SYSTEM TRAINING

Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces
Training Document

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Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the documentation. The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer. However, Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document. Nokia Networks' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of errors. Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it. This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to the applicable laws. NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only. Copyright © Nokia Networks Oy 2004. All rights reserved.

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CTXX5330en Issue 4.0

Contents

Contents
1 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 3 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.5 6 7 8 8.1 8.2 Module objectives ..................................................................................5 Introduction UMTS signalling ...............................................................6 What is the bearer and what is the need for signalling?...........................7 UMTS network structure.........................................................................10 OSI model in UMTS ...............................................................................11 Transport plane (≈ Access Stratum)...................................................12 ≈ What is ATM?.........................................................................................12 Virtual path and virtual channel ..............................................................13 ATM header content...............................................................................14 The ATM layers ......................................................................................15 ATM adaptation layers (AAL) .................................................................16 CCS7 – Common Channel Signalling #7 ...............................................19 Implementation of the transport layers ...................................................22 Uu (air) interface ....................................................................................22 Iub, Iur and Iu interfaces.........................................................................24 Transport network control plane.............................................................26 Control plane (≈ Serving Stratum) ......................................................27 ≈ Iub interface control plane (NBAP - Node B Application Part) ...............27 Iur interface control plane (RNSAP – Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) .....................................................................................29 Iu interface control plane (RANAP – Radio Access Network Application Part) .....................................................................................32 Core network signalling (ISUP – ISDN User Part) .................................37 MAP – Mobile Application Part...............................................................38 User plane (≈ Application Stratum) ....................................................42 ≈ IP – Internet Protocol (optional)..............................................................43 Internet Protocol .....................................................................................45 Internet Protocol version 4 .....................................................................46 Class based IP addressing.....................................................................47 Classless based IP addressing ..............................................................48 Static and dynamic IP addressing ..........................................................49 Internet Protocol version 6 .....................................................................50 IP routing and routers.............................................................................51 Transport protocols .............................................................................54 Application protocols ..........................................................................56 Port numbers and Network Address Translation..............................57 Sockets ..................................................................................................58 Network address translation...................................................................58

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.............................................................................................. 68 Circuit level gateways.............3 10 10.............. 68 Application level gateways ..........5.......................................... 61 Domain Name System................................................ 72 Further information ............................ 66 Packet filtering ..........................................................................5.............................................................................................0 ................3 9.............................1 9............1 10..................5.......................... 69 CS and PS core network domains............................................................2 9.............................................................2 9...........................Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 9 9......................................................................4 9............. 75 4 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.......................... 64 Firewalls ..................................5 9..................2 11 Components in IP networks .. 63 Virtual Private Network ............................................. 69 Radio access network (RAN) ................................................................ 61 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.... 68 Function of the UMTS interfaces – a summary ....................... 70 Review questions ....1 9........................ 62 RADIUS .....................................

summarise the functions of the UMTS network interfaces without using any references (if not otherwise stated).0 © Nokia Networks Oy 5 (75) . For each layer in the signalling stack the student is expected to give short explanation of its function. please consult the UMTSPP specifications. This module will offer general information on signalling procedures used within UMTS. After completing the module. List and identify the protocols used in UMTS interfaces throughout the transport signalling layer of the network Explain the basic concept of ATM List and identify the protocols used in UMTS interfaces throughout the control-signalling layer of the network Name the basic functions of the RANAP. the participant should be able to: • • • • • • • • Explain how the interfaces of a UMTS network can be divided into stratums that work on different layers Explain how the OSI model has been sub-divided in UMTS.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 1 Module objectives The aim of this module is to give the student the conceptual knowledge needed for understanding and explaining how basic signalling protocols are implemented into a UMTS network. RNSAP and NBAP List and identify the protocols used in the network interfaces throughout the user-signalling layer of the network When given a UMTS model. For more detailed information about protocols and procedures. CTXX5330en Issue 4. Topics to be covered in this module include looking at what signalling is and how we can visualise the different layers and protocol stacks.

For the new student. The concept of a stack (multi-layer) is used throughout communication technology and refers how one point can talk to another point. The material in this module is simplified in order to make the learning easier. Another approach is to study the functions of the network elements. GERAN BTS Um MS Um MS BTS BTS BTS Node B Uu UE Uu UE Node B Node B Node B Abis CN (Core Network) BSC PCU BSS TRAU Gb circuit switched (cs) domain A A MSC VLR GMSC PSTN/ ISDN Abis BSC PCU RNS TRAU Gb BSS CS IuCS EIR HLR AC Iub RNC Iu- common cs & ps network elements corp. many of the concepts that are presented here may be difficult to understand at first. 6 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. more detailed information can be found directly from the specifications. network Iur Iub Iu-P S SGSN IPbackbone GGSN BG CG Billing Centre PDN WAP S Iu-P RNC RNS packet switched (ps) domain UTRAN Inter-PLMN Network Figure 1. The below figure illustrates the Release 99 of the UMTS architecture with the different interfaces named.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 2 Introduction UMTS signalling There are different ways to visualise a UMTS network. In this module. you may need to read through this material a few times until the concepts become clear. combined GSM/UMTS network architecture (Release 99) Notes for the student on how to learn this module For those students who are new to telecommunications. we will look at the network from the point of view of the functions and structure of the interfaces.0 . For the more technical student. This module aims to give an overview to what are the signalling stacks within the network. One angle to look from is the functions of the network in terms of how the traffic is handled. depending from which angle you look.

In UMTS. such as the Node B. In GSM. The message contains information (e. This is called signalling. they are not the end-points of these signalling messages.1 What is the bearer and what is the need for signalling? The user traffic. Signalling is used between the UE and the core network elements SGSN and MSC/VLR to perform mobility and session management functions such as a location update (the mobile informing the network where it is) or paging. As the bearer is passing through the network elements. But when it comes to mobility management signalling. is carried through the network from the mobile to the core network on a bearer. a bearer is a varied bit rate and is allocated depending on the needs of the subscriber.g. and possibly other switching network elements. the RNC. all the network elements between the UE and the MSC/VLR transparently transmit the mobility management signalling information. allocate channel) about an activity. known as the user plane. Therefore.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 7 (75) . the UE and the MSC/VLR conduct peer-to-peer signalling to manage the UE’s mobility.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 2. we need to control its activities. The bearer through the network The higher-layer signalling messages found in mobility management (for example a location update) are used between the UE and the core network elements CTXX5330en Issue 4. The actual data in the bearer is transparent to the network. the traffic channel was the bearer. one network element must be capable of sending and receiving messages to other network elements. i. In other words. MSC Node B RNC 3G SGSN UE Uu Node B Iub/Iur RNC Iu Core Network Figure 2.e. Other network elements are within the transmission path of the mobility management signalling information.

ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mechanism) and many others that different global standardisation bodies have defined. but through the radio access network (RAN). The mobility management messages can only be transferred if the connection through the RAN is in-place. there is even a lower level of signalling to control the actual radio link. The physical connection could be through wire. Standardised signalling protocols specify how two pieces of equipment can communicate and understand messages. A transport protocol is used to signal the digital bits through the connection. microwave or a combination of all of these. To show a simplified example. The radio access bearer (RAB) contains a service connection between the UE and the core network. the network elements are physically connected together. Therefore. Communication Management (CM) • CS (circuit switched): Call control (CC). The network management layers through the network The figure above illustrates the UMTS network from the point of view of the management layers that are defined. Also. As with the Figure 1 of the architecture. supplementary services (SS) and short message service (SMS). The messages in the lower plane are transparent to those in the higher plane. Once there is a physical connection. This is the concept of the stack. then lower-layer signalling to control the connection is needed to ensure that the higher-layer connections are possible. Typical standards could be PCM (Pulse Code Modulation). • PS (packet switched): Session management Mobility Management (MM) Radio Resource Management (RRM) UE RAN CN Figure 3. the 8 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.0 . However. as the UE is not connected directly to the core network. another signalling layer is used to control the radio connection through the RAN. optical cable.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces MSC/VLR and SGSN. the following figure illustrates how the different management layers sit on top of each other. The structure and procedures of the transport protocol are heavily based upon the standard that is chosen. A subscriber in UMTS may have several RABs and these are combined into a radio resource connection (RRC) across the air interface. Let us now go deeper and think about how the network behaves.

Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces network elements can transmit and detect signals. The below figure illustrates the user plane information between the terminal and the core network through the network by use of the RAB. Relationship between the RAB and the RRC CTXX5330en Issue 4. Node B to RNC. UE RAN CN RANAP Connection c oA ad i ear sB c es er Packet Network R Packet Data Service Speech Service Video Service RRC Connection Radio Access Bearer Radio Access Bearer RANAP Connection Circuit Switched Network Figure 4. As discussed before. A signalling protocol is used to control the RABs and RRC connection in the air interface. This acts as a framework to carry the higher-level information. the data (for instance a voice call or video) is the user plane. Node B and/or core network (MSC & SGSN) on how to manage the link. In the case of the RAB. Between network elements (that is.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 9 (75) . there are basically two types of information: the user information and the control information. RNC to CN and RNC to RNC) we need a signalling link to instruct the RNC.

the UE has Internet browser and requests a certain URL to be downloaded. Hence its scope is wider.SGSN & GGSN (Packet Switched) Core Network Domains: Figure 5.MSC & GMSC (Circuit Switched) .101 specification. for instance. user equipment) and the network establish a service. 10 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. Serving Stratum handles message flows and procedures where the USIM+MT (same as UE. Service in this context means.0 . When doing this. These message flows are transferred transparently over the Access Stratum. setting up a bearer for further purposes. but the real HTML page is downloaded from the Internet service provider.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 2. Application Stratum is the 'layer' handling message flows and procedures related to the user's applications. For example. the layers are called Stratums.2 UMTS network structure Functionally a UMTS network can be presented as 'layers' containing the message flows and procedures performed between separate access points. Serving and Application Stratum Access Stratum contains the message flows and procedures needed to establish the connection between the MT (mobile terminal) and network (roughly RNC in this case). In this context the most important Stratums are: • • • Access Stratum Serving Stratum Application Stratum Application Stratum Serving Stratum Access Stratum USIM MT BS RNC . The complete view of Stratums is presented in the UMTSPP 23. The UMTS network only provides the 'pipe' (Serving Stratum). Access.

Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 2. CTXX5330en Issue 4. if a signalling protocol stack following OSI model is implemented in two nodes and they have a physical connection. the control of this traffic in the bearer is user plane signalling. In OSI. The user (signalling) data and the network control (signalling) data are separated from each other. The UMTS-network bearer can be understood as a flexible bit tube carrying any information unlike in 2G. OSI model adaptation to UMTS In UMTS. every layer has its dedicated task(s) and it is able to signal/communicate with an equivalent level layer in the other signalling node.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 11 (75) . these nodes are able to signal/communicate with each other. and those dimensions are called planes. where the bearer characteristics were exactly defined for certain kind of traffic. User Data Control Data Application Layer Application Layer Presentation Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Session Layer User Plane Control Plane Transport Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data (Link) Layer Physical Layer Transport Plane Figure 6. When the defined bearer is used for traffic. the bearer passes the network through some reference points. and the definition of those reference points is control plane signalling. The three lowest layers form an entity of transport plane and its task is to form a suitable media for carrying (transporting) signalling performed by the higher layers. In UMTS. the OSI protocol stack is three-dimensional. The main reason for this is the fundamental differences related to the term bearer.3 OSI model in UMTS OSI (Open System Interconnection) is a specified model defining a general seven-layer model to be implemented in a node for signalling. Thus.

