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Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov have shown that carbon in such a flat form has exceptional properties

that originate from the remarkable world of quantum physics. Andre Konstantin Geim is a Dutch-Russian physicist working at the University of Manchester. He is the Langworthy Professor and director of the Manchester Centre for Mesoscience and Nanotechnology at the University of Manchester. Konstantin Sergeevich Novoselov is a Russo-British physicist. Novoselov is currently a member of the mesoscopic physics research group at the University of Manchester as a Royal Society University Research Fellow. Novoselov is also a recipient of an ERC Starting Grant from the European Research Council. They were awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work on graphene. Andre Geim (at left) and Konstantin Novoselov

A thin flake of ordinary carbon, just one atom thick Geim and Novoselov extracted the graphene from a piece of graphite such as is found in ordinary pencils. Using regular adhesive tape they managed to obtain a flake of carbon with a thickness of just one atom. Graphene is a form of carbon. As a material it is completely new not only the thinnest ever but also the strongest. As a conductor of electricity it performs as well as copper. As a conductor of heat it outperforms all other known materials. It is almost completely transparent, yet so dense that not even helium, the smallest gas atom, can pass through it. Carbon, the basis of all known life on earth [1]

This special layer has a lot of properties like: -Graphene differs from most conventional three-dimensional materials. Intrinsic graphene is a semi-metal or zero-gap semiconductor. [2]

- It probably can be used for generating a Casimir effect as well. The Casimir effect is an effect predicted by the camp cuantic theory. Consist in if two metallic objects separated by a small distance compared with the two objects generate physical forces arising from a quantized field. - Graphene appears to be one of the strongest materials ever tested. Measurements have shown that graphene has a breaking strength 200 times greater than steel. [2] - Soluble fragments of graphene can be prepared in the laboratory through chemical modification of graphite - Graphene oxide. It occur by dispersing oxidized and chemically processed graphite in water, and using paper-making techniques, the monolayer flakes form a single sheet and bond very powerfully. - Graphene's unique electronic properties produce an unexpectedly high opacity for an atomic monolayer. - Electronic transport. Experimental results from transport measurements show that graphene has remarkably high electron mobility at room temperature,

-Aviation: With its immense tensile strength and light weight, it may be possible to realize the dream of a vacuum airship Graphene transistors: Due to its high electronic quality, graphene has also attracted the interest of technologists who see it as a way of constructing ballistic transistors. Graphene exhibits a pronounced response to perpendicular external electric fields, allowing one to build FETs (field-effect transistors). [3] - Integrated circuits: Graphene has the ideal properties to be an excellent component of integrated circuits. - Ultracapacitors: Due to the extremely high surface area to mass ratio of graphene, one potential application is in the conductive plates of ultracapacitors. It is believed that graphene could be used to produce ultracapacitors with a greater energy storage density than is currently available. - Anti-bacterial: The Chinese Academy of Sciences has found that sheets of graphene oxide are highly effective at killing bacteria such as Escherichia coli. This means graphene could be useful in applications such as hygiene products or packaging that will help keep food fresh for longer.

References: 1.-Erik Huss, October 5, 2010, NOBELPRIZE.ORG, The 2010 Nobel Prize in Physics- Press Release, Available on [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2010/press.html], Reviewed on March 2011. 2.-Manchester University, April 18, 2008, MANCHESTER 1824, Graphene used to create world s smallest transistor, Available on [http://www.manchester.ac.uk/aboutus/news/display/? id=3529], Reviewed on March 2011. 3. - N.J. Tao, July 09, 2009, THE BIODESING INSTITUTE AT ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY NEWS, Material world: graphenes versatility promises new applications. Available on [http://www.biodesing.asu.edu/news/material-world-graphenes-versatil], Reviewed on March, 2011.