TEORI EKOLOGI BRONFENBRENNER ‡ Teori Ekologi Bronfenbrenner (1979,1989) Il1cnjelaskan perkell1bangan kanak kanak sebagai hasil interaksi

antara alam persekitaran dengan kanak-kanak tersebut. Menurut beliau, perkembangan kanak -kanak adalah kesan persekitaran terhadap kanak-kanak Jan juga ciri-ciri kanak-kanak tersebut ke atas persekitaran . ‡ Menurut beliau, persekitaran perkembangan individu terdiri daripada lima sistem, iaitu :
1. Mikrosistem

Persekitaran yang terdekat di mana kanak -kanak mempunyai interaksi secara langsung dan menghabiskan paling banyak masa. Contoh: ibu bapa, adik bera dik. Rakan-rakan, jiran dan guru.
2. Mesosistem

Perhubungan antara mikrosistem. Apa yang berlaku dalam satu mesosistem boleh mempengaruhi interaksi dengan mikrosistem yang lain. Misalnya keadaan rumah boleh mempengaruhi lingkah laku individu di sekolah Contoh: rum ah-sekolah, rumah-jiran, sekolah-jiran
3. Eksosistem

Pengalaman dengan persekitaran yang tidak melibatkan murid secara langsung tetapi keputusan yang diambil dalam persekitaran tersebut memberi kesan kepada kanak-kanak alan dewasa yang terlibat dengan kanak -kanak tersebut. Contoh: sekolah-pasar raya. Kaedah pengurusan, kemudahan dan peraturan -peraturan yang dikuatkuasakan oleh tempat membeli belah secara tidak langsung mempengaruhi perkembangan sosial kanak-kanak tersebut.
4. Makrosistem

Perkembangan individu dipengaruhi oleh norma -norma, nilai dan am alan masyarakat. Misalnya dalam sesetengah masyarakat, peranan jantina d ititikberatkan (Santrock, 200H). Di sesetengah negara, kaum lelaki dib eri peranan yang lebih dominan di mana mereka diberi peluan g pelajaran clan pekerjaan -pekerjaan yang penting.
5. Kronosistem

Perubahan keadaan dalam su atu tempoh masa. Misalnya kanak-kanak hari ini lebih berfokus kepada permainan-permainan komputer jika di banding dengan kanak kanak dua atau tiga puluh tahun dahulu yang lebih gemar bermain di persekit aran rumah.


1956) involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. the learner should have acquired new skills. This taxonomy of learning behaviors can be thought of as ³the goals of the learning process. However. procedural patterns. the words tend to be a little bigger than we normally use. and/or attitudes. Trainers often refer to these three categories as KSA (Knowledge. starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. which are listed in order below. Bloom's taxonomy is easily understood and is probably the most widely applied one in use today. The committee also produced an elaborate compilation for the cognitive and affective domains. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts. Category Knowledge: Recall data or information. and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. Cognitive Domain The cognitive domain (Bloom. and Attitude). That is. knowledge. identified three domains of educational activities: o o o Cognitive: mental skills ( Knowledge) Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude) Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills) Since the work was produced by higher education. There are six major categories. but none for the psychomotor domain. The divisions outlined are not absolutes and there are other systems or hierarchies that have been devised in the educational and training world.Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains The Three Types of Learning There is more than one type of learning. The categories can be thought of as degrees of difficulties. Domains can be thought of as categories. Skills. This compilation divides the three domains into subdivisions. after a learning episode. A committee of colleges. starting from the simplest behavior to the most complex. Quote prices from . the first ones must normally be mastered before the next ones can take place. led by Benjamin Bloom (1956).´ That is. Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Recite a policy. Their explanation for this oversight was that they have little experience in teaching manual skills within the college level (I guess they never thought to check with their sports or drama departments).

Examples: Troubleshoot a piece of equipment by using logical deduction. Key Words: comprehends. describes. revises. interprets. Gathers information from a department and selects the required tasks for training. Revises and process to improve the outcome. Key Words: applies. justifies. plans. converts. generates. Integrates training from several sources to solve a problem. operates. discriminates. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. distinguishes. changes.memory to a customer. translates. compiles. outlines. Examples: Rewrites the principles of test writing. gives an example. reconstructs. explains. defends. rearranges. defends. selects. infers. solves. concludes. translation. Put parts together to form a whole. explains. evaluates. composes. outlines. tells. selects. Examples: Select the most effective solution. identifies. knows. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the work place. creates. Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. summarizes. recalls. rewrites. Key Words: appraises. criticizes. labels. Explain and justify a new budget. writes. Analysis: Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. extends. paraphrases. relates. interprets. designs. . compares. describes. Knows the safety rules. shows. summarizes. demonstrates. lists. predicts. names. Design a machine to perform a specific task. reproduces. rewrites. Key Words: analyzes. deconstructs. infers. Recognize logical fallacies in reasoning. Key Words: defines. constructs. prepares. illustrates. Examples: Write a company operations or process manual. Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. generalizes. discriminates. Apply laws of statistics to evaluate the reliability of a written test. Comprehension: Understand the meaning. identifies. breaks down. organizes. with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. uses. differentiates. Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. states. computes. compares. diagrams. relates. critiques. Key Words: categorizes. and interpretation of instructions and problems. explains. reorganizes. separates. distinguishes. matches. predicts. State a problem in one's own words. Examples: Use a manual to calculate an employee's vacation time. recognizes. Translates an equation into a computer spreadsheet. contrasts. combines. estimates. interpolation. discovers. devises. relates. Explain in one's own words the steps for performing a complex task. contrasts. modifies. manipulates. Hire the most qualified candidate. produces. modifies.

