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Executive Summary
The following white paper is based on a collaboration between comScore and Facebook. The research,
which examines the nature of the reach and frequency of branded content on Facebook, is largely based
on May 2011 findings from comScore Social Essentials¯, but also includes insights from Facebook's
internal analytics platform. The summary below establishes the key findings and implications of this
research.

x Facebook is the dominant social networking site with an audience of approximately 160 million
U.S. visitors each month and accounts for 90 percent of all time spent on social networking sites.
(Source: comScore)
x Branded content on social media can take many forms ÷ content shared directly from brands, re-
shared content from connections, or social marketing such as Facebook's Sponsored Stories ad
unit. While there has been tremendous focus on counting the incidence of these brand mentions
on social networks (and, to a lesser degree, categorizing it), we find that the reach and frequency
of social media brand impressions is far more important than simple counting statistics.
x Facebook users spend more than a quarter of their time on the site consuming and interacting
with the Facebook Newsfeed, and this activity represents 4 percent of all time spent online in the
U.S. The Newsfeed is also the primary location where branded content is consumed. In fact,
users are 40-150 times more likely to consume branded content in the Newsfeed than to visit the
Fan Page itself. (Source: comScore)
x There are typically two potential audiences for branded content on Facebook. Fans of brands on
Facebook (those who have explicitly "liked¨ a brand) are the easiest to reach with social media
brand impressions, but the Friends of those Fans also constitute an important incremental
audience. Friends of Fans typically represent a much larger set of consumers (34 times larger, on
average, for the top 100 brand pages) and can receive social media brand impressions by way of
their Friends. In examples from this paper, the reach of branded content among Friends of Fans
significantly exceeded the reach among Fans.
x When a brand focuses on acquiring and engaging Fans it can benefit from a significant
secondary effect ÷ exposure among Friends of Fans that often surpasses reach among Fans.
x In the case of some brands, Facebook Fans may have different aggregate demographic and
behavioral profiles than typical brand purchasers, indicating that social media may require
different approaches to marketing strategy.
x The "Value of a Fan¨ can be assessed in three primary ways: increasing the depth of
engagement and loyalty among Fans, generating incremental purchase behavior, and leveraging
the ability to influence Friends of Fans.



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Collectively, this research leads to two important conclusions. The first is that by focusing on measuring
the reach of their branded content among various constituencies, brands can more effectively understand
and optimize the way in which they leverage their presence on Facebook. Secondly, we believe that
brands can realize significant untapped benefits by understanding and focusing on reaching the Friends
of their Fans.

Introduction & Background
Social media has emerged over the past several years to redefine the digital media landscape and, in the
process, has changed the way we think about the dissemination of marketing messages. In particular,
Facebook has facilitated two unique consumer experiences of interest to brand marketers. First, the
ability for consumers to identify brands of interest and connect with them has enabled sharing between
brands and consumers in new ways: brands and their consumers can now create two-way relationships
and share content, news, and feedback. Social media has also facilitated innovative ways of sharing
information about brands between friends. Whether consumers are voicing their affinity for certain brands
or their experiences with products and services, Facebook not only encourages this type of sharing but
can also accelerate its reach and virality.

Brands are increasingly interested in establishing a social presence and engaging with their Fans, helping
shape their customers' experiences, and even leveraging their voices for greater marketing impact.
Underscoring the importance of this channel, 100 percent of the Ad Age Top 100 Advertisers have
established Facebook pages for their brands.

As this new marketing paradigm unfolds, there is palpable excitement about its potential to drive value for
businesses, but also anxiety about the difficulty of grasping the full promise of this emerging medium.
According to a study conducted by the Harvard Business Review, only 12 percent of companies surveyed
indicated that they were effective users of social media, and just 7 percent said they were able to
integrate social media into their marketing activities. These problems are all too common for businesses
attempting to succeed in today's social media environment.

Part of the challenge is that as social media has evolved, the research methodologies and key metrics
developed to describe social activity have served to isolate, rather than integrate, into traditional
marketing terms. For example, most research on branded content on social platforms focuses on
describing the incidence of these types of branded content (and, to a lesser degree, categorizing it as
positive or negative), without regard to the size or composition of the audience receiving that content.
Simply knowing how many brand mentions exist does little to provide insights for the potential impact of



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that content, and can actually lead brands to focus on sub-optimal strategies because it highlights only
content creators ÷ at the cost of not understanding its distribution.

Our research indicates that an approach that is instead focused on the audience of branded content on
social platforms ÷ namely, audience reach and frequency ÷ can unlock a much better understanding of
the true impact (and therefore, value) of those impressions. This approach is more favorable because it
allows brands to focus on marketing activities that drive scale within audiences of interest. Additionally, it
provides brands the opportunity to understand the profile of those audiences reached with various types
of content, and to begin to understand the impact of that content exposure.

Importantly, an approach focused on audience reach and frequency would also serve to integrate brand
activity on social platforms with other parts of the marketing mix since reach, frequency and GRPs are
standard units of measurement across most media channels, including TV, online, radio and print.

Methodology and Definitions
Data in this paper was collected and analyzed using the comScore Social Essentials
TM
product, which is a
measurement service based on comScore's proprietary 2 million person global panel of Ìnternet users
from a home or work computer (note: mobile-based Internet browsing is not included in this analysis).
Opt-in panelists provide comScore with explicit permission to passively observe their online behavior,
including site visitation, search activity, advertising exposure, and online purchases. By measuring online
behavior for these opt-in panelists, comScore can observe both public and non-public pages within
particular social networks such as Facebook. Measurement of panelists' exposure to social media
marketing within social networks can be linked to other behaviors in which they engage around the web.
In addition, certain select data points and illustrations in the paper are based on aggregate, non-
personally-identifiable data sourced from Facebook.

Social Media Brand Impressions
In this paper, we describe a unit of branded content called a "social media brand impression.¨ These
impressions occur throughout a social network and may be delivered through a variety of dissemination
channels. Below are the four primary vehicles through which these impressions are delivered:
1. Page Publishing ÷ These unpaid impressions appear on the Fan page wall and may also appear
in the Newsfeed of a Fan or a Friend of a Fan.
2. Stories about Friends - These unpaid impressions occur when a Friend actively engages with a
brand (e.g. Amy Likes Southwest Airlines) and become visible either on a Friend's wall or in the
Newsfeed. These stories may appear to Fans and Friends of Fans.



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3. Sponsored Stories ÷ These paid impressions are similar to Stories about Friends, but they have
been actively distributed more broadly and appear in the right hand column to Fans and Friends
of Fans.
4. Ads with Social ÷ These branded messages come directly from the advertisers with a social
context on the unit that appears to Friends of Fans (e.g. Roger Tison Likes Southwest Airlines,
appearing at the bottom of the ad unit).

While Social Essentials reports on all four of these impression types, this paper is focused specifically on
unpaid, or earned, impressions.










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Facebook Fan & Friend of Fans Segments
In this white paper, we will discuss a few different types of user segments within Facebook. While other
analyses of Facebook Fans typically center on counts in the total number of accrued Fans, we instead
measure audience segments within Facebook based on their exposure to brand impressions within the
given reporting period (consistent with the comScore Social Essentials product). Moreover, not only are
Fans exposed to these impressions, but so are their Friends. With this understanding in mind, we will
make reference to the following audience segments throughout this paper:
x Fans ÷ This user segment is based on users who have affirmatively stated their affinity for a
particular brand by "liking¨ that brand. Over a given period, a subset of the total Fan base has
been exposed to a social media brand impression.
x Friends of Fans ÷ This user segment (aka "Friends¨) is defined as those who are not explicitly
brand Fans but who are exposed to brand impressions through a Friend who is a Fan of a
particular brand. Over a given period, a subset of the total Friends of Fans is likely to have been
exposed to brand impressions.
x Non-Fans ÷ This segment encompasses all users of the social network who have neither become
a Fan of a particular brand, nor are they connected to a Fan.

The following graphic illustrates the scope of these Facebook user segments for Microsoft Bing. While
Bing's Fan base is approximately 1.7 million, the number of Friends of Fans in this network is 232 million
÷ more than 130 times the size of its Fan base. Non-Fans are represented by the blue region.






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Brand Fans Make Facebook a Social Marketing Vehicle
Facebook has emerged over the past few years as a powerful social marketing and advertising platform.
In the U.S. alone, Facebook has approximately 160 million visitors each month ÷ about 3 out of every 4
Internet users ÷ with the majority of them visiting the site on a daily basis. Compared with other leading
social networks, Facebook today represents the vast majority of U.S. social networking activity,
accounting for 90 percent of all time spent on social networking sites in the U.S. (Source: comScore)



Within Facebook, the largest portion of users' time is spent on the individual's homepage which features
the Newsfeed. In May 2011, 27 percent of engagement on Facebook.com occurred on the homepage
and Newsfeed, followed by profile viewing (21 percent), photo viewing (17 percent) and usage of apps
and tools (10 percent). (Source: comScore)

0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
140,000
160,000
180,000
Facebook.com
MySpace
Twitter.com
Trend in U.S. Unique Visitors (000) to Facebook, Myspace and Twitter
Source: comScore Media Metrix, U.S., June 2007 - May 2011



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Understanding the importance of the Newsfeed to the Facebook user experience helps illustrate how and
where users are likely to see and digest information on the site. This implication is especially important for
brands with a presence on Facebook, since the Newsfeed offers the greatest opportunity to reach and
engage with current and potential customers.

Facebook users demonstrate their affinity for brands through use of the "like¨ button. By "liking¨ a brand
(also known as "becoming a Fan¨) followers can affirmatively express their interest in a particular brand
for reasons that may include self-expression, communicating positive associations of that brand to others,
staying in communication with that brand, or receiving deals and promotions. Many iconic brands have
been able to amass substantial Fan followings, with Coca Cola, Starbucks and Disney each boasting
more than 20 million Fans as of July 2011.

In this white paper, we will examine the social media impact for three very different brands ÷ Starbucks,
Southwest Airlines, and Microsoft Bing ÷ in order to understand how their marketing messages reach
Fans and Friends of Fans throughout the network, and the resulting implications of these social media
brand exposures.

Most Branded Content Exposure Occurs in the Newsfeed
Despite an increasing willingness to identify as Fans of a brand, it is important to understand that the core
user experience of consuming and engaging with content in the Newsfeed extends to branded content. In
other words, social media brand content is primarily consumed within the Newsfeed as opposed to on the
brands' fan pages.
27%
21%
17%
10%
25%
Homepage/Newsfeed
Profiles
Photos
Apps & Tools
All Other
Share of Time Spent on Facebook.comby Content Section
Source: comScore Mediabuilder, U.S., May 2011



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To grasp the enormous difference in consumption of branded content in the Newsfeed versus the brand
page, we compared the page views on the Fan page to the total number of brand exposures on
Facebook. In May 2011, Starbucks delivered 156 brand impressions throughout Facebook for every one
page view on its Fan page. Southwest delivered 42 brand impressions for every Fan page view, while
Bing delivered 45. Ìn each brand's case, they managed to reach millions of people with brand
impressions throughout the site while only attracting tens of thousands of visitors to the Fan pages.


These outsized ratios may surprise some marketers at first glance, but it is actually very consistent with
how people use Facebook. Most of their time is spent on the Newsfeed over individual profile pages, so it
makes sense that the branded content impressions would reflect this reality.

Despite the dominance of consumption in the Newsfeed relative to the brand page, a minority of Fans see
content from a brand in a given week. A Facebook analysis indicates that, on average, 16 percent of
Fans are reached by branded content by a brand that posts five out of seven days. Why don't all Fans
see a particular piece of content from a brand? Some fans may miss content if they are not logged onto
the site during a period when brands are active. Additionally, the Facebook Newsfeed uses an algorithm
to rank content based upon the likely interest to a user so, unlike in other social media settings, only the
content determined to be most relevant to a user is delivered at a specific time. These results are similar
to the degree of reach between users and their Friends ÷ a given status update from a user will result in
approximately 12 percent reach among their Friends, according to a Facebook analysis.

How can Fan pages increase the likelihood of reaching their Fan base? Publishing content that is highly
engaging can increase the likelihood of content appearing in the Newsfeed. Publishing more often can
156
42
45
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
Starbucks Southwest Bing
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Ratio of Facebook Impressions for
Fans & Friends of Fans to Page Views on Brand Fan Pages
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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also increase the rate at which Fans see content. A Facebook analysis suggests that each incremental
day of publishing branded content from the Facebook Page increases the reach among Fans by
approximately 2.5 percent. Of course, brands must also take care to ensure that the content and
frequency of publishing aligns with the expectations of their Fan base, and does not result in annoyed or
disengaged Fans.



Friends of Fans: Extending the Social Influence of Fans
Reaching Fans with marketing messages is certainly of interest to brands, but our research has found
that the Friends of Fans represent a substantial potential audience, often well beyond the scale of Fans
alone. A Facebook analysis of the top 100 brand pages suggests that for every Fan, there are an
additional 34 Friends of Fans that can be reached (with significant variance among brands). This
multiplier grows even larger as we look beyond the top 100 brand pages (81x on average among the top
1,000 Fan pages).

0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
1 Days 2 Days 3 Days 4 Days 5 Days 6 Days 7 Days
Facebook Fan Pages: Cumulative Reach as a Function of Post Frequency
(# of Days per Week)
Source: Facebook, Top 100 Brand Pages, Worldwide Data, May 2011



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Looking specifically at Starbucks, Southwest, and Bing, we see that the ratio of Fans to Friends of Fans
varies considerably across the three brands but, in all three cases, the Friends of Fans represent an
audience at least an order of magnitude larger than the Fan base ÷ hundreds of millions of users globally.


-
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
Starbucks Southwest Bing
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Potential Reach of Friends of Fans Audience (000)
Source: Facebook, Worldwide Data



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Friends of Fans are also an intriguing audience for marketers for a couple of reasons. First, since these
consumers have yet to identify themselves as Fans of a given brand, there may be more upside in
messaging to them ÷ either for brand-building or increasing consumption. Brands can also take
advantage of these users' social proximity to Fans to deliver stories about those Fans' interest and
engagement with their brand.

An analysis of the reach delivered via social media brand impressions highlights this ability to extend
reach through Friends of Fans. Across all three brands analyzed, the number of Friends of Fans reached
by these brand impressions exceeded the reach by Fans alone, and by a significant amount in the cases
of Starbucks and Bing.



Reaching Consumers at Scale with Branded Content
Social media is generally not regarded in the same way as other media channels that deliver branded
content at scale, such as online display advertising. However, our research has indicated that in some
cases it could warrant such consideration given its ability to deliver impressions comparable with that of
other digital ad campaigns. With Southwest and Bing, these impressions were marginally incremental to
their existing online display ad campaigns in reaching people around the web. In Starbucks' case,
however, unpaid social media impressions increased total online impression volume by an impressive 64
2.9%
0.4%
0.6%
4.9%
0.5%
1.0%
0.0%
1.0%
2.0%
3.0%
4.0%
5.0%
6.0%
Starbucks Southwest Bing
Fans Friends
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Total U.S. Internet Reach (%)
of Social Media Brand Impressions among Fans & Friends of Fans
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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percent. This amplification in social media brand impressions is largely attributable to Starbucks' ability to
leverage a larger Fan base and its modest ad impression volume relative to Bing and Southwest.