0 . the specifications have based the main connection on ATM. ATM Cell Payload (48 bytes) Header (5 bytes) Figure 7. ATM cell . The receiving end collects received packets and forms original-like information flow from the contents of the packets. attach address tags to those packets.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3 Transport plane (≈ Access Stratum) ≈ Transport plane provides the means how the physical connection is established between the mobile terminal (MT) and the network. and then transfer the packets through the physical transmission path. but on the other hand.1 What is ATM? The basic idea in ATM is to split the information flow to be transferred into small pieces (packets).5 %. As the network consists of separate entities limited by the open interfaces. There are two types of ATM cells. When comparing to “conventional” protocols and messages. In UMTS we can use different physical connections. the transport plane is adapted in those interfaces. 12 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. The UNI (User-Network Interface) cell is used for communication between ATM endpoints and ATM switches. 3. the header is very short. However. UNI and NNI cells. This sets some limitations on what can be done. too. a 5-byte-long header (address information) and payload (transmitted information). the information transfer effectiveness is high: the addressing overhead is 5 / (5+48) ≈ 9. The packet containing transmitted information is officially called the ATM cell. The NNI (Network-Node Interface) cell is used for communication between ATM switches.Diagram 1 One ATM cell consists of two parts.

Virtual Path (VP) Virtual Channel (VC) Figure 8. From the point of view of UMTS.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3. one per BS) and the virtual channels in the virtual path are set up per call basis. Virtual path (VP) and virtual channel (VC) CTXX5330en Issue 4. Virtual path (VP) and virtual channel (VC) A virtual path is a semi-permanent connection simultaneously handling many virtual connections/channels. Actual data is transferred in ATM cells over the virtual channels. which further on contain virtual channels (VC). an ATM transmission path is between the BSs and the RNC.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 13 (75) . The bandwidth of the virtual channel varies depending on the bearer service used. the transmission path contains many virtual paths (for instant. One ATM transmission path may consist of several virtual paths (VP). Virtual Channel ATM Cell Virtual Path Figure 9.1 Virtual path and virtual channel The figure below illustrates the transmission path of ATM.1. If a loop transmission is in question.

The header of an ATM cell contains some address information. Because of this. ATM UNI cell – Diagram 2 One main objective has been to establish a very lightweight transmission system without any extra “bureaucracy”. CLP (Cell Loss Priority) This is a flag indicating if this ATM cell is “important” or “less important”. one VC per each multimedia component. VCI (Virtual Channel Identifier) Identifier for a VC. The most essential items are: • VPI (Virtual Path Identifier) The identifier for a VP.1. PT (Payload Type) This indicates whether the 48-byte payload field carries user data or control data. This field is long because there may be thousands of channels to be identified within one VP. multimedia applications may require several VCIs simultaneously.2 ATM header content The following figure illustrates how the UNI (User-Network Interface) cell header is structured.0 . 8 7 GFC VPI 6 5 4 3 VPI VCI 2 1 Header (5 bytes) VCI VCI PT HEC CLP Payload (48 bytes) Payload Figure 10. If CLP = 1 (low priority / less important) the system may lose this ATM cell if it has to. For instance.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3. Nowadays this is possible because the networks adapting ATM already have high quality and the terminals used are able to perform error correction themselves if required. the payload of an ATM cell is not protected with checksum method(s). • • • 14 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. an identifier for a constantly allocated semi-permanent connection. or more generally.

1. The ATM layer. coding and decoding are handled by this layer. The AAL (ATM adaptation layers). which is responsible for defining the physical transmission medium. but it is outside the scope of this chapter to examine these different layers further. AAL ATM ADAPTATION LAYER ATM LAYER PHYSICAL LAYER Figure 11. These will be described later in this document. which takes care of insertion and extraction of the cell header to and from the 48-octet payload. Layered protocol structure of ATM The three main parts of the ATM protocol stacks are: • The physical layer. which are responsible for mapping the data from higher layers to the ATM cells and to bring data from the ATM cells to the higher layers. the ATM cell may be delivered to the wrong address. the ATM cell header is error protected. Also multiplexing and switching of the cells takes place here. For instance. in accordance with the figure below. There are four different AALs. due to a header error.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces • HEC (Header Error Control) In ATM.3 The ATM layers ATM can be divided into three main protocol layers. CTXX5330en Issue 4. The error correction mechanism used is able to detect all errors in the header and one failure can be corrected. Issues like electrical characteristics.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 15 (75) . The reason for this is that a failure in the ATM cell header is more serious than in payload. 3. • • Further subdivision and explanations can be made. such as for instance E1 at 2 Mbps or SDH STM-1 at 155 Mbps.

connection-oriented connection with variable bit rate for the service using this adaptation. The ABR is used when the user service has a minimum bit rate defined. connectionless connection with variable bit rate. in theory. The CBR may be used by any transparent data transfer. ATM adaptation layers (AAL) The service classes of the ATM are CBR (Constant Bit Rate Service).Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3. Otherwise the bandwidth is used as in UBR. the ATM layer must be adapted to the higher protocol layers and the lower physical layer.0 . UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate Service).4 ATM adaptation layers (AAL) The ATM layer as such is a very simple bit transport media and. AAL3/4 offers asynchronous mode.1. suitable for transmission purposes. A Bit Rate Source & Dest. If there are no resources available. 16 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. queuing may occur. connection-oriented connection with variable bit rate. ABR (Available Bit Rate Service) and VBR (Variable Bit Rate Service). and the resources are allocated on the peak data rate basis. The UBR uses free bandwidth when available. • • • • AAL1 offers synchronous mode. AAL2 offers synchronous mode. AAL5 offers asynchronous mode. The original idea was that each service class from A to D should correspond to one AAL from 1 to 4. ITU-T has defined ATM service classes for ATM adaptation layers. The VBR provides variable bit rate based on statistical traffic management. Connection Constant ATM Service Classes B C Variable D Synchronised Connection Oriented Not Synchronised Connectionless Typical Use Fixed Connection Video & Audio AAL2 Frame Relay IP Services AAL AAL1 AAL5 ATM Layer AAL3/4 Physical Layer Figure 12. In practise. connection-oriented connection and constant bit rate for the services requiring this kind of adaptation.

AAL is divided into two sublayers: CS (convergence sublayer) and SAR (segmentation and re-assembly sublayer). the CS sublayer may be divided further on into smaller entities. General structure of AAL Generally speaking. The main difference between AAL2 and AAL5 is that AAL2 requires strict timing between the source and destination. enables efficient transmission capability for non-real-time services and applications (towards the packet switched core network). Due to this. and AAL5 is used for control information and Iu-PS (packed switched) user plane data transfer. on the other hand. AAL2 is especially suitable for real-time services. Iur. and in receiving direction it collects payload pieces and unites them back to original data flow. such as speech or video. Higher Protocol Layers Convergence Sublayer CS AAL Segmentation and Reassembly Sublayer SAR ATM Layer Figure 13. The CS sublayer adapts AAL to the upper protocol layers and the SAR splits data to be transmitted into suitable payload pieces. Depending on the case. AAL5.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 17 (75) . and Iub user plane connections. AAL2 is seen as a suitable option for Iu-CS (circuit switched). AAL2 and AAL5 are interesting alternatives. CTXX5330en Issue 4.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces From the point of view of UMTS.

VC4 / VP4 Standalone AXC RNC ATM switch BTS 5 VC3.VP and ATM transmission path. VC6 / VP7 VC5 / VP5 AXC AXC / ATM switch BTS 6 VC6 / VP6 AXC VC/VP CROSSCONNECTION TABLE VC3/VP4 <-> VC3/VP 7 VC4/VP4 <-> VC4/VP 7 VC5/VP5 <-> VC5/VP 7 VC6/VP6 <-> VC6/VP 7 Figure 14 Example of ATM use This is a simplified example of ATM use in the Iub interface. Note the relationship between VC. VC4. 18 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. VC5.0 .Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces VC1/VP1 THROUGH-CONNECTED IN AXC2 BTS 1 VC1 / VP1 AXC BTS 2 VC2 / VP2 AXC VC1 / VP1 BTS 3 VC3 / VP3 AXC AXC BTS 4 VC3.

2 CCS7 – Common Channel Signalling #7 Note This section repeats CCS7 information from the GSM courses (GSM SYSTRA. and may be considered as an optional topic. CCS7 basic protocol stack The CCS7 signalling connections are typically 64 kb/s timeslots of the PCM trunks − but not always. Hence. CTXX5330en Issue 4. The CCS7 basic protocol stack provides signalling connections. the signalling node sends FISU. it only contains sequence and indicator bits for acknowledge purposes. MSU is sent when there is some upper layer information to be delivered. too. their control. CCS7 is a widely used signalling method in telecommunications. If more sophisticated requirements exist. if there is not any information to be sent. The signalling channel must be populated all the time. The basic CCS7 roughly implements the three lowest layers of the OSI stack. This protocol lies on top of the basic CCS7 protocol stack. and basic signalling routing functionality.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 19 (75) . Message Transfer Part (MTP) Data Link Layer Physical Layer Figure 15. due to the increasing demand a broadband version of the CCS7 basic protocol stack exists. LSSU (Line Status Signalling Unit) and MSU (Message Signalling Unit).Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3. Signalling Connection Control Part (SCCP) protocol is required. to offer connection-oriented and connectionless services within a CCS7 environment. DX. FISU does not contain any upper-layer information. For example. and NSS courses). The CCS7 uses three kinds of messages: FISU (Fill-In Signalling Unit). LSSU is sent when the CCS7 nodes need to negotiate / change a signalling channel status or they have to inform each other about other maintenance activities. one must add “intelligence” by adding more protocols to the protocol stack.

for instance. the CCS7 message contains sequence numbers to both back and forward directions (BSN and FSN) and indicator bits for the same directions (BIB and FIB). which is responsible for message routing. higher-level message is in the field SIF (Service Information Field). the message is interpreted and terminated in this signalling point. The real. SIO (Service Information Octet) indicates the user (protocol). Up to this point. Circuit Identification Code).0 . the receiving signal node is expecting some CCS7 information to be received. all the fields in the message are related to data link layer activities. The field LI (Length Indicator) informs how many octets is the length of the CCS7 message. Signalling Link Selection) and the circuit concerned (CIC. the message is rerouted towards the correct SPC. If the DPC is the same as defined for the currently handling MTP node. In addition. MTP routing facility checks the Originating Signalling Point Code (OPC) and Destination Signalling Point Code (DPC). the SIF address part contains identification for used signalling channel (SLS. At the beginning of this field the MSU contains addressing information for the MTP layer. CCS7 message structure (MSU) The CCS7 message is always started with Frame Mark (F). In CCS7 any message can acknowledge each other. After this. After Frame Mark.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Figure 16. With these four fields the receiving node is able to perform message acknowledge activities. The next part. to which this message is addressed. Frame Mark is a fixed bit pattern 01111110. for instance. SIO may contain a bit pattern indicating that. If different. 20 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. ISUP is the protocol handling this MSU. It should be noted that this acknowledge mechanism is valid up to data link layer only and it should not be confused with the higher-level acknowledge mechanisms related to higher layer protocols. a FISU can acknowledge an MSU.

