CHAPTER I The Problem

Introduction A Road Safety Audit (RSA) is defined as "the formal safety performance examination of an existing or future road or intersection by an independent, multidisciplinary team. It qualitatively estimates and reports on potential road safety issues and identifies opportunities for improvements in safety for all road users." A key feature of a road safety audit is the use of a team of professionals with varied expertise. The team should include highway safety engineers, highway design engineers, maintenance personnel, and law enforcement. Additional specialties should be added to the team as needed. The team members must not be involved in the design or maintenance of the facility being examined, so that they can have an objective point of view. The road safety audit may investigate general safety conditions, or it may focus on specific concerns or users. Walkability audits concentrate on pedestrian safety and accommodation, and transit audits focus on safety of bus and train users. One of the strengths of the audit process is it can find safety concerns before they contribute to crashes. Lack of data is a reason to use the audit process, rather than an excuse not to.1 This discusses to us what is road safety audit is all about, wherein it presents to us the simplified definition of what is needed for a safe road As part of the ongoing process of building safety into highway improvement schemes and other developments affecting the public highway, a procedure for auditing designs and newly completed works has been implemented. A safety audit is an

and that problems identified at similar sites are avoided in new works. If there is no agreement then the designer will need to apply for an exception report. They are not a check on design standards. or an opportunity to redesign a scheme. Audits required as part of the planning process i. Stage IV After the project has been in operation for a period of time. Stage 4 safety audits are automatically carried out after 12 and 36 months after the scheme has been completed. at stages 2 and 3 will be charged for. to identify potential road safety problems. The audits are carried out on Council and developer promoted schemes. the latter as part of the planning control process. They ensure that adequate levels of safety are maintained. together with any recommendations. Stage III Upon completion (and preferably before being open to traffic). Audits carried out as part of Section 106 and Section 38 Agreements i. Stage II Detailed design. the County Council has found it necessary to impose a charge for stage 2 and 3 audits. Developers will be charged on an at-cost basis for safety audit work where appropriate. Safety audits are carried out at 4 distinct stages of a project: Stage I Feasibility and preliminary design i. . a technical check. conceptual. At each stage the findings of the auditors. to minimize accident numbers and severity. In order to provide an efficient and speedy service.e. to eliminate/mitigate those safety problems. Aims of a road safety audit are. are put in a formal report to the Client for action. This audit investigates the number of personal injury accidents that occur so that serious problems can be identified and remedial work recommended. at stage 1 will not be charged for. The designer is required to respond formally to any points made in the audit and agreement must be reached with the auditor before proceeding with the project. Safety audits only consider road safety matters.e.e.evaluation of highway improvement schemes during design and at the end of construction.

lighting. The standard charge for a stage 2 audit is £220. It also mentioned that a designer needs to provide various pieces of information for each of the stages. On submission of a request for a chargeable audit an estimate of total cost will be provided for guidance. Sixty-five percent of deaths involve pedestrians and 35 percent of pedestrian deaths are children. plus an hourly rate of £36. There is no additional charge for 4a and 4b safety audit). signals (including phase diagrams). plus an hourly rate of £36.35. drainage. plus mileage costs. measurements or a scaled drawing. For action plans in developing . to the person who commissioned the audit. about 70 percent occur in developing countries.The charge will be based on actual costs incurred in carrying out the audit work. Every year more than 1. (Note: the stage 3 will include a stage 3 night time audit. and many more. The majority of these deaths. The standard charge for a stage 3 audit is £551. motorcyclists. A simple but effective monitoring and evaluation system is required to track progress of road safety activities and to estimate the safety impact. signing (with signing schedules).65 (2010). construction. aims of a road safety audit. bicyclists and non-motorized vehicles (NMV) occupants. Over 10 million are crippled or injured each year. but pedestrians.65 (2010). It has been estimated that at least 6 million more will die and 60 million will be injured during the next 10 years in developing countries unless urgent action is taken. all construction drawings this includes: layout. the stages of safety audit. plus mileage costs.2 It discusses about the background.17 million people die in road crashes around the world. The majority of road crash victims (injuries and fatalities) in developing countries are not the motorized vehicle occupants. and charging. For example the designer should provide a location plan and drawing showing the outline and extent of the proposal.50.

Frequently. construction and maintenance phases of road projects. The traffic mix and road usage in developing countries is very different from that in developed countries. The remedial measures are usually low cost and countries with limited resources should initially consider such schemes. The main aim is to design out safety problems from the beginning and to reduce future problems. In many developing countries safety devices are included in the designs. The Institution of Highways and Transportation in the UK produce Guidelines for the Safety Audit of Highways. The introduction of self enforcing techniques in road designs is likely to have much better short term results than improving vehicle standards and driver testing requirements. Monitoring and evaluation systems established as part of implementing action plans and safety initiatives must therefore. where appropriate. be able to indicate progress towards achievement of institutional impact and developmental objectives. . Many developing countries have either just adopted road standards from developed countries or modified such standards without fully evaluating the consequences. guard-rails. but are simply not constructed on the ground. including modifications to existing layouts. Systematic identification and treatment of hazardous locations can improve road safety substantially. road maintenance is limited to fixing potholes and cleaning drainage facilities.countries. Road safety audit is the systematic checking of the safety aspects of new highway and traffic management schemes. without replacing missing traffic signs. initial focus is often on institutional strengthening and capacity building rather than just on reducing of casualties in numeric terms. road markings and other safety features essential to create a safe road network. Safety audits should be included during the design. More information. Road crashes can be prevented by better planning and more safety conscious design of the road network.

and recommendations of treatments and reports. The purpose of the project was to improve the traffic accident prevention program of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) in the Philippines.organizing and conducting the Road Safety Infrastructure Improvement Investigations program of 35 hazardous sites throughout Philippines. and last but not least road safety research.including ordering details is available from The Institution of Highways and Transportation. Research and Development is an important part of safety work and should be incorporated into road safety programs. It forms the framework of knowledge against which better policy and resource allocation decisions can be made to ensure most effective use of available resources. Study tasks include. Road safety research aims to improve knowledge about factors contributing to road crashes. road safety audits. including crash data analysis. preparing Road Safety Audit Handbook & Procedures manual reviewing the National . setting up Hazardous Location Investigation policies and procedures for future use by DPWH personnel.3 According to this entry road safety is affected by certain factors such as road crash problem. site investigations. Priority was aimed at building the capacity of the DPWH to manage road safety as a key organizational business function. monitoring and evaluation. This would provide sustainability for the implementation of road safety throughout the DPWH.Philippines Government Department of Public Works & Highways). Sixth Road Project Capacity Building Component: Philippines Road Safety Strategy (a project of The Asian Development Bank . designing roads to improve road safety (safety engineering). effects of different countermeasures. reviewing and revising Road Signs and Pavement Marking manuals. and development of new and more effective safety measures.

2010). The country ranks 24th in the world in terms of total length of roads (h e World Factbook-CIA. the road density of the Philippines shown in Figure 1.000 people) of the Philippines ranks 11th. one of the lowest among its Southeast Asian neighbors. of which 54.670 km unpaved. Table 1.481 km are paved and 158. As of 2009.54 km/sq. The ADB had launched initiatives to curb this alarming global problem. increasing from 0.4 This is a convention held for Asian countries including Philippines where it shows road projects across Asia.000 jeepneys providing PT services throughout the country.351. The Philippine road network has been improved at the rate of 25% between 1990 and 2007. km in 2003 – the highest among Southeast Asian countries. In 2004. 36. h ere are currently over 23. approximately 9 thousand fatalities are attributed to road traffic accidents.648 passenger cars registered nationwide.67 kilometers/square kilometer. In 2007. The Philippines. The annual cost of accidents is estimated at over 100 billion pesos that constitute about 2. It also includes the road reports of different Asian countries and showed the ranking of each Asian country in terms of road safety management and more. except Singapore. with an estimated 937. the rate of motorization (in passenger cars per 1. ASEAN countries exerted collective effort to have a regional national .2 was estimated to be 0. like many countries around the world. Every year in the Philippines. Most Filipinos take public transport with an estimate of about 70% of the total person trips taking PT with as high as 80% in highly urbanized cities.Road Safety Action Plan. the estimated total length of roads in the Philippines is 213.1 shows the distribution of road transport services in the country.6% of the GDP. conduct training on road safety audit procedures. Although traffic congestion is a main challenge in major urban centers.000 taxis and about 217.000 buses. is faced with the problem of road crashes.