Most marketers would agree that while media is bought and sold on an impression basis, their true goal is
to reach people ÷ particularly those in their target demographic. Accordingly, we believe that social media
research should also focus on measuring the number and composition of people reached by brand
messages on Facebook and other social networks.

Social Media Reach, Frequency & GRPs
Facebook provides the opportunity not only to deliver brand impressions at scale, but also to deliver
impressions with social context. This has the potential to generate lift at each stage in the marketing
cycle, whether it is brand awareness, favorability, purchase intent, conversion, or even long-term loyalty
and lifetime value. The ability to measure the impact of these brand impressions in terms of traditional
marketing metrics enables brands to realize the value of social media as an integral component of the
overall marketing mix.

To achieve this cross-media comparability, social media brand impressions must be quantified and
translated into traditional media planning variables such as reach, frequency and GRPs. We calculated
these metrics for Starbucks, Southwest and Bing based on the number of social media brand impressions
delivered against Fans and Friends of Fans. The metrics showed that while Fans received a higher
81,652
355,866
158,230
52,365
5,918
8,111
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
Starbucks Southwest Bing
Display Ad Impressions Social Impressions
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Facebook Brand Impressions (000)
vs. Display Ad Impressions (000) among Fans & Friends of Fans
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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number of impressions on average, Friends of Fans represented a wider reach. Due to Starbucks' larger
overall fan base, the brand delivered the highest overall number of Total U.S. GRPs at 17.3 (5.7 among
Fans and 11.6 among Friends). Southwest delivered a combined 2.0 GRPs while Bing delivered 2.7
GRPs. These metrics not only enable comparison with other digital campaigns, but can also provide
comparability for cross-media campaigns.

Unpaid Brand Impressions on Facebook
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011


Social Media Audience Analysis
Understanding the size of the audience reached via social media leads to a natural follow-on question:
who are these people? With traditional campaigns, marketers attempt to reach particular audience
segments with their messages and, in the context of social media campaigns, marketers want to
understand how the audiences reached align with their marketing objectives. The following analysis
illustrates the demographic and behavioral attributes of various Facebook Fan segments.

Demographic Analysis
On the demographic side, the brand-exposed Fans of the three brands studied differ by age composition.
Starbucks actually has a fairly young demographic profile for its Fans with more than 40 percent under
the age of 25, and 18-24 year olds accounting for more than a quarter of all Fans (26.5 percent).
Approximately 40 percent of Bing's Fans were also under the age of 25, although they were more evenly
balanced among Under 18 year olds and 18-24 year olds. Southwest Fans, meanwhile, showed an older
age profile with more than half (52.0 percent) at least 35 years of age.




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In the case of Starbucks, we observed some differences in the respective demographic profiles of its
brand-exposed Facebook Fans in comparison to its typical customers. Among people age 18 and older,
20 percent of those who had visited a Starbucks premises within the past month were between the ages
of 18-24, while 31 percent of brand-exposed Starbucks Fans were in that age segment. At the same time,
14 percent of in-store visitors were age 55 and older, but this same age segment accounted for just 7
percent of brand-exposed Fans. With the knowledge that Fans skew significantly younger than the typical
customer, Starbucks would likely benefit from designing its social marketing strategies to appeal to
younger customers in an attempt to bring them in the door.

0.0%
5.0%
10.0%
15.0%
20.0%
25.0%
30.0%
Age Under 18 Age 18-24 Age 25-34 Age 35-44 Age 45-54 Age 55+
Starbucks
Southwest
Bing
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Facebook Fan Age Demographic Profile
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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Understanding the demographic characteristics of a brand's social media following may reveal interesting
audience dynamics and uncover the potential for new marketing opportunities. What is clear in these
examples is that it is difficult to generalize about a brand's social media audience. They may in some
cases closely mirror one's typical customer base or, in other cases, look very different. Because attracting
Fans can be a function of both organic brand affinity and active social media marketing efforts, there is no
obvious rule of thumb. It is important that brands understand who these Fans are in order to utilize the
strategies that will be most effective in activating these customers.

Behavioral Analysis
We can also see that Fans have different online behavioral profiles by brand. In the analysis below, we
examined the percentage of time a particular brand's Fans spent in different site categories relative to the
average U.S. Internet user. The results indicated several strong behavioral skews by brand among the
top content categories.

The first revelation was that brand-exposed Fans of all three brands significantly over-index for time spent
in the Social Networking category. This fact should not be surprising, given that these user segments are
more likely to associate with brands on Facebook. All three brands also over-indexed for the
Entertainment category (consistent with their relative preference for leisure-oriented online content such
as Social Networking), as well as Search/Navigation. Other content categories showed differences in
usage, such as Automotive where Bing Fans exhibited a strong propensity to visit. On the other hand,
Bing Fans had low relative visitation for the Financial News, Newspapers and Travel categories.
30.8%
28.5%
18.9%
14.7%
4.7%
2.3%
19.7%
26.4%
20.1%
19.5%
9.7%
4.6%
0%
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
35%
Age 18-24 Age 25-34 Age 35-44 Age 45-54 Age 55-64 Age 65+
% of Starbucks Fans % of Starbucks Store Visitors
Demographic Profile of Brand-Exposed Starbucks Fans vs. Starbucks Store Visitors
Sources: comScore Social Essentials and comScore Plan Metrix, U.S., May 2011



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Southwest Fans, unsurprisingly, indexed high on the Travel category, as well as the Retail category.
Starbucks Fans also indexed high on Retail.


Brands can leverage the information on their Fans' online behavior to better understand what messaging
might work best with customers, which products to promote via social media, and what type of promotions
are most likely to gain traction.

Another way for brands to build a profile of their Fans is to understand which content categories they are
most likely to visit relative to the average Internet user. The illustration below shows the top five content
categories where each brand's Fan segment spends the greatest share of time relative to the average.
Starbucks Fans, for example, can be described as both entertainment-oriented and information-seekers.
Southwest Fans show great interest in the weather - probably because they are heavier travelers - while
Bing Fans are more likely to be auto-intenders and consumers of teen content.


0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Automotive
Financial News
Social Networking
Entertainment
Games
Newspapers
Retail
Search/Navigation
Travel
Starbucks
Southwest
Bing
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing Brand-Exposed Fans:
Content Category Visitation by Time Spent Index
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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Facebook Offers Global Marketing Channel for Brands
While most campaign measurement and evaluation occurs at a local level, it is also important for many
brands to take a more global perspective. Facebook's extensive worldwide reach makes it one of the few
media channels that can be employed for global branding efforts. According to comScore, Facebook
reached 714 million worldwide unique visitors in May - to rank as the third largest worldwide web property.
It also ranks as the #1 social networking site in the wide majority of the individual countries measured by
comScore.

The chart below clearly illustrates how brands may be reaching Fans across the world with brand
impressions on Facebook. Starbucks has a diverse base of exposed Fans across all five global regions,
with North America accounting for less than 30 percent of the total. Southwest has a more concentrated
Fan base which is understandable as it is a domestic airline. Bing - a global brand - enjoys a fairly diverse
Fan base, though to a lesser extent than Starbucks.



Starbucks, which boasts 5,500 coffee houses in more than 50 countries, is clearly capitalizing on
Facebook as a global marketing channel. In May, Starbucks' social media brand impressions reached
more than 53 million people worldwide, with ten individual countries delivering impressions to at least 1
million Fans and Friends. The United States led the way with 14.4 million exposed Fans and Friends,
followed by Germany (4 million), Mexico (2.5 million) and Canada (2.3 million). (Source: comScore)
0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
Starbucks
Southwest
Bing
North America
Europe
Latin America
Asia Pacific
Middle East - Africa
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Percentage of Exposed Fans by Worldwide Region
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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Fan Value and Social Media ROI
Perhaps the most common questions that arise in evaluating social media efforts are "What is a Fan
worth?¨ and "What is the return on my social media investment?¨ Answering such queries must begin
with quantifying the value of a Fan, which we might consider in the following ways:
x Increasing engagement and loyalty among Fans
x Generating incremental purchases among Fans
x Positively influencing Friends of Fans

A retailer may want to understand how much more time Fans spend at its store than non-Fans. A CPG
brand may be interested in knowing how much more of its product is purchased in-store by Fans than
non-Fans. A publisher could be curious about how much more time is spent on its website than a non-
Fan. The potential applications for understanding these differences are virtually limitless.