If load sharing is taken into use. The set of signalling links between two signalling nodes is called signalling link set. CCS7 – signalling link set CTXX5330en Issue 4. Both nodes identify a signalling link with a unique number. but sooner or later more links will be required.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces The basic element for CCS7 signalling information transfer is the signalling link. The signalling traffic is carried through all the signalling links within the signalling link set. Signalling Link Code (SLC). Node A SPC Node B SPC Figure 18. Node A SPC Figure 17. For proper signalling link selection. The SLC (or SLS) should be same in both ends of the signalling link.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 21 (75) . every signalling link within a signalling link set must have a unique signalling link code. the MTP level is able to distribute messages of one signalling session over several links. CCS7 – signalling link Node B SPC One signalling link between two nodes is able to handle certain amount of signalling traffic. and checking of this is one of the items the LSSU messages are used for. Signalling link is a data link layer connection between two signalling nodes. Normal practise is that a signalling session (for instance signalling related to ISUP call set-up) is carried through using the same signalling link for all messages.

Layer 1. but the signalling related to those connections is handled through other nodes. signalling route is. The structure of Layer 2 in the Uu interface is a bit exceptional when compared to the other interfaces. Signalling route set is the collection of the signalling routes. In the originating signalling node. CCS7 – signalling route set The CCS7 makes it possible to have a situation where actual traffic path is geographically allocated in a different way than the related signalling goes to. 3. maintaining the physical radio channel configuration. The signalling node taking care of rerouting of the messages in this kind of case is called Signalling Transfer Point (STP). two nodes may have direct traffic connections. the routing entity on the MTP level is called signalling route set.3. The Layer 1 is controlled by Layer 2. Layer 2 has two sublayers in the Uu (air) interface.1 Uu (air) interface The transport plane of the Uu interface covers the three lowest layers of the OSI stack. encryption and radio link deletion. Signalling route is in practise the same as the signalling link set.0 . but the difference here is that signalling link set is not “aware” of the STP facility.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Signalling Route Set Node A SPC Signalling Routes Node B SPC Node C STP Figure 19. • MAC (Medium Access Control) physically implements radio link management. through which a certain SPC can be achieved. the data link layer.3 Implementation of the transport layers 3. the physical layer. 22 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. MAC and RLC. uses WCDMA-FDD/TDD technology. radio link set-up. error protection. that is. This is.

Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces

The functionality of the RLC (Radio Link Control) is similar as in “normal” Layer 2. This means mainly flow control-related activities like for instance data block sequencing.

The Layer 3 of the Uu interface contains functions needed for the transport plane control. The control entity is called Radio Resource Control (RRC). RRC manages the physical layer and its activities whenever required. If, for instance, a radio link is to be set up, the RRC gives a command to perform this activity. The command is delivered via RLC to MAC, and MAC performs the activity. Finally, the radio link set-up is carried through the Layer 1.

1. Logical Channels

RRC signalling RLC

CS RAB (speech)

PS RAB (data) Iu
•Segmentation •Retransmission across the air •Ciphering of NRT data •Buffering

RLC

RLC

MAC MAC for Common Channels

Iub/Iur
2. Transport channels

•Selection of the data to be inserted in the Radio Frame •Selection of common or dedicated channels •Multiplexing of logical channels into same transport channels •Ciphering for RT

L1

RLC: Radio Link control MAC: Medium Access Control

3. Physical Channel(s) (Radio)

Figure 20.

Transport plane in the Uu interface

The idea behind this kind of protocol stack in the Uu interface is to carry normal Layer 2 functions, and at the same time make the system able to carry the extra control functions required by the radio interface (MAC – RLC division). In addition to this, all the functionality required by the radio interface is handled on the lowest possible protocol level (and not higher than on Layer 3). This makes it possible to “hide” the radio path from the real applications. The control plane and user plane located on top of this transport plane may therefore change depending on the application requirements. This arrangement brings more flexibility to the system, because the air interface does not limit the applications used over the radio interface. This is one of the main disadvantages with the second-generation systems.

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3.3.2

Iub, Iur and Iu interfaces

BS Iub
Control Data Control Data User Data

RNC

AAL5 ATM

AAL2

AAL5 ATM

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Figure 21.

Iub transport plane

In the Iub interface the transport plane consists of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) and its adaptation layer(s) located on top of the physical layer. The physical layer could be any media providing constant bit rate with adequate bandwidth, that is, PCM(s), PDH or SDH.

SRNC Iur
Control Data Control Data User Data

DRNC

AAL5 ATM

AAL2

AAL5 ATM

Physical Layer

Physical Layer

Figure 22.

Iur interface transport plane

In the Iur interface between SRNC and DRNC the construction of the transport plane is similar as in the Iub.

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User Data AAL2

User Data AAL2

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Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces

RNC Iu-CS
Control Data User Data

CS Core Network Domain
Control Data User Data AAL2 ATM Physical Layer

AAL5 ATM

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Figure 23.

Iu-CS interface transport plane

In the Iub and Iur interfaces ATM uses two adaptation layers: AAL2 and AAL5. The same solution is implemented in the Iu circuit switched interface.

RNC Iu-PS
AAL5 ATM Physical Layer

PS Core Network Domain
AAL5 ATM Physical Layer

Figure 24.

Iu-PS interface transport plane

In the Iu-PS interface, only AAL5 is used. In other respects the transport plane is similar as in the Iu-CS, Iur and Iub interfaces. As a conclusion concerning the transport plane, in UMTS it provides variablespeed-packet type of transmission media over constant-bit-rate (bandwidth) physical layer. Because the services using the transport plane set different QoS Quality of Service) requirements (real time, non-real time and Delay) for the connection, the transport plane must use different adaptation layers in order to handle those requirements correctly.

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Therefore it requires a controlling element.0 . Transport network control plane The transport plane is a “living element”.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3. 26 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. This part is called transport network control plane. and it simply provides the means to control the AALs used from the transport plane point of view.4 Transport network control plane Control Plane Data Flow User Plane Data Flow Data Flow Controlling Transport Plane AAL(n) ATM Physical Figure 25. which is neither part of the transport nor the control plane. since the ATM is able to change its routing in case of connection failures.

0 © Nokia Networks Oy 27 (75) . the control plane is taken into use. and there may be several signalling links for dedicated NBAP procedures. 4. In order to adapt the NBAP properly on top of the AAL5 (ATM Adaptation Layer 5). Note In this chapter the term convergence protocol(s) means signalling protocols making adaptations between two protocol layers in general. namely common and dedicated NBAP procedures. BS Iub NBAP Convergence Protocol(s) AAL5 ATM Physical Layer RNC NBAP Convergence Protocol(s) AAL5 ATM Physical Layer Figure 26. CTXX5330en Issue 4. Because the UMTS network uses very sophisticated signalling methods. NBAP functions are divided into two groups.Node B Application Part) In the Iub interface the control plane is maintained by the signalling protocol NBAP (Node B Application Part). some convergence protocols are required. Iub radio network control plane Node B Application Part is a Layer-3 protocol at the Iub interface.1 Iub interface control plane (NBAP . Common NBAP procedures are used to create new user equipment (UE) contexts and control BCCH broadcast information. all seven layers of the OSI model are required for this purpose.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 4 Control plane (≈ Serving Stratum) ≈ The control plane roughly carries signalling that maintains the functions of the Service Stratum. When a UE establishes connection to the network. These are transparent for the transport plane. The Iub always contains one signalling link for the common NBAP procedures.

the protocols controlling the behaviour of the DCH are different in different call cases. UE (User Equipment) Uu BS (Base Station) Iub RNC (Radio Network Controller) Node B Control Port Communication Control Port 1 Communication Control Port n Figure 27.g. the control plane is established between the BS (base station) and the RNC (radio network controller). Control plane means the signalling resources attached for signalling connection setup issues between two signalling nodes.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces After establishing the control plane.0 . The signalling related to one UE and its connection establishment is called UE context. User Data Transfer uses DCH Data Port (channel) in Iub. The control plane in Iub consists of Node B Control Port and several communication control ports: • • The Node B Control Port maintains the O&M connection-related signalling between the BS and the RNC. all control and traffic going through one (WCDMA) TRX. Iub control plane – Port structure Traffic Termination Point represents the bit streams going through one Communication Control Port. In case of Iub interface. circuit switched service or packet switched service). which may require signalling too (user plane). The UE context covers signalling procedures related to the communication between the UE and the network. For network access purposes the RACH and FACH Data Ports (channels) are used. the UE may start to use its own applications. Communication Control Ports are used for traffic-related signalling. 28 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. like network access and user data transfer. Because the radio access bearer (RAB) may carry different kinds of information (e. and signalling connection set-up case is radio link set-up. that is.

performing the bearer – radio link(s) mapping. CTXX5330en Issue 4. This connection implements the Iur interface between the Serving RNC and the Drift RNC. To make it suitable over the ATM.2 Iur interface control plane (RNSAP – Radio Network Subsystem Application Part) Between the RNCs the control plane is maintained by the signalling protocol RNSAP (Radio Network Subsystem Application Part). SRNC Iur RNSAP Convergence Protocol(s) AAL5 ATM Physical Layer DRNC RNSAP Convergence Protocol(s) AAL5 ATM Physical Layer Figure 28. some convergence protocols are required. The most important procedures are naturally involved in: • • • • radio link set-up radio link addition radio link reconfiguration and radio link deletion. The Drift RNC (DRNC) means an RNC involving radio link addition/deletion/reconfiguring procedure but not having the bearer – radio link mapping control. Iur interface radio network control plane In UMTS-RAN. that is.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 4.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 29 (75) . The Iur interface procedures are controlled by the RNSAP signalling protocol. These four processes are illustrated in the following figures. The term Serving RNC (SRNC) means in this case the RNC controlling the connection. the radio network control nodes (RNCs) have (or may have) direct connections between themselves.

0 . RNSAP: Radio link addition 30 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. RNSAP: Radio link set-up BS Uu 4 DRNC Iub Iur Radio Link Addition SRNC RACH-Short Initial Access RRC Connection Request Radio Link Addition Radio Link Addition Response FACH .Access Granted UL DPCCH RRC Conn.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces BS Uu 4 DRNC Iub Iur Radio Link Setup SRNC RACH-Short Initial Access RRC Connection Request Radio Link Setup Radio Link Setup Response FACH . Request Ack Synchronisation Indicated Radio Link Addition Response Figure 30. Request Ack Synchronisation Indicated Radio Link Setup Response Figure 29.Access Granted UL DPCCH RRC Conn.

RNSAP: Radio link deletion In addition to these procedures handling the activities related to the DRNC Iub interface. for instance if the UE moves away from the SRNC coverage. RNSAP: Radio link reconfiguration BS Uu 4 DRNC Iub Iur Radio Link Deletion SRNC Radio Link Deletion Radio Link Deletion Response Radio Link Deletion Response Figure 32. CTXX5330en Issue 4.Reconfiguring RL Reconf.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces BS Uu 4 DRNC Iub Iur RL Reconfiguration SRNC RL Reconf. This kind of case will occur if the very first radio link (opened when the UE context was created) is to be deleted due to changed radio conditions.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 31 (75) . the Iur interface and RNSAP handle the situation where the SRNC functionality is transferred from the original SRNC to a DRNC. Prepare Physical Channel (DCH) Modification: .Deleting .Adding . Commit RL Reconfiguration Response Figure 31. Ready RL Reconf.

some convergence protocols are required. The Iu interface must however carry information that is not directly related into it: the UE and the CN domain(s) exchange signalling information on the control plane. The connection should provide a constant. This is MTP (either normal or broadband) and SCCP offering both connection-oriented and connectionless services for the RANAP over the Iu interface. but where it carries the related signalling information through itself. NRT (non-real time) traffic does not require a constant bit rate. terminal or subscriber authentication could be this kind of procedure where the RAN (RNC) has no role. Some of the services used are so called RT (real time) services. Due to its location it is able to handle both circuit switched and packet switched traffic-related activities. RNC Iu RANAP Convergence Protocol(s) AAL5 ATM Physical Layer Core Network Domains RANAP Convergence Protocol(s) AAL5 ATM Physical Layer Figure 33. 32 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.0 . In UMTS Release 99 these convergence protocols are expected to be primarily CCS7-based. Some activities are related only to the connection management between the RNC and the core network domains. The UMTS network is able to handle all kinds of traffic created by different services the subscribers use. This section shows some examples about the RANAP activities.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 4. In order to use it over the ATM. These services require dedicated connection through the UMTS network. Iu interface control plane RANAP is a very important protocol containing plenty of procedures. fixed bit rate. For instance. it maintains the Iu interface control plane thus handling activities between the RAN and the core network domains. The RANAP performs two kinds of activities.3 Iu interface control plane (RANAP – Radio Access Network Application Part) In the Iu interface the control plane is maintained by the signalling protocol RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part).

UE Uu BS Iub RNC Iu CN . In the CN circuit domain.Bearer ID . RAB and CN domains The dedicated connection established over RAN (that is.Release Cause Figure 35. for instance. AAL2 ID and bearer ID (defining uniquely the RAB in SRNC and Serving MSC/VLR or SGSN).Constant Bit Rates CN Packet Domain: . Before the RAB can be allocated. the bearer is established by the Serving MSC/VLR. The core network domains are the entities setting up.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 33 (75) .Bearer ID . These kinds of resource points are.Binding ID (transport) Bearers to Keep: . there must be at least one active radio link established between the UE and the SRNC.Circuit Switched Domain RRC RANAP NBAP RANAP = Radio Access Network Application Part NBAP = Node B (BS) Application Part Bearers to Setup or Modify: .NRT Traffic (RT Traffic) . The RAB can be understood as a collection of resource point definitions attending to the connection between the UE and the core network.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Iu CN Circuit Domain: .AAL2 ID . Bearer between the UE and core network circuit domain CTXX5330en Issue 4. between the UE and the core network) is called radio access bearer (RAB).RT Traffic . In the CN packet domain the same task is performed by the SGSN.Bearer ID Bearers to Release: . modifying. maintaining and deleting bearers.Variable Bit Rates RAB 4 Figure 34. which negotiates the RAB and its features over the Iu interface with the Serving RNC (SRNC).

There are two messages allocated: RAB Assignment Request and RAB Assignment Complete.CN IP Address .Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Bearer allocation always starts from the core network side. CN IP Address and GTP Flow Label.GTP Flow Label Bearers to Keep: . this section presents three procedures. As it was explained in transaction examples. the core network domain is responsible for bearer assignment. As examples. The procedures related to the RAB assignment are also the same. The first one is the bearer assignment.NSAPI Bearers to Release: . Inside the RAN. in which the RANAP is involved. The parameters used for RAB definition in the CN packet domain are NSAPI (Network /layer/ Service Access Point Identifier). NBAP (Node B Application Part) is also attending to the procedure. the parameters of the bearer assignment are different between the CN domains. the term bearer and its management has the same content in both of the core network domains delivering traffic. The signalling resources required for that purpose are supplied with the signalling protocol RANAP (Radio Access Network Application Part) with the Iu interface.Release Cause Figure 36. Bearer between the UE and core network packet domain In a UMTS network. The procedure itself is somewhat simpler than in 2G.NSAPI . 34 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.0 . Because the CN packet domain is an IP-based entity.Packet Domain RRC RANAP NBAP RANAP NBAP NSAPI GTP = Radio Access Network Application Part = Node B (BS) Application Part = Network Service Access Point Identifier = GPRS Tunnelling Protocol Bearers to Setup or Modify .NSAPI . UE Uu BS Iub RNC Iu CN .

If initiated by the core network domain. Modify or Delete.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces BS Uu 4 RNC Iub Iu Core Network Domains RAB Assignment Request RAB is configured to be used over the existing Radio Link(s) RAB Assignment Complete Figure 37. the RAB Assignment Request message is used. From the RNC point of view. CTXX5330en Issue 4. If initiated by the RAN. When the RAB Assignment Request message arrives to the RNC. BS Uu 4 RNC Iub Iu Core Network Domains RAB Release Request RAB Assignment Request RAB . Hence. there is no separate procedure for bearer modification or deletion.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 35 (75) . the RNC actually binds together the bearer and related radio links thus enabling the user traffic between the UE and the core network. the RAB Release Request message is used like in the figure above. RANAP bearer deletion The deletion of the bearer may be initiated either by the RAN or by the core network.Radio Link relationship removed RAB Assignment Complete Figure 38. RANAP bearer assignment The RAB Assignment Request may or may not contain information about several bearers and what to do with them: Create. the RAB deletion means that the binding between the RAB and the radio links is released and the NBAP/RNSAP/RRC procedures for radio links release can be started. provided that the UE does not have any traffic ongoing through another bearer(s).

When the original Serving RNC realises that there is a need for SRNC relocation (the very first radio link created for the UE context is about to be released).Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Iur Source Serving RNC Iu Core Network Domain(s) Iu Target Serving RNC To the target RNC with RNSAP: SRNC Relocation Commit Relocation Required Relocation Command Relocation Request Reloc. the original Serving RNC starts the relocation in the Iur interface by sending the Relocation Commit. This procedure is called Serving RNC relocation and it requires activities to be performed in two interfaces. 36 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. When the new Serving RNC realises that the new bearers are working properly. and the core network starts preparations for bearer switching by assigning bearers towards the new Serving RNC. After this has been realised by the new Serving RNC. the SRNC functionality must be carried from one RNC to another. Ack. Req. RAB(s) Assigned Relocation Detect RAB(s) Released Relocation Complete Iu Release Relocation Detect Relocation Complete Figure 39. it sends the message Relocation Complete thus informing that the rest of the connections through the Iu interface towards the original Serving RNC can be released. When the Relocation Command reaches the original Serving RNC (this informs that the core network is aware of the issue and the bearers towards the new Serving RNC have been allocated). The new possible RNC acknowledges this request through the core network. there will be a situation where the UE context originally created is not controlled with a reasonable SRNC. Thus. Iu and Iur. the information about the readiness comes to the original Serving RNC through the core network in the message Relocation Detect. This is also a sign to start the bearer switching: new bearers towards the new Serving RNC are taken into use and the old bearers towards the original Serving RNC are released. it informs the desired new SRNC through the core network domain(s) about the need for the relocation. RANAP Serving RNC relocation When the UE moves in the RAN.0 .

CTXX5330en Issue 4. The actions the ISUP performs can be divided into two groups: circuit control procedures and dedicated call control procedures. Both of these are adequate as such. but it has not been seen so necessary any more due to IP development and the abilities the White Book ISUP is able to provide.4 Core network signalling (ISUP – ISDN User Part) Note This section repeats the information from GSM courses (such as GSM SYSTRA. but the White Book ISUP makes it possible to use wider bandwidths.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 37 (75) . Nowadays ISUP protocol is either according to Blue Book (older) or White Book (newer). it is very natural that ISUP is in use as far as circuit switched traffic is concerned.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 4. Both of the ISUP versions handle traffic paths as 64 kb/s traffic channels. Because the CN circuit domain in UMTS is inherited from GSM. there has been development towards the Broadband ISUP (B-ISUP). and NSS courses). ISDN User Part (ISUP) protocol stack The basic three CCS7 layers are enough to provide the signalling services the ISUP requires for its functions. Blue Book ISUP is able to allocate only 1 x 64 kb/s traffic path. DX. but the White Book ISUP contains definitions up to 128 x 64 kb/s. ISUP is 'de facto' standard signalling protocol for circuit switched traffic in fixed networks and also between the switching nodes within the mobile networks. In parallel. ISDN User Part (ISUP) Message Transfer Part (MTP) Data Link Layer Physical Layer Figure 40. and may be considered as an optional topic.

especially in the CN packet domain. SCCP offers connectionless services to the upper layers and TCAP takes care of the MAP session management. Originally MAP was used in the 2G-NSS (Network Switching Subsystem) network elements but in UMTS. MAP protocol stack In 2G.5 MAP – Mobile Application Part Note Many of the ETSI (GSM) specifications will be re-used and further developed for the UMTSPP MAP. MAP is a high-level protocol responsible for the management entities like mobility management and security management. the convergence protocols are SCCP (Signalling Connection Control Part) and TCAP (Transaction Capabilities Application Part). it will be used both in circuit and packet domain network elements. The other layers can be divided into two parts: OSI layers 1-3 are populated with transport protocols and the OSI layers 4-6 are handled by the convergence protocols. the transport protocols are coming from the CCS7. also related to handling of different identities (both static and variable) and their locations within the core network. In OSI model. but the transport and convergence protocols may be different. Instead. it performs a numerous supportive operations. On top of these. 38 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. that is.6) Transport Protocol(s) (OSI 1 . (called as UMTSPP MAP). MAP protocol is not directly involved in the traffic delivery. the same structure can be used. MAP Convergence Protocol(s) (OSI 4 . transport protocol layer 3 is MTP. MAP implements roughly the Layer 7. Therefore it is recommended that you quickly browse through this chapter to refresh your memory from GSM/GPRS.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 4. In UMTS.3) Figure 41. In this case.0 .

MAP-C This MAP protocol interface is used between the MSC and the HLR.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces MAP-E To/from other MSC To/from other VLR CCS7 Protocol Stack within Circuit Switched Core Network Branch: MAP TCAP SCCP L3 L2 L1 MAP-B MAP-G MSC VLR MAP-F MAP-D MTP Figure 42. Through this interface the HLR requests the VLR to assign a roaming number. this interface is not defined separately in UMTS. The HLR and A(u)C have a common MAP interface and thus the activities performed between the VLR and the A(u)C also use the same MAP interface. Through this interface the network performs MSC-MSC handover arrangements. MAP-B This is the MAP protocol interface between the MSC and the VLR. Another important action performed through this MAP interface is the location registration procedure when the network updates a subscriber’s VLR information to the HLR. CTXX5330en Issue 4. and the VLR returns one.0 © Nokia Networks Oy MAP-C HLR A(u)C EIR 39 (75) . MAP-D This MAP protocol interface is in use between the VLR and the HLR. Through this interface the MSC performs location enquiries of the subscribers to the HLR. and the HLR returns roaming numbers to the MSC for further call connection. MAP-E This interface is in use between two MSCs. CCS7 protocol stack and MAP protocol interfaces Note The description of MAP protocol interfaces below is optional reading. Because all the existing implementations of the MSC and the VLR are combined.

Call Forwarding Unconditional. but all the relevant items are revised so that the protocol is able to handle and support the service requirements the UMTS sets.0 . as well as between the subscriber and the HLR. This arrangement is inherited mostly from the 2G-GPRS. Short Message Service Centre) can be connected. the new services using the existing HLR as a service provisioning point. MAP-I This interface is used in the context of services. in case of a location update. the “new” VLR may request the “old” VLR to provide security information related to the SIM/USIM card's validity (Authentication). these interfaces as such are not enough. this information and its acknowledgement is transferred through this MAP protocol interface. In this context. It carries information related to the MS (UE) identity checking. When the GSM-NSS evolves to the UMTS. MAP-G Through this interface two VLRs change information.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces MAP-F This MAP protocol interface is used between the MSC and the EIR. The UMTSPP-MAP has its basis on the GSM Phase2 (+) MAP. The interfaces in this context are called G interfaces. a term Extended MAP (UMTSPP MAP) is presented. for instance.g. when a subscriber defines the forwarded-to-number for e. For instance. The interfaces shortly explained above are directly inherited from GSM-NSS and thus they use GSM Phase2 (+) MAP protocol. and also the MAP protocol must be revised. MAP-H This interface provides the means through which the MSC and a Service Centre (SMSC. For instance. 40 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. In the CN packet switched domain the same MAP interfaces (and their functionality) are carried over different convergence protocols.

Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 3G RAN Interface Legend: = Interface between UE (User Equipment) and RAN Uu = Interface between RAN and CN Iu = G interface between Gateway GSN and HLR Gc = G interface between Serving GSN and EIR Gf = G interface between Gateway GSN and IP network Gi = G interface between Serving and Gateway GSN Gn = G interface between Serving GSN and HLR Gr IP Network(s) Figure 43. Node A Node B Node C MAP Operation Code MAP Operation Code MAP Application Context Figure 44. the signalling is handled as operation codes (OC). the signalling node receiving the OC must perform another OC to gain the information originally required. CN packet domain interfaces The MAP signalling information is carried between two signalling nodes in signalling messages. MAP operation code (OC) and application context (AC) The convergence protocol(s) take care of tagging those message pairs in order to maintain the operation code. Instead. In most of the signalling cases a simple OC is not enough as such. CTXX5330en Issue 4. but from the MAP point of view. This kind of 'chain reaction' where the OCs are dependent of each other and thus have dependent identification is called application context (AC). The operation code consists of an even amount of messages forming pairs: Signalling message – Acknowledgement.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 41 (75) . There are a number of ACs and more OCs. and all of them are performed through different interface combinations within the CN.

Iur interface user plane 42 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. In the Uu interface the user plane consists of the DPDCHs (Dedicated Physical Data Channels) allocated for the connection (and the data they carry. BS Iub Frame Protocols for: DCH. naturally). For the other interfaces.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 5 User plane (≈ Application Stratum) ≈ The user plane signalling takes place between the application(s) of the UE (user) and the destination over the physical connection established over the transport plane by using the facilities the control plane offers. Iub user plane SRNC Iur Frame Protocols for DCH AAL2 ATM Physical Layer DRNC Frame Protocols for DCH AAL2 ATM Physical Layer Figure 46.0 . the user planes are as expressed in the pictures below. RACH and FACH AAL2 ATM Physical Layer Figure 45. RACH and FACH AAL2 ATM Physical Layer RNC Frame Protocols for: DCH.

It receives a Protocol Data Unit (PDU) from the layer above it. Most protocols can be represented in a layered architecture or layered model. if you are already have some IP competence. and when will the communications take place. A protocol can define many aspects of communications including what is the nature of communications. the PDU may be broken into smaller PDUs. performs some processing on it. A protocol is a set of rules defining data communications between entities. Each layer performs a distinct function. how will the entities communicate.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces RNC Iu User Data Streams Core Network Packet Domain User Data Streams GTP UDP IP AAL5 ATM Physical Layer RNC Iu User Data Streams AAL2 ATM Physical Layer Core Network Circuit Domain User Data Streams AAL2 ATM Physical Layer GTP UDP IP AAL5 ATM Physical Layer Figure 47. An entity has the capacity to transmit and receive data. adds a header to the PDU. CTXX5330en Issue 4. The process of adding headers to the PDU is called encapsulation. including the GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP). and sends the resulting PDU to the layer below it. In order for an entity to function correctly. Examples of OSI and TCP/IP models are shown in Figure 48. It provides a very brief overview of the IP family.1 IP – Internet Protocol (optional) This section is optional reading. You may skip this section. Sometimes if the PDU is larger than an acceptable maximum due to technological limitations. This process is referred to as fragmentation. Data communications involve the transmission and reception of data between entities across different networks. Iu interface user planes for CN circuit and packet domain 5.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 43 (75) . all entities must agree upon a protocol for successful communications.

Session. and Physical layers. In this model. Network (or Inter-network). the TCP/IP family of networking protocols has grown to its current position as the most widely used data communications protocol both in interconnecting Wide Area Networks (WAN) and in office/corporate Local Area Networks (LAN). There are. UDP) ICMP. The first network to use this protocol was called ARPANET. Data link. 44 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. for example. Because of its widespread use and relatively easy implementation. in practice. Most data communication uses the client . Presentation. OSI-model vs.server model shown in Figure 49. Since then. RARP Network Interface (layer 1 and 2 are not specified within the Internet protocol suite) Figure 48. no session or presentation layers defined. This is shown in Figure 48. the usage of TCP/IP protocols is.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Layer ISO OSI Model Application Layer Presentation Layer Session Layer Transport Layer Network Layer (Data) Link Layer Physical Layer TCP/IP Protocol Stack 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Transport (TCP. there are some differences.ietf. IGMP Internet Protocol ARP. Today TCP/IP protocols are developed and standardised by the Internet Engineering Task Force (www. IETF membership is free and there is no subscription fee for documents. The TCP/IP protocol family was originally developed for US military data networks in the late 1970s. but the functionality of these is built directly into application layer protocols. TCP/IP The OSI model contains seven layers: Application. a client sends a request to a server that maybe located on another network somewhere on the Internet.0 . supported by every WAN and LAN technology used today. The server processes the client’s request and sends a reply to the client. Each layer performs a distinct function. Transport. In order for the requests and replies to be understood.org). the client and the server must speak the same language. Although TCP/IP can be mapped and explained with the classical layered OSIprotocol model.

There are two types of IP address: private IP addresses and public IP addresses. Each packet will have an address for both sender and receiver. House 1 House 2 House 1 House 3 New Street Crossing A Old Street Network 1 Router A Network 2 Host 1 Host 2 Host 1 Host 2 Host 3 Figure 50 IP can be compared to street addressing CTXX5330en Issue 4.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Communication Network Client Server Figure 49. data is transported to the destination without the establishment of a connection between the source and the destination similar to a postal system. that is.server model interaction 5. Public IP addresses are globally unique in that all IP packets in a public network will have unique IP sender and receiver addresses. IP works in connectionless packet mode. which is referred to as an IP address.2 Internet Protocol Internet Protocol (IP) is a layer-3 protocol that is used to carry data over different types of network. Client .0 © Nokia Networks Oy 45 (75) .

Each packet will have an address for the sender and the receiver.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces IP is used as the interconnection protocol in the Internet. IP address are written in a dotted decimal notation as A.com) is 46 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. Figure 51 shows four different IP networks interconnected together. If Router 1 has packets that need to go to the Internet. Because humans find it difficult to write 32 binary bits. assuming this has not been denied for security reasons. Each number in this notation corresponds to an octet or 8 bits.0 . The format of IPv4 datagram is shown in Error! Reference source not found.C. IP Network B IP Network C Router 1 IP Network A Router 2 Router 3 Internet Figure 51. For example. it can send packets via Router 3 in IP Network A or through Router 4 in IP Network B. The network does not guarantee when and how the packets will arrive. It is referred to as a best effort network. IP network example 5.3 Internet Protocol version 4 An IP address identifies a host on a network. The length of the IPv4 address is 32 bits. The current version of IP is IP version 4 (IPv4).B.nokia. Each octet has the decimal range of 0 (00000000) to 255 (11111111). the IP address for Nokia’s global web site (http://www. The use of unique addresses means that every machine connected to the Internet can send packets to any other machine connected to the Internet.D.. Large deliveries may be divided or fragmented into several smaller packets to help transportation.

At the beginning of this section it was mentioned that an IP address consists of 32 bits. Five classes of IP addressing were defined: • • Class A addresses were designed for very large organisations.65. Since the range of each octet has been specified. not all IP addresses are available.255.255 are used for special purposes. which will have a substantial amount of computers attached to their network.3.100. Host ID.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 47 (75) . However. the question now is how many addresses are available.105.255 is used for local broadcasting to all hosts across a network. the IP addresses 0.255. and each bit has a binary representation of 0 or 1. Figure 52 IPv4 address structure An IP address is composed of two parts: the Network ID (Net ID) and the Host ID. which represents the network to which the host or gateway is attached.0. The IP address 255. All routing functions are based on the Net ID portion of the IP address. 232 results in 4295 million addresses (approximately). The Net ID always precedes the Host ID.0. CTXX5330en Issue 4.1 Class based IP addressing Class based IP addressing was the original mode of allocating addresses and a detailed description of it can be found in RFC 791. 5.255. The Net ID represents the network to which the host or gateway belongs to and the Host ID identifies the specific host within that particular network. Net ID Host ID The 32 bits in an IP address are split between a unique: • • Net ID.255.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 193.0 and 255. since some are reserved for special purposes. Class B addresses were designed for mid-size organisations having a large amount of computers attached to their network. Therefore. The Net ID always precedes the Host ID. which uniquely identifies a specific host within that network. For instance. The number of bits used to represent the Net ID and the Host ID varies depending if class or classless IP addressing is used. In this address 193 represents the most significant octet of the IP address.

This is also illustrated above.255.255. 14.255.c. The ‘/x’ says that first x bits of the IP address is a Net ID.0. which will have a small number of computers attached to their network.0. the number of bits can be specified for Net ID and Host ID depending on the class.255.255. or 21 bits. Oktet 1 11000000 Oktet 2 01111010 Oktet 3 01100010 Oktet 4 01010000 192. A classless IP address is represented as a.1 to 126. Class D addresses were designed for multicasting purposes.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces • • • Class C addresses were designed for small size organisations.255.255 0 Net ID 01 2 15 16 31 10 012 3 Net ID 23 24 31 Class B 110 0 123 4 Net ID 31 Class C 1110 0 123 4 Multicast 31 Class D 1111 Reserved for special use Class E Figure 53. class E type addresses have no Net ID or Host ID. In this addressing scheme.0.0.1 to 239. 32 bits binary format 0 1 7 8 31 dotted decimal format Class A 16777214 users/net 0. Additionally.254 268435454 groups 224.1 to 191. In this scheme the Net ID is not confined to 7.0. these bits can be used to compute the number of networks supported by each class as well as the number of hosts per network supported by each class. Similarly.0. a netmask is used to distinguish between the Net ID and Host ID bits of the IP address.255. The Net ID can be between 2 and 31 bits and hence there is a need to indicate the boundary between the Net ID and Host ID. Class E addresses are reserved by the Internet for special use.2 Classless based IP addressing The second type of addressing is known as classless addressing. Classless addressing was developed as one of many solutions to address the shortage of IP addresses in the earlier class based addressing.98. The figure below summarises the characteristics of each class of IP addresses. Characteristics of class based IP addresses Furthermore.b.255.0.3.1 to 223. 5. A netmask 48 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.254 254 users/net 192.0.254 65534 users/net 128.0 .122.d / x.

