Chapter 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Test Item Table

Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Savvy Automakers Know Thy Custom(h)er (pp. 99-100) Consumer Purchase Decision Process (pp. 100-104) Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 104-111) Level of Learning Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1, 2 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 3

Sociocultural Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 112-117) Video Case: Ken Davis Products. Inc.: Barbecue Sauces for Nonimprovisers (pp. 118-119)

4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 37, 38, 41, 43, 46, 49, 51, 52, 179 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 112, 115, 119, 120, 125, 126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 183 139, 141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 157, 167, 173, 174, 186

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 178 62, 63, 67, 78, 83, 86, 90, 93, 96, 105, 106, 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 121, 127, 129, 130, 181, 182, 184

6, 14, 17, 26, 32, 39, 40, 44, 45, 47, 177, 180 61, 70, 71, 72, 77, 79, 82, 85, 88, 92, 97, 99, 102, 111, 113, 114, 122, 123, 124, 128, 136, 181, 183

137, 138, 142, 145, 153, 156, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171, 186, 187, 188 175, 176

140, 146, 150, 151, 152, 159, 164, 165, 166, 172, 185, 188, 189

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.

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CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
5-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is true? a. b. c. d. e. Women have no particular likes or dislikes which makes it very difficult to view them as a viable target market. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process. To accommodate women customers, automobile dealers have not changed the way they sell cars in the last three decades. Women are most likely to make their car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative. Women rely more heavily on promotional information to make their final car purchase decision than men do. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 99 Rationale: Choice d is a correct statement. Regarding the incorrect choices, recognition of women as purchasers and influencers in car and truck buying has altered the behavior of dealers, including doing away with negotiation. Women look at promotional material, but do not rely on it to make their final decision. 5-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Who buys 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks? a. b. c. d. e. Men Women Teens People representing ethnic minority groups None of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 99 Rationale: Women buy about 60 percent of new cars and light trucks. As a group, they spend over $81 billion on new cars and trucks for their personal use, and influence 80 percent of all new car sales.

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5-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER

APPLICATION

When General Motors started selling its Saturn cars, it announced that the cars would have a nonnegotiable price. A customer who wanted to buy a Saturn would pay the posted price. General Motors probably adopted this pricing policy because: a. b. c. d. e. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices. women have an intense dislike of the car-buying process, yet still want to buy a car. many recent immigrants into the United States were not accustomed to negotiation. research showed that price negotiation was socially irresponsible. a sluggish economy guaranteed that negotiations would produce a less than adequate return on investment.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: General Motors, like the other car manufacturers, was aware that women buy 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks. Additional research had shown them that 78 percent of women disliked the car-buying process and often refuse to negotiate the price. (Many of the recent immigrants to the U.S. come from countries where negotiations are expected for each purchase.) 5-4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DEFINITION

__________ describes the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services. a. b. c. d. e. Marketing Market research Consumer behavior Consumer management Purchase development

Answer: c Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—consumer behavior 5-5 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS DEFINITION

The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the: a. b. c. d. e. situational analysis sequence. VALS inventory. purchase decision process. hierarchy of learning. routine response sequence.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Key term definition—purchase decision process

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Nike is confident consumers will have a relatively favorable evaluation of the shoe. b. consult a public source of information. Answer: a Page: 100. Based on responses of people who have tried the new product. d. make a purchase decision. a buyer passes through five stages of the purchase decision process when making choices about which products and services to buy. it rebounds more completely. 5-7 PROBLEM RECOGNITION DEFINITION During the purchase decision process. consult a personal source of information. problem recognition alternative evaluation cognitive dissonance routine response behavior post purchase behavior Answer: a Page: 100. To have a favorable evaluation. consumers must first: a. e. The new substance not only absorbs shock better. experience problem recognition. The initial step in the process is problem recognition. the price will be about $150. Figure 5-1 Rationale: As Figure 5-1 illustrates. b. thereby improving the wearer's speed and jumping ability. Nike believes this new characteristic—promoted as reflex response—will make the new shoe a superior product. d. Due to increased costs of materials and production. experience cognitive dissonance. e. a person at the __________ stage will realize that the difference between what he or she has and what he or she would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it a.5-6 PROBLEM RECOGNITION APPLICATION Nike has developed a new cushioning substance for use in the soles of athletic shoes. c. c. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Text term definition—problem recognition 255 .

an individual at the problem recognition will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision.” she was entering which stage of the consumer decision process? a. Purchase decision Alternative evaluation Information search Problem recognition Postpurchase behavior Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: During the purchase decision process. The student perceives she would be unable to get to class on time without a car. d. b. Marty realized that he was unable to do his assignments without a calculator. 5-10 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase. yields brand names that might meet the criteria. 5-9 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When Marty attended his first statistics class. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Marty when he made this realization? a. c. e. d.5-8 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When the marketing student said. “It's really hard for me to get to class on time without a car. an individual at the problem recognition stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. Information search Problem recognition Purchase behavior Alternative evaluation Pre-purchase cognition Answer: b Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: During the purchase decision process. and develops consumer value perceptions? a. b. c. e. c. b. e. 256 . a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. d. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. he realized that he ought to buy a calculator or else he would be unable to do his assignments.

d. Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. d. the risk of making a bad decision is high. c. a. e. e. When past experience or personal knowledge does not provide adequate information upon which a consumer can make a decision. b. 5-12 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask.5-11 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL The question “How long is the warranty for this CD player?” would be asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process. an avid football fan. Eddie started talking with his friends to learn more about the various brands of big screen televisions. "Is installation included in the price of this air conditioner?" a. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. e. d. c. the consumer may seek information from external sources. 257 . problem recognition information search alternative evaluation purchase decision All of the above. He thinks games would be more enjoyable on a big screen television. b. Primary external sources of information for many consumers are family and friends. c. In which step of the purchase decision making process is Eddie engaged? a. is glued to the television every Sunday afternoon as he watches his favorite teams. b. 5-13 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Eddie. and the cost of gathering information is low. the next step in the decision making process is to search for information. Problem recognition Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Information search Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: After a consumer has recognized a problem.

5-14 INFORMATION SEARCH

APPLICATION

When an elementary school teacher needed to buy poster board for her class, she remembered that she had found some poster board at three stores: her local 99 Cents Only store, Walgreen’s, and at her Family Dollar Store. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher? a. b. c. d. e. Personal external source Public external source Market-dominated external source Internal search Market-dominated internal source

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-15 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Thao's friend Mike turns 21 next week and will have a party. Thao decided to purchase a CD as a present. Because they like the same music, Thao scanned her memory for various CD options. This is an example of what action in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Memorization External search Evaluative criteria Antecedent states Internal search

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search such as Thao recalling various CD options. 5-16 INTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION

A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memory for previous experiences with products or brands. a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition internal search external search purchase task antecedent state

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: Text term definition—internal search

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5-17 INTERNAL SEARCH

APPLICATION

A mother of two toddlers would most likely use an internal search process exclusively when purchasing: a. b. c. d. e. a gift for a best friend. a DVD player. disposable diapers. perfume. a weekend getaway.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. Because diapers are frequently purchased items, the mother would likely recall from memory which brand she prefers. 5-18 INTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Amy is an avid mystery reader and has decided to purchase a mystery book for her best friend. Since the two friends enjoy the same types of mysteries, Amy will know exactly which book her friend would like. When Amy was scanning her memory for various mystery book options, she was engaged in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-19 EXTERNAL SEARCH An external search for product information is especially important when: a. b. c. d. e. the cost of gathering information is low. review of past experience provides adequate information. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low. the item is frequently purchased. any of the above conditions exist. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 100 Rationale: An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

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5-20 EXTERNAL SEARCH

DEFINITION

In the consumer purchase decision process an external search for product information occurs when: a. b. c. d. e. the consumer gathers information from outside sources. the consumer gathers information from friends. the consumer gathers information from product-rating organizations. the consumer gathers information from advertising. any of the above conditions exist.

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: Text-term definition—external search 5-21 EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Christina wants to purchase a new computer. She is unsure about what hardware and software she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several computer salespeople and has looked at some websites. Christina is engaging in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Christina is externally searching for information about computers. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high. 5-22 PERSONAL SOURCES DEFINITION

Examples of personal sources of information for an external information search include: a. b. c. d. e. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. sales personnel. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—personal sources

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he knew exactly what he wanted. e. but he couldn't decide what he wanted to eat. Marlon's information search was shorted by the appearance of a __________ source. b. friends and relatives. 261 . Consumer Reports magazine. point of purchase displays. a. e. friends and relatives. d. Consumer Reports magazine. salespeople. and point-of-purchase displays in stores. sales personnel. consumer programs on talk radio stations. point of purchase displays. c. e. c. and include advertising. private information consumer-controlled public information family marketer-dominated Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services. personal experience. Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—marketer-dominated sources 5-25 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES CONCEPTUAL Marlon was hungry. d. b. When Marlon saw the television ad for chocolate-stuffed Oreo cookies. Answer: b Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—public sources 5-24 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a marketer-dominated source of information for an external information search is: a. d.5-23 PUBLIC SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a public source of information for an external information search is: a. c. b. advertising.

b. b. but the Cadillac has front and back stereo speakers. In this case the purchase will be a car. b. the bucket seats or an exceptional stereo represent the alternatives that need to be evaluated. d. 5-27 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION The objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products are called: a. which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands. a. temporal states. the alternative evaluation stage provides evaluative criteria by which to make a decision. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 262 . evaluative criteria.5-26 ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION APPLICATION Keisha is in the process of buying a new car appropriate to her role as the newest vice president at her company. c. antecedent states. Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 5-28 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION When you set out to buy a DVD player for yourself. the information search stage helped the consumer to collect needed information to use to seek value. e. c. the evoked set. information sources. c. d. e. factors you might consider before purchase are called __________. e. "The Volvo has reclining bucket seats. She was overheard telling a co-worker. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: The problem recognition stage was prompted by the need for appropriate transportation." In which stage of the purchase decision process is Keisha? a. d.

c. such as the different unsweetened flake cereals. 5-30 EVOKED SET DEFINITION The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is the: a. what is this group of cereal brands called? a. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand (the ability to attach under a cabinet) and the subjective ones (sleek styling) a person uses to compare different products and brands. Kellogg's Corn Flakes. d. These are __________ Judy used during the alternative evaluation stage of the purchase decision process. b. evolved set. and Wheaties. b. she wanted to buy a brand name opener that attached under a cabinet and that had sleek styling. d. alternative selection group. evaluative set. e. e. e.5-29 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA CONCEPTUAL When Judy decided to buy an electric can opener as a wedding present. evoked set. 263 . Collectively. c. A value group An evoked set An evaluative criterion An impulse set A discriminative group Answer: b Page: 101 Rationale: The evoked set is the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in a product class. Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evoked set 5-31 EVOKED SET CONCEPTUAL You want to buy some dry breakfast cereal and you are in the mood for unsweetened flakes. d. aspiration group. c. b. You can think of three brands that you consider acceptable from among all the brands of which you are aware: Post Toasties. a.

trying to determine the most important evaluative criteria skateboarders use when judging the product. Therefore. BMW is concerned with making sure its skateboard is in the evoked sets of potential skateboard buyers. the 12 inch covered omelet pan and use the easy pay plan. b. In this case. such as exhibition skateboarding. d. “Thank you for taking my call so quickly. I'd like to order number 1284H. 264 . reducing the post-purchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product. making sure its advertisements get on the air during sporting events. e.5-32 EVOKED SET APPLICATION BMW StreetCarver is a skateboard that features BMW's technology in its wheel suspension. by identifying the most important attributes a firm can design a product. which matches the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. d.” The co-worker was in which stage in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. as illustrated in Figure 5-1. Problem recognition Alternative evaluation Information search Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives of the evoked set. c. the consumer makes a purchase decision. 5-33 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Raul overheard one of his co-workers in a phone conversation say. c. making appeals directed towards motivational ego needs. creating personality profiles for skateboarders. Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: The key influence in determining the products in the evoked set is to have a set of important attributes. e. which stabilizes the board's sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. which matches consumers' interests. it most likely should focus on: a. The most important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers' evoked set.

b. social. Two choices remain in this step: 1) from whom to buy and 2) when to buy. The purchase stage requires choosing from whom to buy. b. “I'm so glad I bought the Motorola P280 phone rather than those other models I was looking at. c.” Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is demonstrated by Maria's conversation? a. b. All of the above statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process are true. The purchase stage follows the alternative evaluation stage in the consumer purchase decision process. Satisfied buyers tell three other people about their experience and dissatisfied buyers tell nine people about their experience. consumers are almost ready to make a purchase decision.5-34 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process is true? a. 5-36 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION A consumer's __________ refers to the personal. The act of picking a brand is the result of the purchase decision. The purchase stage includes deciding when to buy. I haven't seen another phone with that feature. c. involvement aspiration acculturative response motivation selective perception Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 265 . e. I have really enjoyed the fact that its stream service gives me an always-on connection to the Internet. e. e. c. Answer: e Page: 102. a consumer compares the purchased product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives in the evoked set. a. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior Answer: e Page: 102 Rationale: During the postpurchase stage. 5-35 POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR CONCEPTUAL Maria has just told her supervisor. d. Figure 5-1 illustrates the consumer purchase decision process. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer. d. d.

have serious personal consequences. be characterized by all of the above.5-37 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION The personal. The decision is and will remain a low-involvement one. Convince retailers to only offer Dasani water. d. 266 . Make good use of Dasani stock-outs. How can a marketer convince people to buy Dasani instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers' shelves? a. e. d. reflect one’s social image. b. b. c. Do any or all of the above Answer: c Page: 102 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. c. e. Persuading retailers to stock only one brand is unlikely unless they are paid. motivation. avoiding stock-out decisions would benefit Dasani. making good use of Dasahi stock-outs does not make sense. be expensive. d. aspiration. c. social. Offer coupons for Dasani bottled water. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer is called: a. Make the purchase decision high involvement. be characterized by none of the above. selective perception. e. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-39 INVOLVEMENT APPLICATION The purchase of a bottle of water is a low-involvement purchase. b. Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-38 INVOLVEMENT High-involvement purchases tend to: a. culture. involvement.

d. many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bar and soft drink. is virtually a habit. The purchase process for such items. e. called __________. and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. d. Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives. b. Routine problem solving Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: For these types of products. b. soda. 5-41 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives in the purchase of soap and milk. limited problem solving situations. frequently purchased products. routine problem solving uses minimal time spent searching. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. b. consumers recognize a problem. 267 . make a decision. e. e. d. a. unlimited problem solving situations. extensive problem solving situations. Answer: b Page: 103. routine problem solving situations. c. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. or chewing gum? a. c. 5-42 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Between classes. c. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings.5-40 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase such items as toothpaste. intensive problem solving situations. The college students are involved in: a. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving.

