Mobile Computing

Mobile Computing : A technology that allows transmission of data, via a computer, without having to be connected to a fixed physical link.

Mobile voice communication is widely established throughout the world and has had a very rapid increase in the number of subscribers to the various cellular networks over the last few years. An extension of this technology is the ability to send and receive data across these cellular networks. This is the principle of mobile computing. Mobile data communication has become a very important and rapidly evolving technology as it allows users to transmit data from remote locations to other remote or fixed locations. This proves to be the solution to the biggest problem of business people on the move - mobility. In this article we give an overview of existing cellular networks and describe in detail the CDPD technology which allows data communications across these networks. Finally, we look at the applications of Mobile Computing in the real world.

Mobile telephony took off with the introduction of cellular technology which allowed the efficient utilisation of frequencies enabling the connection of a large number of users. During the 1980's analogue technology was used. Among the most well known systems were the NMT900 and 450 (Nordic Mobile Telephone) and the AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service). In the 1990's the digital cellular technology was introduced with GSM (Global System Mobile) being the most widely accepted system around the world. Other such systems are the DCS1800 (Digital Communication System) and the PCS1900 (Personal Communication System).

A cellular network consists of mobile units linked together to switching equipment, which interconnect the different parts of the network and allow access to the fixed Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The technology is hidden from view; it's incorporated in a number of tranceivers called Base Stations (BS). Every BS is located at a strategically selected place and covers a given area or cell - hence the name cellular communications. A number of adjacent cells grouped together form an area and the corresponding BSs communicate through a so called Mobile Switching Centre (MSC). The MSC is the heart of a cellular radio system. It is responsible for routing, or switching, calls from the originator to the destinator. It can be thought of managing the cell, being responsible for set-up, routing control and termination of the call, for management of inter-MSC hand over and supplementary services, and for collecting charging and accounting information. The MSC may be connected to other MSCs on the same network or to the PSTN.

Mobile Switching Centre The frequencies used vary according to the cellular network technology implemented. For GSM, 890 - 915 MHz range is used for transmission and 935 -960 MHz for reception. The DCS techology uses frequencies in the 1800MHz range while PCS in the 1900MHz range.

Each cell has a number of channels associated with it. These are assigned to subscribers on demand. When a Mobile Station (MS) becomes 'active' it registers with the nearest BS. The corresponding MSC stores the information about that MS and its position. This information is used to direct incoming calls to the MS. If during a call the MS moves to an adjacent cell then a change of frequency will necessarily occur - since adjacent cells never use the same channels. This procedure is called hand over and is the key to Mobile communications. As the MS is approaching the edge of a cell, the BS monitors the decrease in signal power. The strength of the signal is compared with adjacent cells and the call is handed over to the cell with the strongest signal. During the switch, the line is lost for about 400ms. When the MS is going from one area to another it registers itself to the new MSC. Its location information is updated, thus allowing MSs to be used outside their 'home' areas.

Data Communications is the exchange of data using existing communication networks. The term data covers a wide range of applications including File Transfer (FT), interconnection between Wide-Area-Networks (WAN), facsimile (fax), electronic mail, access to the internet and the World Wide Web (WWW).

switching.Mobile Communications Overview Data Communications have been achieved using a variety of networks such as PSTN. the position of the packet in the message as well as part of the actual message. and the Datagram system which allows packets to be sent at various . leased-lines and more recently ISDN (Integrated Services Data Network) and ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)/Frame Relay. There are many protocols defining the way packets can be send from the sender to the receiver. the receiver. Packet switching is an attempt to make better utilisation of the existing network by splitting the message to be sent into packets.t. which implies that packets have to be sent through the same path. packet switching e. The most widely used are the Virtual Circuit-Switching system. Circuit switching implies that data from one user (sender) to another (receiver) has to follow a prespecified path.c. Each packet contains information about the sender. the message can not be redirected . a property which causes many delays. These networks are partly or totally analogue or digital using technologies such as circuit . If a link to be used is busy .