255.255.1 192.168.11111110.0 11111111.0 Decimal Representation IP Address 192.0 255.d/22 Then netmask = 11111111.c.11111111.11111111.168.0.000000000.168.b.254.b. As an example.255.3 Static and dynamic IP addressing When talking about IP addresses we find the concepts of static and dynamic addresses.00000001 Bitwise ANDing Netmask 255.0000000.3.252.0.0 If IP address = a.1010100.00000000.b.11111111.255.0.0 If IP address = a.11111111.0000000 = 255.255.00000000. which does not change. Every time you would log into the network your computer would use the same IP address.00000001 11000000.00000000 Network Address 192.10101000. you (your computer) could be a host in a network that has unique and permanent IP addresses.1 Binary Representation 11000000.0 192.11111111.00000000 11111111.11111111.d/24 Then netmask = 11111111.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces contains a series of 1s corresponding to the Net ID followed by a series of 0s corresponding to the host ID.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 49 (75) . Bit-wise Anding of IP address and netmask The IP address and netmask are ANDed together bit wise resulting in the binary representation of the network address 5.11111100. A static IP address is like your passport number.00000000 11000000.101010000.00000000 Figure 54.11111111.0000000 = 255.0.0 11000000.255.168.255.d/23 Then netmask = 11111111.c.c. CTXX5330en Issue 4.0000000 = 255.10101000. Examples of netmask are given below: If IP address = a.11111111.255.

There are also other reasons for introducing IPv6 as highlighted in RFC1883: Expanded addressing capabilities The increased address space of 128 bits will allow IPv6 to support more levels of addressing hierarchy. Authentication and privacy capabilities IPv4 did not have any authentication and privacy capabilities. anycast address. IPv6 also includes a new type of address. This includes non-default quality of service or ‘real time’ service. this adding flexibility of further options that can be implemented in the future. not simultaneously (remember IP addresses are unique).4 Internet Protocol version 6 IPv6 is the latest version of the Internet Protocol developed by IETF. for which the user requests special handling. This change was invoked so that the commoncase processing cost of packet handling can be reduced and limit the bandwidth cost of IPv6 header. which is used to send a packet to any one group of nodes in a network. as well as more addressable nodes and simple autoconfiguration of addresses. less stringent limits on the length of options. which is estimated to last a lot longer than the 32 bits in IPv4. Header format simplification In contrast to the header format of IPv4. One of the main reasons for the introduction of IPv6 is that the number of IP addresses available with the current IPv4 is running short. which allows the labelling of packets belonging to a particular traffic flow.. This was compensated by the development of IPsec. Improved support for extensions and options The changes implemented in IPv6 for header options permit more efficient forwarding. the network would assign you a different address. The address size of IPv6 is 128 bits. IPv6 contains many features of IPsec as 50 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. some of the header fields of IPv6 have been discarded or made optional. The header format of IPv6 is shown in Error! Reference source not found.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces With a dynamic IP address every time you log into the network.0 . This address is assigned on demand and could be used by different hosts at different times. Flow labelling capability This is a new capability feature. 5. Additionally. There is a lease time associated with a dynamically assigned address.

0. A router and its tasks Routing can be either static or dynamic. The default gateway/default route is typically marked with the address 0. CTXX5330en Issue 4. the IGRP (Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) and the BGP (Border Gateway Protocol).0 © Nokia Networks Oy 51 (75) . and data confidentiality. then the packet will be sent to the default gateway.0 -notation.0.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces well as other features to support authentication. 5.0. The process of selecting the best data link and next hop on the route to the right destination network is called routing. so the routers and the hosts use a default gateway or default route. A typical routing table for Router 1 is shown below. If more accurate information is not known of a destination IP-network. data integrity.0. In static routing the router will have a fixed routing table. In dynamic routing. the routers exchange information on the destination IP networks and corresponding next hops. • Layer 3 „switch“ • decides were to transmit the IP packet next after analysis of the IP header information depending on data link and physical link layer. Application TCP/ UDP Router Routing is the process of selecting the next destination using a routing table. segmentation or reassembly may necessary IP L2 L1 IP L2 L1 Relay L2‘ L1‘ IP Router Figure 55.5 IP routing and routers Any IP device that can forward IP packets (which have a destination address other than its own) to other IP devices is called a router. the RIP (Routing Information Protocol). This dynamic information is exchanged via routing protocols like the OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). which includes the destination IP networks and corresponding next hops. In real life it is impossible and impractical to know the route to every IP-network in the world.0 / mask 0.

255.255.0.0 .168.1.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Destination 192.168. IP routers and routing table Let us assume that a malfunction occurs in Router 3.5 192.5 Interface Ethernet 0 Tokenring 0 Ethernet 0 Tokenring 0 192.0.0 192.2.2.0 255.0.5/24 192.168.0 0.1.255.0 Next hop 192.168. Router 1 has to find an alternative path to route its packets to the Internet.0.0/24 Router 2 192.168.0 192.0 0.0.168.255. Router 1 corrects its routing table by incorporating a new route to the Internet via Router 4.168.0.1.0.0/24 192.0 Mask 255.1.0.255.1/24 192.168. Therefore.168.0 255.168.5/24 Router 1 192.0.0/24 192.168.1/24 192.7/24 Internet Router 3 Figure 56.168.2.168.168.3/24 192.255.1. In Figure 57.0. 52 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.

0. /24 3 192. An IP packet arriving from a network using one type of data link can be easily forwarded to the next hop network based on another type of data link.168.2.0 Mask 255.168. /24 7 Router 3 FAILED Figure 57.1.1.0 192.168.255.255.0. Every router between the sender and the receiver performs the routing function.0 255.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 53 (75) .168.0.168.168.0 0. /24 0 192.168.255.0 Next hop 192. /24 1 192.0.168.168.168. /24 5 192.0.0. that is.5 192.1. but they are using IP addresses from different IP subnetworks.0. /24 1 192.0.0 192.0 255.168.1.168. an Ethernet segment.0.0. packets from one subnetwork to the other will have to be sent to a router. which has an interface to both subnetworks.5 192.255. IP routers and routing table IP is a connectionless protocol and routing will be done individually for each and every packet even if they belong to the same data transfer.0 0. Routers are needed in IP based LAN/WAN networks to interconnect IP network that employ similar or dissimilar lower layer (data link) protocols.0.2.0.255.2. In this case.1.168. /24 5 Router 1 192.168.0.0.0 Router 3 FAILED 0. A router is needed even if both the sender and the receiver are connected to the same physical data link network.168. /24 0 Router 2 192.0 0.7 Interface Ethernet 0 Tokenring 0 Ethernet 0 Tokenring 0 Ethernet 0 Alternate path 192.255.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Destination 192. The router then forwards packets between the two IP subnetworks. /24 7 Internet Router 4 192.168. CTXX5330en Issue 4.0.1. /24 0 192.

for example. in segmenting user data to variablelength IP packets and adding a sequence number to each packet. Peer-to-peer communication in the transport layer Both TCP and UDP can help. Figure 59.0 . IP data flow 54 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. They are used to help in the end-to-end transportation of data over IP networks. Application TCP/ UDP Router IP L2 L1 communication Application TCP/ UDP Router virtual connection IP L2 L1 Relay L2‘ L1‘ IP IP L2 L1 Relay L2‘ L1‘ IP IP L2 L1 Router Router Figure 58. FTP (Data) FTP (Data) Ethernet IP Ethernet IP TCP TCP FTP (Data) FTP (Data) Ethernet IP Ethernet IP TCP TCP FTP (Data) FTP (Data) Packet 1.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 6 Transport protocols Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are both layer-4 transport protocols. From the sequence number the receiver knows how to reassemble the user data even if the actual IP packets arrive in different order to that transmitted. Packet 2. User data segmentation is shown in Figure 59.

and/or upper or lower layer protocols already support reliable data transfer functionality. Its functionality includes sequence numbering. This protocol is used instead of TCP when speed is more important than reliability. packet acknowledgements. but this is optional. flow control. and checksum for data corruption supervision. UDP The User Datagram Protocol is used to provide fast data transfer between two IP endpoints.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 55 (75) . Data corruption can be checked with the use of checksum.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces TCP The Transmission Control Protocol is used to provide reliable data transfer between two IP end points. CTXX5330en Issue 4.

NFS Network File System is an application layer protocol used for sharing disk resources in TCP/IP based LANs.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 7 Application protocols There is a wide range of application layer protocols. 56 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol is a layer 3 control protocol used to carry error and control messages between IP nodes. Some of them are listed in this section. HTTP HyperText Transport Protocol is an application layer protocol used to define web contents and its transfer. SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol is an application layer protocol used for network management in TCP/IP networks. Telnet This application layer protocol is used for providing virtual terminal (VT) sessions between IP capable equipment. FTP File Transfer Protocol is an application layer protocol used for file transfers.0 . SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is an application layer protocol used for Internet mail transfer.

Port numbers can be static or dynamic. several applications Application 1 (port A) Application 2 (port B) Transport Application Server 1 IP L2 L1 Application Server 2 one IP address Figure 60. CTXX5330en Issue 4.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 8 Port numbers and Network Address Translation Once a packet is delivered to an IP device. the question arises to which application process the transport layer should deliver it. and this is referred to as port numbers.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 57 (75) . On the server side port numbers are typically fixed. TCP and UDP provide an addressing method to separate different application processes inside the IP-capable devices. and on the client side they are allocated dynamically. Port numbers run from 0 to 65536. Figure 61 illustrates this concept by using WWW traffic as an example. Several applications running simultaneously on one host This means that any data transmission between two IP devices is uniquely identified by the IP-address and port numbers. Each application will have one or several port numbers to identify the sender and receiver applications.

Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Client WWW-browser WWW-browser Port: 1137 TCP TCP Protocol : TCP IP IP Address: 192.168. their hosts use private unregistered IP addresses inside their network. See Figure 62.0.1 Sender: 192.1 Receiver: 192.2 Layer 4: TCP Layer 4: TCP TCP packet IP packet Figure 61.2 Network address translation For security reasons and to save addressing space.0. That is.1 Server WWW-browser WWW-server Port: 80 TCP TCP Protocol: TCP IP IP Address: 192.1 Sockets A socket is simply a combination of the IP address and the port number.168. Sockets allow a server to uniquely identify the process running on a particular client. we need a registered public address. as using the port number for identification purposes would be difficult since the same port number could be used on a number of different clients.0.0..0. HTTP request from a web browser 8.2 Receiver: 192.2 HTTP: Get Page. This task is called network address translation (NAT) and is usually performed in routers connected to external networks or firewalls. Sender: 1137 Sender: 1137 Receiver: 80 (HTTP) Port: 80 (HTTP) Sequence #: 13122 Sequence #: 13122 Sender: 192. some networks have a different addressing space than the Internet.168.168. 58 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. Therefore.168.168. 8.. We also know that in order to connect to the world outside (Internet).0.0 . there would have to be some device that performs the translation of a private unregistered address to a public registered address.

2 10.1.3 Public Network (Internet) 123. Network address translation In order to save addressing space.1.40.1.1. network address and port translation can be used.1. CTXX5330en Issue 4. If the users are allocated private (unregistered) addresses. See Figure 63.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces IP address: 10.40. The IP addresses given to the users may be public addresses or private addresses from a private network address space other than the ones used for the GPRS backbone.4 IP router towards an external network Figure 62.2 123.7 123.1. they have to be mapped (or translated) into one (or more) registered public IP addresses and port pairs.2 Private Network Network Address Translation 10.40. The GPRS backbone network is separated from the external networks.45.1.45. If more that one private address is mapped into one public address plus different port numbers. the process is called network address and port translation (NAPT).0 © Nokia Networks Oy 59 (75) . It has a separate address space from the public Internet and GPRS users.1. This process is called network address translation (NAT). This is explained in the following paragraphs using the GPRS network as an example.4 (currently not used) IP address: 10.45.

60 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.45.1.1. Network address and port translation in a GPRS network There are two main reasons for using NAT: • • The limited number of public IP address available to an operator.1.40.1.10. and Security Usage of NAT increases the security of the users.3 10.1.1:61002 123.1.40.45.1.3 Figure 63.10.10.40.4 10.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces TIDx TIDy TIDz Network Address and Port Translation IP Router outside the GPRS IP Core Network SGSN BSS GPRS backbone GGSN Internet 10.1.1:61254 10.254 10.45.40.10.15 10. as the internal addresses are not visible to computers outside of the NAT device.45.5 … 10.1 10. the NAT function and the GPRS core are transparent.1.1.0 .1:61003 123.1:61005 … 123.1.45.2 10.1.1.1.40. From the mobile station's point of view.1:61004 123.2 123.

1 Components in IP networks Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is an application layer protocol.NTC. . GPRS. . Local DNS server 5.1. hence. which is used to convert difficult-to-remember 32-bit IP addresses to more easily remembered symbolic names.0.0.NOKIA.NOKIA.168.NTC.15 ntc.com DNS server 1.nokia.0.com <-> 192. DNS in operation CTXX5330en Issue 4.168. and vice versa.com DNS server 4.ntc.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 61 (75) .COM ? nokia. 3. 6.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 9 9. GPRS ==192. root DNS server 2. DNS is based on a hierarchical and distributed model.COM ? GPRS.nokia. A DNS server will have a database containing IP addresses and corresponding symbolic names.com DNS server HOST Figure 64.15 GPRS 192. This conversion is done in DNS servers.168. It would be impossible to have information on every address-name pair in one database. for example: gprs.

It forwards the query to a predefined root level DNS server. In order to avoid doing this for every packet. 6. but instead they are allocated from a pool of addresses assigned to a DHCP server. in Figure 64 the host has to translate the IP address for gprs.nokia.com DNS servers. From the IP point of view.com. The local DNS server does not know the answer.nokia. In order to avoid ‘ghost’ users using IP addresses they no longer need. Distribution of IP addresses from a DHCP server to DHCP clients is shown in Figure 65. netmask.com -level DNS servers. This lease time can be configured to be from few to several days. This means that if the same host will send another translation request to this same destination. 9.com -level DNS servers.com level DNS server replies with an IP address corresponding to the gprs. because it only has a database of the local users. The local DNS server sends the query to the .0 . The client must stop using the IP address if the lease expires. The root level DNS server replies with a list of IP addresses to . and the default gateway. If some other host using the same local DNS server needs the IP address of the same symbolic name. the given IP addresses (and the other parameters) are associated with a lease time. The local DNS server forwards the reply to the original host.nokia.2 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is used to provide automatic network configuration information from the DHCP server to the DHCP client.nokia.ntc. asking for the IP address of gprs. The local DNS server sends the query to one of the nokia.com DNS servers. The host sends a DNS query to its local DNS server.com DNS server replies with a list of IP addresses of the nokia. which replies with a list of the addresses of ntc. 5. 3. The ntc.nokia. it already knows the right IP address.com DNS name. This means that IP addresses are not assigned permanently to any client. the client has to try to renew the lease. The .ntc. 2.nokia. 4.com DNS servers. it can get it faster from the local DNS server’s cache.com -level DNS servers. 1. the important configuration parameters that a client needs to know are the IP address. all DNS servers and hosts will cache their replies for some time.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces For example. 62 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.com. The local DNS server then forwards the query to one of the ntc.ntc. Before the lease expires.

which has a database that contains the information needed for authentication of the remote users. and with some other technique (e. 9.168. The DHCP client could be run on a remote access server (RAS). PPP1) the information could be forwarded to the right remote host.1 LEASE TIME: 55hours LEASE TIME: hours DHCP OFFER (B) DHCP OFFER (B) ADDRESS: 192.3 RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a protocol used for the centralised control of remote users between several remote access servers (RAS).1. to a central RADIUS server.168.255.255.51 NETMASK: 255. it is also capable of negotiating network layer parameters.0 NETMASK: 255.168. CTXX5330en Issue 4. Each RAS is connected.255.51 ADDRESS: 192.1.1 GATEWAY: 192.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces DHCP SERVER DHCP OFFER (A) DHCP OFFER (A) ADDRESS: 192. DHCP in operation A DHCP server can be a dedicated server for this purpose only or it can be just a part of some other type of server.0 GATEWAY: 192.0 NETMASK: 255.1 GATEWAY: 192.1.255.1.168.255.168. as a client.52 ADDRESS: 192. 1 Point to Point Protocol (PPP) is a datalink protocol used commonly with dynamic serial links (dial-up modems).1. In addition to normal datalink functionality.168.52 NETMASK: 255.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 63 (75) .0 GATEWAY: 192.1.168.1 LEASE TIME: 30 minutes LEASE TIME: 30 minutes REMOTE ACCESS SERVER DHCP CLIENT HOST DHCP CLIENT REMOTE HOST Figure 65.255.1.255.255.1. A DHCP client can be run directly on a host machine as normally is done in an office LAN environment.168. It is also possible to assign dynamic IP addresses to remote users using RADIUS.g.

PPP) with the VPN client and assign's the client an IP address. Finally. AppleTalk. 2. 64 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 9. The VPN concept has been around for some time. The company gateway exchanges information (e. The concept of VPN was initially used in telephone networks. Then the NAS initiates a communication link using a tunnelling protocol via the Internet to the VPN client's company gateway. 4. Once the tunnel is accepted by the company gateway. the ISP's NAS logs the acceptance/ traffic. or IP). The company gateway queries the company security server to confirm the tunnel. a secure tunnel is created between the VPN client and the company gateway to tunnel all the data. 5.0 . Tunnelling involves encapsulating one protocol (such as IPX. a VPN client dials up to the NAS located at the ISP using a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) via a PSTN or wireless connection. Tunnelling offers the advantage of obscuring the original network layer protocol. 6. A typical architecture of a VPN is shown in Figure 66. 1.4 Virtual Private Network A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is method of securely communicating between a user (VPN client) and their organisation’s network over a public non-secure network such as the Internet. VPNs use a technique known as tunnelling to transport encrypted data over the Internet. Only recently have they become popular due to the prevalence of the Internet and advances in security technologies. encrypting it. 8.g. 3. VPN uses a variety of encryption and security mechanisms to make the virtual link secure and to prevent hackers or eavesdroppers from accessing or modifying the data without being detected. Companies use the Internet as a virtual backbone for creating a secure virtual link between their corporate offices and remote offices. and then encapsulating it into IP datagrams. 7. The company's gateway will decided either to accept or reject the established tunnel from the ISP's NAS. The NAS communicates with the security server to identify the VPN client. Referring to Figure 66. Nowadays many companies use Internet-based VPNs because it is more cost effective than using private networks.

11.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Figure 66. tunnels are created to permit the VPN client to access their company's network. Tunnelling protocols create tunnels and there are different types of Point-to-Point Protocols: 9. Point-to-Point Tunnelling Protocol (PPTP) Layer 2 Forwarding (L2F) Layer 2 Tunnelling Protocol (L2TP) IP Security (IPsec) Protocol Suite Furthermore. the protocols mentioned above could be classified into two categories: Layer 2 and Layer 3 tunnelling protocols. 12. and L2TP are categorised. CTXX5330en Issue 4. PPFT. as Layer 2 tunnelling protocol and IPSec Protocol Suite is a Layer 3 tunnelling protocols. L2F. 10.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 65 (75) . A typical VPN architecture and the processes involved in creating a VPN As mentioned earlier.

Any packets observed by the firewall to come from an insecure source will be discarded. The examination of packets is defined by the control access policy defined in the security policy of the network.5 Firewalls A firewall is a system that controls access to and from an insecure external network to the local network of an organisation. Figure 67.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 9. This is often the weakest point since it is vulnerable to an attack. 66 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. An illustration of this principle is shown in Figure 68.0 . Firewalls are often implemented at a point where the local network of an organisation connects to an external network such as the Internet. The placement of a firewall in relation to the secure private network and the Internet A firewall at this point will allow all the packets leaving and entering the local network to be examined thoroughly. as shown in Figure 67 below. This way the risk of an attack on the network is reduced.

Nor can a firewall protect against theft of information by rouge employees who can copy data on to disks or fax it out. then it protects the network against any other type of network other than e-mail based attacks. the manner in which a firewall is configured will determine the degree of protection for a network. which does not go through a firewall. though they do share a unique set of components. if a firewall is only permitted to allow email services through. The architecture of a firewall varies from one to another. further screening and auditing policies may be put into place. Illustrating the basic functions of a firewall Generally. or damage caused to a network by malicious viruses. The components include: • • • Packet filtering Application level gateways Circuit level gateways CTXX5330en Issue 4. For instance. cannot be protected against. and the number of attempts made to break into the network. An attack made against a network.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces Access Policy Process Traffic Restricted Traffic Secure Network Permitted Traffic Discarded Packets Permitted Traffic Restricted Traffic Traffic Process Access Policy Firewall Figure 68. This will allow the network administrator to check for any unauthorised logins. Since a firewall is implemented at the choke point. the amount and type of traffic flowing into and out of the local network. These components form the foundation of a firewall.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 67 (75) .