There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. c. or electric can openers? a. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced.5-43 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION The purchase process used when consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives is called __________. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: b Page: 103. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. consumers typically seek some information. e. sheets and towels. 268 . consumers typically seek some information. 5-44 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION A typical consumer would most likely use __________ in choosing a blender. 5-45 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. e. b. in limited problem solving. c. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. b. d. or a pair of sandals. routine response behavior limited problem solving extended problem solving simulated selection classical conditioning Answer: b Page: 103. is virtually a habit. in limited problem solving. a. frequently purchased products. d. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. c. a. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. d. e. b. a restaurant for dinner.

d. as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: c Page: 103. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. In making her decision Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving methods? a. 269 . Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. These are characteristics of limited problem solving. 5-48 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Which problem solving variation would likely be used for real estate. automobiles. or personal computers? a. a. 5-47 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Elizabeth has decided to purchase a radar detector and plans to call several friends for information about alternative brands. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: In limited problem solving. b.5-46 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives when they are engaged in a __________ process. e. d. Limited Extended Habitual Classical Routine Answer: a Page: 103: Figure 5-3 Rationale: In this case the person seeks some information but has little interest in spending time or effort in searching out the right place to purchase the item. c. which are illustrated in Figure 5-3. e. e. c. d. b. c. She is NOT concerned about where she buys it. b.

Robin is engaging in: a. limited problem solving. extended problem solving. d. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of months. d. e. temporal effects. d. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process. b. c. to find a gift they both will like. b. if needed. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. e. c.5-49 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION When consumers use each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process in the purchase of a product. and considerable time and effort is spent on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. social surroundings. they are using which of the following? a. 5-51 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The purchase task. simulated selection. a. which affect the purchase decision process. routine response behavior. and antecedent states are all examples of __________. physical surroundings. b. e. Answer: c Page: 103. 5-50 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Robin wants to find the perfect gift for her grandparents' 50th wedding anniversary. integrated problem solving. c. marketing mix influences psychological influences situational influences sociocultural influences evaluative criteria Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 270 . extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives.

and asking each other. spatial surroundings. "This is for my son's first birthday. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: The reason for engaging in the decision process (the son’s first birthday) is called the purchase task. b. b. e. dependent variables. temporal effects. social surroundings. d. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Social surroundings. d.5-52 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The five situational influences that have an impact on a consumer's purchase decision process are the purchase task. 271 . 5-54 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL Three teenaged girls spent hours at the store trying on various outfits. looking at possible combinations. independent variables. c. Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 5-53 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK CONCEPTUAL When a man picks up a teddy bear in a toy store and tells the clerk. frame of mind." which situational influence has he demonstrated? a. physical surroundings. “How do you think this outfit looks?" This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences? a. d. antecedent states. including other people present when a purchase decision is made. and: a. b. e. c. may affect what is purchased. e. c.

which include the consumer's mood or amount of cash on hand. One says to the other. b.” Then he banged his cart into the side of a display because the aisle was so crowded.5-55 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL As he hunted for tomato juice. But the boss is out of town. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: d Page: 103 Rationale: Temporal effects. he has vowed never to shop at that store again. purchase task social surroundings physical surroundings temporal effects spatial surroundings Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Physical surroundings such as decor. Carlos thought. d. b. e. music in retail stores. a. such as time of day or the amount of time available. As a result of __________. so most of the restaurants will be crowded.” Their conversation illustrates which situational influence? a. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: e Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: Antecedent states. 5-57 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS CONCEPTUAL Two colleagues discuss where to go for lunch. c. e. Which situational influence is Visa using to show the benefits offered by its debit cards? a. and crowded aisles may alter how purchase decisions are made. b. so we could take an extra hour and relax a bit. “Its noon. d. 5-56 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES CONCEPTUAL The ads for Visa debit cards show people who need to make a purchase quickly. "Nothing in this store is logically arranged. c. c. will influence where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered 272 . e. can influence purchase behavior and choice. but are unable to do so because the retailer won't accept a check without several forms of identification. d.

beliefs. c. Figure 5-4 Rationale: The five psychological influences are: motivation and personality. d. learning. 5-60 MOTIVATION __________ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. rational influences. d. and attitudes. c. psychological influences. a. perception. attitudes. Answer: b Page: 104 Rationale: Psychological concepts such as motivation and personality. values. situational influences. learning. values. and lifestyle. b. b. and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes. c.5-58 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological influence? a. e. and lifestyle are called: a. motivation personality perception antecedent state lifestyle DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 104. e. Antecedent states are a situational influence. beliefs. perception. social influences. attitudes. e. routine problem solving influences. 5-59 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The concepts useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts such as motivation and personality. beliefs. d. Selective perception Antecedent state Motivation Cognitive dissonance Perception DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—motivation 273 . values. learning. perception. b.

b. followed by safety. b. e. safety. Once the physiological needs are met. beginning with the most basic? a. social. 5-63 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL The most basic of our needs are physiological. d. The hierarchy of needs pyramid is illustrated in Figure 5-5.5-61 MOTIVATION APPLICATION The U. c. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Figure 5-5 illustrates the hierarchy of needs.S. "Be all that you can be" relied on which of the psychological influences on behavior? a. c. and self-actualization Safety. what category of needs is of the highest order? a. people seek to satisfy their learned needs. Figure 5-5 Other Location: web Rationale: People have both physiological needs and learned needs. d. physiological. personal. social. b. and physiological Safety. safety. physiological. Motivation Learning Perception Antecedent states Lifestyle Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: The slogan suggested that the Army could satisfy an individual's need for selfactualization. c. e. Personal. personal. and personal type needs. 5-62 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following lists the hierarchy of needs in its correct order. and self-actualization. physiological. self-actualization. and personal Self-actualization. According to the hierarchy of needs. Army former advertising theme. 274 . social. and safety Physiological. e. and social Answer: b Page: 105. psychological. personal. with self-actualization needs at the top. d. social. social. Intellectual needs Emotional needs Self-actualization needs Domination needs Psychological needs Answer: c Page: 105.

e. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: b Page: 105. and shelter would be considered __________ needs. c. b. c. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: a Page: 105.5-64 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Those needs which are basic to survival and which must be satisfied first are: a. b. food. b. c. personal needs. physiological needs. d. a. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-65 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs water. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-66 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs. self-preservation and physical well-being would be examples of __________ needs. self actualization needs. d. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—safety needs. safety needs. a. e. social needs. e. 275 . DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105. d.

d. b. d. c. status. The ad copy touts the dramatically improved traction of Michelin radial tires in rain and snow and informs parents of the ways in which the tires will help them protect and ensure the well-being of their children. a. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—social needs 5-69 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are represented by the need for achievement. prestige. c. e. and self-respect are __________ needs. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: c Page: 105. physiological safety social personal self-actualization Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: The Michelin tire ad seeks to appeal to parents' needs to ensure the safety of their children. e. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—personal needs 276 . a. d. c. a. b.5-67 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL A magazine ad shows a cherubic baby sitting inside an automobile tire. The marketers of Michelin tires are attempting to appeal to consumers' __________ needs. b. 5-68 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are __________ needs. e.

b. c. “How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space. Providing security for one's family would help to satisfy that need. 5-72 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for The King's Daughters' School. physiological needs. b.” This ad is most likely to appeal to people's __________ need. c. safety needs. Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment. status. 5-71 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Conesco's life insurance asks the question. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the needs in the hierarchy of needs? a. b. has the headline. Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Personal needs Self actualization needs Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: Safety needs involve self-preservation and physical well being. prestige. “Go in the Direction of Your Dreams. self actualization needs. e. e. e.5-70 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Acura is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau. d. a private academy for children. “Living Up to Their Potential. d. personal needs. 277 . c. d. and self-respect.” This ad is appealing to the parents' desire to satisfy their children's: a. social needs. Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: The school wants the parents to know that the school will make sure that each student achieves as much as possible. a. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Personal needs are needs that are represented by the need for achievement.

not important to consumer behavior. someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations. b. c. b. b. essential to developing culture.5-73 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Which of the following needs involves personal fulfillment? a. motivation. d. culture. c. perception. c. purchase process. d. e. e. personality. needed to achieve prestige. physiological needs safety needs social needs personal needs self actualization needs DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—self-actualization needs 5-74 PERSONALITY DEFINITION Someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations refer to his or her: a. d. based on perception. e. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 278 . Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 5-75 PERSONALITY Personality is: a.

b.5-76 PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT DEFINITION __________ is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. a. e. “How old will you be when you stop feeling 29?” The ad is using __________ to appeal to its target market. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supports the usage of subliminal perception. No organizations have used subliminal messages since the time people used to regularly go to drive-ins to watch movies. c. d. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau. 279 . the FCC has denounced subliminal messaging as deceitful. c. Self-evaluation Self-concept Aspirational concept Individualized perception Personal perception Answer: b Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—self-concept 5-77 SELF-CONCEPT APPLICATION The ad for Dove body wash asks the question. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States. b. d. Subliminal messages are legal in the United States. d. Feeling young may be an important element of a person’s self-concept. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. self-concept greed lust avarice hedonism Answer: a Page: 106 Rationale: Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. e. 5-78 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is true? a. e. c. b. There is no substantive scientific support for the concept of subliminal perception. The text gives an example of a current Times Warner CD game that uses subliminal messaging. a.

selective retention. c. Motivation Attitude formation Conformance Perception Illumination Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Key term definition—perception 5-81 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION DEFINITION Because the average consumer operates in a complex information-rich environment.5-79 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT APPLICATION Suppose a soft drink company sponsored a made-for-television movie with the understanding that subliminal images of its product logo would be interspersed throughout the program. The images of the product logo might interfere with the plot and impact of the movie. if it did have any effect on behavior. selective exposure. e. In other words. Children might be watching the program. d. a. 5-80 PERCEPTION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which an individual selects. e. b. The soft drink company would be attempting to influence the behavior of the consumers in a manner the consumers might object to if they were aware of what was occurring. Answer: c Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: The strongest ethical argument against subliminal advertising is that it exploits a psychological vulnerability in human perception to persuade consumers to act in a manner they might not if they were consciously making the choice. subliminal advertising might rob the consumer of the freedom to make a choice. and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world. b. Which of the following is the strongest argument that such a marketing strategy would be unethical? a. the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called: a. b. Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—selective perception 280 . stimulus discrimination. c. The soft drink company may not have paid a fair price to have the images of its logo placed in the movie. d. selective attention. c. d. e. Soft drinks can cause tooth decay. selective perception. organizes.

This is probably the result of: a. or made available to the conscious mind. This is an example of __________ perception. 5-83 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL You watch a television commercial for a new automobile and you do not notice it has dual airbags. remembered. While Marshall was unaware of the term. as indicated in the film footage. selective attention. e. a. remembered. stimulus discrimination. side impact bars. once he read an article about palindromes for his English class. b. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. b. Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. retentive interpretive reclusive selective subliminal Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. But you do notice that it has a high-performance engine that can take it to high speeds. selective retention. d. 281 . and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. selective intuition. he saw the term three more times that week. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. selective perception. d. and antilock brakes. c. c. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. e. or made available to the conscious mind.5-82 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION APPLICATION Many have described 2002 as the year of the palindrome—a word or phrase that reads the same whether read from right or left.

retention. selective exposure. 282 . stimulus discrimination. selective retention. selective comprehension. 5-86 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE CONCEPTUAL Charlie needs to purchase an automobile to drive to his new job in the city center. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent. behavioral learning. stimulus discrimination. This is an example of: a. b. e. d. subliminal perception. The report was contained in the newspaper that Marla reads daily. tuning out. d. selective retention. such as information that some fat is healthy when Marla is so committed to a fat-free diet. d. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. selective exposure. He begins to notice ads for many cars he wasn't aware of previously. e. selective comprehension. selective perception.5-84 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE DEFINITION The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent is called: a. c. b. and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs. selective perception. c. e. selective exposure. she did not see a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine that suggested that some fat in our diet is healthy. such as the need for a new car. but the reason Marla did not see it is probably the result of: a. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective exposure 5-85 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE APPLICATION Because Marla is so strongly committed to a fat-free diet. b. c.

a. Tyler will not purchase this product. e. e. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective perception subliminal discrimination Answer: a Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective retention 283 . b. stimulus discrimination. d. a. d. c. e. b. b. selective retention. consumers do not remember all the information they see. c. She believes that the name is demeaning to women and that its use means the manufacturer is unsympathetic to women. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective comprehension 5-88 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION Tyler was offended by the brand name of a new product for women. selective comprehension.5-87 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION DEFINITION Interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs is called: a. d. selective exposure. Due to __________. 5-89 SELECTIVE RETENTION DEFINITION As a result of __________. read. or hear even minutes after exposure to it. selective analysis. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective analysis stimulus discrimination Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: A consumer using selective comprehension is interpreting information so that it is consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs. c.

but believes there may be a negative consequence is called: a. offering extended service warranties. even minutes after exposure to it. d. c.5-90 SELECTIVE RETENTION Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by: a. spatial uncertainty. d. hear. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Key term definition—perceived risk 5-92 PERCEIVED RISK APPLICATION For which of the following products is perceived risk likely to be the greatest for a female who has just taken her first job after college graduation? a. using a more convoluted store layout. 284 . but believes there may be a negative consequence associated with making the wrong purchase decision. 5-91 PERCEIVED RISK DEFINITION The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. temporal uncertainty. b. b. a negative antecedent. Wearing the new outfit represents a perceived risk as she does not know how she may be thought of at her new job based on how she looks in her new outfit. providing brochures for consumers to take home. perceived risk. or read. A magazine subscription to Glamour A cell phone Flowers to decorate her new apartment A new outfit for her first day at work A pair of jeans to wear on weekends Answer: d Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. e. adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and/or snappy background music. c. e. Answer: c Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see. buyers' remorse. Furniture and automobile retailers often give consumers product brochures to take home after they leave the showroom to help them remember. d. c. b. e. CONCEPTUAL hiring well known celebrities to sponsor their products.

c. e. d.5-93 PERCEIVED RISK CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is a method marketers can use to reduce perceived risk for consumers? a. 5-94 LEARNING DEFINITION __________ refers to those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning. a. b. b. Perceptual Retentive Functional Motivated Behavioral Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—behavioral learning 285 . Obtain seals of approval for products Secure endorsements from influential people Provide trial usage of the product Provide warranties and guarantees All of the above Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Recognizing the importance of perceived risk. b. e. c. d. e. Psychosocial perception Acculturation Attitudinal identification Dynamic growth Learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Key term definition—learning 5-95 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING DEFINITION __________ learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a type of situation built up through repeated exposure to it. a. companies develop strategies to make consumers feel more at ease about their purchases. d. c.