the mobile data communications market is becoming dominated by a technology called CDPD. Cellular Digital Circuit Packet Data Switched (CDPD) Cellular Speed Security Ubiquity Cost of Service best best best best best better best better Specialized Mobile Radio (Extended) good good good better Proprietary Wireless Data Networks good better better good Cost of best Deployment Mobility best best good good better better good good good better Interoperabil best ity . Mobility implemented in data communications has a significant difference compared to voice communications. Therefore data can be transmitted from a mobile station under the assumption that it remains stable or within the same cell. 400ms is not only detectable but causes huge distortion to the message. The introduction of mobility in data communications required a move from the Public Switched Data Network (PSDN) to other networks like the ones used by mobile phones. Mobile phones allow the user to move around and talk at the same time. where reconstruction of the message will have to be done.paths depending on the network availability. Packet switching requires more equipment at the receiver. CDPD TECHNOLOGY : THE HOT COOKIE Today. PCSI has come up with an idea called CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) technology which uses the existing mobile network (frequencies used for mobile telephony). When it comes to data. As can be seen from the table below the CDPD technology is much more advantageous than the others. Specialised Mobile Radio and Wireless Data Networks. the loss of the connection for 400ms during the hand over is undetectable by the user. There are other alternatives to this technology namely Circuit Switched Cellular.

CDPD's principle lies in the usage of the idle time in between existing voice signals that are being sent across the cellular networks. Where CDPD is available data is split into packets and a packet switched network protocol is used to transport the packets across the network. This is known as Circuit Switched CDPD (CS-CDPD). if CDPD network facilities are nonexistent. The major advantage of this system is the fact that the idle time is not chargeable and so the cost of data transmission is very low. the user can. CDPD networks allow fixed or mobile users to connect to the network across a fixed link and a packet switched system respectively. CDPD networks have a network hierarchy with each level of the hierarchy doing its own specified tasks. connect to existing circuit switched networks and transmit data via these networks. . Circuit Switched CDPD Service coverage is a fundamental element of providing effective wireless solutions to users and using this method achieves this objective. Fixed users have a fixed physical link to the CDPD network. This may be regarded as the most important consideration by business individuals. This may be of either Datagram or Virtual Circuit Switching form. The data packets are inserted on momentarily unoccupied voice frequencies during the idle time on the voice signals. In the case of a mobile end user.

In each cell of the cellular reception area. there is a Mobile Data Base Station (MDBS) which is responsible for detection of idle time in voice channels. Voice signals are transmitted via a mobile phone connected to the RF Modem Unit. Using a single device such as a Personal Digital Assistant or personal computer which have been connected to a Radio Frequency (RF) Modem which is specially adapted with the antennae required to transmit data on the cellular network. for relaying data between the mobile units and the Mobile Data Intermediate Systems (MDIS). • Mobile Data Base Station (MDBS). . sending of packets of data onto the appropriate unoccupied frequencies as well as receiving data packets and passing them to the appropriate Mobile end user within its domain. the mobile end user can transmit both data and voice signals. a modified form of Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) at modulation index of 0. RF Modems transfer data in both forward and reverse channels using Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) modulation . o Detection of idle time.CDPD Overview The hierarchy consists of the following levels : • Mobile End User Interface.5 .

each of which has an average of 25 . Data packets are then relayed by MDBS to and from mobile end users and MDIS. One channel is for forward communication from the MDBS to the mobile units. This is known as channel hopping. Connection is made via a wideband trunk cable. the MDBS disconnects from the current air-link and finds another idle channel establishing a new link. These MDIS use a Mobile Network Location Protocol (MNLP) to exchange location information about Mobile end users within their domain.CD). Each mobile unit has a fixed home area but may . This channel is unique to each mobile unit and hence contentionless.30% of idle time. This protocol allows the collision of two data packets on a common channel to be detected so that the Mobile unit can be alerted by the MDBS to retry transmission at a later time. two mobile units sharing a reverse link cannot communicate to each other. If the sniffer detects two idle channels then the MDBS establishes two RF airlinks between the end user unit and itself.This is achieved using a scanning receiver(also known as sniffer) housed in the MDBS. The reverse channels are shared between a number of Mobile units and as a result. Although this scenario is very unlikely as each cell within the reception area has typically 57 channels. • Mobile Data Intermediate Systems (MDIS) Groups of MDBS that control each cell in the cellular network reception area are connected to a higher level entity in the network hierarchy. the MDBS can quickly detect if and when a voice signal is ramping up (requesting) this link and within the 40ms it takes for the voice signal to ramp up and get a link. the Mobile Data Intermediate Systems.CD) protocol which is similar to the protocol used in Ethernet communication which utilises Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA . Two channels are required to achieve bidirectional communications. The sniffer detects voice traffic by measuring the signal strength on a specific frequency. hence detecting an idle channel. When the situation occurs that all voice channels are at capacity. The speed at which the MDBS hops channels ensures that the CDPD network is completely invisible to the existing cellular networks and it doesn't interfere with transmission of existing voice channels. The MDIS maintains a database for each of the M-ES in its serving area. then extra frequencies specifically set aside for CDPD data can be utilised. Reverse channels are accessed using a Digital Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (DSMA . Once a link is established. o Relaying data packets between mobile units and networks.