A good starting point for quantifying the value of social media audiences is to analyze basic brand
engagement. For Starbucks, Southwest, and Bing, we began by evaluating how much more likely Fans
and Friends of Fans were to visit the websites for those brands compared to the average visitor of those
sites. Starbucks' Fans and Friends of Fans showed the highest average propensity to visit the brand
website, with Fans 418 percent more likely to visit Starbucks.com and Friends of Fans 230 percent more
likely. Southwest Fans were 362 percent more likely to visit Southwest.com, while Friends of Fans were
165 percent more likely. Bing, which showed relatively more modest lifts at 55 percent for Fans and 33
14,417
3,972
2,549
2,276
1,854
1,616
1,453
1,315
1,260
1,233
United States
Germany
Mexico
Canada
Italy
United Kingdom
Malaysia
Philippines
India
Taiwan
Starbucks: Top 10 Countries by Number of Exposed Fans & Friends of Fans (000)
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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percent for Friends of Fans, had much higher rates of visitation overall than the other two brands'
websites with more than 1 out of every 3 U.S. Internet users visiting Bing in May.



With these examples, we are able to establish that Fans and Friends of Fans tend to exhibit significantly
higher brand engagement than the typical Internet user, and also quantify the magnitude of the
difference. However, this evaluation can often be taken to the next level of analysis.

The following illustrations for Starbucks, Southwest, and Bing, help to demonstrate how businesses might
quantify the value of their Fans and Friends of Fans. Importantly, these illustrations do not imply a direct
cause-and-effect relationship between social media exposure and behavior, as those associated with the
brand might already be more likely to engage with it. This caveat notwithstanding, brands can gain insight
into this heavy user segment in order to optimize marketing decisions.

Starbucks
To understand differences in purchase patterns among the Fans and Friends segments, comScore
analyzed Starbucks customers' in-store purchase patterns. The analysis, which examined in-store
purchase behavior during May 2011, revealed that Starbucks Fans & Friends of Fans spent 8 percent
more and transacted 11 percent more frequently than the average Internet user who transacted at
Starbucks.
418%
362%
55%
230%
165%
33%
0%
50%
100%
150%
200%
250%
300%
350%
400%
450%
Starbucks Southwest Bing
Fans Friends
Starbucks, Southwest & Bing: Website Visitation Among Exposed Fans & Friends of Fans
vs. Average Internet User
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



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It is important to note that differences between Fans and non-Fans in terms of purchase quantity or
frequency are not truly reflective of the value of a "like.¨ At least a portion of these differences reflect the
pre-existing preferences of these consumers: they prefer Starbucks, make a habit of visiting Starbucks
often, and also are more likely to express this brand affinity by becoming a Fan of Starbucks on
Facebook. Thus, differences in spend may reflect the strength of pre-existing brand preferences. That
said, it is clear that these are valuable customers for Starbucks and social media represents a strong
opportunity to engage with them.

To understand the incremental value of the published content, this research technique can be used to
identify Starbucks Fans and Friends of Fans who have received branded content, and evaluate their
behavior over time. We can compare this behavior not only to that of non-Fans, but also based on the
frequency and diversity of exposure to branded content and its latent impact on purchasing behavior.

Southwest
For Southwest, we conducted an analysis comparing Southwest.com site visitation patterns between
Fans and Friends of Fans and the average site visitor. , The results indicated substantially higher
visitation rates among Fans and Friends of Fans. While 2.7 percent of the total U.S. Internet audience
visited Southwest.com in May 2011, 12.4 percent of exposed Southwest Facebook Fans visited the site,
nearly 5 times the total Internet average. Perhaps even more dramatically, 7.1 percent of exposed
Southwest Friends of Fans visited Southwest.com, more than 2.5 times the rate among the total Internet
population. These results suggest that exposure to socially influenced brand messages might be
persuasive in driving brand engagement.

8%
11%
0.0%
2.0%
4.0%
6.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
Spending per Buyer Transactions per Buyer
Starbucks: Fans & Friends of Fans Purchase Activity vs. Average Internet User
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



22


For a website like Southwest.com, which sells tickets directly and therefore represents the company's
primary revenue generation channel, differences in site visitation rates can be tied to conversion to help
quantify the value of Fans and Friends of Fans.

Bing
For Bing, we conducted a similar analysis comparing Bing.com search patterns between Bing Fans and
Friends of Fans and the average Bing.com searcher. The results once again indicated higher
engagement across the board among the Fans and Friends of Fans segments. Overall, Bing Fans
conducted 68 percent more searches on Bing than the average Bing searcher (40.9 vs. 24.3) while
Friends of Fans conducted 27 percent more searches (30.8 vs. 24.3). Fans and Friends also exhibited
higher search engagement in terms of the number of searches per session, searches per usage day, and
number of search usage days. In each case, Bing Fans demonstrated significantly higher engagement
than the Friends of Fans segment.
2.7%
12.4%
7.1%
0.0%
2.0%
4.0%
6.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
14.0%
Total Internet Southwest Fans Southwest Friends
Southwest.com Visitation Rate of Southwest Brand Exposed
Fans & Friends of Fans
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



23



This dynamic illustrates the importance of the Fan and Friend segments to Microsoft, since their
association with the Bing brand corresponds directly with Microsoft's ability to monetize search behavior.

Conclusion
As marketers look increasingly to Facebook and other social media platforms as new ways of
communicating with their consumers, they seek metrics that can help them understand the value, and
create an effective strategy for reaching key audience segments. But, typical approaches that focus on
raw fan counts, or the total number of engagements on a given piece of content, fail to depict the potential
and realized scope of social media brand impressions.

As illustrated through the examples in this paper, a measurement approach that focuses on reach and
frequency within audience types (for example, Fans and Friends of Fans) can lead to a dramatically
better understanding of how and where brand messages are reaching consumers. This same focus
means that marketers can also better place their social media strategy within the broader framework of
their marketing objectives for key consumer segments.

In particular, the findings in this paper may be of interest to brand marketers as they consider their
realization of the "value of a Fan¨ on Facebook. Ìn addition to understanding the short and long term
24.3
2.6
4.6
5.3
40.9
2.8
5.8
7.1
30.8
2.6
5.1
6.1
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
Searches Per Searcher Searches Per Session Searches Per Usage
Day
Search Usage Days
Total Internet Fan Friend of Fan
Bing: Brand Exposed Fans and Friends of Fans Search Activity vs. Average Bing Searcher
Source: comScore Social Essentials, U.S., May 2011



24

reach of social media brand impressions to Fans, this approach's ability to determine reach among the
largely untapped Friends of Fans audience may be important in helping brands to achieve their marketing
goals on Facebook -- and beyond.

About comScore
comScore, Inc. (NASDAQ: SCOR) is a global leader in measuring the digital world and preferred source
of digital business analytics. comScore helps its clients better understand, leverage and profit from the
rapidly evolving digital marketing landscape by providing data, analytics and on-demand software
solutions for the measurement of online ads and audiences, media planning, website analytics,
advertising effectiveness, copy-testing, social media, search, video, mobile, cross-media, e-commerce,
and a broad variety of emerging forms of digital consumer behavior. comScore services, which now
include the product suites of recent acquisitions Nedstat, Nexius XPlore, ARSGroup and Certifica, are
used by more than 1,800 clients around the world, including global leaders such as AOL, Baidu, BBC,
Best Buy, Carat, Deutsche Bank, ESPN, Facebook, France Telecom, Financial Times, Fox, Microsoft,
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and Yahoo!.

