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LEGAL MAXIMS MAXIM
Verba legis Index animi sermo est Verba legis non est recedendum
Plain meaning rule Speech is the index of intention. From the words of a statute there should be no departure Maledicta est expositio quae It is dangerous construction which is corrumpit textum against the text. Dura lex sed lex The law may be harsh, but it is still the law. Hoc quidem perquam durum est, sed It is exceedingly hard but so the law ita lex scripta est is written. Aequitas nunquam contravenit legis Equity never acts in contravention of the law. Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis A law should be interpreted with a valeat quam pereat view to upholding rather than destroying it Ratio legis Interpretation according to the spirit or reason of the law Verba intentioni, non e contra, Words ought to be more subservient debent inservire to the intent and not the intent and not the intent to the words Index animi sermo est Speech is the index of intention. Cessante ratione legis, cessat at When the reason of the law ceases, ipsa lex the law itsef ceases Ratio legis est anima The reason of the law is its soul Interpretatio talis in ambiguis semper Where there is ambiguity, such fienda est ut evitetur inconveniens et interpretation as will avoid absurdum inconvenience and absurdity is to be adopted. Ea est accipienda interpretatio quae Interpretation is to be adopted which vitio caret is free from evil or injustice. Fiat justicia, ruat coelum Let right be done, though the heavens fall. Jure naturae aequum est neminem According to the laws of nature, it cum alterius detrimento et injuria is just that no one should be enriched fieri locupletiorem by the detriment and injury of another. Ninguno non deue enriquecerse tortizeramente con da o de otro p. 157 Surplusagium non noceat Surplusage does not vitiate a statute. Utile per inutile non vitiatur The useful is not vitiated by the non-useful.
defendentis the position of the defending party is the better one. that nothing contras jus basque shall be contrary to law and right. Ibi quid generaliter conceditur. minus Ubi jus. Ex dolo malo non oritur actio No man can be allowed to found a claim upon his own wrongdoing or inequity Nulus commodum capere potest de No man should be allowed to take injuria sua propria advantage of his own wrong In pari delicto potior est conditio In the case of equal or mutual fault. Ubi lex non distinguit. Generale dictum generaliter est A general statement shall be interpretandum understood in a general sense. inest Where anything is granted generally. Verba accipienda sunt secundum A word is to be understood in the subjectam materiam context in which it is used. Impossibilium nulla obligatio est There is no obligation to do an impossible thing.Falsa demonstratio non nocet. Nemo tenetur ad impossibile The law obliges no one to perform an impossibility. Generalia verba sunt generaliter What is generally spoken shall be intelligenda generally understood. Quando aliquid prohibetur ex directo. In eo quod plus sit. Noscitur a sociis Word construed with reference to accompanying or associated words Ejusdem generis Of the same kind or specie Expressio unius est exclusio alterius The express mention of one person. haec exceptio. Summum jus. Ex necessitate legis From the necessity of the law or by necessary implication of law. What cannot be done directy cannot prohibetor et per obiquum be done indirectly. distinguere debemus we should not distinguish. si non aliquid sit this exemption is implied. summa injuria The rigor of the law would become the highest injustice. object or thing omitted est from an enumeration must be held to . thing or consequence implies the exclusion of all others. semper inest et The greater includes the lesser. cum de False description does not preclude corpore constat construction nor vitiate the meaning of the statute. Exceptio firmat regulam in casibus A thing not being excepted must be non exceptis regarded as coming within the purview of the general rule Casus omissus pro omisso habendus A person. Expressum facit cessare tacitum What is expressed puts an end to that which is implied. nec nos Where the law does not distinguish. there is a remedy. ibi remedium Where there is a right.
Relating to the same matter Evey statute mus be so construed and harmonized with other statutes as to form a uniform system of jurisprudence Distinguish times and you will harmonize laws. not those who slumber on their rights. thing or consequence implies the exclusion of all others.Ad proximum antecedens fiat relatio nisi impediatur sententia Reddendo sungula singulis Optima statuti interpretatrix est ipsum statutum Ut res magis valeat quam pereat Interpretatio fienda est ut res magis valeat quam pereat Pari materia Interpretare et concordare leges legibus est optimus interpretandi modus Distingue tempora et concordabis jura Salus populi est suprema lex Statuta pro publico commodo late interpretantur Actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea Actus me invito factus non est meus actus Mala in se Mala prohibita Privilegia recipiunt largam interpretationem voluntati consonam concedentis Expressio unius est exclusio alterius have been omitted intentionally Relative words refer to the nearest antecedents. The act itself does not make a man guilty unless his intention were so. Public interest requires that by the very nature of things there must be an end to a legal controversy. unless the context otherwise requires Referring each to each. A law should be interpreted with a view to upholding rather than destroying it. The best interpreter of a statute is the statute itself. or let each be put in its proper place. The express mention of one person. Nullum tempus occurrit regi Vigilantibus et non dormientibus jura subveniunt Potior est in tempoe. referring each phrase or expression to its appropriate object. The laws aid the vigilant. The safety of the people is the supreme law. There can be no legal right as against the authority that makes the law on which the right depends. He who is first in time is preferred in right. potior est in jure Interest reipublicae ut sit finis litium Privileges are to be interpreted in accordance with the will of him who grants them. An act done by me against my will is not my act. That the construction is to be sought which gives effect to the whole of the statute. . Statutes enacted for the public good are to be construed liberally.
nulla poena sine legis Ubi lex non distinguit. There is no crime without a penalty. non respicit Contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege Optimus interpres rerum usus Ratihabitio mandato aequiparatur Nullum crimen sine poena. not backward. adiosa restringenda Leges posteriores priores contrarias abrogant Generalia specialibus non derogant Stare decisis et non quieta movere Legis interpretato legis vim obtinet Lex prospicit. non respicit Lex de futuro. A new statute should affect the future. The best interpreter of the law is usage. nec nos distinguere debemus The laws looks forward. Where the law does not distinguish. A general law does not nullify a specific or special law. Follow past precedents and do not disturb what has been settled. we should not distinguish. The contemporary construction is strongest in law. and there is no penalty without a law. . The law provides for the future. The law looks forward. the judge for the past. The authoritative interpretation of the court of a statute acquires the force of law by becoming a part thereof. judex de praeterito Nova constitutio futuris formam imponere debet non praeteritis Favorabilia sunt amplianda. Penal laws which are favorable to the accused are given retroactive effect. A later law repeals a prior law on the same subject which is repugnant thereto. not backward. Legislative ratification is equivalent to a mandate.Lex prospicit. not the past.
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