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The need of the day is better transport systems, Ones which have better efficiencies without compromising the power and torque which we have gotten accustomed to with our petrol and diesel engines. Though electric cars seem to be a cleaner option they are not as they cause indirect pollution. we must realise that most of the electricity comes from burning coal and running cars from the electric grid will cause indirect pollution. Many feel that the end of the IC engines is near. But t he internal combustion engines still have a little bit of fight left in them. Before we shift to alternate fuels and hybrid vehicles we should realise that in today¶s IC engines only 30% of the fuels¶ potential is utilised. The remaining gets wasted due to the compression stroke, friction, cams and other compromises and in the process generates a lot of pollutants.
THE CYCLES AND THE STROKES:
The four stages in the Otto¶s cycle include
y y y y
Adiabatic expansion Constant volume heat rejection Adiabatic compression Constant volume heat addition
And the four strokes include
y y y y
Suction Compression Power Exhaust
The basic formula for the air standard efficiency of an Otto cycle is otto = 1-1/(R) -1 Where ³R´ represents the compression ratio.The power stroke is the only stroke which produces the power for the other 3 strokes. But it is necessary as the efficiency without compressing the working fluid would be less than 12%. . This implies that the power is produce once for every in the study of conventional IC engines we see that the major power loss is during the compression stroke. So in order to improve the efficiency of the engine we need to spend less power to compress the working fluid and we also need to increase the compression ratio. Greater the compression ratio greater is the thermal efficiency of the cycle.
W is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas) This work is taken from the power stroke. The cold section can be utilised for the suction and the compression strokes whereas the hot cylinder can be used for the power and exhaust stroke. The two cylinders can be connected with the help of a transfer valve.SPL TT GT E LES: The concept of splitting the cycles is based on the idea that it is easier to compress air when it is at a lower temperat re. The compressed gas fuel mixture and be sent into the hot cylinder for combustion after which they get exhausted. (work done during adiabatic compression. In conventional IC s the air is compressed in the same cylinder where the combustion takes place. Due to the high temperature of t e cylinder the process of h compressing air requires extra work. Hence by splitting the cylinder into two parts a hot section and a cold section it is easier to control the thermal conditions of each cylinder. .
(Source: Scudari group) .
ADVANTA ES OF SPLITTIN y y y y y y y y y y y THE CYCLES: A Leap Improvement in Efficiency. Increased power. Up to 80% reduction in NOX emissions Light weight materials can be used for making the cold cylinder. Supercharging can be added simply by increasing the diameter of the compression cylinder. Splitting the cycle allows flexibility in the design and thermal management. can reach up to 50%. High geometric compression and expansion ratios. . High Power to Weight ratio. One combustion cycle per crankshaft revolution. The compression ratio can be increased by just increasing the stroke length of the compression cylinder. Increased torque.
The Scuderi engine features a ³combustion after TDC´. Though ATDC results in poor performance of conventional IC engines the scuderi engine uses it in a split cycle arrangement eliminates the losses created by recompressing the gas. The two most successful ones are the Scuderi engine developed by the Scuderi group and the Tour engine designed by the Tour engine Inc. .PROTOTYPES: There are quite a few prototypes of the split cycle engine. The tour engine has a opposite cylinder design which has the advantage of easier thermal management and has a less complex system for the transfer of the compressed air fuel mixture.