For more information, please visit www.comscore.com, call 866.276.6972 or email
learnmore@comscore.com.

Executive Summary
The following white paper is based on a collaboration between comScore and Facebook. The research, which examines the nature of the reach and frequency of branded content on Facebook, is largely based on May 2011 findings from comScore internal analytics platform. The summary below establishes the key findings and implications of this research. Facebook is the dominant social networking site with an audience of approximately 160 million U.S. visitors each month and accounts for 90 percent of all time spent on social networking sites. (Source: comScore) Branded content on social media can take many forms content shared directly from brands, reponsored Stories ad shared content from connections, or social marketing such as

unit. While there has been tremendous focus on counting the incidence of these brand mentions on social networks (and, to a lesser degree, categorizing it), we find that the reach and frequency of social media brand impressions is far more important than simple counting statistics. Facebook users spend more than a quarter of their time on the site consuming and interacting with the Facebook Newsfeed, and this activity represents 4 percent of all time spent online in the U.S. The Newsfeed is also the primary location where branded content is consumed. In fact, users are 40-150 times more likely to consume branded content in the Newsfeed than to visit the Fan Page itself. (Source: comScore) There are typically two potential audiences for branded content on Facebook. Fans of brands on Facebook are the easiest to reach with social media brand impressions, but the Friends of those Fans also constitute an important incremental audience. Friends of Fans typically represent a much larger set of consumers (34 times larger, on average, for the top 100 brand pages) and can receive social media brand impressions by way of their Friends. In examples from this paper, the reach of branded content among Friends of Fans significantly exceeded the reach among Fans. When a brand focuses on acquiring and engaging Fans it can benefit from a significant secondary effect exposure among Friends of Fans that often surpasses reach among Fans. In the case of some brands, Facebook Fans may have different aggregate demographic and behavioral profiles than typical brand purchasers, indicating that social media may require different approaches to marketing strategy. The Value of a F assessed in three primary ways: increasing the depth of engagement and loyalty among Fans, generating incremental purchase behavior, and leveraging the ability to influence Friends of Fans.

2

but also anxiety about the difficulty of grasping the full promise of this emerging medium. the ability for consumers to identify brands of interest and connect with them has enabled sharing between brands and consumers in new ways: brands and their consumers can now create two-way relationships and share content. rather than integrate. news. most research on branded content on social platforms focuses on describing the incidence of these types of branded content (and. Social media has also facilitated innovative ways of sharing information about brands between friends.Collectively. Secondly. and even leveraging their voices for greater marketing impact. Facebook not only encourages this type of sharing but can also accelerate its reach and virality. into traditional marketing terms. Introduction & Background Social media has emerged over the past several years to redefine the digital media landscape and. and just 7 percent said they were able to integrate social media into their marketing activities. Underscoring the importance of this channel. For example. In particular. These problems are all too common for businesses Part of the challenge is that as social media has evolved. in the process. According to a study conducted by the Harvard Business Review. Whether consumers are voicing their affinity for certain brands or their experiences with products and services. Simply knowing how many brand mentions exist does little to provide insights for the potential impact of 3 . 100 percent of the Ad Age Top 100 Advertisers have established Facebook pages for their brands. categorizing it as positive or negative). this research leads to two important conclusions. we believe that brands can realize significant untapped benefits by understanding and focusing on reaching the Friends of their Fans. to a lesser degree. has changed the way we think about the dissemination of marketing messages. Facebook has facilitated two unique consumer experiences of interest to brand marketers. without regard to the size or composition of the audience receiving that content. the research methodologies and key metrics developed to describe social activity have served to isolate. there is palpable excitement about its potential to drive value for businesses. As this new marketing paradigm unfolds. and feedback. The first is that by focusing on measuring the reach of their branded content among various constituencies. Brands are increasingly interested in establishing a social presence and engaging with their Fans. brands can more effectively understand and optimize the way in which they leverage their presence on Facebook. helping shape their customers experiences. First. only 12 percent of companies surveyed indicated that they were effective users of social media.

Additionally. online. an approach focused on audience reach and frequency would also serve to integrate brand activity on social platforms with other parts of the marketing mix since reach. which is a from a home or work computer (note: mobile-based Internet browsing is not included in this analysis). and can actually lead brands to focus on sub-optimal strategies because it highlights only content creators at the cost of not understanding its distribution. 2. value) of those impressions. and to begin to understand the impact of that content exposure.These unpaid impressions occur when a Friend actively engages with a brand (e. including site visitation. including TV. Our research indicates that an approach that is instead focused on the audience of branded content on social platforms namely. 4 . Opt-in panelists provide comScore with explicit permission to passively observe their online behavior. and online purchases. Importantly.that content. comScore can observe both public and non-public pages within particular social networks such as Facebook. Measurement marketing within social networks can be linked to other behaviors in which they engage around the web. it provides brands the opportunity to understand the profile of those audiences reached with various types of content. radio and print. Below are the four primary vehicles through which these impressions are delivered: 1. Stories about Friends . By measuring online behavior for these opt-in panelists. advertising exposure. certain select data points and illustrations in the paper are based on aggregate.g. nonpersonally-identifiable data sourced from Facebook. we describe a unit of branded content called a impressions occur throughout a social network and may be delivered through a variety of dissemination channels. In addition. Social Media Brand Impressions In this paper. audience reach and frequency can unlock a much better understanding of the true impact (and therefore. frequency and GRPs are standard units of measurement across most media channels. search activity. Page Publishing These unpaid impressions appear on the Fan page wall and may also appear in the Newsfeed of a Fan or a Friend of a Fan. These stories may appear to Fans and Friends of Fans. Amy Likes Southwest Airlines) and Newsfeed. This approach is more favorable because it allows brands to focus on marketing activities that drive scale within audiences of interest. Methodology and Definitions Data in this paper was collected and analyzed using the comScore Social Essentials TM product.

Sponsored Stories of Fans. Ads with Social These paid impressions are similar to Stories about Friends. this paper is focused specifically on unpaid. or earned. Roger Tison Likes Southwest Airlines. impressions. 4. appearing at the bottom of the ad unit).g. but they have been actively distributed more broadly and appear in the right hand column to Fans and Friends These branded messages come directly from the advertisers with a social context on the unit that appears to Friends of Fans (e. 5 . While Social Essentials reports on all four of these impression types.3.

With this understanding in mind. While Fan base is approximately 1.Facebook Fan & Friend of Fans Segments In this white paper. 6 . Over a given period. a subset of the total Fan base has been exposed to a social media brand impression. the number of Friends of Fans in this network is 232 million more than 130 times the size of its Fan base. we will make reference to the following audience segments throughout this paper: Fans This user segment is based on users who have affirmatively stated their affinity for a . we instead measure audience segments within Facebook based on their exposure to brand impressions within the given reporting period (consistent with the comScore Social Essentials product). Non-Fans This segment encompasses all users of the social network who have neither become a Fan of a particular brand. Over a given period. Moreover. Non-Fans are represented by the blue region. a subset of the total Friends of Fans is likely to have been exposed to brand impressions. not only are Fans exposed to these impressions. nor are they connected to a Fan. Friends of Fans This user segment is defined as those who are not explicitly brand Fans but who are exposed to brand impressions through a Friend who is a Fan of a particular brand. but so are their Friends. we will discuss a few different types of user segments within Facebook. The following graphic illustrates the scope of these Facebook user segments for Microsoft Bing.7 million. While other analyses of Facebook Fans typically center on counts in the total number of accrued Fans.

