Tunnel Engineering

COWI A/S
COWI A/S is a leading international consultancy firm, founded in 1930. COWI is a privately owned professional firm entirely independent of any manufacturer, supplier or contractor. The COWI Foundation is the majority shareholder. The foundation supports research and development in various fields of consultancy activities. The head office is located in Kongens Lyngby, a suburb about 12 km north of Denmark’s capital Copenhagen. COWI is a highly versatile and multidisciplinary firm providing services of highest quality in the fields of engineering, environmental science and social economics. COWI employs around 3,300 staff, of which 1,400 are based outside Denmark in subsidiaries, branch offices or project offices. 2,100 employees are professionals holding Ph.D., M.Sc. or B.Sc. degrees in civil, structural, geotechnical, mechanical or electrical engineering and other academic areas such as geology, hydrology, chemistry, biology, agronomy, sociology, economics and planning. The annual turnover is at present (2004) 350 million Euro. More than half of the turnover of the company is generated outside Denmark in more than 100 countries around the world.
Transportation

COWI has more than 70 years experience in transportation consultancy covering all phases of infrastructure projects from initial planning and feasibility studies over design, construction and commissioning to maintenance management and rehabilitation. More than 8000 km of roads and railway lines with belonging bridges and tunnels of all types and sizes have been constructed in accordance with COWI’s designs.
Tunnel Consultancy

Fields of Consulting Services by COWI Nature • Natural resources management • Environmental policy and regulation • Environmental protection • Coastal Engineering Society • Welfare economics and services • Public administration • Social development and HRD • Urban and regional development • Development assistance • Cadastre and land administration • Geographical information systems and IT Mapping Transport • Transport planning and management • Roads • Airports • Railways and metros • Tunnels • Bridges • Ports and marine structures Buildings • Residential buildings • Educational buildings • Hospitals and health buildings • Cultural and sports buildings • Commercial buildings Industry • Industrial buildings • Production and processing plants • Oil and gas • Health, safety and environment • Environmental and social due diligence

COWI has provided cost-effective designs of tunnels for more than 50 years for clients all over the world. COWI is currently involved in some 20-30 tunnel projects worldwide and the consultancy activities occupy almost 100 engineers and other professionals generating an annual turnover in the order of 10 million Euro.

Anton Petersen Vice President, Bridge, Tunnel and Marine Structures +45 4597 2888 ape@cowi.com

Torsten Mølgaard Head of Department, Tunnels and Underground Structures +45 4597 2889 tm@cowi.com

Utilities • Municipal and hazardous waste • Water and wastewater • Energy planning and systems • Telecommunication

Photo: Morten Larsen

rail or utilities. Clients Feasibility phase • Ideas generation and evaluation 3 • Feasibility studies • Studies of infrastructure needs • Alignment studies • Cost estimation (considering uncertainties) • Construction and procurement scheduling • Environmental impact assessment Design phase • Design management • Establishment of design basis • Fire safety and evacuation analyses • Natural hazard analyses (storm water. Tunnel Projects knowledge for which we are internationally renowned.Consultancy services and expertises covering all project phases: Tunnel Consultancy Working with Tunnels Main types of tunnels and areas of use TBM bored tunnels • Tunnels in congested cities for road. TBM-tunnelling under high water pressure and in soft ground. channels and harbour basins • Alternative to bridge crossing to ensure unobstructed navigation Cut and cover tunnels • Shallow tunnels in urban areas with moderate surface constraints • Approaches to bored or immersed tunnels Rock and NATM tunnels • Tunnels with irregular or varying cross section shape • Short tunnels under mountains or deep waters where the cost of a TBM makes TBM construction prohibitive COWI’s longstanding experience with all phases of tunnel design and construction ensures the development of individual and optimal tunnel solutions with a long and efficient service life. Quality Management COWI have been involved in tunnel projects all over the world. cut & cover tunnels. All design activities are carried out in accordance with individual project quality plans tailored to meet the specific requirements of each project. tunnel ventilation and safety systems can be mentioned. Our services range from professional advice on a specific problem to comprehensive planning and total engineering design and implementation of large scale projects. This knowledge is then reused. long-term durability of structures. We advocate for a close dialogue with the contractor (BOT and design-build projects) in order to optimize the design and construction. rock and NATM tunnels. Services and Expertises COWI have established an internal Quality Assurance system. immersed tunnels. • Sub-aqueous tunnels for crossing of deep waterways • Long tunnels under mountains Immersed tunnels • Tunnels for crossing of waters of limited depth such as rivers.) • Durability design • Civil and structural design • M&E installations • Operational risk assessment • Relocation of utilities from construction area Authority and public phase • Authority approval management • Property consultancy • Land acquisition management • Archaeological consultancy • Public consultation Tender phase • Development of tender design and dossiers • Management of tender procedures • Bid design • Value engineering • Preparation of contract for construction Construction phase • Construction management • Quality. when we design for tunnel owners.com Operation and maintenance (O&M) • O&M management system • Inspection of structures and installations • Ranking of maintenance and reinvestment needs • Repair and strengthening design . COWI’s services cover the whole life cycle of a project from the early ideas to the operation phase and rehabilitation or decommissioning. including bored tunnels. which is ISO 9001 certified. Our involvement in complex and demanding tunnel projects over the years has led to the development of particular in-house Michael Bindseil Chief Project Manager +45 4597 2947 mhb@cowi. environmental and safety management • Construction risk assessment • Building damage survey and monitoring • Interface coordination • Programme and budget control • Site supervision • Contract and claims management COWI work for tunnel owners as well as for contractors. Our experience covers all types of tunnels.com Søren Degn Eskesen Research and Development Manager +45 4597 2554 sde@cowi. flooding. Our experience includes a number of world class tunnel projects such as the TBM bored 8 km long railway tunnel for the Great Belt Fixed Link in Denmark with the rails 75 m below sea level and the 4 km long immersed tunnel for a 4-lane motorway for the BusanGeoje Fixed Link in Korea with the road 50 m below sea level. seismic action etc.

ice action and vessel traffic is a demanding task. Some of the technical and practical challenges related to the planning. Therefore. The dredging and the towing out and immersion operations in waterways with heavy currents and vessel traffic are critical and failure can lead to serious cost escalation and extensive construction delay. Durability of Tunnel Structures Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) for construction of sub-aqueous bored tunnels exposed to the extreme conditions with regard to water pressure and difficult grounds have to be de- Sub-aqueous tunnels are subject to extraordinary conditions with regard to outside pressure and chemical aggressivity. COWI’s in-house experienced geotechnical specialists are conversant with such conditions.4 Sub-aqueous Tunnels General The construction of tunnels under wide and deep waterways requires special consideration to the design as well as the execution.or riverbed. Great Belt Tunnel Denmark . special measures with regard to avoiding or delaying the development of concrete deterioration and reinforcement corrosion needs to be considered. Offshore Geotechnical Survey signed to cope with these conditions as failure of TBM performance can lead to serious cost escalation and extensive construction delay. wave action. ���������������� ������ ���������� ���������� ���� ���������� ���������� ������������������� �������� �� �� �� ���� �������������������� ������������� ������������ ������� ��������� ���� ��������� �� ������������� ������������ ������� �������������������� Longitudinal Profile. COWI has many years of experience in designing sub-aqueous tunnels. design and construction are mentioned in the following. Bored Tunnel Construction An immersed tunnel consists of prefabricated elements which are towed out and immersed into a dredged canal in the sea. Immersed Tunnel Construction Offshore geotechnical surveys in waterways with strong currents.

telecommunication system. SCADA system etc. special measures are required for sub-aqueous tunnels in order to meet the safety requirements from the authorities. fire fighting system. The long distances in a sub-sea tunnel between ventilation intakes and outlets place special requirements on the design of the ventilation system.5 Tunnel Ventilation The ventilation shall ensure the comfort in the tunnel during daily operation as well as controlling smoke and providing fresh air to the tunnel during an emergency situation. Safety Measures As surface access is not feasible at long distances. COWI has experience in design and optimization of all parts of the safety system including ventilation system. Photo: Steen Brogaard . emergency lighting.

is an extra challenge. TBM tunnels are used both in urban and non-urban areas in a soft soil and sub-aqueous environment. or shorter tunnels in relative competent ground conditions where the ground can be drained during construction. During recent years is has become possible to built larger diameter TBM bored tunnels.6 Large Diameter and Soft Soil Tunnels General Tunnels in soft soil are often constructed as bored tunnels. Bored tunnelling techniques cover both tunnels constructed by the use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) and tunnels constructed by hand tools and machines. rail tunnels. The former is during construction able to counterbalance the ground and water pressures in front of the TBM by the use of one or two screws between the cutter head and the conveyer belt. when the use of cut & cover tunnel techniques is not possible or too costly an option. with the very large concrete lining segments. This has opened the market for bored road tunnels significantly. The mixed slurry is then pumped out of the tunnel where the bentonite and the excavated material are separated again. risk of settlements etc. The larger diameter tunnels involve larger challenges during construction in terms of TBM operation. using an observational approach with temporary support of the excavation. mainly due to improved technology and the development of larger diameter TBMs. as road tunnels often require a Tunnels constructed by a TBM are typically circular and used in soft ground for longer tunnels. The latter uses a technique where bentonite slurry is pumped into the cutterhead and mixed with the excavated material. This system also provides stability in front of the TBM during tunnel construction. Tunnel Boring Machines greater cross section than e. but also ring building. The latter is often called NATM tunnels (New Austrian Tunnelling Method). due to the larger volumes of ground being excavated. NATM Bored Tunnels NATM bored tunnels are often used for construction of non-circular tunnels. TBM Bored Tunnels Two typical TBM types are the Earth Pressure Balance (EPB) machine and the Slurry machine.g. The NATM cross-section can be excavated in sections to suit the actual conditions. Compared to NATM tunnels. TBM bored tunnels can be constructed in less competent ground and where water pressures are high or impossible to drain. TBM bored tunnels are typically lined with a prefabricated segmental concrete lining. but also bi-directional rail tunnels are now possible to construct. . and excavations are temporarily lined with a primary lining consisting of shotcrete.. The permanent secondary internal lining is built as an in-situ cast concrete lining.

Photo: Ørestadsselskabet / Rene Strandbygaard 7 .

g. local standards and requirements for pollution level in the exhaust air to protect the neighbouring environment.g.or semi-transverse ventilation concept could be introduced creating fresh air supply and extraction of polluted air at certain points. thermodynamics and fire simulations will be carried out during the various design phases. so normally mechanical ventilation is only required for diluting the pollutants during lower traffic speed operation and during fire situations. 4 km the longitudinal ventilation method is not feasible and transverse or semitransverse ventilation systems could be introduced. Ventilation Systems Longitudinal ventilation can be achieved using jet fans in the tunnel profile or axial fans in either shafts along the tunnel or in plant rooms at the tunnel portals. The capability of the various systems and the choice of system depend on the fresh air requirement calculations. Ventilation Design Ventilation calculations such as aerodynamics. cross-overs or bifurcations. cross-section. functionality. For longer tunnels a fully.). The road traffic itself will provide a full or partly ventilation of the tunnel depending on the travel speed. Normally for road tunnels longer than approx. In tropical regions additional tunnel cooling will often be required e. which are based on the estimated traffic conditions. . This leads to longitudinal ventilation provided by a push-pull concept using ventilation plants at adjacent stations or intermediate shafts sometimes combined with exhaust from larger caverns as e. This requires ventilation ducts along the tunnel. emission from vehicle. to provide acceptable operation conditions for train air-condition units to secure the comfort of the passengers. alignment.8 Ventilation Systems for Long Tunnels Ventilation of tunnels is one of the most important features to provide a functional. comfortable and safe tunnel environment for road tunnels as well as railway tunnels. The optimal tunnel ventilation concept should be chosen considering safety. intermediate ventilation shafts etc. construction and operation costs. Tunnel Ventilation Methods The methods for providing the required ventilation during normal operation or emergency operation depend on the actual conditions (tunnel length. For railway systems the ventilation method is normally determined by the emergency scenarios to control the smoke during a fire. During normal and congested traffic the tunnel ventilation will be operated to control the temperature in the tunnels. protection of the environment.

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including the following. SES FLAC is a finite difference program widely used for modelling in geotechnical and tunnelling design. slab. structural analysis and verification of engineering structures and generation of construction drawings. IBDAS FLAC PLAXIS PLAXIS is a finite element program specifically developed for numerical analysis of geotechnical and underground structures. ROBOT Subway Environmental Simulation software tool for estimation of airflows. ABAQUS CFD Computional Fluid Dynamics software tool for modelling of physical phenomena in flow and heat transfer and fires in confined spaces. COWI use a number of computerised tools in our structural designs. shell and 3D structures. which allows for geometrical modelling. ROBOT is a finite element program for analysis and design of beam. ABAQUS is one of the leading multi-purpose finite element programs for a wide spectrum of numerical analysis in engineering and natural science. .10 Tunnel Design Tools Advanced and reliable design tools are a prerequisite for carrying out an optimised tunnel design. IBDAS is an integrated design and analysis software tool developed at COWI. temperatures humidity and air-conditioning requirements for subway systems. truss.

�� �������������� ��������������� ��������� �� � �� � �� �� �� ��� � � � �� �� �� �� ��� ����� �������������� ����������� ����������� ����������� ����������� Carola Edvardsen Senior Specialist +45 4597 2813 cle@cowi. service life design. in re-design of existing tunnels. This surpasses by far the assumed design life following most codes and standards. the Middle East and Gulf countries. Selected positions have been the initiation and management of the European research projects DuraCrete. Thus. operation and maintenance of exposed reinforced concrete structures. Tunnels are usually now to be designed for 100. and in the Far Eastern Countries. can be carried out by following the same load-and-resistance factor design concept as known for structural design. The Netherlands. based on functional requirements. UK. Germany. All uncertainties of the environmental exposure. and chairing all durability related activities within the international organisations of CEB (Comité Euro-international du Béton) and now fib (Fédération Internationale du Béton). the material properties. COWI has been spearheading the international research and technical development of the rational service life design of concrete structures.com . Implementation in actual projects ������������������ �� This new methodology has been adopted by national authorities and individual clients in countries such as Norway. reliability based service life design is implemented in most new designs. and the deterioration modelling are taken into account. DuraNet and DARTS. Internationally COWI provide the only available reliability based service life design methodology against chloride and carbonation induced reinforcement corrosion. Internationally recognised expertise and experience COWI’s recognised leading position within durability design and concrete technology is based on more than 40 years worldwide experience within the design. as well as in several former Eastern European countries. 120 or even 200 years service life. North America. This contributes optimally to the societal demands for a sustainable built environment. Sweden. and in strategic planning of maintenance and repairs. Spain.Service Life Design of Tunnels COWI is spearheading the international development of service life design of tunnels Sustainability achieved through reliability based service life design 11 The modern.