Informs management on matters Receiving Phenomena: Awareness. reads. tells. Valuing is based on the internalization of a set of specified values. Learning outcomes may emphasize compliance in responding. performs. motivations. models. Proposes a plan to social improvement and follows through with commitment. etc. selects. Affective Domain The affective domain (Krathwohl. assists. Know the safety rules and practices them. presents. names. recites. or satisfaction in responding (motivation).relates. sits. 1973) includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally. or behavior. selected attention. willingness to hear. Attends and reacts to a particular phenomenon. points to. willingness to respond. concepts. labels. such as feelings. Masia. Key Words: asks. while clues to these values are expressed in . Gives a presentation. follows. in order to fully understand them. Examples: Demonstrates belief in the democratic process. writes. aids. selects. helps. Questions new ideals. Key Words: answers. locates. Shows the ability to solve problems. values. holds. Is sensitive towards individual and cultural differences (value diversity). Listen for and remember the name of newly introduced people. chooses. uses. practices. reports. enthusiasms. and attitudes. The five major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Listen to others with respect. greets. discusses. gives. conforms. Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object. supports. complies. erects. appreciation. Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners. identifies. This ranges from simple acceptance to the more complex state of commitment. describes. replies. Bloom. summarizes. Examples: Participates in class discussions. phenomenon.

differentiates. explains. not how they look. emotional). follows. or techniques in execution. coordination. studies. defends. solves. qualifies. Prioritizes time effectively to meet the needs of the organization. Revises judgments and changes behavior in light of new evidence. Values people for what they are. listens. family. Examples: Shows self-reliance when working independently. orders. compares. proposes. practices. synthesizes. Psychomotor Domain The psychomotor domain (Simpson. revises. demonstrates. Creates a life plan in harmony with abilities. resolving conflicts between them. that one feels strongly about. modifies. invites. completes. relates. integrates. Accepts professional ethical standards. Internalizing values (characterization): Has a value system that controls their behavior. performs. and self. questions. selects. distance. Key Words: adheres. Key Words: acts. predictable. joins. formulates. modifies. characteristic of the learner. verifies. forms. precision. justifies. organizes. combines. The seven major categories are listed from the simplest behavior to the most complex: Category Perception: The ability to use sensory cues to Example and Key Words (verbs) Examples: Detects non-verbal communication . The emphasis is on comparing. Examples: Recognizes the need for balance between freedom and responsible behavior. 1972) includes physical movement. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed. discriminates.the learner's overt behavior and are often identifiable. and synthesizing values. shares. and beliefs. Accepts responsibility for one's behavior. reports. displays. alters. serves. and most importantly. Uses an objective approach in problem solving. Organization: Organizes values into priorities by contrasting different values. explains. reads. and use of the motor-skill areas. Displays a professional commitment to ethical practice on a daily basis. generalizes. works. consistent. Key Words: completes. identifies. and creating an unique value system. Cooperates in group activities (displays teamwork). procedures. The behavior is pervasive. Explains the role of systematic planning in solving problems. initiates. influences. prepares. interests. relating. proposes. social. arranges. Instructional objectives are concerned with the student's general patterns of adjustment (personal.

Drive a car. constructs. detects. Key Words: chooses. fastens. identifies. heats. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. follows. grinds. Key Words: begins. measures. but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker. requiring a minimum of energy. and highly coordinated performance. Set: Readiness to act. mends. For example. It includes mental. fixes. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. organizes. explains. Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. describes. shows. displays. Follows instructions to build a model.guide motor activity. to translation. reacts. This category includes performing without hesitation. sketches. displays. Key Words: assembles. heats. constructs. This ranges from sensory stimulation. distinguishes. etc. Displays competence while playing the piano. states. cues. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. and automatic performance. builds. reproduce. Repair a leaking faucet. Responds hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. dismantles. manipulates. Complex Overt Response: The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. organizes. traces. calibrates. moves. measures. Key Words: copies. differentiates. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. react. accurate. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. mends. mixes. manipulates. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. better. and emotional sets. dismantles. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). proceeds. sketches. more accurate. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. grinds. NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the ³Responding to phenomena´ subdivision of the Affective domain. fixes. Proficiency is indicated by a quick. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Mechanism: This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. responds Examples: Use a personal computer. calibrates. isolates. fastens. volunteers. . physical. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). through cue selection. Key Words: assembles. displays. relates. selects. players are often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football. mixes. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Guided Response: The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.

alters. initiate. Key Words: adapts. . rearranges. builds. Key Words: arranges. combines. Origination: Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. constructs. changes. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). varies. reorganizes. composes. originates. Creates a new gymnastic routine.Adaptation: Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. creates. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Examples: Constructs a new theory. revises. designs. makes. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful