h o ic e d e p e n d s o n th e o p e ra tin g re q u ire m e n ts o f a w ell. T here are tw o types o fs e a ls (e x p a n d in g b la d e a n d tu rb u le n t) a n d th re e ty p e so f v a lv in g s y s te m s (v a lv e w ith o u t in te g ra l ro d , v a lv e w ith in te g ra l ro d , a n d n o v a lv e a t a ll). T a b le1 0 -1 lis ts th e s ix p lu n g e r ty p e s a n d c la s s ifie s th e m e ith e r1 ,2 , o r3(firs t, s e c o n do r th ird c h o ic e ) a c c o rd in g to th e ir re la tiv e e ffe c tiv e n e s s in fu lfillin g th e fiv e o p e ra tin g c h a ra c te ris tic s lis te d p re v io u s ly . F ig .1 0 -8 W o b b le w a s h e r ty p e p lu n g e r w ith in te g r a l

v a lv e ro d F ig .1 0 -7 T y p ic a l p lu n g e r w ith in te g r a l v a lv e ro d Fig. 1 0 -9 B ru sh ty p e p lu n g e r w ith o u t in te g r a l v a lv e ro d ~ ~ ~ ~ Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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A P I T IT L E + V T -b 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 7 6 2 5 2 8 T h e U seo f P lu n g e rs in G as L ift System s 1 2 9 F ig .1 0 -1 0 Expanding blade plunger w ith retractable seal (Photos courtesy Ferguson-BeauregardIn c .) (A ) S h o w s s e a lsi n e x p a n d e d p o s itio n (B }Shows sealsi n retracted position Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --`````,`,,``,,,````,`,```,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

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W ellT u b in g T h e w e ll s tu b in g m ust be gaugedbeforerunning a n y subsurface equipm ent. B ent or crushed tubes w ill p re v e n t satisfacto ry in stallatio n and paraffin,scale, e tc ., c a n p re - v e n t in itia l o p e ra tio n s . T a b le1 0 -2g iv e s th e g a g e s re c o m - m ended for various tubing sizes. TA B LE1 0 -1 P L U N G E R C L A S S IF IC A T IO N S O p e ra tin g C h a ra c te ris tic s I T y p eo f P lu n g e r (1 ) E x p a n d in g b la d e seal w ithout integral valve rod 2 (2 )E x p a n d in g b la d e seal w ith integral v a lv e ro d 1

 

(3 )E x p a n d in g b la d e seal w ithout valve (4 ) Turbulent seal, w obble-w asher, etc. w ith o u t in te g ra l v a lv e ro d (v a lv e a c t u a t i n g r o d is 2 p a rto f lu b ric a to r) (5 ) Turbulent seal, w obble-w asher, etc. w ith in te g ra l v a lv e 1 ro d ~ 2 (6 ) T u rb u le n t s e a l, w obble-w asher, etc. w ith o u t v a lv e 1 T A B L E 1 0 -2 G A G E SFO R V A R IO U S T U B IN G S IZ E S - / T u b in g s iz e , in . M in im u m g a g e s O .D . n o m in a l O .D .,in .

le n g th , f t A \ 1 .6 6 0 1 I 4 1 .2 5 0 2 1 .9 0 0 1 1 2 1 .5 0 0 2 2 .0 6 3 2 /M 1 .6 3 0 2 2 .3 7 5 2 3 1 ~ 1 .9 0 0 2 2 .8 7 5 2 7 1 8 2 .3 1 2 2 ~ ~ N O T E : T h e re a re p o s s ib le v a ria tio n s in g a g e re q u ire m e n ts between equipm ent m anufacturers. Check t o d e te rm ine the correct gage size.

 

 

 

C A P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1 ) B U M P E R S P R IN G .i. . ......................... S T R IK E RP A D ................................ (3) FLO W B O D Y. ................................. (4 ) CATCHER ASSEMBLY ........................ (5 ) D U A L F L O WO U T L E T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4 A ) (4 B ) i2 j F ig .1 0 -1 1 T y p ic a l lu b r ic a to r p a r ts Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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API T IT L E W V T -b 74 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 O532764 3 T 0 m T he U se of Plungersi n G as Lift System s 1 3 1 M a s te r V a lv e

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

T he m a s te r v a lv eo f a w e ll m u s t h a v e a fu ll b o re e q u a l to , b u t n o t g re a te r th a n ,th e tu b in g s iz e . A n u n d e rs iz e v a lv e w ill n o t a llo w plunger passage,and an oversize valve can p o ssib ly p re v e n tth e p lu n g e rfro m re a c h in g th e lu b ric a to r b e c a u s eo fe x c e s s iv e g a sb y p a s s in g a ro u n d th e p lu n g e r. T h e p lu n g e r m u s t re a c h th e lu b ric a to r to a llo w re m o v a l fo r service and, w h e re in s ta lle d , to a c tiv a te a p lu n g e r a rriv a l system . S e c o n dF lo w O u tle t W here the chosen flow pattern of a w ell requires, a seco n d flo w o u tle t is p ro v id e d . A s e p a ra te u n it o f th e flo w o u tle t o f a n e x is tin g t r e e c a n b e u s e d . If u s in g th e e x is tin g flo w o u tle t, a

m e th o d s h o u ld b e p ro v id e d to restrictthe flo w . T h is restrictio n m ay be necessary to allow th e p lu n g e r to lift p a s t th e s e c o n d flo w o u tle t, s oth a t it c a n a c tiv a te a plunger arrival system o r b e re trie v e d fo r s e rv ic e . L u b ric a to r A lu b ric a to r is a n in te g ra l p a rt o f a n y p lu n g e r in s ta lla tio n . F ig . 1 0 -11sh o w s th e v a rio u s p a rts o f a ty p ic a l d u a l flo w o u tle t lu b ric a to r. T he cap (1 ) contains a spring to resist the force o f th e ris in g p lu n g e r. T h e s trik e r p a d(3 )is th e in itia l c o n ta c to f th e p lu n g e r w ith th e lu b ric a to r. W ith a n in te g ra l ro d p lu n g e r, th e v a lv e is o p e n e d . W h e re a p lu n g e r w ith o u t a n in te g ra l v a lv e ro d is u s e d , th e s trik e r p a d c o n ta in s a ro d fo r a c tiv a - tio n o f th e p lu n g e r v a lv e . In th e lu b ric a to r s h o w n , th e c a p( l ) ,bum per spring(2 ), and striker pad(3 ) are rem oved as a unit fo r accesst o the p lu n g e r fo r e x a m in a tio n