This experiment is an example of: a. Pavlov presented dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell resulted in dogs that salivated when the bell was rung. b. reinforcement. cognitive learning. d. Lobster. Brownie. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—drive 286 . behavioral learning. c. d. even when food was not presented. c. Sugar Cookie. functional adaptation. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. d. and Turpentine. response. Dandelion. cue. e. e. 5-97 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. c. Changing antecedent states The scientific method Tone as a motivator Cognitive dissonance Behavioral learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. cognitive dissonance. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment proved. the appeal of the scent is due to: a. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. 5-98 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE A need that moves an individual to action is a(n): a. Because repeated exposure to these scents have made people connect them with some important event or memory. e. Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. b. Woodsmoke. attitude. drive. b. Leather.5-96 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING CONCEPTUAL The famous experiment wherein Dr. selective learning.

and Turpentine. b. b. a. cues. drive cue attitude response reinforcement DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—cue 5-101 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE A(n) __________ is the action taken to satisfy a drive. drives. c. and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: A cue is a stimulus (in this case a smell) perceived by consumers. Woodsmoke. d. Brownie. The maker of Demeter perfumes treats smells as if they were: a. d. e.5-99 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. b. cue demotivator motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—response 287 . Leather. 5-100 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE A(n) __________ is a stimulus or symbol that one perceives. Sugar Cookie. attitudes. responses. reinforcements. c. c. e. d. Lobster. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. Dandelion. e. a. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter.

d. goes to the store and buys the product (response). she sees an advertisement (cue). c. b. In terms of behavioral learning. Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: The reinforcement is the reward. the great taste of the food is a(n): a. preference. e. cue reinforcement motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—reinforcement 5-104 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION ___________ has occurred if what the consumer experiences upon responding to a stimulus is not pleasant. e. b. a. d. e. d. a. b. reinforcement. A negative cue A demotivator Negative reinforcement Negative response Negative stimulus Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—negative reinforcement 288 . c. prestige.5-102 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT APPLICATION Joan is hungry (drive). c. 5-103 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT A(n) __________ is the reward for satisfying a drive. achievement drive.

The consumer would have the same feelings toward one Law & Order series as for another. b. c. e. d. Selective comprehension Selective retention Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. 5-106 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL When the television production company that produces the Law & Order series uses the Law & Order name on two other series (Law & Order: Special Victim’s Unit. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus generalization 289 . c. Using the same brand name to launch new products is one common application of this concept. a. c. and Law & Order: Criminal Intent). b. b. 5-107 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DEFINITION __________ occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. e. even before the new show was seen. selective comprehension selective retention stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination routine response behavior Answer: c Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. it relies on __________ to convince fans of the original show that the new shows will be equally well crafted. a. d. d. e.5-105 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory? a.

a. b. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus discrimination 5-109 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Consumers' ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of: a. d. such as chocolate bar tastes. d. selective comprehension. e.5-108 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION DEFINITION __________ refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. selective retention. d. If they are to be believed. stimulus discrimination. b. Tom says that he cannot tell a difference between the two products. Betty exhibits __________. c. such as fat-free and regular cheese. stimulus generalization. 290 . b. c. 5-110 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Betty contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheese and cheese with regular fat content. while Tom does not. cognitive dissonance. e. c. e. a. Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products.

b. d. The authors hoped you would use __________ to conclude marketing is an interesting subject and worthy of your time and effort. c. a. e. d. b. e. 5-112 COGNITIVE LEARNING DEFINITION Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting one's own behavior accordingly is what type of learning? a. cognitive learning cognitive dissonance behavioral learning functional adaptation selective learning Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behavior and adjusting your own accordingly.5-111 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION APPLICATION Comparative advertising in which one brand is compared to another is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. the authors describe how marketing is not something alien to you like Shakespeare or physics—it is something you are already very familiar with because you observe marketing throughout many different facets of life. Marketers who use comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that its product is better than the other one. a. c. e. c. 291 . Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—cognitive learning 5-113 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION In the first chapter of this text. d. b. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 111 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to a person's ability to perceive differences among similar products.

b. d. Brand loyalty can reduce the perceived risk associated with the buying of certain products. e. Brand bias Brand discrimination Brand loyalty Behavioral learning Selective perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—brand loyalty 5-116 BRAND LOYALTY Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is true? a. The incidence of brand loyalty is declining in North America. Learning is closely connected to brand loyalty because habits are learned. 5-115 BRAND LOYALTY DEFINITION __________ is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. a. c. Betty Crocker is linking a box mix to home cooking. b. 292 . e. it is influencing which type of learning? a.5-114 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION When Betty Crocker advertises that baking a cake from one of its mixes tastes just like homemade. e. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions. c. Brand loyalty is accurately described by all of the above. d. In this case. c. d. b. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 109 Rationale: Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Marketers attempt to influence cognitive learning by linking a brand with an idea.

attitude. routine problem solving. This strong brand preference is the result of: a. b. and cosmetics. 5-118 ATTITUDE A learned predisposition to be thrifty or patriotic reflects a(n): a. Such products include cigarettes. beer. liquors. consumers have strong preferences for specific brands of these products.e. d. consumers are unable to distinguish among brands when given blind tests (i. e. taste or use of the products without labels).5-117 BRAND LOYALTY CONCEPTUAL Considerable research has documented that in many product categories. c. e. motivation. high-involvement problem solving. extended problem solving. b. and there is a close link between habits and brand loyalty. d. limited problem solving. 5-119 ATTITUDE DEFINITION A(n) __________ is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. e. d. even when prices are similar. Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving. personal problem solving. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. belief. Nonetheless. a. c. b. belief value attitude motivation perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—attitude 293 . value. c. perception.

because it is so difficult to do. e. b. Answer: c Page: 110 Rationale: Adding a new attribute--always-on feature—is one of three methods of attitude change available to marketers.5-120 BELIEFS DEFINITION __________ are one’s perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes. e. c. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. b. reducing perceived risk. d. a. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing the perceived importance of attributes. Beliefs Values Attitudes Predispositions Opinions Answer: a Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—beliefs 5-121 ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about changing consumer attitudes is true? a. 5-122 ATTITUDE CHANGES APPLICATION Cell phones have been available for quite awhile and Motorola is a recognized brand name of cell phones. adding a new important attribute. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by adding new attributes to a product. e. Promoting a new benefit of continuous Internet connection should lead to a favorable attitude toward the cell phone by: a. All of the above statements about changing consumer attitudes are true. changing the importance of a specific attribute. b. Answer: e Page: 110 Rationale: Marketers use all of the first three approaches in attempts to change consumer attitudes. but slow. c. Marketers spend lots of money on activities to change attitudes. 294 . stimulus generalization. Motorola joined with VoiceStream to create a phone that has an always-on Internet connection. changing beliefs about a specific attribute. d. d. Cell phones that can be connected to computer modems and used to upload or download information are commonplace. c. Companies have spent millions of dollars in their attempts to change consumer attitudes.

P&G had to spend lots of money debunking the false claim and request help from the ASPCA before consumers would purchase the product in the numbers expected. 5-125 LIFESTYLE DEFINITION A __________ is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources. what they consider important in their environment. e. It also stresses the health benefits of calcium. This promotion to debunk a false claim changed consumers' attitudes by: a. b. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. adding a new attribute to the product. Answer: a Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: P&G had to change consumers' beliefs that the spray was deadly to their pets before consumers could see the value of its odor controlling capabilities.5-123 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Tums antacid stresses the fact that it is a calcium supplement in its advertisements. b. When Febreeze was introduced. changing the basic product. Most people already know Tums contains calcium. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. a. and what they think of themselves and the world around them. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. c. The new promotion is trying to change the attitude toward Tums by: a. c. it was tagged as a pet killer. d. lowering the price. b. changing the perceived importance of the attribute. e. c. By focusing on this attribute. a new attribute had not been added. adding a new attribute to the product. d. changing the basic product. 5-124 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray manufactured by Procter & Gamble. lowering the price. d. culture subculture social class lifestyle reference group Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—lifestyle 295 . e. Answer: a Page: 110 Rationale: Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. Since consumers know Tums already contains calcium. it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude towards Tums.

c. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—psychographics 5-127 LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is NOT a good measure of consumer lifestyle. cognitive learning level. lifestyles. social statistics. consumer socialization. d. e. physiological needs. Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: One aspect of lifestyle is way of living. or psychographics? a. b. d. 5-128 LIFESTYLE APPLICATION Ads depicting happy families in Red Lobster restaurants are segmenting the market based on: a. psychographics. sociographics. b. e. Interests Activities Opinions Norms Hobbies Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources (activities.5-126 PSYCHOGRAPHICS Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyle is: a. family life cycle. including hobbies). d. including eating out. 296 . which is identified by how people spend their time. c. and what they think of themselves and the world (opinions). e. demographics. what they consider important (interests). stage of the decision process. b. c.

d. e. purchasing behavior studies. Attitudes. lifestyle analysis programs. 5-131 LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION According to the VALS program. 5-130 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM Which of the following statements about the VALS program is true? a. studies on the hierarchy of effects. language study programs. The acronym VALS stands for Value. developed by SRI International and currently run by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. e. Principle-oriented consumers are members of Generation X. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: The most prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) analysis is the VALS program. b. d. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as principle-oriented consumers. b. c. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: VALS stands for Values and Lifestyles. The VALS program seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. b. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as action-oriented consumers. c. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as status-oriented consumers. learning theories studies.5-129 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM The SRI's VALS Program is one of the most prominent examples of: a. which consumer group tries to match their behavior with their views of how the world is or should be? a. c. and Learned Suppositions. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—principle-oriented consumers 297 . d. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as action-oriented consumers. e. Principle-oriented consumers are older consumers. Principle-oriented Status-oriented Action-oriented Reward-oriented Achievement-oriented Answer: a Page: 110.

status-oriented. action-oriented. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—action-oriented consumers 5-134 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. c. enjoy variety. c. achievers. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—status-oriented consumers 5-133 LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION Consumers who are intensely involved in social and physical activity. d. principle-oriented. principle-oriented. reward-oriented. c. take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources are called: a. achievement-oriented. d. reward-oriented. d. sophisticated. e. e. strugglers. actualizers. active. b. achievement-oriented. b. b. action-oriented.5-132 LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS Consumers who are motivated by the actions and opinions of others are: a. status-oriented. e. Answer: c Page: 110. Figure 5-6 Rationale: These are all characteristics of actualizers. fulfillers. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psychographic segmentation. and are risktakers are: a. Answer: a Page: 111. 298 . believers. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110. consumers who account for eight percent of the population and are successful.

e. Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. c. often uneducated. or behavior of others. e. b. d. Answer: e Page: 111. b. fulfillers. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Members of the strugglers segment have the least resources and are poor. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psyhchographic segmentation. Which of the following VALS segments would be most suitable for their product? a. opinions. word-of-mouth activity and psychographics.5-135 LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. d. personality and lifestyle. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity. consumers who are poor. actualizers. b. achievers. Strugglers Believers Makers Actualizers Experiencers Answer: d Page: 111. 299 . They also have the most resources to spend on things they value. Two important aspects of personal influence are: a. e. d. c. strugglers. psychographics and demographics. often uneducated and frequently concerned about their well-being are called: a. believers. which will bloom in consumers' gardens just a few weeks after spring planting so people who didn't or couldn't plant bulbs in the fall will have spring flowers. and frequently concerned about their well-being. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Actualizers enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. 5-136 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS APPLICATION Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs. c. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate “finer things” and will pay the premium. 5-137 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. lifestyle and motivation.

syncratic decision makers aspirational opinion leaders autonomous leaders joint decision makers Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others. 5-139 OPINION LEADERS Individuals who have social influence over others are called: a. d. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word of mouth activity.5-138 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. d. a. c. achievers. a reference group. or behaviors of others. 300 . They are more likely to be important for products that provide a form of self-expression. b. a. b. e. opinion leaders. b. parental guidance peer pressure opinion leadership government regulation pricing levels Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. brand loyal consumers. decision makers. e. This group consists of __________ for activewear clothing. opinions. d. c. e. DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—opinion leaders 5-140 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Your company is introducing a new line of activewear for teenagers and invites the members of the cheerleading squad to a private display of the line. c.

c. b. If Procter & Gamble had not been so convinced it was a potentially very successful product. b. it was tagged as a pet killer by people in a chat room and the rumor spread. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—word of mouth 5-142 WORD OF MOUTH CONCEPTUAL Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. action-oriented communication. b.5-141 WORD OF MOUTH People influencing each other during conversations is called: a. When Febreeze was introduced. misinformed business strategy. publicity. a. e. personal selling. negative word of mouth. d. c. e. Febreeze could have been deleted from the P&G product line as a result of: a. d. e. Action-oriented consumers Principle-oriented consumers Suncultures Social classes Reference groups Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—reference groups 301 . consumer ethnocentrism. 5-143 REFERENCE GROUPS DEFINITION __________ are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards. which is people influencing each other in personal conversations. c. a lack of back translation. Answer: a Page: 112 Rationale: The rumor is an example of negative word of mouth. cultural insensitivity. word of mouth. d. opinion making.

A dissociative group is one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. c. b. a golf club would focus its marketing efforts on people who view the current members as a (n) __________ group. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—membership group 5-145 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP CONCEPTUAL Students who wear sweatshirts displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in a(n) __________ group a. a.5-144 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person actually belongs is called a(n) __________ group. but three groups have clear marketing implications. e. A membership group is one to which a person actually belongs. b. An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. e. d. c. a. dissociative aspiration membership identification political Answer: c Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Consumers have many reference groups. e. d. 5-146 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION To attract new members. achieving aspiration dissociative pressure involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. new members should view the golf club members as an aspiration group. b. Besides wanting the chance to play. 302 . c. d.

to which a person belongs. d.5-147 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be associated with is called a(n): __________ group. including fraternities and social clubs. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-149 REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP DEFINITION A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is called a(n) __________ group. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences. b. c. c. preference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-148 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP An aspiration group is a group: a. b. d. a. b. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—disassociative group 303 . e. e. c. a. d. that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. that a person feels is excessively high above him or her socioeconomically. e. that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with.

b. potential new members should view the fraternity as an aspiration group. c. d. Aspiration group Dissociative group Secondary reference group Integrated group Membership group Answer: a Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. He believes having the right equipment is important because many people will see the stereo when they visit his home. c. 5-152 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION If a fraternity wanted to attract new members. it should focus on people who viewed the current members as a(n) __________ group.. 5-151 REFERENCE GROUPS APPLICATION Frank Wright is a stereo buff who will go to great lengths when making stereo equipment purchases. b. b. and your market was primarily made up of people just like Wright. c. d. Inc. d. membership aspiration dissociative reference involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Since a fraternity is a membership group. e. 304 . a. which influence source would you most likely build into your promotional messages? a. e. Situational influences Perceptual risk influences Self-concept influences Reference group influences Cognitive dissonance influences Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but not of necessities—groups exert a strong influence on the brand chosen when its use and consumption is highly visible to others. If you were the marketing VP for Quality Electronics. e.5-150 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION The American Express advertising claim that "membership has its privileges" creates which type of reference group? a.

