Chapter 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Test Item Table

Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Savvy Automakers Know Thy Custom(h)er (pp. 99-100) Consumer Purchase Decision Process (pp. 100-104) Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 104-111) Level of Learning Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1, 2 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 3

Sociocultural Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 112-117) Video Case: Ken Davis Products. Inc.: Barbecue Sauces for Nonimprovisers (pp. 118-119)

4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 37, 38, 41, 43, 46, 49, 51, 52, 179 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 112, 115, 119, 120, 125, 126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 183 139, 141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 157, 167, 173, 174, 186

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 178 62, 63, 67, 78, 83, 86, 90, 93, 96, 105, 106, 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 121, 127, 129, 130, 181, 182, 184

6, 14, 17, 26, 32, 39, 40, 44, 45, 47, 177, 180 61, 70, 71, 72, 77, 79, 82, 85, 88, 92, 97, 99, 102, 111, 113, 114, 122, 123, 124, 128, 136, 181, 183

137, 138, 142, 145, 153, 156, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171, 186, 187, 188 175, 176

140, 146, 150, 151, 152, 159, 164, 165, 166, 172, 185, 188, 189

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.

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CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
5-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is true? a. b. c. d. e. Women have no particular likes or dislikes which makes it very difficult to view them as a viable target market. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process. To accommodate women customers, automobile dealers have not changed the way they sell cars in the last three decades. Women are most likely to make their car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative. Women rely more heavily on promotional information to make their final car purchase decision than men do. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 99 Rationale: Choice d is a correct statement. Regarding the incorrect choices, recognition of women as purchasers and influencers in car and truck buying has altered the behavior of dealers, including doing away with negotiation. Women look at promotional material, but do not rely on it to make their final decision. 5-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Who buys 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks? a. b. c. d. e. Men Women Teens People representing ethnic minority groups None of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 99 Rationale: Women buy about 60 percent of new cars and light trucks. As a group, they spend over $81 billion on new cars and trucks for their personal use, and influence 80 percent of all new car sales.

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5-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER

APPLICATION

When General Motors started selling its Saturn cars, it announced that the cars would have a nonnegotiable price. A customer who wanted to buy a Saturn would pay the posted price. General Motors probably adopted this pricing policy because: a. b. c. d. e. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices. women have an intense dislike of the car-buying process, yet still want to buy a car. many recent immigrants into the United States were not accustomed to negotiation. research showed that price negotiation was socially irresponsible. a sluggish economy guaranteed that negotiations would produce a less than adequate return on investment.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: General Motors, like the other car manufacturers, was aware that women buy 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks. Additional research had shown them that 78 percent of women disliked the car-buying process and often refuse to negotiate the price. (Many of the recent immigrants to the U.S. come from countries where negotiations are expected for each purchase.) 5-4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DEFINITION

__________ describes the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services. a. b. c. d. e. Marketing Market research Consumer behavior Consumer management Purchase development

Answer: c Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—consumer behavior 5-5 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS DEFINITION

The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the: a. b. c. d. e. situational analysis sequence. VALS inventory. purchase decision process. hierarchy of learning. routine response sequence.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Key term definition—purchase decision process

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Based on responses of people who have tried the new product. the price will be about $150. 5-7 PROBLEM RECOGNITION DEFINITION During the purchase decision process. make a purchase decision. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Text term definition—problem recognition 255 . Nike believes this new characteristic—promoted as reflex response—will make the new shoe a superior product. d. c. experience cognitive dissonance. The initial step in the process is problem recognition. consult a personal source of information. it rebounds more completely. d. The new substance not only absorbs shock better. problem recognition alternative evaluation cognitive dissonance routine response behavior post purchase behavior Answer: a Page: 100. To have a favorable evaluation. b.5-6 PROBLEM RECOGNITION APPLICATION Nike has developed a new cushioning substance for use in the soles of athletic shoes. consumers must first: a. consult a public source of information. c. e. Figure 5-1 Rationale: As Figure 5-1 illustrates. Answer: a Page: 100. experience problem recognition. Nike is confident consumers will have a relatively favorable evaluation of the shoe. b. thereby improving the wearer's speed and jumping ability. a person at the __________ stage will realize that the difference between what he or she has and what he or she would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it a. e. a buyer passes through five stages of the purchase decision process when making choices about which products and services to buy. Due to increased costs of materials and production.