and repair. T he catcher assem bly (5 ) h o ld s th e p lu n g e ri n th e lu b ric a to r fo r e a s y re m o v a l. P R O P E R IN S T A L L A T IO N P R O C E D U R E S T h e n e x t p a r t o f a s u c c e s s f u lp l u n g e ri n s t a l l a t i o n is the 4 . in s ta lla tio n o f th e e q u ip m e n t. L is te d b e lo w a re th e s e q u e n tia l o p e ra tio n s in v o lv e d i n ru n n in g a p lu n g e r in s ta lla tio n , a s s u m in g th e w ell is set on a p a c k e r a n d w ill n o t b e p u lle d . 5 1 . 2 . 3 . C heck m aster valve for proper size G age 6 . S e t re trie v a b le s t o pa n d s t a n d i n g v a l v e j u s t a b o v e th e b o tto m o fth e tu b in g . (N o te: th is s to p a n d s ta n d in g

7 . v a lv e a re o p tio n a l) S e t re trie v a b le s to p ju s t a b o v e th e b o tto m g a s l i f t v a lv e . (N o te : p ro p e r ja rrin g a c tio n to s e t th e s to p m a y n o t b e p o s s ib le th ro u g h th e b u m p e r s p rin g ,s o th e s to p s h o u ld b eru n in d e p e n d e n tly ) R u n re trie v a b le b u m p e r s p rin g a n d la tc ht o th e p re v io u s ly s e t s to p R u n p lu n g e r to b o tto m o n a w irelin e to ensure free tra v e l R e m o v e w ire lin e lu b ric a to r, in s ta ll p lu n g e r lu b ric a to r, a n d c o m m e n c e o p e ra tio n . S U M M A R Y A p lu n g e r w ill in c re a s e th eefficien cy of m o st in term itten t g a s lift in s ta lla tio n s b y p re v e n tin g g a s fro m b re a k in g th ro u g h th e liq u id s lu g . I n som einstances of very lo w b o tto m h o le p re s s u re , p lu n g e rs

w ill a llo w g re a te r p re s s u re d ra w d o w n a n d th e re b y in c re a s e p ro d u c tio n fro m th e in te rm itte n t lift w e ll b y a llo w in g th e liftin gof sm aller slu g s o n e a c h c y c le . In a d d itio n , a p lu n g e r s h o u ld b e c o n s id e re d fo r a n in te rm itte n t g a s lift in s ta lla tio n w h e n : 1 .T h e in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re is lo w re la tiv e to th e required depth of lift; 2 . t h e f l o w i n g w e l l h e a d p r e s s u r e i s e x c e s s i v e a f t e r as l u g surfaces; and 3 . a p a ra ffin d e p o s itio n p ro b le m e x is ts . T h e re a re a ls o w e ll c o n d itio n s th a t p ro h ib it th e u s e o fa p lu n g e r. S o m e o f th e s e c o n d itio n s a re lis te d h e re . 1 . R e s tric tio n s i n surface wellhead and Christm astree v a lv e s . 2 .E x c e s s iv e w e ll d e v ia tio n . 3 . R e s tric te d a re a si n th e tu b in g . 4 . E x c e s s iv e a re a s in th e tu b in g . 5 . H ig h ra te in te rm itte n t g a s lift o p e ra tio n s . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E *V T -b 9L1 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 b 5 2 3 7

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

W 1 3 2 G a s L ift G L O S S A R Y -A A ger A water filledpressurecham ber u s e d t o a p p ly A PI A m e ric a n P e tro le u m In s titu te . e x te rn a l p re s s u reto g a s lift v a lv e s to fle x th e b e llo w s d u rin g th e p re s s u re s e ttin g o p e ra tio n . A n n u la rF lo w F o rm a tio n flu id sa rep ro d u c e d u pa system recom m ended by A P I. th ro u g h th e tu b in g -c a s in g a n n u lu s a n d re c o v e re d a t th e s u r f a c e . A n n u lu s T h es p a c e b e tw e e n tu b in g a n d c a s in g .s o u rc e t o l i f tr e s e r v o i r f l u i d s f r o m a p r o d u c i n g

w e ll. A P I G r a v itySpecific gravity of crude oil as m easured by A r tific ia l L ift -T h e a p p lic a tio n of energy from an outside -BB ack PressureT h e p r e s s u r e e x is tin g w ith in th e p ro d u c B L P D B a rre ls o f to ta l liq u id p e r d a y . ing stringatthesurface in a g a s lift w e ll. A lso used to d e s ig n a te th e flu id p re s s u re a t th e le v e l o f g a s in je c tio n , th e BO PD B a r r e l s o f O il P e r d a y p re s s u re a g a in s t w h ic h th e o p e ra tin g v a lv e in je c ts g a s . B e llo w s T he responsive elem ent of a gas lift valve. I t p e rfo rm sth es a m efu n c tio na sth ed ia p h ra g m o p e ra te d Bottom hole Pressure (BH P) P r e s s u r e a ts o m e g i v e n

valve. Itprovidesanareaforpressure to act onand to m ove d e p th i n th e w e ll, u s u a lly o p p o s ite th e p ro d u c in g th e v a lv e s te m . . BW PD B arrels of w ater per day. -C C a s in g F lo w (S am e a s a n n u la r flo w .) C o n tin u o u s F lo w G a s L iftG as lift o p e ra tio n i nw h ic h C asing P ressure T he pressure,m easured at the surface, w ith in th e w e ll c a s in g . g a s is in je c te d c o n tin u o u s ly in to th e liq u id c o lu m n . R e s e rv o ir flu id s

a n d ‘ th e in je c te d g a s a re p ro d u c e d fro m th e w e llh e a d a t th e s u rfa c e w ith o u t in te rru p tio n . C h a m b e r L ift A s p e c ia l ty p e o f in te rm itte n t g a s lift w h ic h u s e s th e tu b in g -c a s in g a n n u lu s o r a “ b o ttle ” o n th e . e n do f th e tu b in g s trin g fo r th e a c c u m u la tio n o f fo rm a tio n C o o le r A refrigerated w ater bath used to cool pressure liq u id s b e tw e e n c y c le s . charged gas l i f t v a lv e s t o 6 0 ° Fw h e n s e ttin g th e m . C hokeAty p e of o rific e in stalled in a lin e in w hichfluid is flo w in g . T h e p u rp o s e is to re s tric t th e flo w a n d c o n tro l th e ra te o f p ro d u c tio n . C ross-over S eatAspecial seat for a g a s lift v a lv ew h ic h d ire c ts th e p re s s u re a p p lie d a t th e n o s eo f th e g a s lift v a lv e C hristm as T ree

A te rm a p p lie d to th e c o n tro l v a lv e s , to th e b e llo w s a n d th e -p re s s u re a p p lie d to th e -h o le si nth e p r e s s u r e g a g e s ,a n d c h o k e s a s s e m b le d a t th e to p o f a w e ll to s id e o f th e v a lv e to th e u n d e r s id e o f th e s e a t. I t isu s e d m o s t c o n tro l th e flo w o f o il a n d g a s . o fte n in flu id o p e ra te d v a lv e s . -D D e a d W e llAw ell th a t w ill n o t flo w by itse lf. D om e T h e v o l u m e c h a m b e ri n s i d et h eb e l l o w s o f ag a s lift v a lv e . D ill C o r eo r S c h r a d e r C o r e V a lv e -V alv e in th e to p o f th e D raw dow n The difference in pressure (psi) betw een the g a slift v a lv e u s e d in c h a rg in gth eb e llo w s w ith n itro g e n . s ta tic (s h u t-in )b o tto m h o le p re s s u re a n d th e flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re a t a c o n s ta n t ra teo f flu id p ro d u c tio n .

Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A PI TITLE*VT-6 9 4 W

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0 7 3 2 2 7 0 O532766 L 7 3 -E E m u ls io n A m ixture of o il a n d w a te r th a t re q u ire s tre a tm e n t b e fo re th e o il a n d w a te r w ill s e p a ra te . -F F lo w lin e T he s u r f a c ep ip e th ro u g h w h ic h th e o il tra v e ls F o r m a tio n (F G a s) G a sG a s w h ic h is p ro d u c e d fro m th e fro m the w ell to storage. o il re s e rv o ir w ith th e p ro d u c e d liq u id s . F lo w in g B o tto m h o le P ressu re (F B H P ) T he P ressure F lu id o r P r o d u c tio n O p e r a te d V a lv eAg a sl i f t v a lv e th a t e x is tin g a t th e d e p th o f th e p ro d u c tio n fo rm a tio ni n a w e ll utilizes the pressure

i nth e p ro d u c tio n c o n d u it as its priat a constant rateo f flu id p ro d u c tio n . m a ry o p e ra tin g m e d iu m . -GG a s L iftAm e th o d o f a rtific ia l lifti n w h ic h th e e n e rg y o f G a s-o il R a tio (G O R =R go)The num ber of standard c o m p re s s e d g a s is u s e d d ire c tly to lift flu id s to th e s u rfa c e . c u b ic fe e t o f g a s p ro d u c e d w ith a s to c k ta n k b a rre l o f o il. G as L ift V alveAp re s s u re re g u la to r m o u n te d o n o r in th e tu b in g s trin g s oth a t, b y m a n ip u la tio no f th e in je c tio n g a s pressure and the p ro d u c in g p re s s u re ,t h e v a lv e w ill e ith e r b e o p e n o rc l o s e d t op ro v id e a c o n tro lla b le c o m m u n ic a tio n betw een the tubing and casing for gas passage. G eotherm al G radientT he n a tu ra lly o c c u rrin g

in c re a s e o f te m p e ra tu re w ith d e p th in u n d is tu rb e d g ro u n d . N o rm a lly g iv e n inO F F /1 0 0 F t. G a s -L iq u id R a tio (G L R= R E ,)T he num ber of standard c u b ic fe e t o f g a s p ro d u c e d w ith a s to c k ta n k b a rre l o f liq u id G r a d ie n t C hange i n pressureo r tem perature per u n it (oil and water). c h a n g e i nd e p th . -H “H ead” T h e v o lu m eo f re s e rv o ir flu id s p ro d u c e d a t th e s u rfa c e fo llo w in g a s h o rt p e rio d o f g a s in je c tio n , a s i n in te rm itte n t o p e ra tio n . IPR (Inflow Perform ance Relationship) T h e re la tio n - flu id s a n d in je c te d g a s b e in g p ro d u c e d fro m th e w e llh e a d a t s h ip o f flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re s s u re to g ro s s liq u id p ro d u c -

th e s u rfa c e fo r a n in te rv a l fo llo w in g e a c h in je c tio n p e rio d . ing rate for a particular w ell. I n te r m itte r (T im e C y c le C o n tr o lle r )- A s u r f a c e c o n tro l w h ic h m a y b e a d ju s te d a n d s e t to o p e r a te a m o to r v a lv e a t Interm ittentF low G a s lift o p e ra tio n i n w h ic h g a s is p re d e te rm in e d in te rv a ls o f tim e and alsocontrolthedurain je c te d p e rio d ic a lly in to th e liq u id c o lu m n , w ith re s e rv o ir tio n o f th e o p e ra tin g o r in je c tio n p e rio d . -K K ick -o ff P ressureT h e g a s in je c tio n p r e s s u r e a v a ila b le flu id s a n d w ire lin e g a s lift v a lv e in to th e m a n d re l p o c k e t fo r u n lo a d in g flu id s fro m a gas lift

w e ll d o w n to th e o p e ra tw h e n in s ta llin g th e v a lv e o r g u id e s th e p u llin g to o ls o n to in g v a lv e d e p th . th e v a lv e w h e n re c o v e rin g th e v a lv e . K ick-O ver T ool T h e w ire lin e to o l w h ic h g u id e s th e K ick a W ell O ff U n lo a d a n d p la c e a w e ll o n g a s lift. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. --