In the reverse direction. • User Authentication . packets are routed directly to their destination and not necessarily through the mobile end users home MDIS. So. if a MDIS unit recieves a data packet addressed to a mobile unit that resides in its domain. it sends the data packet to the appropriate MDBS in its domain which will forward it as required. The ISs are the systems that provide the CDPD interface to the various computer and phone located in any area where reception is available. CDPD Network CDPD NETWORK RELIABILITY There are some actions that are necessary in order to obtain reliability over a network. where messages are from the Mobile end user. These systems are unaware of mobility of end-users. • Intermediate Systems (IS) MDIS are interconnected to these IS which form the backbone of the CDPD system. to allow access to other cellular carriers and external land. as this is hidden by lower levels of the network hierarchy. The MDIS units hide all mobility issues from systems in higher levels of the network hierarchy. They can be connected to routers that support Internet and Open Systems Interconnection Connectionless Network Services (OSI-CLNS).based networks. The IS's relay data between MDIS's and other IS's throughout the network. then the MDIS forwards the data packet to the appropriate MDIS using the forward channel. If the data packet is addressed to a mobile unit in another group of cells.

• Fraud Prevention Protection against impersonation of authorised users and fraudulent use of the network is required. thus avoiding delay and unnecessary use of the network in trying to call a switched off terminal. The Authentication Centre (AUC) provides the information to authenticate MSs using the network .2 Kilobits/second to the MDBS. to assist the MDBS and mobile units in synchronisation of bits. The CDPD architecture extends across layers one. supplementary services and the current or most recently used network and location area.6 Kilobits/second due to the extra redundant data that is added to transmitted packets. The transmitted data is also encrypted to maintain system security. supplementary services and location for a subscriber who is currently in. in order to guard against possible fraud . It may also record whether a subscriber is currently active . . Each data packet is encoded with the check data using a Reed-Solomon forward error correction code. The mobile end users handle the layer 4 functions (transport) and higher layers of the OSI model such as user interface. • Protection of user data All the signals within the network are encrypted and the identification key is never transmitted through the air. The data packets are transmitted at speeds of typically 19. or has very recently been . two and three of the OSI layer model. The Home Location Register (HLR) stores information relating the Mobile Station (MS) to its network. • User Anonymity Instead of the actual directory telephone number . a packet ordering number. The encoded sequence is then logically OR'ed with a pseudo-random sequence. The information needed for the above actions are stored in data bases. reciever address and in the case of Datagram Switching. This includes information for each MS on subscription levels .in that area. the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) number is used within the network to uniquely identify a mobile subscriber. but actual throughput may be as low as 9. Check data is also added to allow error correction if bits are incorrectly recieved. This ensures maximum network and data security. CDPD follows the OSI standard model for packet switched data communications. stolen subsciber cards . This information includes sender address.The procedure which checks if the identity of the subscriber transferred over the radio path corresponds with the details held in the network. or unpaid bills. The Visitor Location Register (VLR) stores information about subscription levels .

and with faster loan approvals. . The importance of Mobile Computers has been highlighted in many fields of which a few are described below: • For Estate Agents Estate agents can work either at home or out in the field. office or car when out with clients. since applications can be submitted on the spot. Information regarding the address. They can obtain current real estate information by accessing multiple listing services. Here the reliability and security implemented in the CDPD system would be of great advantage. mobile computers allow them to devote more time to clients.APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE COMPUTING The question that always arises when a business is thinking of buying a mobile computer is "Will it be worth it?" In many fields of work. Therefore. With mobile computers they can be more productive. They can provide clients with immediate feedback regarding specific homes or neighborhoods. • Emergency Services Ability to recieve information on the move is vital where the emergency services are involved. Efficient utilisation of resources (ie: staff) can mean substantial savings in transportation costs and other non quantifyable costs such as increased customer attention. the ability to keep on the move is vital in order to utilise time efficiently. type and other details of an incident can be dispatched quickly. which they can do from home. via a CDPD system using mobile computers. impact of on site maintenance and improved intercommunication within the business. to one or several appropriate mobile units which are in the vicinity of the incident.

