Multiple Choice Questions Chi-square tests for independence

The next set of questions refer to the following situation: A survey was conducted to investigate the severity of rodent problems in egg and poultry operations. A random sample of operators was selected, and the operators were classified according to the type of operation and the extent of the rodent population. A total of 78 egg operators and 53 turkey operators were classified and the summary information is:

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moderate. and severe rodent problems. and severe rodent problems is different from the proportion of egg operators with mild. moderate. and severe rodent problems is the same as the proportion of egg operators with mild. 2. and severe rodent problems. Which of the following is not correct? (a) Operators who had both operations could not be used because this type of analysis requires each unit to be counted in one and only one cell.99 (b) about 9. (b) The null hypothesis is that the severity of the rodent problem is independent of the type of operator.64 (e) about 8. the proportion of turkey operators with mild. moderate. moderate.1. moderate. or severe rodent problems is the same as the proportion of turkey operators with mild. The value of the test statistic is: (a) about 5. (c) The alternate hypothesis is that the proportion of turkey operators with mild. in fact.81 (d) about 5. or severe rodent problems when in fact they are independent. (d) A Type I error would be to conclude that the severity of rodent problems is dependent upon the type of operator while. (e) A Type II error would be to conclude that the proportion of egg operators with mild.60 c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 2 .71 (c) about 6. moderate.

1988. (b) Tables can be pooled when the underlying rates are equal among tables. One reviewer of the study suggested that there may be a problem with the study because results from small operators were pooled with the results from large operators.47 | 18..00 (b) about 33.05 5.008 (e) about .060 (b) about . children were asked to indicate what emotion they associated with the color red.00 (d) about 31. (d) Inspection of the row or column percents will give a good clue if Simpson’s paradox is likely to occur. The response and the sex of the child are noted and summarized below. the second number is the row percent.55 (e) about 78.67 | c 2006 Carl James Schwarz Total 102 3 . The next set of questions refer to the following situation In the paper “Color Association of Male and Female Fourth-Grade School Children” (J.032 (d) about . The approximate p-value is found to be: (a) about . (e) Simpson’s paradox occurs when the pooled table gives no evidence of an effect but the individual tables show evidence of an effect. 383-8).24 | 16.3. The first number in each cell is the count. mild infestation) cell is: (a) about 26. (c) Simpson’s paradox occurs when tables with unequal row totals are pooled. Frequency| Row Pct |anger |happy |love |pain | ---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ f | 27 | 19 | 39 | 17 | | 26. Which of the following is NOT CORRECT? (a) Simpson’s paradox occurs when conclusions from a pooled table differ from the individual tables. Psych. The expected count in the (egg.63 | 38.33 (c) about 53.014 (c) about .00 4.

9 (e) 29.4 (d) 31.07 8.00 | ---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Total 61 31 77 45 112 214 Statistic DF Value Prob -----------------------------------------------------Pearson Chi-Square * 4.9 (b) 55. the expected frequency for the cell corresponding to Anger and Males is: (a) 15.1 7.025 and .900 (b) Between .49 (e) 14.05 if the test statistic exceeds: (a) 3.84 (b) 5.050 and .81 (d) 9. Under a suitable null hypothesis. Each child was counted in one and only one cell.050 (d) Between . The approximate p-value is: (a) Between .025 (e) Between .100 and .7 (c) 30.---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ m | 34 | 12 | 38 | 28 | | 30.010 and .005 and . c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 4 .99 (c) 7.93 | 25. The null hypothesis will be rejected at α=0. (b) The null hypothesis is that the type of emotion associated with red is independent of the sex of the child.36 | 10.100 (c) Between .661 ***** Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square 1 0.629 ***** Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square * 4.010 9.307 ***** 6. Which of the following is NOT CORRECT? (a) The children were cross-classified by sex and emotion associated with red.71 | 33.