still. The strategy for achieving accident-free road transport in the country is already formulated in the country’s National Road Safety Action Plan (NRSAP). especially for the vulnerable road users like children. constructed. Filipino road user must imbibe a road safety culture. revised in 2007) consists of road safety programs until 2015 addressing the three E’s (engineering. an environmentally sustainable transport is fundamentally a safe transport. Road and other traffic facilities must be planned. the underlying . always. Currently. and education). Private sector participation must be considered for the long term even more. and public-private sector partnership. with road safety as a primary concern. With a target of reducing the accident rate to approximately 2% in 2015 from the baseline 4% in 2004. Publicity campaigns and education on road safety. financial support for NRSAP programs under the DOTC comes from a portion of the MVUC. The target is to reduce to ~2% by 2015 the annual road accident fatality growth rate. frameworks for administrative and legislative support. and maintained. from the baseline ~4% in 2004. h e plan was drafted and is being implemented jointly by government. and motorcyclists must be persistent. The National Road Safety Action Plan (NRSAP) of the Philippines (signed by the Issues and Challenges in the Transport Sector 39 President in 2004. Immediate concern.road safety action plan. It is encouraging to see that several private organizations are quite enthusiastic in supporting road safety initiatives in an effort to demonstrate their corporate social responsibility. pedestrians. h e EST strategy must complement and support the realization of the NRSAP. Needless to say. and other private sectors. academe. enforcement. industry. which meant that member countries have their own national plans. designed. is the establishment of a road accident database system that will provide objective information for all sectors of the road safety initiative.

effective road safety support system. This will inform them the present status of roads. government and private engineering establishments. Significance of the Study The findings of this study are considered significant to engineering students. safer roads. enforcement (and enactment) of regulations. h is paves the way for the Philippines active participation in activities focused on a Decade of Action for Road Safety: 2011-2020. general public. professional engineers. As future engineers this information will help them realize the value of their work. It can be observed that the strategy imply multi-sector and inter-agency cooperation among government agencies. and the responsibility they have for the safety of the public. The data to be gathered will also be helpful for the planning of a safer road for the public.strategies documented in NRSAP can be divided into 5 main areas namely: safer vehicles. nongovernment officials (?). This will better enhance their knowledge and understanding on the subjects connected to designing a safer road for the public. effective road safety management. and effective road safety support system. and safer road users. effective road safety management. safer road users. safer roads. It will provide data essential for the improvement of other road structure to be constructed. Engineering students. . as well as proper road/vehicle design and engineering are among the key elements in these strategies.5 This is centered to the strategies for road safety and maintenance which includes safer vehicles. and private sector. Professional engineers. Education of road users. and future researchers. NGO.

Non-government officials. This study will provide knowledge to the public the present status of the roads they walk on everyday. This study can be their reference. wherein it can provide information needed in their study. . General public. Future researchers. This can be a source for defending the rights and importance of a safe path to walk in and encouraging our leaders to be more responsible in the construction of roads. They can improve and delve further the other factors and sub-topics that are not discussed in this study. this research may be helpful in answering questions and clarifying knowledge regarding road safety. In partnership with the road projects of engineers. This may also be a source of reading material or reference and guide in building for safer roads. 5 http://www.worldbank.htm 1 http://en.php 2 3 4 http://www.

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