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3) Semispinalis Sternocleidomastoid muscle capitis muscle cervicis muscle Semispinalis Posterior cutaneous branches of dorsal rami of C4.Su boccipital 'Triangle Rectus capitis posterior minor muscle Epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica) Rectus capitis posterior major muscle Occipital belly (occipitalis) of occi p itofro nta Iis m uscl e Semispinalis capitis muscle (cut and reflected) Vertebral Greater occipital nerve (dorsal ramus of C2 spinal nerve) artery (atlantic part) Obliquus capitis superior muscle Occipital artery Suboccipital nerve (dorsal ramus of C1 spinal nerve) 3rd (least) occipital nerve (dorsal ramus of C3 spinal nerve) Posterior arch of atlas (C1 vertebra) Occipital S arnispin al is cs pitis artery muscle in posterior triangle of ned< Obliquus capitis inferior muscle Splenius capitis muscle in posterior triangle of ned< Greater occipital nerve (dorsal ramus of C2 spinal nerve) Splenius capitis muscle (c:ut and reflected) Posterior auricular artery 3rd (least) occipital nerve (dorsal ramus of C3 spinal nerve) Great auricular nerve (cervical plexus C2. 5. 6 spinal nerves Splenius capitis muscle (c:ut) capitis muscle (cut) . 3) Longissimus Lesser occipital nerve (cervical plexus C2.

Orbieulaeis oris Depressor laNi .

.._------------" edetrus>Of ~OlilgUiS digaomru~.(mgliJ.----------'':fihl.s .d~rrngl.

' ""-~.." t -----.eres [ninu!.-: M usc'1·'-:' .'th e :arm (left arm) ------superaspinatus ----- ..' es ····f··· u .najor b~cepsbrachii ---------- ==rr----------- bracbialis .0..teresl. '.

"umsuperficial is .Muse le s that act on the wrist and hand (left hand) lle:XO'f digl'wnjli~rll. ptofundlils ----- f1Iex:orpo~U.eis [Ol:llguis ------____!~~~ d:igiton.

T'he 'Left Thigh (anrtcrwor Vi~r\''iI} --------------lel1l5.orfia::oo:i:ae larltae .

tuslL:a-J~etalis -------------~" Biceps Femoris ~-------------- Senllte:!1dinosus .~ ~-----------. J:ens. GluteUJsMed~IJ.owFasciae: Latae !---------------v8s.The Left Thigh (latera~ vie'Vif] - -------------.

The Left '(medi:a~view) . 'j. =============- adcl.uc~ormagnus adduotorlon.1 igh ~ --------------==============.I1J... . ~=============~ i!---------------- .1lus: gracilis ---------------. asmsmedialls v .sJlirlnri:us ---------------. ================.1'" semnencmesus .glit:rL'e!lJsm.g:1!J5 adduo:~orbrevia reetns femoris --------------.1.a:.\'!:.

The Left Thi (Po:st~rlorView) .

s uterlcr a .Muscles ofthe neck Digastric (uot shown) Stetnccleidcmastoid Orli1!ohyoM 'Sterl].(lhiyoid -------== lev .efl!:u.1lI!~ar scapulae :Sca~.

-.11011__ MH~ "(III.. lOr Y"IIoI:l'1:1I1 linn TUII(!.lh· .l .. .. "'_11111_"'_'<...rI"" -""- ~:N1"""""'~ iJ:u'PiI!r&l'-!rf.. _ t" ..~~~do!n lIMiE'''' II"f N. _ Nllllu1U :=-~~~...4. .. ...r ..111 ..KNEE INJURIES i......-...r..:--~~=~= ~""'_"'II""~""'''''''''''''''''''''''''''_ .. IlUh!III ....~ ..1I ~~UI __ ..• 1 KIIlI. _ _~_-.. 'hI..... w.___ .......I!t!.iHm. _._.

Temporalis muscle Diaqastric rnuscle Upper & lower lateral pteryqoid muscles .

v Anterior View .26 Sup.nuchalline Lateral View Lateru I V'ie. PREVERTEBRAL PlATE 7.MUSCLEs-LATERAL &.

VERTEBRAL AND INTERVERTEBRAL DISC ANATOMY dura mater arachnoid pia mater internal vertebral venous plexus lamina spinal cord spinal nerve: dorsal root ventral root superior articular facet --1--- ventral primary ramus of spinal nerve vertebral artery spinal ganglion vertebral veins anulus fibrosus posterior longitudinal ligament intervertebral cartilage (disc) anterior longitudinal ligament nucleus pulposus .

SAGITTAL SECTION THROUGH SKULL sella turcica groove for middle meningeal vessels anterior clinoid process parietal bone frontal bone sphenoidal sinus temporal bone frontal sinus groove for sigmoid sinus crista galli ethmoid bone perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone posterior cranial fossa internal acoustic meatus jugular foramen hypoglossal canal foramen magnum palatine process maxilla body of mandible .

VISCERA OF THO'RAX (ANTERIOR VIEW) oommon carotid arteries internal jugular vein su belav i an artery sub ~Iavian vel n manubrium heart ~igllt lung 6th rib co ronary vei n of heart costal cartilage xiphoid process .

!I~\lmIItWhft:r._..J:tn _~~Gtl:l1Jt'liiill \It'IM'i~---lateral eu taneo us n erve antebrachial .7-~l1«ib'---- median nerva ---.an te rio r inte rosseo us nerve '..l posterior anteoracn lal median nerve ulnar nerve c utan BOUS ne rve ---'rt.--Ialeral median nerve ul nar nerve: dorsal..NERVOUS SYSTEM OF THORAX AND UPPER LIMB (ANTERIOR VIEW) su p rascap ular n erve su D rael avie ul ar ne rvss axi Ilary ve in an d artery me d i a I and late ral oe eta ral ne brach i a I p laxus: musculocutan eous nerve axi lIary ne rve nerve m uscukeutaneo us Ulnar nerve W!I+\I. bran ch dorsal digital. nerves lar branches .ml!tH-l¥posterior interosseous nerve im~r--- Wi'~WM~rad ia 1 nerve: superficial bran ch median nerve ulnar nerve antebrachial cutaneou s nerve ulnar nerve: su p erti cial branc h deep branch \\\\\'\I.\\~I~'.:~~~~r cutaneous nerve medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve medial brachial 1\1"'-+--_ radial nerve 10 ngtlhorac i c nerve radial nerve ---f-f.Hf+!-'il~JiW _ radial nerve --j'--i'-7""d11fiNtfn Intercostobrachial __(:..

.urn 7 L5 nelve 8 obturate r nerve 9 I" I'll bosactll] lrunk 10 SI nerve 11 53 nerve 12 sympathetic trunk 13 scja~c nerv8 14 posteno r femoral cutan eous ne rve l' 5 inferior gluteal nerves 16 5S nerve Lower limb 1.iIl+--1t!'D~-t!fIlt----lateml JT.:.7 femora·1 ne rve 18 muscular branch (femora] nerve) 19 femoral artery and vei n 20 anteriQr branch (obturator neNe) 21 posts rlor branch (obturator nerve) 22 interior cum eal nerves laterallemoflll cutaneous branches ..iP.J.l-.ii~ift\-'Jc:::::.NERVOUS SYSTEM OF PELVIS AND LOWER LIMB (ANTERIOR VIEW) Key 'Nerv~s of lower limb Abdomen 1 hepatic plexus 2 L1 nerve 3 12 nerve 4 iliohypogastric nerve 5 ilioinguinal nerve 6 sympathetic trun k Pelvis and perinl.:l--El).:4it:1S:__---medial 1I\'11ftt--- deepperoneal nerve supemdal pe roneai nerve fibula -----l~flli~1 iJeepperoneal nerve (anterior)---bl1di'111'1I1L-_ lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve medial dorsal cutaneous nerve intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve ~ ----'7 001'11 mon d igilal nerves dl)rsal d [glial nerves proper d igilaJ n erves .!..F.:t-------F~t. .~ w. popliteal artery and vein --==~~IOO~~ ~_J--r-----lM\-/I\\\11t--\t--jI-1lIUArA---J--.\'-r--I\-IIHcI--- obturator nerve: cutaneous branches saphenous nerve posterior te moral cutaneous common muscular peroneel nerve branches tibial nerve saphenous nerve: Infrapateliar bmnGMs sural cutaneous nelVes sural cutaneous nerves nerve --=¥~:ffiiitt~ common fibular (peroneal) nerve ----W~\ com men fibu lar (pe roneal) nerve: articular branch ----ih\1~ lateral sural cutaneous n Brv8 ~~-----i\\-F.

. flexor carpi unans m. 12 erectcr spinae m m. 23 grealer frocnamer 24 IIlac Cfest 25 glul~ us min i mus m.MUSCULAR SYSTEM (POSTERIOR Key 1.s m. 11 thorn boid minor m.. exte nsor indie.. __ allduGtor pollicls longus ext!) nsor polliels brevis IfL . 16 serrates anterior m. j 7 serratus posterior rnlerio'm. 2 spine of C7 tibialis poster: or m.l I.glureus ma>:imus m.\r1~-. 29 saGrotubern. mm. I. 14 longisoimus thoracls m. flexor digHorum profundus anconeus extenso r d igilortJ m . extensor Dollicis brevili m.. tL ligament ligaments muscle muscles tendon tendons VIEW) exlensor carpi radialis IOOliUSm. 1 trapeliU s m.tiss imus dorsi m. peroneal: rstlnacuum flexor retinaculu m . 18 'Bxlllrnal i ntercostal m. 32 quad ratus femoris m.pttllieis Ion gu. 11 m. . 9 splenius oeM "'s m.s m. supinator m. 5 spine ofT12 6 Ihoracel umbar fascia 1 e. brevis m. j 5 IllocostaJls Iu mborum m. 30 inferiQr gemanus m. 27 superior gemellus m. 8 Internal atxlo m inal oblique m. 31 oblurator axtemcs m.tllmal abdnminal oblique m. flexor hallucis longus m.. peroneus brevis m. extensor carpi ulnaris extensor carpi radlali. 26 pifilormis m./~~i. extensor Key 3 rhomboid major m. abductor pollieis longUE m. WWTl extensor . flexor digitorum 'longus mm. 22 . ~bialis postenor t. 28 obturatorloter"us m. 10 serratus posterior superlorm.--~' m. 19 12th rib 20 glu reus medius m 21 ten sor fasciaelatae m. 4 'o. 13 spinal is tfloraeis m.superior peroneal: retinaculu m inferio. .

and midd Ie hepatic veins perforating branches 01 inlernal tholllcic vein thalllcoopigastric vei n internal ilia.J------"\:4.VENOUS SYSTEM (ANTERIOR VIEW) soparlor sagittal si nus superJicfal tempo'al vein superior aphthal mie vein right. venous arch superf cial dorsal veins .:kiI~ accessory saphenous vein great saph enous vein deep veins of 111 knee e great sa.--ulnar vein superficial epigastric vein ---Hf.lefl..lJ dorsal. v~i n exte mal iliaG ve in superficial circumllex iliac vein --4H-rI-----'.. radial vein "".I.pheno"s vei n ---1l1L..

"?::z..../.Y~:_~:!C:::':-::~""_-':.:~ jejunum .DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (ANTERIOR VIEW) round ligament afliver de.rugae Igastric folds) »: stomach: fundus pyloris right and middle __ colic veins ...:_::::::."Ileocecal valve jejunal and Ileal veins cecum vermiform appendix e~ternalanal sphincter muscles .__---'\---=:.:g~~~):~~~::----::~-..srending thoracic aorta esophagus portal vein .

MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL ANATOMY OF ANKLE AND FOOT (ANTERIOR VIEW) extensor digitorum longus m. peroneus tertius lendon _____. superior extensor -'H'Hr-retl naculu m lateral m.alleolus (fibula) peroneus bfll~ls ten don extensor digitorum br'evis m..-tibia anterior Ii b iofibula ligament delloi d ligament navicular bone phalanges interphalangeal joint dista I phalanx middle phal<anx .

muoous g'larld J l muc05alllning bronchus stops) J.jl!IIIliP=~- Iingular dwision bronchus middle lobe ._.!'J-~-.:l$\.RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (ANTERIOR nerve pulmonary arte ry .\ VIEW) p~UlmOnary vein 'f . cartilage ~.~~./ \ .bronchial ~ (cartilage terminal branch lole o respiratory bronchiole alveolar ducl alveolar sac ~interalveO!ar septa hard palate oral cavity superior tobe tobar brnnchus: fight superior (red) right middle (yellow) rig ht inleriorlblue) lobar branch us: left superior (rea) I eft i nterlor lolue) no rIl:ontal fissure '"'il~~S:::.oblique fissure of lefilling i ntenor lobe inmrior lobe carlfiac notch Iing lila 01 lu ng .

J!i"r_'__- deep pal mar arch deep fern oral ar181)' partoratin 9 branch as lateml superior geni Gular artery medial superior genir:ular artery m ed iar inferior gen icular artel)' lateml inferior g~niculaf artery -----(_hl.L..----7'F'-i'-f")I d BScending brancn of lateral circumflex femoral artery 11'\--( 1-'-1---- anterior tibial artery posterior lib lal "rtel)' n-:l---_ peroneal artery anterior lateral -----1\ malleolar arterial lateral plantar artery """ deep plan1ar arterial arch dorsal m etalarsat arteries ~ __ dorsalis pad Is artery lateral tarsal artery arcuaie artery II ...>.....'infeDior aloeolar artel)' thyrocervical trunk ~-_--. artsrles internal thoraci~ artery radial couaterai artery lntercostal arteries superior epigaslric artery ---of'.rl femoral circumftex artery internal ilia" artary external iliac arte...ARTERIAL SYSTEM (ANTERIOR VIEW) su periki~1 te m poral ariery facia...-----TI''t------ inferior p'hrenlc artery eel tac Iru nk superior mesenteric artery renal artery 1~lerioT mesenteric artery inferior epiqastric artery anteno r Interosseus artery ascend i ng bran en of deep circum~ex iliac artery superficial circumflex iliac artery ----5-4---+.=..----.~:1l1lll~ sub~la~ian artery ihoracoacrornlal artllry ---r~"'"J""ante rlor and posterior ci rcu m ~ex hu mara.-: medial and lateral ~=::-+-f'------..ulnar ar1ery "'.inlh"~"""!:..--="'.. ji~~~===~tt~== 1~. -=='18-+-----..l artsl)' common carotid arte ries 1r-="~-....ry radial artery \-..'U.l.ental m J~_c-----~ and submental artenes costooorvi~1 truurn:k-==.M-----j'-"t1..

ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR VIEWS OF SKULL corooal suture supraorb~al margi n tosser wlng of . sutu re in l~rparie1a1 :OOI1e ~nC>l.nl_eriornasal spine sufure Intermaxll!aJy suture sagltlal suture IIImbdoid.-1 su porior orbital fissure lemporazygomatic nasal' bone Infraorbital fOrllm in perpendlanar plate of U1e eU1 moid bon e Inferior nasal ccncha a.r wing): temporal surtace ----\---.bonel parielal bone sulural bones squamous suture lransversa occipilat suture su~rior nuchal Fine external occiplial crest .jihengl~ bone Sph"nDid Il00" (gr«at.

ssa'nlerve nerve .facial nerve IK ~r~~~~~COChlear nerve X vagus ne:ngeal re rve x1: ~~~:f~ry .SPINAL AND CRANtAL NERVES dorsaldigital nerve v~::.

MUSCULAR ANATOMY OF HEAD AND NECK ternporalls muscle exle rnal ocelo ilal protuberance levator scapulae muscle occipital co ~dyles masse ter mescle mental nerve (eN v I acromlon rhomboid muscle: supraorbital ne rve fro~lans muscle le"awr labii seperioris muscle temporal branches 01 lacialnervs SUPBriiGiallemporal vessets and ilENe le~ator anguli oris muscle ~ygomaUcus orbicularis depressor major muscle oris muscle parotid gland aIld ducl Ollg uli oris muscle mentalis muscle hyoid bone stemothyro id muscle anterior scalene muscle stemocleidomasloid muscle: clavicular head sternal ho<ad omOhyoid muscle .

ortlc node (lumbar nodes) preaar:tic node Ou mbar nad...lial node collecting lymph vessels from glans penis superficial lymph vessels from lIle penis lymph vessels from lhe scrmum Iym ph vessels of testis anc epididymus in lerdig ita] lymph v!!ssels fm m plantar plexus .] Itary group pectoral axl Ilary group brachial artery and veins and deep lymphatic vessels brachial node deep lymphatic vessels supratrochlear nodes cubital nodes I node artsry vein artery nar node radial node I~mph vessets accompa~Vi ~g lIle palmar arches lateral IVmph vessels of the thumb lymphatic network supramandibular node sub mandibular nones nodes ~=~ basili~veln su pra lrochlear nodes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 moraelc aorta 19 20 21 22 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 right brachiocephalic vein left braclliocephalk vei n tell common carotid artEljI anterior superior mediastinal nodes superior vena cava right card lac I~mph branch intemal tllorn.I~ph vessels dorsal venous arch great saphenous vein I~mph vessels rromback of leg 18 descending right and left lntercostallymph trunks 2J 24 27 clslemllchyli Intes~nal trunk right and left lumbar Iru~ks lum·bar nodes testicular . great saphenous vei n Icut)· superflc iaJ sub ing ulna I nodes anterior Ie moral cutaneous ve In supe ~iGial lymphatic vessels Iym ph vessels from back 01 thigh lymph vessels of the fi ngsrs lema ral arteljl and vei n wilh deep I~m phatic vessels 9 reat saphenous vel n POpti real noaes (in baello! Knee) small sephenous vei~ with I~mph vessels anterior tibial artery and vilins and lymph vessels uu""'-_posterior Ublal ariery and va i ns and lymph vessels anlE rlor tibial node posterior ti bial node pero~eal artery and Ve[~ and tvm ph vessels great saphenous ve in small saph enous vein peroneal mary and veins and lymph vessels posOOrior tibial artery and ieiilS and lymph vessels dtlrSalis pedis artery and vein and . le11jugu iar fru n~ tnorac: educt subclavian trunK left subclavian artery and vein len bronchom ed iastinal lnm k subclavia~ axillary group prsnacheal nodes left intemal inoraclc trunk cenlral axillary group lateral axl I lary group subsl:ilpular ID..~ deltopeclorel nodes subclavian axillary group right intemal thoracic tru nk central axi Ilary g rou p pectoral axillary group subscopularaxillary group brach ial nodes anlerior axillaljl group superficial lymph vessels rlor deep ce rvical nodes IIrelaryngeaJ nodes ~~~§:i~=~len ...es) rom man lIiac nodes internal iliac ariary and: nodes sacrnl nodes I~ph vessels I!l internal iliac nodes obrurator vesoolsand nerve presymph)r.Iymph vessels relroa.:-<".heobmnGhial nodes right and left bmnchoputmOMry nodes ..intemal thoracic lymph vessel ending in subclavicutar nodes mterpectorai oodes lymph vessels from deep part of breast pOSOOnormediastinal nodes intercostal nodes alld lymph vessels thoracic duct '\liio!!E:====-IUI Interdigital Ivm ph vessels from palmar cutaneous plexus -_"""' .cic nod~ right trnGheobmnrolai nodes left trrn.LYMPHATIC SYSTEM (ANTERIOR VIEW) I node superf clat temporal artery sn ~ anterior auric~lar neces sope r11dlll parotid nodes de BP parolid node posterior auricular nodes paroUd sallY"ary node occipital nodes superior deep oervioal nodes rlgh t i ~temal jugular vein superior neep cervical nooes in lerior deep cervica I nodes right jugular trunk right subclavian trunk __ rig ht bron one menlasf nal trunk ----.

gland ..liver --::::-.i--I-_ right suprarenal .ABDOMINAL VISCERA (POSTERIOR VIEW) le~ dome of dlapbraqm H--+-...k--.

