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Geothermal Energy in the Philippines

Raul C. Sabularse PCIERD-DOST

Presented during the Workshop on Geothermal Energy: Resources and Technology for a Sustainable Development Trieste, Italy, 10-12 December 2008

Outline of Presentation
1. Historical Development 2. Basic Concepts 3. Status and Prospects

History of Geothermal Development in the Philippines

FIRST GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT Larderello, Italy (1904)

Father of Geothermal Energy in the Philippines

Philippine Geothermal Devt


1967 - Government passed Geothermal Law 1968 - first geothermal resource was discovered in Tiwi by COMVOL; drilled 641-ft well that discharged steam and hot water 1969 - COMVOL produced steam to drive a borrowed 2.5 KW turbo-generator 1970 - COMVOL - NSDB completed preliminary research studies at Tiwi

Philippine Geothermal Devt


1972 to 1978 Initial exploration by New Zealand scientist with Comvol/PNOC-EDC (11 shallow wells) -Leyte (1972-1975) -So. Negros (1976) -Bacman (1977) -Mindanao (1978) -PNOC-EDC/NPC Commissioned 3MW Leyte Pilot Plant (1977)

Philippine Geothermal Devt


1979 PGI commissioned 110 MW Tiwi plant 1983 to 1984- PNOC-EDC/NPC commissioned more plants -Leyte (112.5 MW) -So. Negros (112.5 MW) 1984 to 1988 Hiatus 1988- Resumed Geothermal Development. Pal-2 as the new project (80 MW) 1992- Pal-2 80 MW commissioned

Philippine Geothermal Devt


1993 to 1998 PNOC-EDC commissioned second set of plants after Pal-2:
-Bacman (110 MW) in 1993 -Cawayan (20 MW) in 1994 -Botong (20 MW) in 1998

1996 to1999 commissioned BOT plants:


-Leyte (200 MW) in 1996 -Leyte (382 MW) in 1997 -Mindanao 1 (52 MW) in 1997 -Mindanao 2 (52 MW) in 1999

2007 Commissioned 49 MW Nor. Negros power plant

What is geothermal energy?


natural heat of the earth requires permeability, porosity and fluid can be a valuable energy source with low environmental impact
direct uses (heating/cooling, crop drying, bathing, etc) power generation

usually found in volcanic regions

What is a geothermal system?


heat source - magma, intruded to shallow levels (<6 km) in the crust permeable and porous underground reservoir rock impermeable cap rock sufficient water to sustain convection fluid recharge and discharge

Surface Manifestations

Geothermal Energy.. the kettle concept

Geo - Earth, Thermal - Heat


Heat from magma (molten rock) warms underground water - Geothermal Reservoir

HOW IS GEOTHERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTED?


Fluid (90% of heat energy is contained in the rock; 10% in the in-place fluid Water/steam content and ability of fluid to flow within the system is important In-place fluid or artificially injected fluid is extracted from reservoir using wells diameters: 4-inch/16-inch (100mm/400mm) depths: 300ft - 13,000ft (100m - 4,000m)

DRILL RIGS AND DRILLING OPERATIONS

TYPICAL WELL DESIGNS

Ground level 15 feet 350 feet 40" OD conductor pipe 30" OD line pipe cemented full height in 36" hole 20" OD casing cemented full height in 26" hole

1500 feet

13-3/8" OD casing cemented full height in 17-1/2" hole

3500 feet (measured)

9-5/8" OD perforated liner in 12-1/4" hole

6000 feet (measured) 7" OD perforated liner in 8-1/2" hole

7500 feet (measured)

Geothermal Energy Utilization


Resource Temperature (C)
0 100 200 300

Low

Moderate

High

Direct Use
ve ti ra es po ss va e E roc P g in ry D ce ng s pa ti e S ea us H ho en re g g G in in h rm at a s B F mp sh u Fi t P ea H