The student perceives she would be unable to get to class on time without a car. e. b. 256 . 5-9 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When Marty attended his first statistics class. and develops consumer value perceptions? a. Marty realized that he was unable to do his assignments without a calculator. e. d. e. c. d. “It's really hard for me to get to class on time without a car.5-8 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When the marketing student said. an individual at the problem recognition stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. an individual at the problem recognition will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. b. c. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Marty when he made this realization? a. Purchase decision Alternative evaluation Information search Problem recognition Postpurchase behavior Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: During the purchase decision process. d. b. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. c. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. 5-10 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase. Information search Problem recognition Purchase behavior Alternative evaluation Pre-purchase cognition Answer: b Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: During the purchase decision process. he realized that he ought to buy a calculator or else he would be unable to do his assignments. yields brand names that might meet the criteria.” she was entering which stage of the consumer decision process? a.

He thinks games would be more enjoyable on a big screen television. the consumer may seek information from external sources. 257 . problem recognition information search alternative evaluation purchase decision All of the above. e. an avid football fan. When past experience or personal knowledge does not provide adequate information upon which a consumer can make a decision. b. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. c. 5-12 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask. 5-13 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Eddie. Eddie started talking with his friends to learn more about the various brands of big screen televisions. d. b. the risk of making a bad decision is high. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. d. In which step of the purchase decision making process is Eddie engaged? a. c. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. Primary external sources of information for many consumers are family and friends. d. e. c. b. "Is installation included in the price of this air conditioner?" a.5-11 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL The question “How long is the warranty for this CD player?” would be asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process. the next step in the decision making process is to search for information. a. e. and the cost of gathering information is low. is glued to the television every Sunday afternoon as he watches his favorite teams. Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. Problem recognition Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Information search Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: After a consumer has recognized a problem.

5-14 INFORMATION SEARCH

APPLICATION

When an elementary school teacher needed to buy poster board for her class, she remembered that she had found some poster board at three stores: her local 99 Cents Only store, Walgreen’s, and at her Family Dollar Store. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher? a. b. c. d. e. Personal external source Public external source Market-dominated external source Internal search Market-dominated internal source

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-15 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Thao's friend Mike turns 21 next week and will have a party. Thao decided to purchase a CD as a present. Because they like the same music, Thao scanned her memory for various CD options. This is an example of what action in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Memorization External search Evaluative criteria Antecedent states Internal search

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search such as Thao recalling various CD options. 5-16 INTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION

A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memory for previous experiences with products or brands. a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition internal search external search purchase task antecedent state

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: Text term definition—internal search

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5-17 INTERNAL SEARCH

APPLICATION

A mother of two toddlers would most likely use an internal search process exclusively when purchasing: a. b. c. d. e. a gift for a best friend. a DVD player. disposable diapers. perfume. a weekend getaway.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. Because diapers are frequently purchased items, the mother would likely recall from memory which brand she prefers. 5-18 INTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Amy is an avid mystery reader and has decided to purchase a mystery book for her best friend. Since the two friends enjoy the same types of mysteries, Amy will know exactly which book her friend would like. When Amy was scanning her memory for various mystery book options, she was engaged in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-19 EXTERNAL SEARCH An external search for product information is especially important when: a. b. c. d. e. the cost of gathering information is low. review of past experience provides adequate information. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low. the item is frequently purchased. any of the above conditions exist. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 100 Rationale: An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

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5-20 EXTERNAL SEARCH

DEFINITION

In the consumer purchase decision process an external search for product information occurs when: a. b. c. d. e. the consumer gathers information from outside sources. the consumer gathers information from friends. the consumer gathers information from product-rating organizations. the consumer gathers information from advertising. any of the above conditions exist.