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A P I T IT L E rV T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0532967 D D T m 1 3 4 G as L ift -L L a tc h T h e lo c k in g d e v ic e for a w irelin e gas lift v a lv e to L oad F lu id (K illF lu id ) L iq u id u s e d to fillth e

lo c k th e v a lv ei nth e m a n d re l. w e ll b e fo re p u llin g th e tu b in g . " M a c a r o n i S tr in g T u b in g in s id e tu b in g . M scf (M C F ) O ne thousand s ta n d a rd c u b ic fe e t of gas. T his term is c o m m o n ly u s e d to e x p re s sth e v o lu m e o f g a s M andrel(S e e w irelin e o r tu b in gr e trie v a b le .) p ro d u c e d , tran sm itted , or consum ed i na g iv e n p e rio d o f tim e (scf standard cubic footof gas). M aster V alve

A la rg e v a lv e used to shut in a w ell. M scf/B (M C F IB ) Thousands of cubicfeet per barrel. -0 O p e r a tin g P ressu reT h e g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re a v a ila b le to m ain tain th e d esired rateof flu id p ro d u ctio n in a g as lift w e ll u n d e r s e ttle d c o n tin u o u s o r in te rm itte n t o p e ra tio n . -P P r o d u c tiv ity In d e x (P I= J )T he ra tioo f flu id p ro d u c tio n ra te , in b a rre ls p e r d a y , to thedifference betw een static and flo w in g b o tto m h o le p re ssu re s (d ra w d o w n ), in p o u n d s p e r square inch. P it A n em ergency tank o r s h a llo w p o n d t o h o ld s a lt

w a te r, e tc ., p rio r to d is p o s a l. P o c k e t T h e g a s lift v a lv e re c e iv e r in s id e a w ire lin e (re trie v a b le ) m a n d re l. fo rc efo rt h ev a l v e . T h eg a s i s u s u a l l y n i t r o g e n .T h e re s p o n s iv e e le m e n t is u s u a lly a b e llo w s . Pressure O perated Valve A g a s lift v a lv e th a t u tiliz e s in je c tio n g a s p re s s u re a s itsp rim a ry o p e ra tin g m e d iu m . P ressu re S u r v e yA n o p e ra tio n tom easure and record the pressures at various depths in the w ell bore w ith the w ell e ith e r p ro d u c in g o r s h u t-in . T h e p re s s u re s m ay be m easured and re c o rd e d b y e ith e r a s e lf-c o n ta in e d u n it ru n o n a P ressu re C h a r g e dV a lv e A g a s l i f t v a l v e w h i c h

usesa gas s o lid w ire lin e o r a u n it ru no n an electric w ireline w ith an c h a rg e in s id e th e re s p o n s iv e e le m e n t to p ro v id e th e c lo s in ginstantaneous recording atthe surface. -S S p e c ific G r a v ity T h e ra tio o f th e w e ig h t o f a s u b s ta n c e S ta tic F lu id L e v e lT h e d e p th b e lo w th e s u rfa c e to w h ic h to th e w e ig h t o f a n e q u a l v o lu m e o f a s ta n d a rd s u b s ta n c e . re s e rv o ir flu id s w ill ris e w h e n th e p ro d u c in g c o n d u it is o p e n W a te r is th e s ta n d a rd fo r liq u id s a n d a ir is the standard for to atm ospheric pressure. g a s e s . ST B S to c k ta n k b a rre l. T h e v o lu m e o f o il, w a te ro r to ta l S p r in g L o a d e d V a lv eAg a s lift v a lv e w h ic h u s e s a s p rin g liq u id a s m e a s u re d in th e s to c k ta n k . t op ro v id e th e c lo s in g fo rc e fo rth e v a lv e .

S ta tic B o tto m h o le P r e ssu r e T h e p re ssu re a t fo rm a tio n d e p th in a w e ll a fte r th e w ell is shut-in and the pressures Stock Tank A ta n k fo r h o ld in g th e p ro d u c e d liq u id s a t h a v e b e e n s ta b iliz e d . a tm o s p h e ric p r e s s u r e p rio r to p u m p in g th e m elsew here. sc f/S T B Standard cubic feetper stock tank barrel. -T T a il P lu g T h e p lu g in th e e n d o fa g a s l i f t v a l v e w h i c hi s may be m easured and recorded ateithera self-contained th e fin a l s e a l o n th e d o m e . u n it ru n o na so lid w ire lin e o r a u n it ru n o n an electric

Tem perature Survey A n operation tom easureand re c o rd th e te m p e ra tu re a t v a rio u s d e p th s in the w ell bore T estR ack (T ester)-A n arrangem ent o f g a s lift re c e iv e rs , w ith th e w e ll e ith e r p ro d u c in g o r s h u t-in . T h e te m p e ra tu re s g a g e s , v a lv in g e tc .,s o thatnitrogen gas pressure m ay be w ire lin e w ith a n in s ta n ta n e o u s re c o rd in g a t th e s u rfa c e . Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295. -, ,, ,,, , , ,,,- - ,, ,, , ,, ---

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7 A P I T IT L E a V T -b 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 6 8 T 4 6 m G lossary 1 3 5 a p p lie d to th e b e llo w s o f a g a s lift v a lv e a n d s im u lta n e o u s ly tio n a l o r s ta n d a rd m a n d re l. A tu b in g p u p jo in t w ith a lu g m easured t od e te rm in e th e p re ssu re re q u ire d t o o p e n th e fo r m o u n tin ga c o n v e n tio n a lo r tu b in g re trie v a b le g a sl i f t g a sl i f tv a lv e .

