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Optimization and analysis of systems through modeling are practices common to many technology and scientific problem solving tasks. These techniques can be used to understand and design systems better. Many design problems can also be expressed as optimization programs, and another recent and growing subset of this field is multidisciplinary design optimization, which, while useful in many problems, has in particular been applied to aerospace engineering problems. The recent progress of modeling and optimization theory, along with progress in highquality software, have expanded the scale and complexity of optimization problems that can be addressed in practice, and are leading to a wider adoption of optimization techniques throughout many fields in science and technology. However, not all problems can be solved by modeling ad optimization. Incidents may happen, and an array of unknown factors like the subjective feeling of the person involved in the case, the interpersonal relationships, the preference and fanatic impulses of human beings exists. Those factors may exert defining impact on the consequences, but cant be transformed into the perimeters in a model. 2. Linear programming, which is a branch of operational research, deals with a class of optimization problems, where both the objective function to be optimized and all the constraints, are linear in terms of the decision variables. It is a mathematical method for determining a way to achieve the best outcome in a given mathematical model for some list of requirements represented as linear relationships. More formally, linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints.

3. Supposing that there is a factory producing toy M and toy N needs material A and B. Each toy M needs 3 pieces of material A and 5 pieces of material B. Each toy N needs 4 pieces of material A and 6 pieces of material B. the total quantity of material A is 45 pieces. the total quantity of material B is 50 pieces. The profit of a single toy M is 2 and the profit of a single toy N is 3. The objective is to find out how many toy M and toy N the factory should produce to maximize net income. X and Y stand for the quantities of toy M and toy N to make. Max Z=2X+3Y s.t. 3X+6Y45 5X+6Y50 X,Y 0

The optimal solution is x=3,y=6 In the real world, some problems are not linear, they are influenced by many factors, but the point is that the effects of some factors are faintly, thus we can choose the main factors to set up our model to make it a linear problem. Like the model that I have set up, many factors can influence the net income that the factory can earn, such as maintenance costs, the productive method that it use, every labor hour lost (due to illness, for example), every raw material unit lost (due to fire, for example) etc. but these factors almost never need to be concerned for a short period formulation. Therefore, we only need to pay more attention to the main factors. In this way, some essentially non-linear systems like this can be convert to linear problems, we simplify the factual problem and get a proximate prediction of the profits that we can achieve. 4. I want illuminate the dual problem by citing an example of presidential election in U.S. We all know that the general election phase is incredibly ferocious, with two major political parties doing whatever they can to propagate their ideas and win over their converts. We assume that the Democratic Party wants to put up two kinds of ads referred to as Type I and Type II to win over prospective voters for their candidate. There are three Television channels of Fox broadcasting company for them to choose, which are Fox1, Fox2 and Fox3. I sketched a table for better understanding. I II Time Limitation FOX1 2 1 95 FOX2 1 2 85 FOX3 1 1.5 90 Respectfully, It will take 2 minutes, and 1 minute for FOX1 to play the ads Type I and Type II. According to the regulations and schedule of the company, Fox1 is prohibited to put up ads for more than 95 minutes within a month. Similar constraints are allied for Fox2 and Fox3. You can find the certain information in the table. The DNCs statistics says that only an advertisement played by all 3 channels can it perform a comprehensive function over all swaying states. For the reason that the Type II is more persuasive and fabulous than Type I, the Fox Broadcasting Company will charge 7 million dollars for Type II every time they play , and 5 million dollars for Type I. And so, Its LP formulation as: Max Z=5X1+7X2; S.T. 2X1+X295, X1+2X285,

X1+1.5X290, X1, X20. The sumptuous Republican Party they decide to buy over all the time which were reserved for the Democratic Party. If we look at this problem from another perspective, we can deal with it in the following LP problem: MIN Z=95Y1+85Y2+90Y3; 2Y1+Y2+Y35, Y1+2Y2+1.5Y37, Y1, Y20. Y1, Y2,Y3 are the prices the republican has to pay for each minute in Fox1, Fox2 and Fox3. For Fox Company, the price of total time used to play a single type of ad shouldnt be lower than its primal profit made from playing it for the democrats. So, there are 2Y 1+Y2+Y35, and Y1+2Y2+1.5Y37. To make this deal acceptable, the Fox company has to minimize the total price, so there is Y1+2Y2+1.5Y37. 5.On the issues of power system operation, the reliability is equivalent to of capability of making the power generated by coal, wind, photovoltaic or biodiesel energy equals the intermittent loads. To further illustrate, it means the model will have to match the load curve with the Output curve. Usually, to follow the fluctuating load demand, the grid need two kind of generating units, the base-load units and the dispatchable units. The base-load units include the nuclear stations, largescale coal-fired stations and some large-scale gas turbine units, which usually have the relatively low generation cost and long start-up time. The base-load units will operate continuously except for the scheduled maintenance or failures. The dispatchable units, on the contrary, start up or ramp up when the load demand exceeds the output of the output of base-load units. The dispatchable units follow the fluctuation of the load demand to keep the balance between the supply and the demand. As for lower cost, it means the model should minimize the cost of resources and the cost of maintenance when generate the power. So the problem can be shoveled by establishing a model: MIN S.T.

f i Z= ( p ) (total cost of generating the power)