000 60.000 80.000 120..000 140.000 40. 27 percent of engagement on Facebook. the largest portion of the Newsfeed. photo viewing (17 percent) and usage of apps and tools (10 percent). In the U. accounting for 90 percent of all time spent on social networking sites in the U. Facebook today represents the vast majority of U. (Source: comScore) 7 .S. alone.com MySpace Twitter.com occurred on the homepage and Newsfeed.000 160. Facebook has approximately 160 million visitors each month Internet users about 3 out of every 4 with the majority of them visiting the site on a daily basis.S. (Source: comScore) Trend  in  U.S.  Unique  Visitors  (000)  to  Facebook.Brand Fans Make Facebook a Social Marketing Vehicle Facebook has emerged over the past few years as a powerful social marketing and advertising platform.com Within Facebook. Compared with other leading social networks.S. In May 2011. social networking activity.000 100.000 0 Facebook.  Myspace and  Twitter Source:  comScore  Media  Metrix.000 20.    U. followed by profile viewing (21 percent).  June  2007  -­‐ May  2011 180.S.

staying in communication with that brand. communicating positive associations of that brand to others. In other words.Share  of  Time  Spent  on  Facebook.com by  Content  Section Source:  comScore  Mediabuilder..  U. In this white paper. it is important to understand that the core user experience of consuming and engaging with content in the Newsfeed extends to branded content.S. we will examine the social media impact for three very different brands Southwest Airlines.  May  2011 25% 27% Homepage/Newsfeed Profiles Photos 10% Apps  &  Tools All  Other 21% 17% Understanding the importance of the Newsfeed to the Facebook user experience helps illustrate how and where users are likely to see and digest information on the site. in order to understand how their marketing messages reach Fans and Friends of Fans throughout the network. This implication is especially important for brands with a presence on Facebook. since the Newsfeed offers the greatest opportunity to reach and engage with current and potential customers. with Coca Cola. social media brand content is primarily consumed within the Newsfeed as opposed to on the pages. Most Branded Content Exposure Occurs in the Newsfeed Despite an increasing willingness to identify as Fans of a brand. Starbucks and Disney each boasting more than 20 million Fans as of July 2011. or receiving deals and promotions. Facebook users demonstrate their affinity for brands ( F By ) followers can affirmatively express their interest in a particular brand for reasons that may include self-expression. and Microsoft Bing brand exposures. Many iconic brands have been able to amass substantial Fan followings. Starbucks. and the resulting implications of these social media 8 .

but it is actually very consistent with how people use Facebook. Despite the dominance of consumption in the Newsfeed relative to the brand page.  Southwest  &  Bing:  Ratio  of  Facebook  Impressions  for   Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans  to  Page  Views  on  Brand  Fan  Pages Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. 16 percent of Fans are reached by branded content by a brand that posts five out of seven days. so it makes sense that the branded content impressions would reflect this reality.  May  2011 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 156 42 45 Starbucks Southwest Bing These outsized ratios may surprise some marketers at first glance. we compared the page views on the Fan page to the total number of brand exposures on Facebook. Publishing more often can 9 . a minority of Fans see content from a brand in a given week.  U. These results are similar to the degree of reach between users and their Friends a given status update from a user will result in approximately 12 percent reach among their Friends.. the Facebook Newsfeed uses an algorithm to rank content based upon the likely interest to a user so.To grasp the enormous difference in consumption of branded content in the Newsfeed versus the brand page. see a particular piece of content from a brand? Some fans may miss content if they are not logged onto the site during a period when brands are active. Additionally. Most of their time is spent on the Newsfeed over individual profile pages. Starbucks delivered 156 brand impressions throughout Facebook for every one page view on its Fan page. Southwest delivered 42 brand impressions for every Fan page view. How can Fan pages increase the likelihood of reaching their Fan base? Publishing content that is highly engaging can increase the likelihood of content appearing in the Newsfeed. only the content determined to be most relevant to a user is delivered at a specific time. Starbucks. A Facebook analysis indicates that. In May 2011. while impressions throughout the site while only attracting tens of thousands of visitors to the Fan pages. according to a Facebook analysis. unlike in other social media settings. on average.S.

0% 0. there are an additional 34 Friends of Fans that can be reached (with significant variance among brands).  Worldwide Data. and does not result in annoyed or disengaged Fans.also increase the rate at which Fans see content. A Facebook analysis of the top 100 brand pages suggests that for every Fan. Of course. often well beyond the scale of Fans alone. This multiplier grows even larger as we look beyond the top 100 brand pages (81x on average among the top 1.0% 5. but our research has found that the Friends of Fans represent a substantial potential audience.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.  Top  100  Brand Pages.  May  2011 25.000 Fan pages).5 percent. Facebook  Fan Pages:    Cumulative  Reach  as  a Function  of  Post  Frequency   (#  of  Days  per  Week) Source:  Facebook. 10 . A Facebook analysis suggests that each incremental day of publishing branded content from the Facebook Page increases the reach among Fans by approximately 2. brands must also take care to ensure that the content and frequency of publishing aligns with the expectations of their Fan base.0% 1  Days 2  Days 3  Days 4  Days 5  Days 6  Days 7  Days Friends of Fans: Extending the Social Influence of Fans Reaching Fans with marketing messages is certainly of interest to brands.

the Friends of Fans represent an audience at least an order of magnitude larger than the Fan base hundreds of millions of users globally.000   -­‐ Starbucks Southwest Bing 11 . and Bing. we see that the ratio of Fans to Friends of Fans varies considerably across the three brands but.000   200.000   100.Looking specifically at Starbucks.000   600.000   400. Starbucks.  Southwest  &  Bing: Potential  Reach  of  Friends  of  Fans  Audience  (000) Source:  Facebook.000   300.  Worldwide  Data 800. in all three cases. Southwest.000   700.000   500.

 Internet  Reach  (%)   of  Social  Media  Brand  Impressions  among  Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans 6. and by a significant amount in the cases of Starbucks and Bing. the number of Friends of Fans reached by these brand impressions exceeded the reach by Fans alone. however.9% Reaching Consumers at Scale with Branded Content Social media is generally not regarded in the same way as other media channels that deliver branded content at scale. First.5% 0.0% 0.S. An analysis of the reach delivered via social media brand impressions highlights this ability to extend reach through Friends of Fans. since these consumers have yet to identify themselves as Fans of a given brand.Friends of Fans are also an intriguing audience for marketers for a couple of reasons.9% Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials.4% 0. such as online display advertising.0% Starbucks     Fans Southwest     Friends Bing     0. Across all three brands analyzed.0% 1. our research has indicated that in some cases it could warrant such consideration given its ability to deliver impressions comparable with that of other digital ad campaigns. Starbucks.  Southwest &  Bing:  Total  U. there may be more upside in messaging to them either for brand-building or increasing consumption. Brands can also take engagement with their brand. However. In Starbucks .S.0% 3.  May  2011 4.0% 4.0% 1. unpaid social media impressions increased total online impression volume by an impressive 64 12 . With Southwest and Bing.0% 5.0% 2..6% 2. these impressions were marginally incremental to their existing online display ad campaigns in reaching people around the web.  U.