The function of a proxy is to perform application filtering at the application layer of the OSI layer. The router performs packet filtering based on a filtering table.3 Circuit level gateways A circuit level gateway is considered to be a special form of application level gateway. the web proxy can filter application specific commands such as http. The function of a circuit level gateway is to relay both TCP and UDP datagrams.0 . application filtering can support more security polices than packet filtering. circuit level gateways are also referred to as transparent gateway. It also provides full auditing facilities such as logging all web sites that have been visited. For example. and get.5.1 Packet filtering One of the main components of a firewall is the packet filtering component. packet filtering provides a simple level of security and is relatively simple to implement. 68 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. which will permit certain packets to allow or disallow excess to and from the network before consulting the routing table. post. However.5. The benefit of application filtering is that it can hide the network topology from the outside world. or any other traffic through. then it will not permit any FTP. Due to this feature. However.2 Application level gateways Application level gateways are also commonly referred to as proxies. if a proxy is configured as a web proxy. circuit level gateway does not do any extra packet filtering nor processing. Furthermore. gopher. 9.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 9. or at the TCP layer of the TCP/IP model. telnet. Often this component is also referred to as a screened router. In contrast to packet filtering. since a router is all that is required to perform packet filtering. packet filtering does not have the ability to hide the private network topology from the outside world. 9. Circuit level gateways are often implemented for monitoring outward bound connections.5. Additionally. It operates at the session layer of the OSI model.

Optimised.Code Allocation .DPDCH and DPCCH Channels User Plane .Radio Access Bearer Management .Radio Link (RL) Setup .Radio Link (RL) Setup .WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) Control Plane .SCCP over CCS7 User Plane .Radio Access Bearer (RAB) . UTRAN function and interface summary CTXX5330en Issue 4.RANAP over CCS7 or IP User Plane .Measurement Reports Iur Interface: Transport Plane .Communication Control Ports .RACH/FACH/DCH Data Ports forming UE Context(s) Procedures .Frame Protocols for Dedicated Channels over ATM Procedures .Handover Signalling .RL Addition .RANAP over CCS7 User Plane . both of which can be considered proprietary. UTRAN contains the Iub (BS .RL Reconfiguration .Handover Signalling .Admission Control .ATM Control Plane .Power Control .GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) over UDP/IP over AAL5 Procedures .Direct Transfer Procedures (Direct Signalling between UE and the CN Circuit Domain) BS RNC 4 BS Functions: .Error Protection in Uu Interface .Macro Diversity (Softer Handover) RNC Functions: Radio Resource Management .RL Deletion .Rate Matching .0 © Nokia Networks Oy 69 (75) .Measurement Reports BS RNC Iu Interface for CN Circuit Domain: Transport Plane .ATM Control Plane .Node B Control Ports User Plane .Modulation .Power Control Information .RL Reconfiguration . and the Iur (RNC . application related protocols suitable for both packet and circuit switched traffic Procedures .Power Control Information .RL Addition .Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 10 Function of the UMTS interfaces – a summary 10.Load Control .Optimised.RL Deletion .Radio Link Mapping Iu Interface for CN Packet Domain: Transport Plane . Uu Interface: Transport Plane .SRNC Relocation .Radio Access Bearer Mgmt Iub Interface: Transport Plane .1 Radio access network (RAN) The open interfaces in the UTRAN are Uu and Iu.RNC). In addition to those.RL Addition .RNC) interfaces.ATM Control Plane .Handover Control (HO) .RL Deletion .RAB .Uu Interface Channelisation . application related protocols over ATM AAL2 Procedures .Direct Transfer Procedures (Direct Signalling between UE and the CN Packet Domain) Figure 69.RL Reconfiguration .Radio Access Bearer Management .Radio Link (RL) Setup .ATM Control Plane .Macro Diversity (Soft HO) Telecommunication Management .SRNC Relocation .

which contains procedures for radio link set-up.Radio Access Bearer Management .Roaming Nbr Allocation . control and user plane.GTP (GPRS Tunneling Protocol) over UDP/IP over AAL5 Procedures .CCS7 MTP.RANAP over CCS7 or IP User Plane .MSC Traffic & MM: Transport Plane .ATM Control Plane .CCS7 MTP & ISUP and MAP for MM User Plane Procedures .CCS7 Control Plane .0 .Security Parameter Alloc. CAMEL User Plane - SGSN .Location Registration .Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces The functions the RAN performed are subsets from the management entity Radio Resource Management (RRM). SCCP and MAP User Plane Procedures . In the transport plane.HLR MM: Transport Plane .IP GGSN .ATM Control Plane .ATM Control Plane .SRNC Relocation .CCS7 MTP. UTRAN performs different tasks within the transport. SCCP. These procedures are performed both through the Iub and Iur interfaces.Radio Access Bearer Management .2 CS and PS core network domains Iu Interface for CN Circuit Domain: Transport Plane .VLR MM: Transport Plane . 10. reconfiguration and deletion.IP (GTP) User Plane .SRNC Relocation . bearer and radio link mapping. the main functionality is bearer management.CCS7 Control Plane .CCS7 Control Plane . application related protocols over ATM AAL2 Procedures . MTP. HLR&AC&EIR 3G RAN Gi Iu Interface for CN Packet Domain: Transport Plane .Public IP: Transport Plane . UMTS-CN interface summary 70 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.Direct Transfer Procedures (Direct Signalling between UE and the CN Circuit Domain) Iu VLR .Location Enquiry .CCS7 Control Plane . User plane signalling in RAN is related to bearer assignment signalling. SCCP and MAP User Plane Procedures .CCS7.Security Parameter Transfer MSC . the most important functionality is radio resource control (RRC). INAP.ATM Control Plane .Traffic Path Setup (ISUP) .GGSN: Transport Plane .Optimised. In control plane.MSC-MSC Handover (MAP) PSTN MSC&VLR GMSC (&VLR) MSC/VLR .RANAP over CCS7 User Plane .Direct Transfer Procedures (Direct Signalling between UE and the CN Packet Domain) CN Service Domain: Transport Plane . Referring to the UTRAN protocol stack reference model. or rather. addition. MAP.IP User Plane - Figure 70.

0 © Nokia Networks Oy 71 (75) . For instance. which is one of the ISUP internal facilities. In the CN packet domain the transport plane will be for instance ATM. Ethernet and/or Point to Point Serial connections with X. the control plane protocol ISUP takes care of the connection establishment between the users (control plane activity) and the applications of the users may exchange data by using the ISUP facility called UUS (user-to-user signalling). the control plane is GPRS Tunnelling Protocol (GTP) over UDP/IP. which are ISUP. CTXX5330en Issue 4. In the packet domain. The user plane exists on the CN packet domain and is actually IP carried over GTP over UDP/IP. INAP and CAMEL. The control plane in the CN circuit switched domain consists of the signalling protocols using the CCS7 stack. In the CN circuit domain the user plane is “inside” the control plane.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces The transport plane in the CN circuit switched domain is CCS7. MAP. SCCP.25 or Frame Relay on top.

Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 11 Review questions Please spend some time completing the following review questions. c. 13. transport and control layers. 72 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4. fill in the name of the missing interfaces. The RAB carries a connection between the terminal and the core network.0 . The RAB is a radio link signalling protocol. The aim of the review is for you to reflect and apply what you have studied. All of the above. In the below figure. b. Which of the following sentences about the radio access bearer is true? a. d. RAN Control Transport Interface LapD PCM Abis Control Transport Interface BSSAP PCM A Mobility Core HLR MSC GSM BTS BSC MSC Control Transport Control Transport Interface Control Transport Interface WCDMA BTS TCSM Iur Gb ATM Module PSTN RNC 2G SGSN Control Transport Interface Control Transport Interface Iu-CS RNC 3G SGSN ATM 14. Voice is the only information on a RAB.

c. b. It is used when one RNC needs to signal a cell in an URA and when performing soft handovers. Ciphering for real-time traffic. b. what is the function of the MAC (Medium Access Control)? a. 17. d. b. b. In the RNC. Selection of common channels. c. The virtual channels contain virtual paths for the data. c. The RRC is the connection between the RAN and core network and contains all the RABs from different terminals. upon which traffic is transferred.Introduction to UMTS/UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 15. 16. Multiplexing of logical channels to transportation channels. Selection of data to be inserted in Radio Frame. It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call set-up purposes. The RRC is the connection between the terminal and the core network. It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the allocation of resources. All of the above. Which of the following sentences about the ATM connection is correct? a. It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used for the management of resources. e. One virtual path can contain many virtual channels. 18. Which of the following sentences about the radio resource connection is true? a.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 73 (75) . d. CTXX5330en Issue 4. d. There is one virtual path per virtual channel. Which of the following sentences best describes the function and role of the NBAP protocol? a. The RRC is the connection between the terminal and radio access network and contains the radio access bearers. One virtual circuit contains at the most one virtual channel. c.

20. d. b. It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the allocation of resources. c. 21. It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call set-up purposes. d.Introduction to UMTS Signalling and Interfaces 19. It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the allocation of resources. Which of the following sentences best describes the function and role of the RNSAP protocol? a. Which of the following sentences best describes the function and role of the ISUP protocol? a. Which of the following sentences best describes the function and role of the RANAP protocol? a. c. b. It is the protocol used between two RNCs and used when one RNC needs to signal a cell in an URA and performing soft handovers. It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used for the management of resources. It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call set-up purposes. c. It is the protocol used between the RNC and the BTS and used to control the allocation of resources. It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used for the management of resources.0 . d. It is the protocol used between the network and the PSTN and used for call set-up purposes. It is used when one RNC needs to signal a cell in a URA and when performing soft handovers. It is the protocol used between the core network and the RNC and used for the management of resources. It is the protocol used between two RNCs. It is used when one RNC needs to signal a cell in an URA and when performing soft handovers. b. 74 (75) © Nokia Networks Oy CTXX5330en Issue 4.

413 25.422 25.415 25.432 25.434 25.410 25.435 25.423 25. The below table summarises those specifications used in signalling on the interfaces.org/UMTS_Specs/UMTS_Specs. (Uu is not included in the list below.425 25.) 25.433 25.421 25.442 UTRAN Iu Interface: General Aspects and Principles UTRAN Iu Interface Layer 1 UTRAN Iu Interface Signalling Transport UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signalling UTRAN Iu Interface Data Transport and Transport Signalling UTRAN Iu Interface User Plane Protocols UTRAN Iur Interface: General Aspects and Principles UTRAN Iur interface Layer 1 UTRAN Iur Interface Signalling Transport UTRAN Iur Interface RNSAP Signalling UTRAN Iur Interface Data Transport & Transport Signalling for Common Transport Channel Data Streams UTRAN Iur Interface User Plane Protocols for CCH Data Streams UTRAN Iur & Iub Interface Data Transport & Transport Signalling for DCH Data Streams UTRAN Iub/Iur Interface User Plane Protocol for DCH Data Streams UTRAN Iub Interface: General Aspects and Principles UTRAN Iub interface Layer 1 UTRAN Iub Interface: Signalling Transport UTRAN Iub Interface NBAP Signalling UTRAN Iub Interface Data Transport and Transport Signalling for Common Transport Channel Data Streams UTRAN Iub Interface User Plane Protocols for CCH Data Streams UTRAN Implementation Specific O&M Transport CTXX5330en Issue 4.430 25.427 25.424 25.UMTSpp.426 25.htm) is the definitive guide.411 25.420 25.412 25.Further information Further information For more information on the protocols and signalling. the UMTSPP specifications (http://www.414 25.0 © Nokia Networks Oy 75 (75) .431 25.

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