Consumer acclamation Consumer socialization Consumer enculturation Purchasing socialization Purchasing enculturation Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 5-155 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. b.5-153 FAMILY INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL __________ influences on consumer behavior result from consumer socialization. passage through the family life cycle. necessary to earn the approval of their family. c. Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 305 . and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. and attitudes: a. knowledge. a. passage through the family life cycle. and decision-making within the family. c. c. b. important to being able to know the manager at the point of sale when they go shopping. and decision-making within the family or household. 5-154 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which people acquire the skills. Functional Demographic Family Social Personal Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Family influence on consumer behavior results from three sources: consumer socialization. e. necessary to function as consumers. knowledge. e. necessary to spot special sales and report them to other retailers. d. a. d. required to get along with other consumers at the supermarket and in other retail outlets. d. b. e.

d. Only 23. automobiles. consumer acclamation. d. and engage in interaction necessary with the sales clerk. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel. c. The family life cycle concept describes a continuum along which developing families can be arbitrarily placed. from __________. b. consumer enculturation. Then she takes Megan shopping and allows her to select what she wants to buy. In this way. If the item desired costs more than $2. b. e. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. the family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement. a. and consumer electronics. birth to death formation to retirement the birth of children to retirement the birth of children until children leave home marriage to retirement unless a divorce occurs Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—family life cycle 5-158 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is true? a. Singles with children are the least financially secure of households with children. c. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families. e. consumer socialization. purchasing socialization. purchasing enculturation. Megan's mother suggests she save her money until she has enough saved to pay for the desired item. Young marrieds with children are the most likely group to buy life insurance. Young singles are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group. The most financially secure of any of the family groups is singles with children. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. pay for it herself.5-156 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Beth gives Megan $2 allowance a week. Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. knowledge. c. d. each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors.5 percent of all households today are composed of traditional families. Megan's mother encourages the development of: a. 5-157 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEFINITION The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through. e. b. she is allowed to make her own selection. 306 . When Megan purchases the item.

5-159 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE APPLICATION Cathy is the director of marketing for a manufacturer of laundry detergent. democratic and autocratic. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive. most decisions are made by the male. With autonomous decision making. e. The firm’s customers have very active life-styles. With autonomous decision making. 307 . d. d. both the husband and the wife make most decisions. joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses. the husband would make all the decisions about groceries. b. 5-161 FAMILY DECISION MAKING Which of the following statements about family decision making is true? a. d. The two types of family decision making are joint and spouse-dominant. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: As a rule. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: Since family life cycle concept describes the stages a family progresses through from formation to retirement. the information in answer e is most likely to be in the report. Decisions about cars. Middle class customers will be very receptive to the firm’s promotional campaigns. She has just received a research report using family life cycle related data. joint and judgmental. b. vacation. Spouse dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. medicine. e. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Two decision-making styles exist: spouse dominant and joint decision-making. Husbands tend to make all decisions about cars. 5-160 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The two major styles of family decision making are: a. joint and spouse-dominant. e. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous. c. Which of the following is most likely to be present in this report? a. Young married couples with children are heavy users of her company’s products. c. The use of joint decision making is related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses. and homes are typically made jointly. Only introverts use competitors’ products. and homes. Her company sells products that are likely to produce cognitive dissonance. vacation. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. c. b. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine. With a joint decision-making style. joint and family-integrated. and car maintenance.

Answer: d Page: 114 Other Location: web Rationale: Mrs. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. and user. he told Keith to do that. Mrs. and user.5-162 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The five roles of individual family members in family decision making are: a. Gatekeeper is not one of the five roles listed in the text. opinion leader. b. Mrs. e. c. Family members assume different roles for different products and services and this knowledge is important to marketers. and decision-maker. d. influencer. Mr. need driven. inner directed. Mr. Monroe acted as an information gatherer. and a gatekeeper. e. experiential. Wendy Monroe asked that the new computer have a faster modem for her chat room visits. 5-164 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION When Keith Monroe told his father the family needed a new computer. outer directed. Monroe suggested the new computer needed an ergonomic keyboard. Monroe said what they bought would depend on what Keith learned. and user. d. Monroe took on all of the roles. decision-maker. a user. Keith did not take on the role of decision maker. Car tires Children's toys Family vacations Medicine All of the above Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Family vacations are typically selected jointly. influencer. and decision makers. 5-163 FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint family decision making? a. influencer. decision-maker. Keith took on all the roles except that of purchaser. an influencer. Mr. d. Monroe and Wendy acted as information gatherers. purchaser. aspiration group. achiever. users. opinion leader. c. Answer: d Page: 114 Rationale: The five roles are information gatherer. Wendy acted as a user and an influencer. because she was having some problems with her wrists. 308 . Monroe did not engage in information gathering. decision-maker. and user. the father told Keith to determine what features were needed and some costs. c. belonger. purchaser. Mrs. decision-maker. purchaser. b. e. Monroe and Wendy acted as users and influencers. that role was taken by his father. emulator. sustainer. CONCEPTUAL membership group. opinion leader. information gatherer. b.

The grandmother plays the roles of user. Since the father will make the final vacation decision. d. given her choice to go to New York. wants to visit relatives in New York. d. influencer. decision maker. user. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: The grandparents are the only people who will be living in the assisted living facility. a father. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: The grandmother is an influencer. and one set of grandparents. Because the father asks her to find out the cost and accommodations for a trip to New York. b. information gatherer. The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers.5-165 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION It is time for the Ramirez family to plan its annual vacation. There is no family member serving as information gatherer. Therefore. e. The father wants to stay home this year and use the vacation money to work on the house. he has taken on all of the roles. she is also an information gatherer. influencer. In terms of the roles played by individual family members. the grandparents are the only family members who will have the role of: a. they are the only ones to have the role of user. a mother. c. e. The mother and the daughter. The family has to decide to move the grandparents to an assisted living facility. Mary. The only role played by the mother and the grandmother is influencer. b. 309 . want to go to the beach. The paternal grandmother. The father asks his mother to determine how much a trip to New York would cost the family and if they could stay with relatives while they were there. c. gatekeeper. who lives with them. 5-166 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION The Lee family is composed of five children. and information gatherer.

African-Americans are strongly motivated by quality and choice. subcultures. d. disassociative groups. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. and attitudes are referred to as: a. family life-cycle stages. c. reference groups. While price-conscious. African-American women spend more on health and beauty products than white women. 310 . or national. The typical African-American family is five years younger than the typical white family. Answer: e Page: 115 Rationale: Although similarities outweigh differences. and telephone services. Recent research indicates that while African-Americans are price conscious. The typical African-American family is five years older than the typical white family. c. 5-169 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. e. There are no differences between African-Americans buying patterns and white buying patterns. ideas. culture with unique values. For example.5-167 SUBCULTURE DEFINITION Subgroups within the larger. d. African-Americans spend more than whites on children’s apparel. all of the alternatives describe consumption patterns that differ between African-Americans and whites. African-Americans respond more to products that appeal to their heritage. While African-Americans are price conscious. Answer: d Page: 115 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—subculture 5-168 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. b. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. b. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. e. African-American men spend more on health and beauty products than white men. c. e. d. b. footwear. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. Answer: d Page: 115 Rationale: There are differing consumption patterns between African-Americans and whites. normative groups. African American women spend three times more on health and beauty products than while women.

b. e. Hispanics consider advertising a credible product information source. e. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing racial/ethnic subculture. c. All of the above statements about Hispanic buying patterns are true. Generalizations about buying patterns of Asian-Americans are difficult to make because there is great diversity among its members. with respect to food preparation or consumption. Answer: e Page: 116 Rationale: Research on Hispanic buying practices has uncovered each of the buying patterns described in a.5-170 HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is true? a. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests that individuals and families divide into assimilated and non assimilated. d. 5-171 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Asian buying patterns is true? a. non-assimilated. d. Convenience of use is not an important product attribute to Hispanic homemakers. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make. b. CONCEPTUAL Hispanics are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are brand loyal. c. All of the above statements about Asian-American buying patterns are true. and d. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groups—assimilated. 311 . Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. and recent immigrants. b. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very different from the typical American consumer. c. Asian-Americans are the slowest growing racial/ethnic subculture.