 May  2011 400.000 50. social media brand impressions must be quantified and translated into traditional media planning variables such as reach. favorability.000 350.000 200..  Southwest &  Bing:  Facebook  Brand  Impressions    (000)   vs.  U.  Display  Ad  Impressions  (000)  among  Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials.000 300. Accordingly. To achieve this cross-media comparability.000 100. conversion. their true goal is to reach people particularly those in their target demographic. or even long-term loyalty and lifetime value.365 158. Southwest and Bing based on the number of social media brand impressions delivered against Fans and Friends of Fans. We calculated these metrics for Starbucks.000 250. whether it is brand awareness. The ability to measure the impact of these brand impressions in terms of traditional marketing metrics enables brands to realize the value of social media as an integral component of the overall marketing mix. leverage a larger Fan base and its modest ad impression volume relative to Bing and Southwest.866 8.230 81.S. The metrics showed that while Fans received a higher 13 . purchase intent. we believe that social media research should also focus on measuring the number and composition of people reached by brand messages on Facebook and other social networks.652 355. Starbucks. This has the potential to generate lift at each stage in the marketing cycle. but also to deliver impressions with social context.918 Display  Ad  Impressions Most marketers would agree that while media is bought and sold on an impression basis.percent.000 150. Frequency & GRPs Facebook provides the opportunity not only to deliver brand impressions at scale. Social Media Reach.111 5. frequency and GRPs.000 0 Starbucks Southwest Social  Impressions Bing 52.

S. but can also provide comparability for cross-media campaigns.  U.. overall fan base. showed an older age profile with more than half (52. Approximately 40 percent of Fans were also under the age of 25. Southwest Fans. the brand delivered the highest overall number of Total U.7 GRPs. and 18-24 year olds accounting for more than a quarter of all Fans (26. Southwest delivered a combined 2.number of impressions on average.7 among Fans and 11. 14 . although they were more evenly balanced among Under 18 year olds and 18-24 year olds.S.6 among Friends).5 percent). These metrics not only enable comparison with other digital campaigns.3 (5. The following analysis illustrates the demographic and behavioral attributes of various Facebook Fan segments.0 percent) at least 35 years of age.  May  2011     Social Media Audience Analysis Understanding the size of the audience reached via social media leads to a natural follow-on question: who are these people? With traditional campaigns.0 GRPs while Bing delivered 2. Friends of Fans represented a wider reach. the brand-exposed Fans of the three brands studied differ by age composition. meanwhile. GRPs at 17. Demographic Analysis On the demographic side. Starbucks actually has a fairly young demographic profile for its Fans with more than 40 percent under the age of 25. Unpaid  Brand  Impressions  on  Facebook   Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. marketers want to understand how the audiences reached align with their marketing objectives. marketers attempt to reach particular audience segments with their messages and. in the context of social media campaigns.

At the same time. while 31 percent of brand-exposed Starbucks Fans were in that age segment. 14 percent of in-store visitors were age 55 and older..0% 15. With the knowledge that Fans skew significantly younger than the typical customer.0% 5.0% 20.Starbucks.0% 0.S.  Southwest & Bing:  Facebook  Fan  Age  Demographic  Profile Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. Starbucks would likely benefit from designing its social marketing strategies to appeal to younger customers in an attempt to bring them in the door. we observed some differences in the respective demographic profiles of its brand-exposed Facebook Fans in comparison to its typical customers.  May  2011 30. 15 . Among people age 18 and older. but this same age segment accounted for just 7 percent of brand-exposed Fans.0% 10.0% 25.0% Age  Under  18 Age  18-­‐24 Age  25-­‐34 Age  35-­‐44 Age  45-­‐54 Age  55+ Starbucks Southwest Bing In the case of Starbucks. 20 percent of those who had visited a Starbucks premises within the past month were between the ages of 18-24. U.

The results indicated several strong behavioral skews by brand among the 16 . Behavioral Analysis We can also see that Fans have different online behavioral profiles by brand. Because attracting Fans can be a function of both organic brand affinity and active social media marketing efforts.5% 14.5% 26. look very different. On the other hand. there is no obvious rule of thumb. in other cases.4% 20.9% 19. Internet user.7% 28. Starbucks  Store  Visitors Sources:  comScore Social  Essentials  and  comScore  Plan  Metrix.6% 2. Fans spent in different site categories relative to the average U. as well as Search/Navigation.Demographic  Profile  of  Brand-­‐Exposed  Starbucks  Fans  vs.7% 9. It is important that brands understand who these Fans are in order to utilize the strategies that will be most effective in activating these customers.8% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Age  18-­‐24 19. such as Automotive where Bing Fans exhibited a strong propensity to visit.7% 4. Bing Fans had low relative visitation for the Financial News. given that these user segments are more likely to associate with brands on Facebook. we examined the percentage of time top content categories. Other content categories showed differences in usage.  May  2011 35% 30.  U. In the analysis below.3% Age  25-­‐34 Age  35-­‐44 Age  45-­‐54 Age  55-­‐64 Age  65+ %  of  Starbucks  Fans %  of  Starbucks  Store  Visitors audience dynamics and uncover the potential for new marketing opportunities. Newspapers and Travel categories. What is clear in these examples is that it is difficult to generalize . All three brands also over-indexed for the Entertainment category (consistent with their relative preference for leisure-oriented online content such as Social Networking).S. This fact should not be surprising. The first revelation was that brand-exposed Fans of all three brands significantly over-index for time spent in the Social Networking category.7% 4.S..1% 18.

 May  2011 0 50 Automotive 100 150 200 250 300 350 Financial  News Social  Networking Entertainment Games Newspapers Retail Bing Search/Navigation Travel Starbucks Southwest Brands can leverage the information on their Fans might work best with customers.probably because they are heavier travelers .  U. can be described as both entertainment-oriented and information-seekers. indexed high on the Travel category. The illustration below shows the top five content categories where each brand s Fan segment spends the greatest share of time relative to the average. Another way for brands to build a profile of their Fans is to understand which content categories they are most likely to visit relative to the average Internet user. and what type of promotions are most likely to gain traction. which products to promote via social media.Southwest Fans. as well as the Retail category.while Bing Fans are more likely to be auto-intenders and consumers of teen content.  Southwest  & Bing  Brand-­‐Exposed  Fans:   Content Category  Visitation  by  Time  Spent  Index Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. Starbucks. for example.. 17 . Starbucks Fans.S. Southwest Fans show great interest in the weather . Starbucks Fans also indexed high on Retail. unsurprisingly.

The chart below clearly illustrates how brands may be reaching Fans across the world with brand impressions on Facebook.. Bing .to rank as the third largest worldwide web property. Starbucks has a diverse base of exposed Fans across all five global regions. Southwest  &  Bing:  Percentage  of  Exposed  Fans  by  Worldwide  Region Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials.a global brand . with ten individual countries delivering impressions to at least 1 million Fans and Friends.3 million). According to comScore.5 million) and Canada (2. followed by Germany (4 million). (Source: comScore) 18 .S. Mexico (2. though to a lesser extent than Starbucks.4 million exposed Fans and Friends. The United States led the way with 14. Starbucks. is clearly capitalizing on Facebook as a global marketing channel. which boasts 5. with North America accounting for less than 30 percent of the total. Southwest has a more concentrated Fan base which is understandable as it is a domestic airline. Starbucks reached more than 53 million people worldwide.Facebook Offers Global Marketing Channel for Brands While most campaign measurement and evaluation occurs at a local level.  May  2011 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Starbucks North  America Europe Latin  America Southwest Asia  Pacific Middle  East  -­‐ Africa Bing Starbucks. Facebook reached 714 million worldwide unique visitors in May .enjoys a fairly diverse Fan base. it is also important for many brands to take media channels that can be employed for global branding efforts.500 coffee houses in more than 50 countries. In May.  U. It also ranks as the #1 social networking site in the wide majority of the individual countries measured by comScore.

For Starbucks.  May  2011 United  States Germany Mexico Canada Italy United  Kingdom Malaysia Philippines India Taiwan 3..S. Southwest.  U.453   1. The potential applications for understanding these differences are virtually limitless.616   1.549   2. A publisher could be curious about how much more time is spent on its website than a nonFan. which showed relatively more modest lifts at 55 percent for Fans and 33 with quantifying the value of a Fan.233   14. Southwest Fans were 362 percent more likely to visit Southwest.315   1. Bing. Starbucks Fans and Friends of Fans showed the highest average propensity to visit the brand website. while Friends of Fans were 165 percent more likely.com and Friends of Fans 230 percent more likely.260   1. A CPG brand may be interested in knowing how much more of its product is purchased in-store by Fans than non-Fans. which we might consider in the following ways: What is a Fan Answering such queries must begin 19 .Starbucks:  Top  10  Countries  by  Number  of  Exposed  Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans  (000) Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials.417   Fan Value and Social Media ROI Perhaps the most common questions that arise W Increasing engagement and loyalty among Fans Generating incremental purchases among Fans Positively influencing Friends of Fans A retailer may want to understand how much more time Fans spend at its store than non-Fans. with Fans 418 percent more likely to visit Starbucks.com. A good starting point for quantifying the value of social media audiences is to analyze basic brand engagement. and Bing. we began by evaluating how much more likely Fans and Friends of Fans were to visit the websites for those brands compared to the average visitor of those sites.276   1.854   1.972   2.

Southwest.S. had much higher rates of visitation overall than websites with more than 1 out of every 3 U.  Southwest & Bing:  Website  Visitation  Among  Exposed  Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans   vs. The following illustrations for Starbucks.. Importantly. However. revealed that Starbucks Fans & Friends of Fans spent 8 percent more and transacted 11 percent more frequently than the average Internet user who transacted at Starbucks. Starbucks. as those associated with the brand might already be more likely to engage with it.  Average  Internet  User Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. we are able to establish that Fans and Friends of Fans tend to exhibit significantly higher brand engagement than the typical Internet user. which examined in-store purchase behavior during May 2011. This caveat notwithstanding. this evaluation can often be taken to the next level of analysis. The analysis. brands can gain insight into this heavy user segment in order to optimize marketing decisions.  U. Starbucks To understand differences in purchase patterns among the Fans and Friends segments.  May  2011 450% 400% 350% 300% 250% 200% 150% 100% 50% 0% 418% 362% 230% 165% 55% 33% Starbucks Fans Southwest Friends Bing With these examples. comScore analyzed -store purchase patterns.S. 20 . Internet users visiting Bing in May. and Bing. these illustrations do not imply a direct cause-and-effect relationship between social media exposure and behavior.percent for Friends of Fans. help to demonstrate how businesses might quantify the value of their Fans and Friends of Fans. and also quantify the magnitude of the difference.

These results suggest that exposure to socially influenced brand messages might be persuasive in driving brand engagement. and also are more likely to express this brand affinity by becoming a Fan of Starbucks on Facebook. Southwest For Southwest.4 percent of exposed Southwest Facebook Fans visited the site.  U. more than 2. The results indicated substantially higher visitation rates among Fans and Friends of Fans. We can compare this behavior not only to that of non-Fans. and evaluate their behavior over time. That said. differences in spend may reflect the strength of pre-existing brand preferences. While 2.0% 10.7 percent of the total U. but also based on the frequency and diversity of exposure to branded content and its latent impact on purchasing behavior. 12.1 percent of exposed Southwest Friends of Fans visited Southwest.  Average  Internet  User Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. Perhaps even more dramatically. Thus.S. To understand the incremental value of the published content. nearly 5 times the total Internet average.0% 0. 21 .  May  2011 12.com site visitation patterns between Fans and Friends of Fans and the average site visitor.com.S. 7.0% 2.0% 4. we conducted an analysis comparing Southwest.Starbucks: Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans  Purchase  Activity  vs. this research technique can be used to identify Starbucks Fans and Friends of Fans who have received branded content.com in May 2011..0% 8% 8.0% 6. Internet audience visited Southwest.5 times the rate among the total Internet population.0% Spending  per  Buyer 11% Transactions  per  Buyer It is important to note that differences between Fans and non-Fans in terms of purchase quantity or frequency are not truly reflective of the value of a pre-existing preferences of these consumers: they prefer Starbucks. . it is clear that these are valuable customers for Starbucks and social media represents a strong opportunity to engage with them. make a habit of visiting Starbucks often.

Overall. 22 . we conducted a similar analysis comparing Bing.0% 12.0% 2. Bing Fans demonstrated significantly higher engagement than the Friends of Fans segment.1% Southwest  Fans Southwest  Friends For a website like Southwest.0% 4. which sells tickets directly and therefore primary revenue generation channel.0% 8.com.. 24.com searcher. and number of search usage days. Bing For Bing.3) while Friends of Fans conducted 27 percent more searches (30.0% 10. The results once again indicated higher engagement across the board among the Fans and Friends of Fans segments.0% 0.S.4% 7. Fans and Friends also exhibited higher search engagement in terms of the number of searches per session.Southwest.8 vs. searches per usage day.  May  2011 14.  U. 24. In each case.3).com  Visitation  Rate  of  Southwest  Brand  Exposed Fans  &  Friends  of  Fans Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials. differences in site visitation rates can be tied to conversion to help quantify the value of Fans and Friends of Fans.com search patterns between Bing Fans and Friends of Fans and the average Bing.9 vs. Bing Fans conducted 68 percent more searches on Bing than the average Bing searcher (40.0% Total  Internet 2.0% 6.7% 12.

they seek metrics that can help them understand the value. or the total number of engagements on a given piece of content.3 20.1 5. Conclusion As marketers look increasingly to Facebook and other social media platforms as new ways of communicating with their consumers. the findings in this paper may be of interest to brand marketers as they consider their 23 . and create an effective strategy for reaching key audience segments.6 5.0 40.0 10.  Average  Bing Searcher Source:  comScore  Social  Essentials.8 5.Bing:  Brand  Exposed  Fans  and  Friends    of  Fans  Search  Activity  vs.1 6. This same focus means that marketers can also better place their social media strategy within the broader framework of their marketing objectives for key consumer segments.0 2.. typical approaches that focus on raw fan counts. fail to depict the potential and realized scope of social media brand impressions.0 24.1 Searches  Per  Usage   Day Friend  of  Fan Search  Usage  Days Total  Internet Fan This dynamic illustrates the importance of the Fan and Friend segments to Microsoft.0 Searches  Per  Searcher Searches  Per  Session 4.9 40.  U.3 7. Fans and Friends of Fans) can lead to a dramatically better understanding of how and where brand messages are reaching consumers.6 2.  May  2011 50. As illustrated through the examples in this paper. In particular.8 30.6 0. But.8 2.0 30.S. a measurement approach that focuses on reach and frequency within audience types (for example. since their association with the Bing brand corresponds directly with search behavior.

and a broad variety of emerging forms of digital consumer behavior.276. social media.and beyond. Microsoft.com. MediaCorp.comscore. 24 . analytics and on-demand software solutions for the measurement of online ads and audiences. ARSGroup and Certifica. website analytics. Verizon Services Group.6972 or email learnmore@comscore. including global leaders such as AOL. mobile. are used by more than 1. Nestle.com. Inc. Facebook. Financial Times. comScore services. BBC. ViaMichelin and Yahoo!. Deutsche Bank. e-commerce. Terra Networks. Nexius XPlore. Universal McCann. call 866. search. which now include the product suites of recent acquisitions Nedstat. video. please visit www. Baidu. leverage and profit from the rapidly evolving digital marketing landscape by providing data. Fox. cross-media. th largely untapped Friends of Fans audience may be important in helping brands to achieve their marketing goals on Facebook -. France Telecom. For more information. advertising effectiveness. ESPN. Starcom. media planning.800 clients around the world. Carat. copy-testing.reach of social media brand impressions to Fans. (NASDAQ: SCOR) is a global leader in measuring the digital world and preferred source of digital business analytics. Best Buy. comScore helps its clients better understand. About comScore comScore.