(b) More students associate the color red with the emotion “love” than with the emotion “anger”. (d) All expected cell counts should be greater than five in order that the distribution of the test statistic is an approximate chi-square distribution. (b) We conclude that the sex of the child and the emotion associated with red are not independent when in fact they are not independent. (c) Each student was classified by gender and by emotion association. (e) If we reject the null hypothesis than we have proven that the two sexes associate red with emotions in different ways. (e) We fail to find any association between the color red and emotions for either sex. c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 5 . 11. A Type I error would be committed if: (a) We conclude that the sex of the child and the emotion associated with red are independent when in fact they are not independent. 12. 10. (e) We compute row or column percentages by dividing the cell count by the table total (214). (d) We will be unable to compute a correlation for this data because the variables are not both interval or ratio in scale.(c) The null hypothesis is that the proportion of emotions associated with red is the same for both sexes. Which of the following is not correct? (a) A lower percentage of female students associate the emotion “anger” with the color red than do male students. The null hypothesis is: (a) emotional association with red is independent of gender (b) gender is dependent upon the emotional association with red (c) the probability of selecting an emotion with red is related to gender (d) the number of children in each cell does not depend upon gender nor upon emotion (e) the color red is independent of the emotion associated with it and with gender. (c) We conclude that the proportion of emotions associated with red differs between males and female when in fact they are the same. (d) We conclude that the proportion of emotions associated with red is the same for male and female when in fact they are the same. Each student was counted in one and only one cell.

Conformance to Specification Shift Too Small Within Spec. Each person in a random sample of 50 was asked to state his/her sex and preferred colour.661 . On each of the three 8 hour shifts workers are able to make 500 of the containers.7 (b) 443 c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 6 .05 level but not at the 0.05 level. 15. others because they are too large.3966 (c) 4.005 level. The following data were obtained from a company which manufactures special plastic containers which are to hold a specified volume of hazardous material.661 . The resulting frequencies are shown below. The test statistic and approximate p-value is: (a) 4.2011 (d) 4. (d) Reject at the 0. Colour Blue 14 6 Sex Male Female Red 5 15 Green 6 4 A chi-square test is used to test the null hypothesis that sex and preferred colour are independent. the expected number of containers that meet specification on the 4pm shift is (a) 166.629 .629 . Some containers do not meet specifications as required by the company’s customer because they are too small. 8am 36 452 4pm 24 443 midnight 12 438 Too Large 12 33 50 If conformance to specifications is independent of shift.005 level.025 level but not at the 0. Which of the following statements is a correct decision about the null hypothesis? (a) Reject at the 0. (c) Reject at the 0.4022 (e) 4.01 level.1006 14.025 level.629 . (b) Reject at the 0. (e) Accept at the 0.1983 (b) 4.01 level but not at the 0.13.

(e) The proportion of sprain.Yes) and the critical value of the associated test statistic are: (a) 23.8 and 3.96 respectively (b) 10.84 respectively (d) 23. Are you happy with your financial situation? Question 2. the expected frequency for the cell (Yes. 17.8 and 1.81 respectively (e) 10. Accident Type Sprain Burn | 9 17 | 61 13 Age Under 25 25 or over Cut 5 12 A chi-square test gave a test-statistic of 20.2 and 7. (c) Accident type does not seem to be independent of age.78% correlation between accident type and age. (d) There appears to be a 20. Are all employees equally prone to having accidents? To investigate this hypothesis. Parry (1985) looked at a light manufacturing plant and classified the accidents by type and by age of the employee.81 respectively c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 7 .8 and 7. (b) Age seems to be independent of accident type. No 48 18 66 Question 2 Yes No Total Yes 22 12 34 | | | | Total 70 30 100 To test the null hypothesis that response to Question 1 is independent of response to Question 2 at 5% level. If we test at α =. cuts and burns seems to be similar for both age classes.3 (e) 500 16.2 and 3. Do you approve of the Federal government’s economic policies? The responses are: Question 1.05: (a) There appears to be no association between accident type and age.(c) 33 (d) 444.78. A random sample of 100 members of a union are asked to respond to two questions: Question 1.84 respectively (c) 23.