where they can gather information on the case and related precedents. • Stock Information Collation/Control . Therefore mobile computers allow immediate access to a wealth of information. They can communicate with the office about possible new offers and call meetings for discussing responds to the new proposals. critical presentations to major customers. When the opposing counsel references a case which they are not familiar. real-time access to on-line legal database services. mobile computers can leverage competitive advantages. they can use the computer to get direct.Police Incident Information Screen • In courts Defense counsels can take mobile computers in court. making people better informed and prepared. At a small recess. • In companies Managers can use mobile computers in. they can revise the presentation to take advantage of this information. Therefore. They can access the latest market share information. say.

when customers use credit cards for transactions. This system is also extremely useful in secure deliveries ie: Securicor. which holds all stock information hence the need for transfer of data to the central computer at a later date is not necessary. . the intercommunication required between the bank central computer and the POS terminal. This ensures that from the time that a stock count is completed. the security and reliabilty properties of the CDPD system shine through. This can speed up the transaction process and relieve congestion at the POS terminals. The use of small portable electronic databases accessed via a mobile computer would be ideal. This allows a central computer to be able to track and recieve status information from all of its mobile secure delivery vans. in order to effect verification of the card usage. Again.In environments where access to stock is very limited ie: factory warehouses. can take place quickly and securely over cellular channels using a mobile computer unit. • Credit Card Verification At Point of Sale (POS) terminals in shops and supermarkets. • Taxi/Truck Dispatch Using the idea of a centrally controlled dispatcher with several mobile units (taxis). mobile computing allows the taxis to be given full details of the dispatched job as well as allowing the taxis to communicate information about their whereabouts back to the central dispatch office. there is no inconsistency between the data input on the portable computers and the central database. Data collated could be directly written to a central database. via a CDPD network.

as it allows him/her to keep in touch with any colleagues as well as any urgent developments that may affect their work. it may also be possible to have all the practicality of a mobile computer in the size of a hand held organizer or even smaller. the future of mobile computing looks increasingly exciting. Paging is also achievable here. giving even more intercommunication capability between individuals.Taxi Dispatch Network • Electronic Mail/Paging Usage of a mobile unit to send and read emails is a very useful asset for any business individual. THE FUTURE With the rapid technological advancements in Artificial Intelligence. using mobile computing technology. small mobile computers. . Integrated Circuitry and increases in Computer Processor speeds. Access to the Internet. allows the individual to have vast arrays of knowledge at his/her fingertips. using a single mobile computer device. With the emphasis increasingly on compact.

Use of Artificial Intelligence may allow mobile units to be the ultimate in personal secretaries. which can receive emails and paging messages. and change the individuals personal schedule according to the message. This can then be checked by the individual to plan his/her day. as shown below. rather than commuting. even in social spheres. This mobility aspect may be carried further in that. technologies such as Interactive television and Video Image Compression already imply a certain degree of mobility in the home. Using the mobile data communication technologies discussed. rapidly improves and. trends are very much towards ubiquitous or mobile computing. understand what they are about. causing detriment to society. home shopping etc. locked to their mobile stations. people will interact via mobile stations. with the majority of people working from home. This may be beneficial to the environment as less transportation will be utilised. ie. The working lifestyle will change. The future of Mobile Computing is very promising indeed. especially in the field of mobile data communications. This scary concept of a world full of inanimate zombies sitting. this mobility may be pushed to extreme. accessing every sphere of their lives via the computer screen becomes ever more real as technology. GLOSSARY CDPD Cellular Digital Packet Data . Major Trends in Computing Indeed. eliminating the need to venture outside of the house. although technology may go too far.

Circuit Switching Cellular Digital Packet Data Radio Frequency Minimum Shift Keying Frequency Shift Keying Mobile Data Base Station Mobile Data Intermediate Systems DSMADigital Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection CD CSMACD MNLP M-ES IS Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Mobile Network Location Protocol Mobile End Systems Intermediate System .NMT AMPS GSM DCS PCS PSTN BS MSC MS WAN ISDN ATM PSDN PCSI CSCDPD RF MSK FSK MDBS MDIS Nordic Mobile Telephone Advanced Mobile Phone Services Global System Mobile Digital Communication System Personal Communication System Public Switched Telephone Network Base Station Mobile Switching Centre Mobile Station Wide Area Network Integrated Services Data Network Asynchronous Transfer Mode Public Switched Data Network Pacific Communication Systems Inc.