PG=PLOAD (the generated power equals the loaded power) PminiPiPmaxi If we integrate power into the grid, the first constraint should be transformed into PG+PWIND=PLOAD. If there is a pump storage reservoir in the power system, the constraint will be transformed in to PG+PLOAD+PHYDRO=PLOAD+PPUMP. Furthermore, if we introduce solar photovoltaic units and Plug-in electric vehicles into the system, the ultimate formulation should be PG+PWIND+PHYDRO+PDISC+PPV=PLOAD+PPUMP+PCHAR. The preoccupation of the model is to minimize the cost of purchasing the resources and maintenance expenditure, with the constraints of equaling the generated power and the load. 6. Wind power has both advantages and disadvantages. It is non-polluted and renewable. Thats lots of countries are doing serious research about utilizing wind power so that fossil fuels would be economized. However, we need to confront with many problems for the reason that the fluctuation and intermittency of wind power. Wind power is uncontrollable and intermittent

compared with Fossil-fired power; it will result in the disturbance of power system. And so, If we integrate too much wind power into our primal power system, we may not be able to meet with the consumers request, for the system is so unreliable. When the wind power accounts

for the major portion of the output power, the advantages and negative features of wind power will be amplified. The wind power during the day time is insufficient, so traditional units are required to stand by and follow the load to ramp up. However, the wind power starts to ascend when the load starts to diminish. If we build more wind turbines, most of which, obviously, need not to function during the night, the electricity price will increase for the maintenance fee of wind turbines is high and the turbines are still exorbitant now. We can set up a mathematical model to explain this.

Min Z =

S.T

P +P

i

wind

Pload

Pi min Pi Pi max Pwind Pwind ( norm) (the actual output of the wind power)

The mathematic model above portrays the general outlook of the grid when we integrate wind power into it. Our objection is minimizing the cost but also guarantee the reliability the system. The load curves peak and vale demonstrate that the system is vulnerable and frail. So I maintain that if we want to utilize the wind power more efficiently, we need to build some pumped storages to solve the problem.

7.

min Z = Ci Pf 1

t =1 i =1

24

Pwind + Ppv Pchar

Pdisc + Pwind + Ppv + Pf 2 Ploss

C 1Pdisc C 2 P f 2

Pf 2 min Pf 2 Pf 2 max

The objective of this system is still maintaining the stability and reliability of the grid system, which means that the EV charging station we build shall not dampen or even pose a threat to the grid. If our model is working, we would be the precursors of the EV charging station builders. The premise of this model is that electric vehicles are widely used in this region, and every electric

vehicle possesses two batteries, one of which is kept in the charging station, and another is installed in the vehicle. Weve already know that the ability of the grid to accommodate the wind power and photovoltaic power is by the adjusting capability of traditional units, and the fewer dispatchable units we use, the more fund can be economized. Thats why the objective of this model is cut back the cost the dispatchable units. The first constraint means that the power of base-load units, dispatchable units, the wind, the photovoltaic, and the discharged power of EV should rival the power of charging EVS and the load of users. The second constraint suggests that the charging power outweigh the power of the wind and photovoltaic so that excess output of wind and PV can be absorbed. This constraint requires that a large body of electric vehicles is activated in this region. I believe its possible because certain policies will be carried out to boost the purchasing of PEVS in sequent decades. The third constraint demonstrates that the power of discharging, the wind, the photovoltaic and the dispatchable units overwhelms the power of the excess load need which cant be met with by the base-load units. Finally, the fourth constraint suggests that as the charging station we have an obligation to encourage people to use PEVS, however, I think that a price factor should be attached to the discharging power. We understand that PEVS will efficiently eliminate the emission of carbon dioxide and reduce the consumption of fossil fuel. Since the discharging power from the uses needs payment, and the PEV will remain exorbitant in the near future, we cant afford too many of them forming a line, waiting to infuse the power into the grid. In the perspective of economics, if the cost is too high, we might well just resort to old-fashioned dispatchable units. 8. In our contemporary society, its tough for a girl, especially for a beauty like Jane, to distinguish a good pursuer from the bad ones, because guys do lie. I tend to believe that most guys chase her because they salivate at her sexuality. Actually, a number of factors should be taken into consideration when choosing the winner, such as academic credential and education background, appearance, income and its expectation, family background, temperament, and integrity or loyalty to love etc. The objective of the model can be written as this Max Z=(C1X1+C2X2+C3X3-C4X4+C5X5)L X1 to X5 respectfully stand for academic credential and education background, appearance, income and its expectation family background, and temperament. As for a beauty like her, its unacceptable for her to choose a pursuer without a bachelor degree.X1 ranging from 1 to 5 represents the status of the university the guy graduated from. For example, If Tsinghua University is evaluated as 5, Shandong University should be 3. X2 is equivalent to the total income of a year or its expectation according to what he kind of kind of job hes engaged in. As for X3, I think the number of girls that guy used to date will work. This number does only epitomize his looking, but demonstrates his attractiveness. However, a good guy shouldnt have dated to many girls, that only suggests that hes a irresponsible person, so 4 would be the highest number of X3,if he dated more than 4 girls, it should be deducted. X4 represents the number of relatives Jane dont like in the guys family and X5 shows how many times the man lost patience temper or composure in front her. The L represents loyal and integrity, if that guy ever lied one thing about himself, L equals 0, which means all the factors above are just trash down the drain. The constraints are equivalently written as A1x1+A1x2>M. B1x4+B2x5<N That guy ought to have the ability to make commitments and thats why a good education background and income is needed. If the guy cant give a decent life to Jane, he should not be

taken into consideration. The second constraint means too many negative factors can be tolerated by Jane. How can she live with him, if hes brutal and he has lots of mean families.

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