v a lv e . T h e m a n d re l is a n in te g ra l p a rt o f th e tu b in g s trin g . T r o u b le s h o o tin g The process of determ ining and corT u b in g R e tr ie v a b le G a s L ift V a lv eC o m m o n ly c a lle da re c tin g a p ro b le m w ith a g as lift w e ll. c o n v e n tio n a l g a s lift v a lv e . A g a sl i f t v a lv e m o u n te d o n a T u b in g F lo w F o rm a tio n flu id s a re p ro d u c e d u p th ro u g h and recovered from th e tu b in g a t th e s u rfa c e . tu b in g re trie v a b le m a n d re l. It is n e c e s s a ry to p u ll th e tu b in g to re c o v e rth e v a lv e s . T h is w a s th e firs t m e th o d o f m o u n tin g g a s lift v a lv e s ; c o n s e q u e n tly th e n a m e o f c o n v e n tio n a l g a s T u b in g R e tr ie v a b le M a n d r e l -C o m m o n ly c a lle d c o n v e n lift v a lv e . -W W e llh e a d T h e s ta c k o f v a lv e s a n d fittin g s a t th e s u rfa c e T h e m a n d re l b e c o m e s an in te g ra l p a rt o f th e tu b in g s trin g . on top of a w ell.

W ir e lin e (R e tr ie v a b le ) V a lv eA g a s lift v a lv e m o u n te d W ir e lin e (R e tr ie v a b le ) M a n d r e lA tu b u la r m e m b e r w ith in s id e th e tu b in g th a t c a n b e in s ta lle d a n d re c o v e re d b y an in te rn a l re c e iv e r fo r a w ire lin e (re trie v a b le ) g a s lift v a lv e . s o lid w ire lin e o p e ra tio n s w ith o u t d is tu rb in g th e tu b in g . S Y M B O L S c k C d CT D nv D , F , T o ta l e ffe c tiv e a re a o f B e llo w s , s q . in . A rea of V alve Seato r Port-B all seat contact area, sq. in. R a tio o f G a s L ift V a lv e P o rt to B e llo w s a re a : F ro m M fg. D ata. C hokeo r P ort diam eterof th e G as L ift V alve, '/d hi n c h e s . D ischarge

c o e ffic ie n tfo r g a s flo w th ro u g h a n o rific e . C o rre c tio n fa c to r fo r gas passage through a c h o k e . T e m p e ra tu re c o rre c tio n fa c to r fo r n itro g e n g a s . D e p th o f to p v a lv e ,f t . D e p th o nn th v a lv e ,f t . D is ta n c e b e tw e e n v a lv e s ,f t . D e p th o f g a s in je c tio n ,f t . M e a s u re d d e p tho f d e v ia te d w e lls ,f t . M in im u m s p a c in g o f g a s lift v a lv e s o r m a n d r e ls ,f t . D e p th o f o p e ra tiv e v a lv eo r g a s in je c tio n , ft. R eference d e p th o f w e ll: N o rm a lly m e a s u re d m id p o in t o f p e rfs ., o n to p o f p e rfs.,f t . C lo s in g fo rc e o ng a s lift v a lv e , p o u n d s fo rc e . Total opening force on valve, pounds force. O pening force d u eto p r e s s u r e o n th e b e llo w s , pounds force. O pening force d u e t o p r e s s u r e

o n v a lv e stem , pounds force. O il c u t fra c tio n o f to ta l p ro d u c e d liq u id . W a te r C u t fra c tio n o f to ta l p ro d u c e d liq u id . G rad ien t, p si/ft. F lo w in g g ra d ie n t a b o v e p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n , p s i/ft. F lo w in g g ra d ie n t b e lo w p o in t o f g a s in je c tio n , p s i/ft. G a s g ra d ie n t o f in je c tio n g a s , p s i/ft. G radient of oil, psi/ft. S ta tic g ra d ie n to f load fluid, psi/ft. G ra d ie n t o f p ro d u c e d w a te r, p s i/ft. F lo w in g p ro d u c tio n te m p e ra tu re g ra d ie n t, D e g . F /1 0 0 ft. S ta tic T e m p e ra tu re g ra d ie n t, D e g . F /1 0 0 F t. P ro d u c tiv ity In d e x (J = P I), B L P D /P S I. T o ta l n u m b e r o f g a sl i f tv a lv e s . P ressure D rop i n Inj. G as pressure to deter in te rfe re n c e , p s i. Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 6 99 8 2 m 1 3 6

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G as L ift P r e s s u r e a p p lie d u n d e r th e b e llo w s of a gas lift v a lv e , p s ig . Pressure applied under the stem of ag a sl i f t v a lv e , p s ig . B u b b le point pressureo f th e p ro d u c e d o il, p s ig . P ressure of bellow s at tem perature of nth v a lv e , p s ig . B ellow s pressure at6 0 d e g . F ., p s i g . Injection gas pressure dow nstreamof surface choke, psig E ffe c tiv e o p e n in g p re s s u re d u e to p ro d u c tio n pressure, psig. M a x a v a ila b le p re s s u reo f in je c tio n g a s a t surface, psig. Injection gas pressure dow nstream of restriction at surface, psig M a x p r e s s u r e o f i n j e c t i o n g a s a t D ,, p s ig . O p e ra tin g g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re a t v a lv e num ber

1 ,p s ig . O p e ra tin g g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re a t n th v a lv e , p s ig . S u rfa c e o p e ra tin g g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re to o p e n v a lv e1 ,p s ig . S u rfa c e o p e ra tin g g a s in je c tio n p re s s u re to o p e n n th v a lv e , p s ig . M ax kickoff gas injection pressure at surface, p s ig . M a x flo w in g p re s s u re a t v a lv e 1 w h ile liftin g deeper, psig. M a x flo w in g p re s s u re a t n th v a lv e w h ile liftin g d e e p e r, p s ig . M in flow ing pressure at valve1w h ile u n lo a d in g , p s ig . M in flo w in g p re s s u re a t n th v a lv e w h ile u n lo a d in g , p s ig . F lo w in g p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re a t v a lv e 1 , p s ig . F lo w in g p ro d u c tio n p re s s u re a t n th v a lv e , p s ig . P ro d u c tio n p re s s u re e ffe c t, p s ig . Production pressure effect factor M fg. d a ta (P re v io u slyT E F ) Pressure at standard conditions,psig. P re ssu reo f o il& gas separator, psig.