safety responsibilities and the activities required to document that the safety goals have been met. This may include simulations of fire development and smoke spread as well as simulation of evacuation scenarios. For significant hazards design and construction methods should be re-evaluated and risk mitigations should be considered in order to reduce risks to an acceptable level. For significant hazards detailed risk assessment should be carried out as basis for the design decisions. Operational Risk The safety policy describes the overall safety goals for the tunnel owner or tunnel project. Risk Assessment. both during construction and during operation of the completed tunnel. which shall be implemented to ensure adequate safety during operation of the completed tunnel. COWI has many years of experience in Risk Management. Safety Plan An overall risk assessment should be carried out in order to identify all types of risk during operation of the tunnel. This fact is evident from the major accidents. which has established a risk guideline for design of tunnels. ITA. Risk Assessment. Safety Policy The safety concept is a description of the main features of tunnel design and operation. This policy should be established as the starting point for the risk management activities. COWI has also led a workgroup within the International Tunnelling Association. which have occurred in recent years. An overall risk assessment should be carried out in order to identify all types of risk during construction of the tunnel.12 Risk Management of Tunnels Risk management is essential in tunnel design and construction Safety Concept In tunnels there is a potential for major accidents. . Construction Risk The safety plan describes the framework of the risk management process including project organisation. The concept should be developed early in the design process to serve as basis for initial project approval and for the detailed design. It is therefore important that systematic risk management is implemented in tunnel projects in order to ensure an adequate level of safety in a cost-efficient way.

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Special emergency double swing doors are developed and comprehensively tested. three-storey portal buildings contain facilities for operating the mechanical and electrical installations in the tunnels.56 percent.40 m thick bolted rings of seven precast reinforced concrete segments. They are equipped with safety doors and stores electrical and mechanical equipment required for operation of the railway. The marl is fissured with hydraulic pressures of up to 8 bar. Portals and Ramps The two. Denmark The railway tunnel is one out of the three major components of the Great Belt Link.14 Great Belt Tunnel. Alignment and Geology Cross Passages The 4. the rails are 75 m below sea level. It allowed the tunnel boring to be carried out at reduced water pressure and it allowed cross passages to be constructed safely using minor additional local dewatering.7 m internal diameter main tunnels were constructed from both sides by four Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) with an outer diameter of 8. High ground water chloride and sulphate levels combined with a hydrostatic pressure of up to 8 bar have required provision of several barriers against corrosion. The tunnels are lined with 1. and then in the central glacial erosion channel more steeply to a maximum of about 55 m.65 m wide and 0.1997 Client A/S Storebæltsforbindelsen (Great Belt A. including epoxy coating of the fully welded reinforcement cages. cut & cover tunnel sections at each end terminated by portals and permanently drained ramps. The maximum gradient is 1. The cross passages serve as emergency routes between the two main tunnels.MHAI JV Along the tunnel alignment.410 m long main tunnel bores with cross passages each 250 m. the water depths increase gradually from each side to about 20 m. At the deepest point.5 m internal diameter cross passages. The tunnels are situated in layered strata of tills and marls. The project includes two 7. The till incorporates melt water deposits containing water at pressures up to 4 bar and granite boulders. are constructed of spheroid graphite cast iron rings each 0.14 m at the portal building. . Bored Tunnels Tunnel Ventilation and E&M Longitudinal tunnel ventilation is provided by 80 nos. The ramps are constructed as permanently drained open ramps to level . of jet fans in each tunnel tube. A revolutionary use of large scale dewatering of the soil strata below the sea bottom contributed significantly to the safety and the progress of the tunnelling works.) Construction Cost USD 1 billion The two parallel 7.6 m wide consisting of 18 segments.75 m. Seabed Dewatering • Tender design • Tender evaluation • Detailed design of structures and mechanical installations • Design follow-up during construction • Site supervision Project Period 1987 . Services by COWI .S.

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40 m Jungjuk Daejuk . Ltd. Services by COWI .3 km Jeo 1.DEC JV • Basic design • Detailed design for tunnels • Detailed design for mechanical and electrical works • Follow-up during construction Project Period 2003 . Furthermore.2010 Client Daewoo Engineering & Construction Co. Construction Costs Approx. The centre section of the tunnel.Geoje Immersed Tunnel. the tunnel is founded on very week ground which is a challenge to the foundation design. A state of the art traffic control system (Intelligent Transport System .9 km 0.2 km motorway connecting Busan. USD 1 billion Immersed Tunnel Installations The cross-section of the immersed tunnel is designed for two-lane traffic with emergency and climbing lane where appropriate due to the 5% gradient. the smoke extraction duct and the emergency escape route.400 m is an immersed tunnel – one of the longest in the world – and two cable-stayed bridges each 2 km in length. of jet fans in each tunnel tube as well as an additional smoke extraction system.3 km 3.7 km Gaduk 120 m 80 m 40 m 0m . The tunnel consists of 18 pre-cast tunnel elements placed in a dredged trench at a maximum water depth of 50 metres – the first time in the world that an immersed tunnel is constructed at such depth. between the motorway lanes.16 Busan .ITS) is developed covering the whole link. 90 nos. 2. The connection includes a 4 km tunnel of which 3. Geoje The tunnel ventilation concept is chosen as longitudinal ventilation including approx. will contain the E&M services. to the island of Geoje. Korea’s southernmost and second largest city. Korea The Busan . The escape gallery will be pressurized by axial fans in the ventilation buildings in order to secure safe evacuation routes and avoid smoke spread to the non-incident tunnel.Geoje Fixed Link involves the construction of an 8.0 km 0.

Triangeln Station Services by SWECO-COWI JV • Conceptual studies of structures and E&M systems • Support to environmental hearing • Client’s tender design of tunnels and station structures • Detailed design of station internals and finishes • Design follow-up during construction Project Period 1999 . 230 m long cut & cover bifurcation tunnel passes under a harbour bridge and connect to the bored main tunnels. a 360 m long twin tube cut & cover tunnel and a 390 m permanently drained open ramp bring the alignment to the surface.25 billion Triangeln station is a two-track station with a central 14. The bored tunnels will be excavated by two Earth Pressure Balance TBMs. the existing station. .2011 Client Banverket (Swedish National Rail Administration) Construction Cost USD 1. CCTV and fire alarm systems in order to ensure safety during railway operation. approximately half way on the bored tunnel section. Tunnels 17 The two parallel 4. 13 cross passages connect the two main tunnels every 300-400 metres. West of the station the railway is brought to the surface via a 340 m long ramp. which will have to be pulled through the Trianglen station.Malmö Citytunnel. East of the station a The tunnels and underground stations are monitored and controlled by SCADA. Sweden A railway tunnel under the central part of Malmö linking the present central station with the Øresund link between Sweden and Denmark is being constructed. The cross-sectional area of the cavern is approximately 320 m². At the southern end. which requires special works and provisions during construction. The platform is 250 m long and located 25 m below ground surface.6 km long bored tunnels are 7. Monitoring and Control Malmö Central Station The central station is a four-track double box cut and cover structure with a 325 m long platform located 10 m below ground.5 m wide platform. The cavern will be supported by a central row of columns. Two of the cross passages will be combined with emergency access shafts situated approximately at the quarter points of the tunnels.9 m internal diameter tunnels with pre-cast concrete segmental lining. The proximity of the harbour. The station platform will be situated in a large NATM cavern constructed from two 30 metres diameter shafts. other existing buildings and utilities and the groundwater requirements create a complex groundwater situation. The station will connect to the town square via escalators at both ends of the platform.

On the southern bank a ramp of 150 m combined with an embankment through Bunlicky Clayfield Pond is anticipated. A large sedimentation basin is envisaged for dredged material on the northern bank. Ireland The Limerick Southern Ring Road will provide an east-west bypass of the Limerick City for both regional and local traffic. Limerick Corporation. high level fixed bridge and immersed tunnel) have been considered with due consideration of environmental and aesthetic constraints and the soil conditions. A number of crossing options (low level opening bridge. organic clays and very hard limestone. The project is being tendered as a PPPproject with award of contract for construction and operation & maintenance expected in early 2006. casting basins and sedimentation ponds • Tender design • Tender evaluation • Design follow-up Project period 1999 . The works entail major excavations/dredging and foundation of structures in very soft. Immersed Tunnel Installations Safe egress has been in focus and a forceful tunnel ventilation system will be provided.2010 Client Limerick County Council. cut and cover tunnels and ramp sections • Design basis for tunnel works • Proposals for temporary structures.ITS) is developed covering the whole ring road. E&M systems as well as a state of the art traffic control system (Intelligent Transport System . route selection and conceptual design • Conceptual design for immersed tunnels. The ring road shall pass the Shannon River and allow unrestricted shipping traffic to the Ted Russel Dock in Limerick. Clare Council. A temporarily drained open ramp of approximately 150 m will be used as a construction dock for the tunnel elements on the northern bank. Services by MCOS – COWI JV • Constraints study. National Roads Authority The preferred option is a tunnel comprising a dual tube immersed concrete tunnel with a length of about 600 m.18 Limerick Immersed Tunnel. .

41. Sweden The Hallandsås Tunnel is part of the expansion of the railway network in the western part of Sweden. The work commenced in the early 1990’s but was stopped in 1997 due to severe water inflows and environmental problems.350 tons. Each ring consists of 8 segments. Part of the preparation for high-speed trains is the construction of two single-track tunnels trough the Hallandsås ridge.600 m long with connecting tunnels at 500 m intervals. and the tunnel construction will now be carried out with TBMs instead of the first attempted drill and blast techniques. 19 Services by COWI • Supervision tunnel boring machines • Supervision Segmental Lining Project Period 2002 . The work re-commenced in 2002. COWI was awarded the key positions in the supervision of the Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) and the tunnel lining concrete production.000 tunnel segments will have to be installed. involves the increase of capacity from one to two tracks along the western coastline of Sweden and preparing the railway network for high-speed trains. The TBMs are going to be 210 m long including the service module.Hallandsås TBM Tunnel. The two single-track tunnels will each be 8.5 m and weight 1.2011 Client Banverket (Swedish National Railway Administration) . This expansion. have an outer diameter of 10. which is planned by Banverket (Swedish National Railway Administration).

Denmark Copenhagen Metro is the first underground mass rapid transport system to be in operation in Denmark. It is expected that planning and design of the Circle Line will continue from 2006 and it is anticipated that the new line can be opened for operation in 2017. In the outer sections where the alignment raises the tunnels are located in mixed faces of limestone and a clayed sandy till. NATM tunnelling was used at few locations where non-circular cross-sections were required. NATM tunnelling and Cut & Cover tunnels • Segmental linings. providing emergency exits per maximum 300 m. shotcrete linings. steel linings and waterproofing systems • Conceptual design • Preparation of tender documents including a reference project • Tender evaluation and contract negotiation. cross passages and for deeper parts of the emergency shafts which were excavated in limestone. all underground with 16-17 deep stations and five transfers to existing railway lines and the Metro. New Circle Line in Copenhagen Photo: Ørestadsselskabet / Thomas Ibsen Most of the tunnels are constructed in limestone containing layers of hard flint.e. Cut & cover tunnelling was used to connect the bored tunnels to ramps where the ground cover for bored tunnelling was insufficient. NATM was also used for the construction In the period from 2002-2005. The project was constructed under design and construct contracts. Tunnels of TBM launch chambers. for excavating an underground cross-over cavern and two bifurcation chambers. Installations Services by COWI • Tender design for: TBM tunnelling. in-situ linings. for the Danish Ministry of Transport and Energy COWI has carried out a feasibility study for a new 15 km long Circle Line in Copenhagen. The 4. Emergency shafts are located at half point between stations. i. At the stations platform screen doors create a partition between the tracks and the platform for safety and comfort reasons as well as for improving the tunnel ventilation in case of fire emergencies. Underground stations are located approximately per 1 km. In addition to the underground sections the Metro includes elevated and at grade sections and stations as well as a control and maintenance centre.20 Tunnels for Copenhagen Metro. • Design follow-up and site supervision • Construction management • Feasibily study for a new circle line Project Period: 1994 .9 m internal diameter running tunnels were constructed by using two Earth Pressure Balance TBMs to ensure ground stability and that the groundwater level would stay essentially unchanged during tunnelling. The Metro runs underground for a length of 9 km under the central part of Copenhagen.2007 Client Ørestadsselskabet I/S Construction Cost USD 1 billion Tunnel ventilation facilities are provided in the underground stations and in some of the intermediate shafts as well as dedicated extraction from the cross-over cavern. where several buildings of national and cultural heritage are located. .

Photo: Ørestadsselskabet / Jens Dige 21 .

The tunnel elements are further encased within a watertight membrane in order to avoid potential leakage.Aktio Crossing.2002 Client and Contractor Joint Venture between Christiani & Nielsen Ltd. The eight prefabricated tunnel elements of 59. 0. The water-tightness of the joints is ensured by rubber gaskets.6 m wide by 8. The elements were then installed in a pre-dredged trench. The outer dimensions of the immersed tunnel are 12. prestressing cables have been placed across the joints in order to limit differential movements during seismic events.6 m internal width. Services by COWI • Tender design • Detailed design • Construction follow-up Project Period 1993 . in order to prevent liquefaction under possible earthquake loadings. . Furthermore.6 m diameter stone columns were constructed. Flexible joints are provided between the tunnel elements. (UK) and Technical Company of General Constructions SA (Greece). Greece The project consists of a 152 m cut & cover tunnel on the Aktio side. From the casting basin the elements were floated to their final position. The tunnels have been designed to withstand severe seismic loadings.5 m length were constructed in a casting basin connected to the strait by an approximately 150 m long channel.22 Preveza . The immersed tunnel is designed for two lanes of traffic within a box cross-sectional profile of 10. a 909 m immersed tunnel under the strait and a 509 m cut & cover tunnel on the Preveza side. the shear keys at the joints between the tunnel elements have been strengthened.75 m high. In comparison to normal immersed tunnels.2 m to 134. Before excavation of the trench.

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Services by COWI-Lahmeyer JV: • Pre-feasibility study • Technical and environmental feasibility study Project Period: 1993 . The immersed tunnels are expected to be fabricated in 150 m long elements which will be fully embedded into the seabed for environmental reasons. For the other immersed tunnel alternatives with widths ranging from 27 m to 43 m. A feasibility study has been carried out for bridge and tunnel alternatives by the joint venture COWI-Lahmeyer and the first phase is now concluded. Bored tunnels as well as immersed tunnels in steel and concrete have been investigated. The diameters for the bored tunnels range from 8. The thickness of the concrete lining ranges from 0.24 Fehmarn Belt. During operation the railway tunnels will be ventilated by the piston effect. At the location of the link the width of the Belt is about 19 km and the water depth up to 30 m. protected by an artificial island in the middle of the Belt. This link will provide a direct connection between Scandinavia and Central Europe.0 m for the railway tunnels to 14.2 m for the three-lane roadway tunnel.5 m to 0. concrete tunnels are the most favourable solutions. Denmark . gravel and boulders. The boring is proposed to be carried out with earth pressure balance machines in the clay strata.Germany A fixed link is being investigated between Puttgarden in Germany and Rødby in Denmark.7 m.2002 Client The Danish and German Ministries of Transport Photo: JW Luftfoto . For the road tunnels semi-transverse ventilation is required with a ventilation shaft. and slurry/mixshield machines in deposits with sand. For the railway and shuttle tunnel with a width of 19 m a steel immersed tunnel may be competitive. silt. with fans intended for emergency use. Tunnel Feasibility Study.

diameter concrete lining.5 diameter and 8 km long high-speed railway tunnel under the Green Heart of Holland. ������ ��� � ����� ��� � ��� ��� ��� ������� ������� �� � ��� � �� � � �� � ��������� ����� ��� ������ �������� ����� �������� � � � � � � ����������� ���� ����������� ���� ������� �������� ���� ����� �������� ���� ����� Jacked Tunnel under Odense Å. Expected Completion: 2006 Client: Hyundai Cheng Lin JV. site supervision.5 m int. Client: Municipalities of Helsingør and Helsingborg Services by COWI: Feasibility study in joint venture with SCC. as an immersed tunnel or as a combined bored and immersed tunnel. conceptual and preliminary design.5 km. Expected Completion: 2006 Client: Odense Water Supply Services by COWI: Detailed design. pre-cast concrete lining production.3 km new underground railway line with 4 stations.8 km cut & cover sections and 1. Turkey Description: 13. The Netherlands Tunnels for Taiwan High-Speed Rail Project Description: Sections C240 and C250 including 3 km long Miaoli tunnel and 13 small tunnels with a total length of 3. construction management. lined with 2.Selected References Green Heart Tunnel. �������� 25 Description: Single tube 14. 3 km cut & cover tunnels and 9 km cuts and embankments. including app. Helsingør . ����������� ����� ������ ��� � ����� District Heating Tunnel in Copenhagen. tender documents and contract negotiation. Completed: 2004 Client: Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works Services by COWI: Review of tunnel durability design. Highway overpass Yedýkule tube tunnel station Assumed existing ground profile Sýrkecý station Üsküdar station Description: New rain water discharge system in Odense. between 3 shafts. Denmark Description: 4 km 5 m ext. 10 pipe jacking sections of 25 m to 250 m length. Denmark Yenýkapi TCDD transfer station Yenýkapi tube tunnel station Bosphorus Crossing. Denmark .8 km immersed tunnel. TBM operating procedures. HochtiefBallast Nedam-Pan Asia JV Services by COWI: Independent Design Checker.Sweden Description: 5 km subsea railway tunnel between Denmark and Sweden performed as a twin bored tunnel. Client: HPYG JV: Hazama (J) PentaOcean (J) Yüksel (TÜR) and Güris (TÜR) Services by COWI: Tender design programme management.Helsingborg Tunnel. Lower parts of shafts and tunnel ends are constructed using the NATM technique. Photo: Tao Lytzen +10 m 0m -10 m -20 m -30 m -40 m -50 m Bored tunnel IMT Bored tunnel .2 km bored tunnel. detailed design and supervision. 1. consisting of 8. Expected Completion: 2008 Client: Copenhagen Energy (KE) Services by COWI: Feasibility study. erection and repair and independent tunnel/TBM inspection. diameter EPB TBM bored tunnel for district heating.

Central Link under Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong. Wales Description: Dual two-lane highway tunnel with 710 m long immersed section under the 5-12 m deep Conwy Estuary. including a 4 km immersed tunnel section in fissured limestone to cross the main navigation channel. detailed design and supervision in joint venture with Travers Morgan. Hong Kong Description: 1. Immersed Tunnel. Fourth Victoria Harbour Immersed Tunnel. Completed: 1988 Client: Danish Ministry of Public Roads. Guldborgsund Road Tunnel. Bjørvika Immersed Tunnel. Sweden / Denmark Desciption: 18 km combined road and railway link across the sound between Denmark and Sweden.35 km immersed tunnel. Conwy Estuary Tunnel.Canton Railway Corporation Services by COWI as sub to Scott Wilson: Initial design. Denmark Description: 460 m 2-lane immersed road tunnel under the Guldborgsund with drained ramps. tender design. The design includes approximately 600 m immersed tunnel and 250 m cut & cover tunnels.26 Selected References The Øresund Link. Completed: 1991 Client: The Welsh Office. Attikat (GR). including a 1. scheme design and tender design. Expected completion: 2010 Client: Statens Vegvesen. Client: FCC (ES). Greece Description: 4 km 6 lane road tolltunnel.5 km cut & cover tunnel. MT Højgaard (DK) and Hochtief (D) Completed: 2000 Services by COWI: Conceptual design. Road Directorate Services by COWI: Conceptual design. Oslo Vegkontor (The Norwegian National Road Administration) Services by COWI: Design review. Norway Description: Dual tube highway connection under Bjørvika and Bispevika in Oslo Harbour. detailed design and supervision. tender design of immersed tunnel and mechanical installations in tunnels.7 km double metro tunnel for the new Shatin . 320 m long in-situ section and 610 m long ramps in alluvial sands and clays. . 1. Client: Skanska (SE).5 km immersed tunnel and 2. Thessaloniki Immersed Tunnel. Transportation and Highways Group Services by COWI: Tender design. Oslo. Pantechniki (GR). Pihl & Søn (DK) Services by COWI: Tender design management. Client: KCRC Kowloon .

the world’s longest. The tunnel is bi-directional and is provided with 15 turning points and 48 breakdown laybyes. design check. Denmark Description: The Copenhagen Airport Railway Station comprises a 600 m railway station for a double-tracked railway. technical support and site supervision. The cut & cover tunnels comprise dual road. control systems and emergency phone system and electrical design of the tunnel ventilation system). Nam Wan Tunnel for Route 9 Hong Kong Description: The Nam Wan tunnel is a 1. Expected completion: 2007 Client: Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd. Germany Description: 530 m long and total 90 m wide tunnelled traffic corridor below the river Spree in Berlin.5 km long road tunnel .Batignolles SA Services by COWI: Detailed design. Rock temperatures of up to 45 o C are expected.6 km long twin tunnel as part of the Swiss-Cross-Alpine Rail Tunnels from Frutigen to Raron.Selected References Lötschberg Base Tunnel. and a portal building at each end. Copenhagen Airport and Sydhavnsgadetunnel. . The consulting services are performed in a joint venture with COWI as lead partner. 12 cross passages. Completed: 2000 Client: Norwegian Road Directorate Services by COWI: Detailed design of electrical installations (electrical power systems.railway and . Switzerland Description: 34. 27 Road. construction management and site supervision. construction management. Suggestions on alternative design and ventilation methods. Berlin.metro tunnels placed in 20 m deep excavations below groundwater with anchored diaphragm walls and jetgrouted or anchored bottoms. Lærdal Tunnel. Norway Copenhagen Airport Railway Station. Completed: 1999 Client: Øresund A/S Services by COWI: Detailed design. Switzerland Services by COWI: Review of tunnel ventilation strategy and concept design report for emergency ventilation.25 km long 3-lane highway tunnel. Completed: 2001 Client: Øresund A/S Services by COWI: For various parts of the works: Tender documents. . It has two separate tubes. Completed: 2001 Client: Spie . Expected completion: 2007 Client: Bundesamt für Verkehr. Services by COWI: Basic design of electrical and mechanical systems as well as review of client’s detailed design. Railway and Subway Tunnels by the Reichstag. Denmark Description: 600 m long cut & cover station and app. Description: A 24. 4 km cut & cover tunnels in total on the Øresund Link railway line between Copenhagen Central Station and Copenhagen Airport. detailed design.

com Casper Paludan-Müller cpm@cowi.com Stephen Slot Odgaard sso@cowi.www.com Simon David Taylor sdt@cowi.com Photo: Ørestadsselskabet / Ole Ziegler �������������� . +45 45 97 22 11 Fax +45 45 97 22 12 www.com Printed in Denmark by Kailow 021-1700-020e-05a Tel.com ���������������������� Our International Tunnel Project Managers COWI Group Main Office COWI A/S Parallelvej 2 DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby Denmark Christian Boye cbo@cowi.cowi.cowi.com Michael Tonnesen mit@cowi.com Poul Marinus Nielsen pon@cowi.