As a user moves around. PCS is designed for greater user mobility. Technically. 1. The "personal" in PCS distinguishes this service from cellular by emphasizing that. unlike cellular.Connectionless Network Services International Mobile Subscriber Identity Home Location Register Authentication Centre Visitor Location Register Point of Sale Module-1: Introduction to PCS: PCS (personal communications service) is a wireless phone service similar to cellular telephone service but emphasizing personal service and extended mobility. PCS operates in the1850-1990 MHz bands. PCS is for mobile users and requires a number of antennas to blanket an area of coverage. The phone itself is slightly smaller than a cellular phone.5. which was designed for car phone use and coverage of highways and roads.OSICLNS IMSI HLR AUC VLR POS Open Systems Interconnection . and Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). It generally requires more cell transmitters for coverage. including Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). Several technologies are used for PCS in the United States. cellular systems in the United States operate in the 824-849 megahertz (MHz) frequency bands. According to Sprint. GSM is more commonly used in Europe and elsewhere. PCS is now available to 230 million people. but has the advantage of fewer blind spots. Like cellular. It's sometimes referred to as digital cellular (although cellular systems can also be digital). the user's phone signal is picked Learn More • Topics Archive up by the nearest antenna and then forwarded to a base station that connects to the wired network. Personal communication systems .

entertainment. Introduction to Mobility Mobility has been the hallmark of all animate and living entities in nature. Physical entities are small. Since they use the higher 1900-MHz band.1. Logical entities may be either the running user applications (processes) that migrate within a local cluster of computers or mobile agents. The common features of these systems are as follows: 1. They are based on a second-generation technology like GSM (global system for mobile communication). PCS Architecture 1. Thus. IS-136 or IS-95. Animals move from place to place. etc. mobility is becoming important and necessary. that is. Similarly. Today. As in nature. use smaller cell sizes. early humans migrated from their natural habitats in search for food. an inexpensive. 3. so also in the field of computer science. to communicate with a PCS base station (BS).A personal communication system (PCS) is a generic name for a commercial system that offers several kinds of personal communication services and extended mobility. travel. . both physical and logical entities can move. Alternatively. It was deployed in the USA in 1996. lightweight and portable handset. unlike early systems.1. mobility stems from a desire to move towards resources and away from scarcity. A typical PCS architecture is shown in Figure 1. A PCS employs a mobile station (MS). migrating to find food and shelter. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) defines PCS as a mobile and wireless service that can be integrated with different networks to provide a wide variety of mobile and wireless services to individuals and business organizations. an MS needs more power. which were bulky in size and therefore immobile. Figure 1. mobile computers that can change their actual location. humans move in search of better employment. to cable TV and limited Internet access. This is because higher frequencies have a shorter range than lower ones. Today. which are network applications that migrate in a network and execute on behalf of their owners anywhere in the Internet. it can be said that the BS and the MS need to be closer to each other. They offer a whole spectrum of communication services ranging from an ordinary cell phone. short message service (SMS). 2.

1. This issue has been dealt with admirably by the development of two protocols—mobile Internet protocol (IP) and cellular IP. mobility of physical devices can be viewed at three different levels of granularity. These are as follows: 1. In other words. Micro-mobility: This is mobility of a device in one single administrative domain of the global network. Cellular IP is the protocol designed to take care of micro-mobility. palmtops and other handheld devices like personal digital assistants (PDAs) and digital cell phones. in mobile computers since the 1980s and in mobile agents from the 1990s. Ubiquitous computing: This is the term coined by Mark Weiser and refers to the scenario when computers are present everywhere around us but have been rendered so small and cheap that they fade into the background. There are basically three issues of concern in physical mobility. even to small computing devices such as laptops. 3. it should be possible to communicate without breaking the existing access. For cellular networks. Mobile computing Mobile computing is computing that allows continuous access to remote resources. which will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5. Macro-mobility: This is mobility through a global network. This is also called pervasive computing. These are given below and have been dealt with in various ways by various researchers. Wireless connectivity: When a computer moves between cells in a wireless network or from one computer network to another. 2. we shall briefly discuss these concepts and their benefits and challenges for deployment.The concept of mobility in the field of computer science has thus been chronologically provided in process migration since the 1970s. Mobile computing has become possible with the rapid advances in very-large-scale integration (VLSI) and digital/wireless communication technologies. this is the lowest level of mobility. We shall introduce these issues in this chapter but discuss details in subsequent chapters. 2. the handoff should be smooth. Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are examples of such ubiquitous or pervasive computing. While moving in such a network. In this chapter. it is required to continue operating without having to re-register in the new location. Thus. The challenge is how a computer can operate when disconnected from the network or intermittently connected or connected over very slow communication links. and are discussed in detail in Chapter 7. we shall read about mobile IP. Weak connectivity: It is a well-known fact that wireless communication suffers from frequent disconnection and slow speeds. We shall come back to visit them in detail in subsequent chapters. which is the protocol that takes care of macromobility. and this will also be discussed in Chapter 5. . as compared with wired communication. both of which are discussed in detail in Chapter 5. This issue has been taken up in the CODA file system. In Chapter 5. 1.2.

Thus. over the years. software distribution. They require agent environments. Mobile agents are used to great advantage in applications like e-commerce. 1. information retrieval. but also for the lay person. If a wireless phone cannot connect from a specific area. We discuss some of these briefly below. are being increasingly deployed worldwide. Many mobile agent systems have been developed and reported in the literature. enables movement of the programming environment and application. system administration. 1. Unlike mobile code (applets). mobile agents carry data and thread of control. mobile computing. data integrity and privacy. prevention of denial of service and non-repudiation. As a result. as it represents and acts on the owner’s behalf by inheriting the owner’s authority. Since it is possible to use computer resources while moving. network management. as we have seen from the above discussion. It may be . It can be seen from the above that there is much commonality between the three kinds of mobility discussed above. both the owner and the computer move to provide both qualitative and quantitative benefits. Researchers have. Technical issues for mobility Mobile systems. like process migration. we have numerous technologies that can be used to advantage. because in this information age. Whatever the type of mobility. Security includes user authentication. A major benefit with mobile computing is that the use of computers is increased. etc. having continuous access is imperative for everyone on the go. Mobile agents may not have sufficient resources or connectivity from one host and may move to another host. This is very important. But there are many challenges and technical issues of concern here. not only for computer professionals.4. They are well suited for slow and unreliable links and also provide fault tolerance. users can take the computer away from its usual workplace and still be productive. An agent is different from a user application. since there is physical movement towards a desired resource. caused by device mobility constantly changing the network topology. the benefits of mobile computing are obvious. Detailed discussions are given in subsequent chapters. developed various means and mechanisms to deploy the above concepts to real-life situations. Mobile agents A mobile agent is a program that can move through a network and autonomously execute tasks on behalf of the users.3. acting like docking stations. Since mobile agents also migrate towards a source of information or towards a computer that they manage. Agent Tcl and PMADE (platform for mobile agent development and execution). These are as follows: 1. they provide great flexibility and can mean easier reconfiguration or improved reliability. Ad hoc mobility: This is mobility within a mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Some of the more well-known systems are Aglets. Security is the biggest challenge for mobility. Here.3. moving to a new area can overcome natural obstacles. to execute and are supported on top of a programming environment like a Java virtual machine (JVM). We shall study MANETs in Chapter 7 and visit several ad hoc routing protocols therein.

scalability and reliability have been provided by the presence of numerous mobile agent systems that have been developed in recent years. The existing security infrastructure is designed only to protect stationary systems and thus needs to be adapted or modified for use in mobile systems. Standardization has been provided in the form of CORBA (common object request broker architecture) and the MASIF (mobile agent system interoperability facility) standard. Similarly. 3. since the former can be guarded by intrusion detection systems and firewalls. Security of mobile systems is the subject of Chapter 11. Without locating a mobile object. among others. etc. wireless access protocol (WAP). replication and check-pointing. 3. and all recycling is to be done with great care. . In fact. in terms of availability of resources. Naming is to be associated with authentication. Communication channels must be reconstructed after every movement. communication with it or its control is not possible. denial of access/service. For example. kill or recall it. it is both a technical issue and a benefit for mobility. message-queuing and fault-tolerance tools need to be provided. remote method invocation (RMI). Infrastructure support for transparent movement of entities from one location to another on the Internet and for issues of performance. data corruption. The latter provides more security holes that have to be plugged. Trojan horses. file-hoarding. wireless technologies provide support for mobile computing. Reliability. Controlling a mobile entity is necessary to check its status or to suspend. with the development of many wireless protocols like Bluetooth. Naming and locating are common issues for all forms of mobility. object serialization and mobile code are all very useful for process migration and mobile agents. These include problems like unauthorized access. in the presence of disconnection.appreciated that it is easier to provide security for a stationary system as compared to a mobile one. 1. which allow for interoperable systems to be built and used worldwide. spoofing. Similarly. Java as a language offers many concepts that are directly useful for mobile systems. is also a major issue for mobile systems. 4. replaying and eavesdropping. 2. the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) standards. Reliability can be improved by mobility but needs additional support in the form of caching and loading of state. 2.

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