Pressure safety factor to ensure valvei su n c o v e re d , p s ig . Spring pressure effect on valve, psig. M ax unloading pressure at nth valve w hen u n c o v e re d , p s ig . V a lv e c lo s in g pressure of valve1a t d e p th , p s ig . V alve closing pressure of nth v a lv e a t d e p th , p s ig . Surface closing pressureo f v a lv e1 , p s ig . S u rfa c e c lo s in g p r e s s u r e o f n th v a lv e , p s ig . T est rack setopening pressure for valve1 ,p s ig . T est rack set opening pressure for nth valve, p s ig . F l o w i n g b o t t o m h o l e p r e s s u r e a t D ,, p s ig . F lo w in g p re s s u re a t th e w e llh e a d , p s ig . S ta tic b o tto m h o le fo rm a tio no r reservoir pressure, psig. M a x p ro d u c tio n ra te b e lo w th e b u b b le p o in t, B L P D . G a s p ro d u c tio n

ratefro m fo rm atio n , M scf d . Injection gas rate, M scf/d. T o ta l g a s ra te m e a s u re d (fo rm a tio n+in je c tio n ), M scf/d . T o ta l liq u id ra te , B L P D M a x im u m liquid rate of w ell, B L PD . T o ta l o il p ro d u c tio n ra te , B O P D . P ro d u c tio n r a t e a t th e b u b b le p o in t, B L P D . T o ta l w a te r p ro d u c tio n ra te , B W P D R a tio o f g a st oliq u id , s c f/b b l. R a tio o f fo rm a tio n g a s to liq u id , s c f/b b l. R a tio o f in je c te d g a s to liq u id , s c f/b b l. R atio of gas to oil, scf/bbl. R a tio o f g a s in je c te d to o il, s c f/b b l. S p e c ific g ra v ityo fproduced gas. S p e c ific g ra v ity o f in je c te d g a s . S p e c ific g ra v ity o f o il. Copyright American Petroleum Institute Reproduced by IHS under license with API Document provided by IHS Licensee=eni spa/5928701002, 09/07/2004 06:57:24 MDT Questions or comments about this message: please call the Document Policy Group at 303-397-2295.

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 M 0 7 3 2 2 9 00 5 3 2 9 7 0 b T 4 m G lossary 1 3 7 SG , S p e c ific g ra v ity

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of produced w ater. T ,, T e m p e ra tu re a t s ta n d a rd c o n d itio n s , d e g .F . T , A v e ra g e g a s in je c tio n te m p e ra tu re , d e g . E T t T e m p e ra tu re a t v a lv e Idepth, deg. F. T B S u rfa c e te m p e ra tu re o f in je c tio n g a s , d e g .F . Tw h F lo w in g te m p e ra tu re a t w e llh e a d , d e g . F . F o rm a tio n te m p e ra tu re , d e g .F . T "(") T e m p e ra tu re a t n th v a lv e , d e g .F . T , S ta tic e a rth s u rfa c e te m p e ra tu re , d e g .F . Z G as com pression factor at average pressure and te m p e ra tu re . Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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A P I T IT L E a V T -b 9 4 0732290 0532973 5 3 0 1 3 8 G as L ift R E F E R E N C E S 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 .

1 0 . 1 1 . G ilb ert, W .E .: Flowing and Gas-Lift W ell Perform a n c e , D rillin g a n d P ro d u c tio n P ra c tic e , 1 2 6 (1 9 5 4 ), A m e ric a n P e tro le u m In s titu te , P ro d u c tio n D e p a rtm e n t. V o g e l, J .V .: In flo w P e rfo rm a n c e R e la tio n s h ip s fo r S o lu tio n G a s D riv e W e lls , S P E 1 4 7 6 , a p a p e r p re s e n te d at the 41st A nnual F a ll M e e tin g o f th e S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rso f A IM E , D allas, T exas, O ctober 2 -5 , 1 9 6 6 , a n d la te r p u b lis h e d in T ra n s a c tio n s , S P E o f A I M E , V o l. 2 4 3 ( 1 9 6 8 ) . P o e t t m a n n ,F . H . a n d C a r p e n t e r , P .G .:T h e M u ltiphase Flow o f G as, O il a n d W a te r T h ro u g h V e rtic a l F lo w S trin g s , D rillin g a n d P ro d u c tio n P ra c tic e , 2 5 7 (1 9 5 2 ),A m e ric a n P e tro le u m In s titu te ,P ro d u c tio n D e p a rtm e n t. B a x e n d e ll, P .D . a n d T h o m a s , R .:T h e C a lc u la tio n o f Pressure G radients in H igh-R ate Flow ing W ells, Journal of Petroleum Technology,1023-1028(1961),

S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . D uns,H .Jr. a n d R os, N .C .J .:V e rtic a l F lo w of G as a n d L iq u id M ix tu re s fro m B o re h o le s , P ro c e e d in g s , S ix th W o rld Petroleum C ongress,Frankfurt,G erm any, Section II, Paper 22-PG (June 19-26, 1963). J o h n s o n ,A . J .: VerticalTwo-Phase Flow Pressure Traverses, Letter from S h e ll D e v e lo p m e n t C o m p a n y O u tlin in g T e rm s , C o n d itio n s a n d D e s c rip tio n o f C o m - p u te r P ro g ra m M k 1 X -R fo r S a le to In d u stry (D e c e m - ber 5, 1963). H a g e d o r n ,A .R . a n d B r o w n , K .E .:T he E ffect o f L iq u id V is c o s ity o n Tw o-Phase Flow,Journal o f P e tro le u m T e c h n o lo g y ,2 0 3 -2 1 0 (F e b ru a ry 1 9 6 4 ), S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . O rk iszew sk i,J .:P r e d i c t i n g T w o - P h a s e P r e s s u r e D ro p si n V e rtic a l P ip e , J o u rn a l o f P e tro le u m T e c h - n o lo g y , 8 2 9 (J u n e 1 9 6 7 ), S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g i- neers of A IM E. M o r e la n d , E .E .:R eport Study of Tubing Pressure in V e rtic a l a n d D e v ia te d W e lls P a rt6 : M o re la n d -