.liS m. --4. lumbrical m m. /fadiUS carpals: lunate scaphoid ~lrapeZiUm trapezoid I .--- alXluctor pollicis ble.MUSCULAR AND SKELETAL ANATOMY OF WRIST AND HAND (PALMAR VIEW) fl'exor retinaculum (transverse carpailligamen tl oppone ns pollicis m.

aspinoos [ossa _.1I---'nlertrafISYers..nt a.i--~ neeo of femur greall!' kocl1ant~r ne~olfemur lochial spine center 0' grallily posll!rio< sa".1.ule ~""'.e''''staJ liga mants .lumbar lasela (anterior laierl [liolumbar liga-menl ·lh.1 CClSllltransveroe ligamenls supraspinous rossa ~-' ..calcaneolibulor ligament calcaneal tendon key Vertebr...SKELETAL ANATOMY oodpital superlDr nuchal IIne external occipitll proluberance In!e~o' nucha! [lne oocjpifal condyle sup~rior MlcuiaI process (POSTER.gamenl Ischiof~momlll~3ment interlrocnanieric crest gluteal lIJberosity do""'15acr".ll!ralli~annent _."'ar cap....lr lig"ment '.'I.i"'=!Ir-.~"~"'=li~(lte~~~I-.....J.....nt deltcld ligament !)(ISlanor tolo~bul.....-ti----. .... .... ligaments .._.nal inle..IOR VIEW) aliaS (CII axis (C2) ligarn..~""'!-+I---..-_ ~t''''1 "~iGnn<lyl" articular capsule radial collaleralligament Ulora"..oiliae rigamenl iliofemoral ligam""t sa<:roSJ)inal I....le C cerYiC<l1 T Ihomcic L lumbar .. .gamBolI arti.ntl Ilava --::::'W~( -::'_::1~~lt== articular capsules lrans•• rse processes later.H'------[ilf...Lr...oost"1 muscles .t~l".... -.::01--7-'1---Intemal inl.J.e>lemalinieroosllli muscles lrans •• rso abOominal muscle ulnar COII.oco~ealligamenl poslsrior tibiofibular Ilgam._.v.')1:= ....a1ligam.ior IrarlSl1firnil st:apular l. -"-*_~ ["fe..ooraoohume.

I. tL ligament ligaments muscle musct es tendon tendons Vert.lumDar . II. luooro&l1'! Key I.bra" C corvical S sacral L . m.SKELETAL ANATOMY (ANTEHIOR VIEW) 'jmR::'f=- superior and Inlerlor orIJltaJ fissures outl ine of maxlflary sinus 'head 01 femur grMter trochanter 1----~~!r'=--Ialeraf transverse axis femoral and ~bial condyles Intercondylar emineflte m"~[al lemmal oondyle h .ad ot fi~u]a ti~ial. mm.

I~+- ~ Tile medial collateral ligament (Mel) runs down the inside of your knee jOint. The menisc:us is C'Drtilage that absorbs shock in your joinl. cush- The anterior audate ICICIIIIId (AQ) connects fhe femur to the tibia in th. It limits rotation Dnd the forward motion of the tibia. It connects the femur to the tibia and limits the sideways motion of your knee. (shinbone) The posterior crudale ligament (pel) 0150 connects the femur ond tibia. Articular cartilage ioning your joint lines the bones. It limits bockword motion of 'he tibia. It limits sideways mofion.(thighbone) Femur The lateral collateral ligament (Lel) runs on the outside of your knee.e cenler of your knee. .

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