05.0 (b) 27. A survey was conducted to investigate whether alcohol consumption and smoking are related.01 we conclude that smoking and alcohol consumption are related. (d) The calculated value of the test statistic is 7. The following information was compiled for 600 individuals: Drinker Non-drinker Smoker 193 89 Non-smoker 165 153 Which of the following statements is true? (a) The appropriate alternative hypothesis is A: Smoking and Alcohol Consumption are independent.84.86. For the problem outlined above. then the expected number of rural doctors who prescribe tetracycline is: (a) 31. the critical value(table value) of the test statistic when the level of significance is α =0. (e) At level .9915 c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 8 .7 (c) 1.37 (d) 51% (e) 62 20. 19. The results are: Urban Tetracycline 95 No tetracycline 126 Intermediate 74 84 Rural 31 30 If the county type of practice and the use of tetracycline are independent.18. (b) The appropriate null hypothesis is H: Smoking and Alcohol Consumption are not independent.3778 (c) 5. (c) The calculated value of the test statistic is 3. The number of doctors who prescribed tetracycline to at least one patient under the age of 8 were recorded for each of these practice areas. Rural.1026 (b) 7. is: (a) 0. or Intermediate. Doctors’ practices have been categorized as to being Urban.

838 ***** 21. (d) All expected cell counts should be greater than five in order that the distribution of the test statistic is an approximate chi-square distribution. the expected frequency for the cell corresponding to fatal type of accident and small size automobile is: (a) 81. Each accident was counted in one and only one cell. Which of the following is NOT CORRECT? (a) The accidents were cross-classified by size of automobile and fatality status. Under a suitable null hypothesis.5916 (e) 7. c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 9 . (c) The null hypothesis is that the proportion of fatality status is the same for all three sizes of automobiles.68 (b) 67.663 ***** LIKELIHOOD RATIO CHI-SQUARE * 8.00 (c) 61. The analysis of accidents is as follows (with some values hidden): DEATH SIZE FREQUENCY| m | s | L | ---------+--------+--------+--------+ no | 63 | 128 | 46 | ---------+--------+--------+--------+ yes | 26 | 95 | 16 | ---------+--------+--------+--------+ TOTAL 89 223 62 TOTAL 237 137 374 STATISTICS FOR TABLE OF DEATH BY SIZE STATISTIC DF VALUE PROB -----------------------------------------------------CHI-SQUARE * 8.41 (e) 59.72 22.8147 The next set of questions refer to the following situation: A study was conducted to determine if the fatality rate depends on the size of the automobile.43 (d) 63.(d) 12. (b) The null hypothesis is that the fatality status is independent of the size of the automobile.

The null hypothesis will be rejected at α=0.1 (c) 11. The results are as follows: Use of Instant Replay Favor Oppose Football 22 2 Baseball 18 6 Basketball 15 26 Soccer 3 10 In testing to see whether opinion with respect to the use of instant replays is independent of sport.4 (b) 24.050 (e) between .84 (e) 9. a table of expected frequencies is found. A survey of players in each of four professional sports was conducted.4 c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 10 .59 (b) 7.005 (b) between .05 if the test statistic exceeds: (a) 12.99 (d) 3.(e) If we reject the null hypothesis than we have proven that the size of the automobile affects the chances of a fatality.010 and .0 (d) 6. In this table. the expected number of professional baseball players opposing the use of instant replays is equal to: (a) 10. 23.100 25.0 (e) 8.025 and .81 (c) 5.010 (c) between . The approximate p-value is: (a) less than .005 and . asking them if they felt “instant replays” should be used to decide close or controversial calls.025 (d) between . A controversial issue in sports is the use of the “instant replay” for making decisions on plays that are extremely close or hard to call by an official.49 24.050 and .

(b) Of those who prefer the colour green. The resulting frequencies are shown below. c 2006 Carl James Schwarz 11 . Each person in a random sample of males and females was asked to state his/her sex and preferred colour. (c) 44% of people surveyed prefer the colour blue. (e) 15% of people are males who prefer the colour red.26. Colour Blue 11 11 Sex Male Female Red 3 17 Green 6 2 Which of the following is FALSE? (a) 55% of males prefer the colour blue. (d) A higher percentage of males prefered the colour blue than females. 75% are males.

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