M o b il S h e ll M e th o d , M o b il R & D L a b M e m o ra n d u m 1 9 7 6 . B a k e r , O v id : D esign o f P ip e lin e s fo r th e S im u lta neous F low of O il and G as, O il and G as Journal, V ol. 5 3 , 1 8 5 -1 9 5 (1 9 5 4 ). L o c k h a r t, R .W . a n d M a r tin e lli, R .C .:P r o p o s e d C o rre la tio n o f D a ta fo r Is o th e rm a l Two-Phase Two C o m p o n e n t F lo wi nP ip e L in e s , C h e m ic a l E n g in e e rin g P ro g r., V ol 4 5 , 3 9 (1 9 4 9 ). 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 1 6 . 17. 1 8 . 1 9 . 2 0 . 2 1 . 2 2 . F la n ig a n , O .:Effectof UphillFlow on Pressure D rop in D esign of Tw o-Phase G athering System s, O il and G as Journal, V ol.5 6 . 1 3 2 (M a rc h 1 0 , 1 9 5 8 ).

E a to n , B e nA . e t a l:T h e P re d ic tio n o f F lo w P a tte rn s , Liquid H oldup and Pressure Losses O ccurring D uring C o n tin u o u s T w o -P h a s e F lo w in H o riz o n ta l P ip e lin e s , Journalof Petroleum Technology,3 15-328 (June 1967), S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . D u k le r , A .E ., e t a l:F ric tio n a l P re s s u re D ro p in T w o P h a s e F lo w : B . A n A p p ro a c h T h ro u g h S im ila rity A n a l y s i s , V o l . 1 0 ,4 4 - 5 1 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 4 ) ,A I C h E J o u rn a l. B e g g s , H .D . a n d B r ill, J .P .:A n E x p e rim e n ta l S tu d y of Tw o-Phase Flow i n I n c l i n e d P i p e s , 6 0 7 ( M a y 1 9 7 3 ) , Jo u rn a l o f P e tro le u m T e c h n o lo g y , S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . E s p a n o l, J .H . H o lm e s ,C .S . a n d B r o w n , K .E .: A C o m p a ris o no f E x is tin g M u ltip h a s e F lo w M e th o d s fo r the Calculation of PressureD rop in V e rtic a l W e lls. P a p e r N o.S P E 2 5 5 3 , 4 4 th A n n u a l F a ll M e e tin g o f SPE, D enver, Colorado(Septem ber28 -O c to b e r 1 , 1 9 6 9 ). V o h r a , I.R .,R o b in s o n , J .R . a n d B r ill, J .P .:E v a lu a tio n o f T h re e N e w M e th o d s fo r P re d ic tin g P re s s u re L o s s e s in V e rtic a l O il W e ll T u b in g , 8 2 9 -8 3 2 (A u g u s t

1974), Journal of Petroleum T e c h n o lo g y , S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . L a w s o n , D .J . a n d B r ill, J .P .: A S tatistical E v a lu a - tio no f M ethods U sedt o Predict Pressure Losses for M u lti-p h a s e F lo w in V e rtic a l O il W e ll T u b in g , 9 0 3 - 914 (A ugust 1974),Journal of Petroleum Technology, S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . G r e g o r y , G .A ., F o g a r a s i ,M . a n dA z iz , K .:A n a ly s iso f V e rtic a l T w o -P h a s e F lo w C a lc u la tio n s : C ru d e O il-G a s F lo w in W e ll T u b in g , 8 6 -9 2 (J a n u a ry-M arch 1980),Journal of C anadian Petroleum Technology. R o s, N .C .J .:S im u lta n e o u s F lo w o f G a s a n d L iq u id a s E n c o u n te re d in O il W e lls, J o in t A IC h E -S P E Sym posium , T ulsa, O klahom a (Septem ber 25-28, 1960). R os, N .C .J .:S im u lta n e o u s F lo w o f G a s a n d L iq u id a s E n c o u n te r e d in W e ll T u b in g ,1 0 3 7 (O c to b e r 1 9 6 1 ), Journal of Petroleum T e c h n o lo g y , S o c ie ty o f P e tro leum Engineers of A IM E. B row n, E .J .P .: P ra c tic a l A s p e c ts o f P re d ic tin g Errors in Tw o-Phase Pressure-Loss C alculations,51 5 5 2 2 (A p ril 1 9 7 5 ), Jo u rn a l o f P e tro le u m T e c h n o lo g y , S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E .

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A P I T IT L E x V T -6 9 4 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 3 2 9 7 2 4 7 7 m R eferences

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1 3 9 2 3 .C o r n is h , R .E .:T h e V e rtic a l M u ltip h a s e F lo w o f O il and G as atH igh R ates, 825-831 (July 1976),Journal o f P e tro le u m T e c h n o lo g y , S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g i- neers of A IM E . 2 4 . B r o w n , K .E ., e t a l: T h e T e c h n o lo g y o f A rtific ia l L ift M ethods, Vol. 3A ,PressureG radientCurves,261 (1980) PennW ellBooks,Tulsa,O klahom a. 2 5 . B r o w n , K .E ., e t a l: G as L ift T h e o ry a n d P ra c tic e , A p p e n d ix C 1 6 3 (1 9 6 7 ), P re n tic e -H a ll, E n g le w o o d C liffs, N ew J e rs e y . 26. D oolittle, JesseS .: T herm odynam ics for E ngineers, 2 n d E d itio n (1 9 6 4 ), In te rn a tio n a l T e x t B o o k C om pany. 2 7 . F r ic k , T h o m a sC ., E d .: P e tro le u m P ro d u c tio n H a n d b o o k , V o l.1 1 (1 9 6 2 ), M c G ra w -H ill B o o k C o m p a n y In c . 2 8 . W in k ler, H .W .: F low ing W ell and G as L ift S ystem s, V ik in g S h o p (1 9 7 3 ). 2 9 . W in k le r , H .W ., a n d S m it h S .S .:C a m c o G a s L ift M anual,C am co,Inc. (1962). 3 0 . K atz, D. L., et al:H a n d b o o k o f N a tu ra l G a s E n g in e e rin g (1 9 5 9 ), M c G ra w -H ill B o o k C o m p a n y , In c . 31 . PlantProcessing ofNaturalGas, PetroleumExtension