George. e. c. Non-assimilated. b. d. Susan is a concert pianist at the age of 21. each with a different Asian label The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great the generalizations about the buying patterns are difficult to make All of the above Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Assimilated Asian-Americans are conversant in English. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition—nonassimilated 312 . d. a. b. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition--assimilated 5-174 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are recent immigrants who still cling to their native languages and customs. highly educated. c. e. c. is in medical school. highly educated. Fred is a second-year business student. and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. 5-173 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are conversant in English.5-172 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS APPLICATION An Asian family living in San Francisco for four generations has three children. clinging to their ancestral language and customs Assimilated. and exhibit buying patterns very like other typical American consumers. The oldest son. d. requiring eight different varieties of California-grown rice. e. a. hold professional and managerial positions. b. exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers Recent immigrants. The family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian buying patterns? a.

c. e... INC. is focus group studies. Inc. Inc. the efficiency of its national distribution.? a. the variety of its products. Inc. none of the above. d. b. 313 . b. d. CONCEPTUAL What is the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. Mail surveys Telephone surveys In-depth personal interviews Focus group studies The firm does not do market research Answer: d Page: 119 Rationale: Although Barbara Davis solicits informal feedback from current and potential customers. its entrance into electronic technologies. 5-176 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. INC..5-175 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. to its being a local company. Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. its being a local company. the case indicates that the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. c. Inc. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 118 Rationale: Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. to: a. e.

The new position requires some traveling. 2) Information search: check internal and external sources for information about different car makes. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help evaluate alternatives. Using the five steps in the purchase decision process. limited. has social consequences. and investments typically require extended problem solving. Little effort is made to seek information or evaluate alternatives. describe the process you will go through to make this purchase.) Page: 103 314 . and features. or could reflect on the consumer's image. In limited problem solving. 5) Post-purchase evaluation: evaluate car in terms of expectations. Page: 100-102 5-178 PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS CONCEPTUAL Compare and contrast routine problem solving. Answer: Routine. limited problem solving. frequently purchased products such as toothpaste or milk. or situations where little time or effort is possible. models. and extended problem solving are three general variations in the consumer purchase decision process. so you will need a car. Give an example of when each might be used. 3) Alternative evaluation: consider objective and subjective attributes from evoked set. Routine problem solving is used for low-priced. Products such as stereo equipment. 4) Purchase decision: decision made after judging the alternatives. This process may apply to the purchase of a toaster or a decision on a restaurant. You currently do not have one. automobiles.CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS 5-177 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS APPLICATION You will be graduating soon and have been offered your dream job. and extended problem solving. Answer: This purchase would require five purchase decision stages: 1) Problem recognition: the car is needed for the new job. Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process because the item to be purchased is expensive. (Student examples will vary.

She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. Since she won't have any time between work and the shower. such as time of day or the amount of time available that may influence consumer purchase decisions. 2) social surroundings. which is this evening. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. Answer: Situational influences are: 1) the purchase task. Page: 103 315 . music. 4) temporal effects. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby thing she sees because she wishes so much that she were pregnant. too. she must shop today during her lunch break. Having her sister with her while she is shopping relates to the social surroundings. 5) antecedent states. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this question. 3) physical surroundings. include the other people present when a purchase decision is made and may also affect what is purchased. Which situational influence was not described? Answer: The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend's baby shower. the reason for engaging in the decision in the first place. who has no children. The fact that she has limited shopping time is the temporal effect.5-179 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION Name and briefly describe the five situational influences that affect the purchase decision processes. Page: 103 5-180 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES APPLICATION Ruth. and crowding in retail stores that may alter how purchase decisions are made. include the consumer’s mood or the amount of cash on hand which influence purchase behavior and choice. include surroundings such as décor. The only situational influence not mentioned is physical surroundings.

but shortly after it was over. a loud and intrusive television commercial for a used car lot might attract the attention of a viewer. Page: 108 5-183 ATTITUDE CHANGE DEFINITION/APPLICATION CONCEPTUAL What are the three approaches marketers use to change consumers attitudes? How might Ford Motor Company apply these three methods in its marketing activities? Answer: 1) Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attitudes—Ford may emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers concerns about reliability. or hear. which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives. even minutes after exposure to it. Page: 110 316 . Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see. For example. and selective retention differ? Provide an example to illustrate each. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. read.) Page: 106-107 5-182 LEARNING Why is learning important to marketing? Answer: Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. the viewer might be unable to name the advertiser. when the caller finished the listener might say that the caller made no sense at all. (Student examples will vary. This might occur when a radio talk show had a caller whose political views were contrary to those of the listener. and. selective comprehension. Consumers learn which information sources to use. in general. For example. how to make purchase decisions. a person who was trying to lose weight might interpret a "low fat" mayonnaise as "no fat. 3) Adding new attributes to the product—Ford might add a new attribute. Learning is also important because it relates to habit formation which is the basis of routine problem solving and brand loyalty. and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably. such as a video tape player for people in back seat." and therefore as having no effect on gaining weight. however logical the message had actually been. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. 2) Changing the perceived importance of attributes—Ford might try to increase the perceived importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford's pollution control characteristics.5-181 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION How do selective perception. selective exposure. Answer: The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret information.

the makers of Dr. Children learn how to purchase by: 1) interacting with adults in purchase situations. Because he is famous and many people regard him favorably. 2) their own purchasing and product usage experiences.5-184 LIFESTYLE What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time (activities). and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions). In other words. The analysis of consumer life-styles (also called psychographics) has produced many insights into consumer's behavior. Page: 110 5-185 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Why would Dr Pepper select country music performer Garth Brooks to appear in an ad campaign? How would he be a sociocultural influence on consumer behavior? Answer: Garth Brooks is a famous country music performer and he would have a personal influence on consumers. Page: 113 317 . As early as age two. he was selected for the Dr Pepper ads with the hope he would act as an opinion leader—an individual with a social influence over other people. For example. knowledge. Pepper hope that consumers are influenced to buy Dr. lifestyle analysis has proven useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. what they consider important in their environment (interests). Pepper because of Brooks’ endorsement of the product. Page: 112 5-186 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL What is consumer socialization? How do children learn how to purchase? Answer: Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills. children may develop brand preferences which may last a lifetime.

whereas Texans may prefer chicken fried steak. or from what you have heard from a friend or relative. culture. (Student examples will vary. Hispanic. ideas. young singles' buying preferences are for nondurable items. From this observation comes the family life cycle concept.5-187 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE How is the family life cycle related to marketing? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. and home decor. ideas. types of music enjoyed. which holds that each family progresses through a number of distinct phases from point of formation to retirement. Therefore. and attitudes within the larger. or national. When one recognizes that one in four Americans today is African American. Page: 115-117 318 .) Page: 115-117 5-189 SUBCULTURE APPLICATION From your own experience. while young married couples without children typically purchase home furnishings and gifts for each other. and attitudes of a particular American subculture can affect the marketing of a product. among many other factors. For example. whereas people of Hungarian ancestry may prefer carp soup and lots of paprika in their stews. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. subculture is frequently used to target markets. or Asian American. Examples of some marketing efforts directed at American subcultures include McDonald's promotions in Spanish. all of which affect consumer marketing significantly. ProLine beauty products for Blacks. Companies recognize that the norms and values of subculture also affect purchasing behavior. the importance of subcultural differences becomes apparent. Variations in American subcultures also involve styles of dress. These differences can be observed on the menus of restaurants and in the product inventories of grocery stores where such subcultures represent a significant portion of the local population. describe how the values. but may include the observation that a subculture made up of people of English ancestry may like creamed fish and minced beef in a cup of Yorkshire pudding. Page: 113 5-188 SUBCULTURE CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION What is a subculture? What are some examples of products targeted at American subcultures? Answer: Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values. A Pennsylvania-Ohio subculture can favor scrapple for breakfast. and special Campbell's soups for the Southwest. Answer: Student example will vary.

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