Power Generation

Binary cycle
Mulka (86C) Birdsville (98C) Wabuska (106C) Nagqu (110C) Husavik (125C) Ormesa (145C) Steamboat (160C) Soda Lake (190C)

Steam cycle and Combined cycle


Brady HS (165C) Otake (220C) The Geysers (240C) Wairakei (250C) Los Azufres (270C) Leyte (270 to 330C) Mokai (320C) Cerro Prieto (350C)

Enhanced Geothermal Systems

USA (Fenton Hill); UK (Rosemanowes); France (Soultz); Switzerland (Basal); Japan (Hijiori and Ogachi); Australia (Cooper Basin and Hunter Valley)

Non-Power Geothermal Applications


Water Temp, C 180 160 140 120 100 80 Application Refrigeration, Absorption, Evaporation Drying, Air Cooling Canning of food, salt extraction, sugar refining Fresh water distillation, drying farm products Drying seaweeds, fish, vegetables Outdoor agriculture

GEOTHERMAL POW ER PLANT CYCLE


Satellite Station Satellite Station Well Site Well Site Plant Station Plant Station

Power Plant Power Plant

Inj. Well Inj. Well

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGE

Geothermal energy is clean and green!

An Environmentally Friendly Energy Resource .


provided it is properly developed and managed
geothermal fluid contains some components that may be harmful to the environment proper treatment and disposal is required
injection of separated water and condensate treatment of gas discharges, if necessary

it impacts the surface environment changes in thermal manifestations subsidence

BENEFITS OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY


Indigenous resource (important to Philippines, Indonesia, etc) Can substitute imported fossil fuels or allow fossil fuels to be exported Mature technology for extracting energy and converting to electrical power compared with other renewable technologies Can be used to substitute for high grade resources in low grade applications Competitive with coal and natural gas power plants, particularly if carbon credits for reduced greenhouse gases are considered

Geothermal Energy
Advantages Disadvantages

Provide unlimited supply of energy

Start-up/ Development Costs can be expensive Maintenance costs, due to corrosion is a major problem

Produces no air or water pollution

Local Oil 1.6% Imported Coal 10.3% Natural Gas 7.7% Local Coal 4.6%

Imported Oil 34.0%

Hydropower 5.4% Ethanol 0.0%

Biomass 14.1% CME 0.1%

Solar, Wind & Micro-hydro 0.0%

2007 PRIMARY ENERGY MIX

2007 Solar & Wind 0.10% Natural Gas 31.52% Oil 8.64% Hydro 14.37%

Geo 18% Coal 28.24%

2007 POWER GENERATION MIX

Installed Capacity
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
To ng on an M ak -B an Ba cM an M t. Ap o Ti w i
Ne .

723

Total = 1,994 MW
425.73 344 192.5 151.5 108.48

49

pi n

s ro g

on

Pa

or N

lin

Global Geothermal Power Producers


2500 In stalled C ap acity, M W e 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Philippines (1,994 MWe)

United States Philippines Italy Indonesia Mexico Japan New Zealand Iceland El Salvador Costa Rica

LOCATION OF PRODUCING FIELDS


*MakBan (426 Mwe) *Tiwi (330 MWe)

Chevron/NPC EDC

Makiling -Banahaw Makiling Banahaw -

*Tongonan 1 (112.5 MWe, NPC) *Leyte (606 MWe, CalEnergy and Ormat) *Palinpinon (195 MWe, NPC) *Bacon-Manito (152 MWe, NPC) *Mt Apo (108 MWe, Marubeni) *Nor. Negros (49 MWe, PNOC)

Tiwi Tiwi Bacon Bacon Manito Manito Tongonan Tongonan -1 Leyte Leyte Nor. Negros Palinpinon Palinpinon