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: Text-term definition—external search 5-21 EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Christina wants to purchase a new computer. She is unsure about what hardware and software she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several computer salespeople and has looked at some websites. Christina is engaging in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Christina is externally searching for information about computers. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high. 5-22 PERSONAL SOURCES DEFINITION

Examples of personal sources of information for an external information search include: a. b. c. d. e. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. sales personnel. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—personal sources

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and point-of-purchase displays in stores. b. salespeople. friends and relatives. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. e. c. When Marlon saw the television ad for chocolate-stuffed Oreo cookies. e. Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—marketer-dominated sources 5-25 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES CONCEPTUAL Marlon was hungry. personal experience. c. friends and relatives. consumer programs on talk radio stations. point of purchase displays. Answer: b Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—public sources 5-24 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a marketer-dominated source of information for an external information search is: a. point of purchase displays. Marlon's information search was shorted by the appearance of a __________ source. b. a. Consumer Reports magazine. b. sales personnel. d. d. e. and include advertising. but he couldn't decide what he wanted to eat. he knew exactly what he wanted. c. private information consumer-controlled public information family marketer-dominated Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services. 261 .5-23 PUBLIC SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a public source of information for an external information search is: a. d.

factors you might consider before purchase are called __________. e.5-26 ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION APPLICATION Keisha is in the process of buying a new car appropriate to her role as the newest vice president at her company. d. the evoked set. temporal states. information sources. c. b. the alternative evaluation stage provides evaluative criteria by which to make a decision. 5-27 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION The objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products are called: a. the information search stage helped the consumer to collect needed information to use to seek value. d. but the Cadillac has front and back stereo speakers. antecedent states. In this case the purchase will be a car. e. b. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 262 . a. She was overheard telling a co-worker." In which stage of the purchase decision process is Keisha? a. d. c. b. Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 5-28 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION When you set out to buy a DVD player for yourself. "The Volvo has reclining bucket seats. evaluative criteria. which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: The problem recognition stage was prompted by the need for appropriate transportation. e. the bucket seats or an exceptional stereo represent the alternatives that need to be evaluated. c.

b. evaluative set. c. e. d. Collectively. evoked set. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand (the ability to attach under a cabinet) and the subjective ones (sleek styling) a person uses to compare different products and brands. a. d. e. Kellogg's Corn Flakes. 5-30 EVOKED SET DEFINITION The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is the: a. and Wheaties. b. aspiration group. You can think of three brands that you consider acceptable from among all the brands of which you are aware: Post Toasties. c. such as the different unsweetened flake cereals.5-29 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA CONCEPTUAL When Judy decided to buy an electric can opener as a wedding present. alternative selection group. what is this group of cereal brands called? a. she wanted to buy a brand name opener that attached under a cabinet and that had sleek styling. These are __________ Judy used during the alternative evaluation stage of the purchase decision process. e. Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evoked set 5-31 EVOKED SET CONCEPTUAL You want to buy some dry breakfast cereal and you are in the mood for unsweetened flakes. b. evolved set. 263 . A value group An evoked set An evaluative criterion An impulse set A discriminative group Answer: b Page: 101 Rationale: The evoked set is the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in a product class. d. c.

The most important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers' evoked set. by identifying the most important attributes a firm can design a product. e. “Thank you for taking my call so quickly. which stabilizes the board's sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. b. Therefore. which matches the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. making appeals directed towards motivational ego needs. b. it most likely should focus on: a. such as exhibition skateboarding.” The co-worker was in which stage in the consumer purchase decision process? a. 264 . d.5-32 EVOKED SET APPLICATION BMW StreetCarver is a skateboard that features BMW's technology in its wheel suspension. reducing the post-purchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product. c. making sure its advertisements get on the air during sporting events. BMW is concerned with making sure its skateboard is in the evoked sets of potential skateboard buyers. 5-33 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Raul overheard one of his co-workers in a phone conversation say. Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: The key influence in determining the products in the evoked set is to have a set of important attributes. which matches consumers' interests. I'd like to order number 1284H. as illustrated in Figure 5-1. c. the consumer makes a purchase decision. Problem recognition Alternative evaluation Information search Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives of the evoked set. trying to determine the most important evaluative criteria skateboarders use when judging the product. In this case. d. creating personality profiles for skateboarders. the 12 inch covered omelet pan and use the easy pay plan. e.

