Digital Re-print - July | August 2011

Greater gains from phytase through improved formulation

Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872




Figure 2 – Impact of phytase addition on cation digestibility in pigs a) Phosphorus, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium b) Copper, zinc

benefit now recognised as being extremely important nutritionally, with the potential to add further economic value to phytase use even at standard (non-superdosing) levels of inclusion if accounted for during diet formulation. To demonstrate the extent of the effect, he presented an initial set of matrix values for amino acids for AB Vista’s phytase enzyme, Quantum® (at 500ftu/kg diet, as measured at pH 5.5), shown in Figure 1.

Strongest for cysteine, glycine, serine, threonine and proline, the effect varied considerably between individual amino acids. Associate Professor Cowieson noted in particular the lower responses for methionine and lysine, which are typically well digested even in the absence of phytase. It was clear that the incorporation of these additional effects of phytase enzymes – generally the result of improved diges-

GFM04 Mog65th#3 Spread 132x90:GFMT 132x90 01/02/2011 13:35 Page 1

tive efficiency due to phytate destruction – would be of value to the majority of pig and poultry producers. However, incorporation into commercial diet formulations would not be straightforward. In addition to the effects on amino acid digestibility presented by Associate Professor Cowieson, the potential for improved availability of a wide range of mineral cations was high-


Grain cooling
As Mr Cooper outlined, the industry has produce more food, more sustainably, from previously concentrated primarily on the less land.” Highlighting the value of just one of the potential to release phosphorus bound to extra-phosphoric effects of phytase enzymes phytates in plant-derived feedstuffs. However, he claimed that the future (that is in addition to the release of phosphorus held increased use of phytase enzymes for from plant phytates), Associate Professor Aaron phytate destruction through ‘superdosing’ Cowieson of the University of Sydney, discussed (>1500 FTU phytase/kg diet as meas- the impact on amino acid digestibility. It is a ured at pH3.0), environmental protection (for example reduced mineral excretion), animal welfare (e.g. improved bone strength) and feed processing improvements (for example increased pelleting throughput). “As for the future, we can’t stand still,” he stated. “The animal food industry Figure 1 – Matrix values for improved amino acid digestibility is under a lot from phytase use (Quantum®) of pressure to

For all your SPREADING and other vibratory equipment needs – whether you’re specifying, purchasing or installing – make sure it’s a MOGENSEN…

here’s more to come from the use of phytase in pig and poultry diets. Much more.

The most natural way of grain preservation: • Without chemical treatment • Short amortisation period • Low energy costs • Independent of ambient weather conditions • Protection against insects and microbes


That was the message received loud and clear by delegates at the 1st International Phytase Symposium held in Washington DC at the end of September 2010, with AB Vista managing director Richard Cooper suggesting that another US$2bn of benefit could still be available to the feed and animal production industries. “The phytase enzyme market is one of the massive success stories of the last two decades – it’s a US$350m market generating a benefit to the animal feed industry worth US$2bn globally,” he stated. “But I believe we’re now at a point of change, and the destruction of phytate in monogastric diets could be worth another US$2bn to the industry.” The IPS was jointly hosted by AB Vista, Massey University, the University of Maryland and the University of Sydney, and brought together scientists from all aspects of phytase research, development and application. A wide range of topics were presented and discussed, but it was the opportunity to make better use of the current commercially available phytase enzymes that took centre stage on the second day of the symposium.
36 | July - august 2011




The first name in processing & recycling


A Division of Grantham Engineering Ltd
Harlaxton Road, Grantham, Lincolnshire NG31 7SF, UK +44 (0)1476 566301 +44 (0)1476 590145

Tel Fax E-mail
Fr i g o r Te c G m b H • H u m m e l a u 1 • 8 8 2 7 9 A m t ze l l / G e r m a n y Tel.: +49 7520/91482-0 • Fax: +49 7520/91482-22 • E-Mail:


&feed millinG technoloGy


&feed millinG technoloGy

July - august 2011 | 37


Figure 3 – Impact of dietary calcium level on mineral cation digestibility response to phytase Figure 4 – Value of superdosing with phytase (Quantum®) in pig starter diets

different minerals. Using data from trials feeding diets containing different levels of dietary calcium, he demonstrated that not only did digestibility response to phytase vary for each of the minerals examined, but that the nature of the trend differed also. However, it was AB Vista technical manager Dr Rob ten Doeschate who best summarised the extent of the challenges facing nutritionists wanting to fully incorporate the benefits of phytase enzymes into commercial diets. Reminding delegates that current diet formulation techniques rely on the nutrient levels within feed ingredients being both linear and additive, he stated: “This is a really big assumption.” In fact, the effect of phytase addition on nutrient release was not linear (as demonstrated by Figure 2), and probably not additive, he claimed, with a number of key interactions (for example the dietary calcium level effect shown in Figure 3) also having a substantial impact on the level of response. It was also highly probable that the combined effects when phytase is used alongside other feed enzymes (for example xylanase) is also not additive. Dr ten Doeschate went on to explain a number of techniques currently used to help overcome these limitations, although it was generally accepted that ongoing research would, in time, illuminate the finer details of many of

inclusion of more feed ingredients than would perhaps be expected. Even using the only matrix values for improved phosphorus digestibility, the extra ‘space’ in the ration – created by not having to add as much inorganic phosphorus – allowed inclusion of a greater proportion of lower-specification, and hence lower-cost, energy feeds. The result was a value, in terms of cost savings, that came from substantially more than just phosphorus. Typical changes included a reduction in oil and fat content, with a corresponding increase in cereal inclusion, and initial investigations had shown that savings available from using a full phytase matrix (incorporating values for improved amino acid and energy digestibility) could be two or three times higher than those achieved with the current mineral-only matrix. “So is phytase a mineral enzyme or something else?” questioned Dr ten Doeschate.

The emergence of superdosing was the other big step towards increased economic benefit from phytase use, and IPS delegates were shown data confirming the extra value available. There were typically three options, Dr ten Doeschate explained, the first of which was to maximise the growth promoting benefits of phytate destruction, using the extra nutrient digestibility to boost performance (see Figure 4a). An alternative was to minimise ration cost for the same performance, using the improved digestibility to match existing diet specifications (see Figure 4b). The third option was to take the middle ground between these two extremes. Already being used commercially, superdosing in starter diets allowed the use of cheaper plant-derived protein sources such as soyabean meal to replace more expensive animal-derived feed ingredients. The inclusion of plasma, whey, milk and fishmeal naturally lowers the phytate level in young pig diets (animal tissues contain only small traces of phytate), but it is an effect that can now be more cost-effectively achieved by using high doses of phytase to destroy the phytate in plant-derived feed materials. “It is not as easy as it sounds,” concluded Dr ten Doeschate when summing up the challenges being faced in formulating diets to make better use of phytase. But the economic benefits to be gained from improved performance or reduced diet costs appear to be substantial, and improved matrix values and superdosing are already a reality. For the delegates at the IPS, it was clear that phytase enzymes have a very bright future. Further research and collaboration would inevitably shed light on those areas needing clarification in due course, opening up a whole range of new opportunities for commercial pig and poultry producers through the elimination of dietary phytate.

lighted by Dr Age Jongbloed of Wageningen UR, in The Netherlands. Plant phytates bind with a wide range of cations, he explained, with mineral digestibility improved differentially as phytase dose is raised (see Figure 2).

Digestibility responses vary
Dr Jongbloed also discussed the extensive interactions that take place between the
38 | July - august 2011

these interactions. At present, the non-linear nature of many of the responses meant relying heavily on the nutritionist’s expertise in adapting formulations in order to realise the full advantages of phytase use. When carrying out least-cost formulations for commercial pig diets, for example, the incorporation of phytase affected the

&feed millinG technoloGy

This digital Re-print is part of the July | August 2011 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on




• See the full issue
In this issue: •

Packaging for the future

• • •

Visit the GFMT website Contact the GFMT Team Subscribe to GFMT

Cooking cereals with extrusion

Cultura Technologies’ MillMaster Greater gains from phytase through improved formulation Need to explain complicated software? It’s a piece of cake

Taking the first step:
How to help yourself and others develop the love and understanding of flour milling

A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891

To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove.


Article reprints
All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc). If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more information on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: or visit