Mt. Apo Mt Apo

Tongonan Geothermal Field, Leyte


Steam Field Developer :Energy Development Corp. (EDC) Power Plant Operator : EDC Development History : First Well Drilled - 1976 3 MWe Power Plant - 1977 112.5 MWe Power Plant - 1983 202 MWe BOT Power Plant - 1996 382 MWe BOT Power Plant - 1997 Total Electricity Generation (1977 2003) : 35,233 GWh

Combined Cycle Geothermal Power Plant, Leyte

Tiwi Geothermal Field (Albay)


Steam Field Developer: Chevron (Phils) Power Plant Operator: NPC/Aboitiz Development History: 2.5 KWe Pilot Plant - 1969 First Well drilled - 1972 3 x 110 MWe Power Plants A, B and C - 1979, 1980, 1982 Total Electricity Gross Generation (1979 2003): 39,178 GWh Status: on-going rehabilitation of power plants

Pioneer Geothermal Power Plant

110 MW Tiwi, Albay

Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Field


Steam Field Developer: Chevron (Phils) Power Plant Operator: NPC/Aboitiz Development History: First Well Drilled - 1974 3 x 110 MWe Power Plants A, B and C - 1979, 1980, 1984 15.7 MWe Ormat Power Plant - 1994 4 x 20 MWe Power Plants D and E - 1996 Total Electricity Generation (1979 2003): 51,454 GWh

Modular Power Plant - 15.7MW, Mak-ban

Palinpinon Geothermal Field


Steam Field Developer: Energy Development Corp. (EDC) Power Plant Operator: NPC Development History: First Well Drilled - 1976 3 x 1.5 MWe Power Plants - 1980 112.5 MWe Power Plant - 1983 2 x 40 MWe Power Plants - 1994, 1995 Total Electricity Generation (1980 2003): 16,244 GWh

Bacon-Manito (Bac-Man) Geothermal Field


Steam Field Developer: Energy Development Corp. (EDC) Power Plant Operator: NPC Development History: First well drilled - 1980 110 MWe Power Plant - 1993 2 x 20 MWe Power Plant - 1994, 1998 Total Electricity Gross Generation (1993 2003): 5,939 GWh

Mindanao Geothermal Field (Mt. Apo)


Steam Field Developer: Energy Development Corp. (EDC) Power Plant Operator: Marubeni Development History : First well drilled - 1988 54 MWe BOT Power Plant - 1997 54 MWe BOT Power Plant - 1998 Total Electricity Gross Generation (1997 2003): 4,493 GWh

Northern Negros Geothermal Production Field


Steam Field Developer: PNOC-Energy Development Corp. (EDC) Power Plant Operator: PNOC-EDC Development History:
First well drilled - 1978 49 MWe Power Plant - 2007

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

Palinpinon, 20 MWe (2010) Mindanao, 40 MWe (2010)

Philippine Geothermal Fields and Prospects

0 0

50 50

1 00 1 50 2 00 1 00 1 50 2 00

3 00 km 3 00 km

M anila M anila

+ +

..\JOBS\MAS\CDR\PROSPECT .CDR .\JOBS\MAS\CDR\PROSPECT .CDR

011299/awel 011299/awel

GEOTHERMAL CONTRACTING ROUND


Offered 10 area for development, namely: 1. MANITO KAYABON SECTOR 2. MINDANAO OPTIMIZATION 3. TANAWON-RANGAS SECTOR 4. CABALIAN, SOUTHERN LEYTE 5. BILIRAN 6. AMACAN, COMPOSTELA VALLEY 7. DAUIN, NEGROS ORIENTAL 8. NATIB, BATAAN 9. MABINI, BATANGAS 20-40 MW 20 MW 40-80 MW 60-110 MW 20-40 MW 20-40 MW 40-80 MW 40 MW 20 MW

Department of Energy

10. MONTELAGO, ORIENTAL MINDORO 20-40 MW

Total Energy Produced (1979 - 2005) from Philippine geothermal fields 172,727.71 Gigawatthours
298 Million barrels of oil ($7 Billion)
equivalent to