S e rv ic e (P E T E X ), (1 9 7 4 ). 32. EngineeringD ataBook,G asProcessorsSuppliers A s s o c ia tio n (G P S A ), (1 9 7 2 ). 3 3 .M a r tin e z , J ., a n d M ilb u r n , F .H .: H andbook for G as 3 4 . 3 5 . 3 6 . 3 7 . M easurem ent i n th e F ie ld , E x x o n P ro d u c tio n R e s e a rc h( 19 7 8 ). P h a s e R e la tio n s o f G a s C o n d e n s a te Fluids,B ureau of M in e s M o n o g ra p h#1 0 . V o l. 2 , 7 6 3 - 7 6 4 . F o c h t ,F . T .:W o rld O il, 1 0 5 -1 0 7 (J a n u a ry 1 9 8 1 ). W h ite , G .W ., O ’C o n n e ll, B .T ., D a v is , R .C ., B e r r y , R .F .,a n d S t a c h a ,L .A .:A n a n a ly tic a l C o n c e p t o f th e S ta tic an d D y n a m ic P a ra m e te rs o f In te rm itte n t G a s L ift, Journal of Petroleum T echnology(M arch1963), S o c ie ty o f P e tro le u m E n g in e e rs o f A IM E . G u ib e rs o n O il T o o ls , A rtific ia l L ift-G a s L ift E n g in e e rin g . 4 0 . T e le d y n e M e rla , S e c tio n5 ,S p e c ific a tio n s a n d V a lv e Perform ance D ata, 1982.

41. Teledyne G eotech, Supervisory System for G as L ift C o n tro l, 1 9 8 2 . 4 2 . W a ll, P .T .:1 2 th A n n u a l S o u th w e s t P e tro le u m S h o rt C o u r s e , T T U , 1 9 6 5 ,E f f e c t o f B a c k P r e s s u r e o n I n t e r m itte n t G a s L ift. 4 3 . R e d d e n , J .D ., S h e r m a n , T .A .G ., B la n n , J .R .: O p tim izing Gas Lift System s, SPE P aper N o.51 5 0 , 1 9 7 4 . 4 4 . C le g g , J .D .: H igh R ate A rtificial L ift, Journal of Petro le u m T e c h n o lo g y (M a rc h 1 9 8 8 ) 2 7 7 -8 2 . 4 5 . N e e ly , A .B ., G ip s o n , F .W ., C a p p s , B ., C le g g , J .D ., a n d W ils o n ,P .: Paper, SPE 1 0 3 7 7 , presented at 198 1 S P E A n n u a l T e c h n ic a l C o n fe re n c e a n d E x h ib itio n , S a n A n to n io , T X , O c to b e r 5 -7 ,1 9 8 1 . 4 6 . B la n n , J .R ., a n d W illia m s , J .D .:D e te rm in in g th e M ost Profitable G as Injection Pressure for G as Lift In s ta lla tio n , J o u rn a l o f P e tro le u m T e c h n o lo g y (A u -

gust 1984). 4 7 . D e M o s s , E .E ., a n d T ie m a n n , W .D .:G a s L ift In c r e a s e s H ig h V o lu m e P ro d u c tio n F ro m C la y m o re F ie ld , J o u rn a lo f P e tro le u m T e c h n o lo g y (A p ril 1 9 8 2 ) 6 9 6 -7 0 2 . 4 8 . B la n n , J . R ., J a c o b s o n L . a n d F a b e r , C .:P r o d u c tio n O p tim iz a tio n in th e P ro v in c ia F ie ld , C o lo m b ia , S P E P E (F e b . 1 9 8 9 ) 9 -1 4 . 4 9 . N e e ly , A .B ., M o n t g o m e r y , J .W . a n d V o g e l, J .V .:A F ie ld T e s t a n d A n a ly tic a l S tu d y o f In te rm itte n t G a s L ift, S P E J (O c t. 1 9 7 4 ) 5 0 2 -1 2 . 5 0 . A P I S p e c 1 1 V 1 , S p e c ific a tio n fo r G a s Lift V alves, O rifices, R ev erse H o w V alves and D um m y V alves. 5l. A PI Recom m ended Practice 11V 5 (RP 1 1 V 5), Reco m m e n d e d P ra c tic e fo r O p e ra tio n , M a in te n a n c e a n d T ro u b le -s h o o tin g o f G a s L ift In s ta lla tio n s . 52. API Recommended Practice 11V6 (RP11V6), Rec3 8 .FO S, D .L .& G a u l, R . B .:P lu n g e r L ift P e rfo rm a n c e o m m e n d e d P ra c tic e fo r D e s ig n o f C o n tin u o u s F lo w C rite ria w ith O p e ra tin g E x p e rie n c e V entura A ve. G a s L ift In s ta lla tio n s u s in g in je c tio n P re s s u re O p e rF ie ld , P a p e r N o . 8 0 1 -4 1 H , A P I D & P P ra c tic e s 1 9 6 5 , a te d V a lv e s . p .1 2 4 -14 0 .

3 9 . B la n n , J . R ., B r o w n , J .S ., D u f r e s n e , L . P .:Im p ro v in g G a s L ift P e rfo rm a n c e in a L a rg e N o rth A fric a n O il F ie ld , S P E P a p e r N o . 8 4 0 8 , 1 9 7 9 . 53. API Recommended Practice llV 7 (RP llV 7),Recom m ended P ractice for R e p a ir, T e s tin g a n d S e ttin g G as L ift V alves. Copyright American Petroleum Institute

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