a consumer compares the purchased product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives in the evoked set. All of the above statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process are true. b. e. Satisfied buyers tell three other people about their experience and dissatisfied buyers tell nine people about their experience. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior Answer: e Page: 102 Rationale: During the postpurchase stage. The purchase stage includes deciding when to buy. c. d. e. The purchase stage requires choosing from whom to buy. b. b. I have really enjoyed the fact that its stream service gives me an always-on connection to the Internet. c. 5-36 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION A consumer's __________ refers to the personal. The act of picking a brand is the result of the purchase decision. The purchase stage follows the alternative evaluation stage in the consumer purchase decision process.5-34 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process is true? a. involvement aspiration acculturative response motivation selective perception Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 265 . social. consumers are almost ready to make a purchase decision. d. I haven't seen another phone with that feature. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer. d. e. 5-35 POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR CONCEPTUAL Maria has just told her supervisor. Figure 5-1 illustrates the consumer purchase decision process. Answer: e Page: 102. a. c. “I'm so glad I bought the Motorola P280 phone rather than those other models I was looking at. Two choices remain in this step: 1) from whom to buy and 2) when to buy.” Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is demonstrated by Maria's conversation? a.

5-37 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION The personal. selective perception. b. Offer coupons for Dasani bottled water. Convince retailers to only offer Dasani water. 266 . e. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-39 INVOLVEMENT APPLICATION The purchase of a bottle of water is a low-involvement purchase. e. b. e. d. c. social. How can a marketer convince people to buy Dasani instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers' shelves? a. motivation. involvement. d. The decision is and will remain a low-involvement one. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer is called: a. c. reflect one’s social image. Make good use of Dasani stock-outs. b. culture. Make the purchase decision high involvement. be characterized by none of the above. be expensive. be characterized by all of the above. have serious personal consequences. Persuading retailers to stock only one brand is unlikely unless they are paid. avoiding stock-out decisions would benefit Dasani. Do any or all of the above Answer: c Page: 102 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. d. aspiration. Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-38 INVOLVEMENT High-involvement purchases tend to: a. making good use of Dasahi stock-outs does not make sense. c.

frequently purchased products. extensive problem solving situations. d. e. 5-41 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives in the purchase of soap and milk. consumers recognize a problem. b. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. b. c. c. routine problem solving situations. limited problem solving situations. d. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bar and soft drink. d. make a decision. 5-42 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Between classes. and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. soda.5-40 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase such items as toothpaste. called __________. intensive problem solving situations. The college students are involved in: a. 267 . Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives. The purchase process for such items. unlimited problem solving situations. is virtually a habit. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. or chewing gum? a. e. routine problem solving uses minimal time spent searching. e. b. a. Answer: b Page: 103. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings. Routine problem solving Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: For these types of products. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving. c.

b. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. a. frequently purchased products. b. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. a restaurant for dinner. d. routine response behavior limited problem solving extended problem solving simulated selection classical conditioning Answer: b Page: 103. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: b Page: 103. d. 5-45 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing. 5-44 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION A typical consumer would most likely use __________ in choosing a blender. or electric can openers? a. There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. 268 . e. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. or a pair of sandals. consumers typically seek some information. b. c. a. c. e. consumers typically seek some information. is virtually a habit. in limited problem solving. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3.5-43 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION The purchase process used when consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives is called __________. in limited problem solving. e. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. d. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. c. sheets and towels.

Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: c Page: 103. She is NOT concerned about where she buys it.5-46 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives when they are engaged in a __________ process. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. c. or personal computers? a. e. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. b. In making her decision Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving methods? a. b. e. d. a. 5-48 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Which problem solving variation would likely be used for real estate. b. Limited Extended Habitual Classical Routine Answer: a Page: 103: Figure 5-3 Rationale: In this case the person seeks some information but has little interest in spending time or effort in searching out the right place to purchase the item. c. e. 5-47 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Elizabeth has decided to purchase a radar detector and plans to call several friends for information about alternative brands. d. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. automobiles. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: In limited problem solving. 269 . These are characteristics of limited problem solving. which are illustrated in Figure 5-3. as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. c. d.

which affect the purchase decision process. e. d. social surroundings. e. if needed. routine response behavior. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of months. 5-51 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The purchase task. b. d. 5-50 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Robin wants to find the perfect gift for her grandparents' 50th wedding anniversary. d. c. they are using which of the following? a. e. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process. c. marketing mix influences psychological influences situational influences sociocultural influences evaluative criteria Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 270 .5-49 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION When consumers use each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process in the purchase of a product. limited problem solving. integrated problem solving. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. temporal effects. to find a gift they both will like. extended problem solving. Robin is engaging in: a. c. simulated selection. a. b. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. physical surroundings. and considerable time and effort is spent on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. Answer: c Page: 103. and antecedent states are all examples of __________. b.

e. independent variables. dependent variables. b. including other people present when a purchase decision is made. d. temporal effects. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: The reason for engaging in the decision process (the son’s first birthday) is called the purchase task. “How do you think this outfit looks?" This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences? a. b. spatial surroundings. and: a. may affect what is purchased. physical surroundings. frame of mind. Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 5-53 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK CONCEPTUAL When a man picks up a teddy bear in a toy store and tells the clerk. looking at possible combinations. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Social surroundings. "This is for my son's first birthday.5-52 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The five situational influences that have an impact on a consumer's purchase decision process are the purchase task. social surroundings." which situational influence has he demonstrated? a. e. e. and asking each other. antecedent states. c. b. d. 271 . c. 5-54 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL Three teenaged girls spent hours at the store trying on various outfits. c. d.

"Nothing in this store is logically arranged. e. But the boss is out of town. music in retail stores. b. e. but are unable to do so because the retailer won't accept a check without several forms of identification. such as time of day or the amount of time available. purchase task social surroundings physical surroundings temporal effects spatial surroundings Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Physical surroundings such as decor. b. As a result of __________. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: e Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: Antecedent states. b. d. d. so most of the restaurants will be crowded. c. Which situational influence is Visa using to show the benefits offered by its debit cards? a. 5-57 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS CONCEPTUAL Two colleagues discuss where to go for lunch.5-55 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL As he hunted for tomato juice.” Then he banged his cart into the side of a display because the aisle was so crowded. Carlos thought. e. d.” Their conversation illustrates which situational influence? a. which include the consumer's mood or amount of cash on hand. he has vowed never to shop at that store again. so we could take an extra hour and relax a bit. One says to the other. c. and crowded aisles may alter how purchase decisions are made. 5-56 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES CONCEPTUAL The ads for Visa debit cards show people who need to make a purchase quickly. will influence where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered 272 . Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: d Page: 103 Rationale: Temporal effects. c. “Its noon. a. can influence purchase behavior and choice.

Answer: b Page: 104 Rationale: Psychological concepts such as motivation and personality. values. 5-60 MOTIVATION __________ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. Selective perception Antecedent state Motivation Cognitive dissonance Perception DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—motivation 273 . perception. d. e. beliefs. attitudes. perception. values. b. e. d. 5-59 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The concepts useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts such as motivation and personality. c.5-58 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological influence? a. rational influences. c. and lifestyle. routine problem solving influences. learning. b. social influences. learning. beliefs. learning. values. perception. psychological influences. motivation personality perception antecedent state lifestyle DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 104. and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes. Antecedent states are a situational influence. beliefs. situational influences. and lifestyle are called: a. Figure 5-4 Rationale: The five psychological influences are: motivation and personality. e. c. d. and attitudes. attitudes. a. b.

social. people seek to satisfy their learned needs. d. and personal type needs. e. physiological. Personal. followed by safety. personal. b. The hierarchy of needs pyramid is illustrated in Figure 5-5. e. personal. social. c. and social Answer: b Page: 105. Army former advertising theme. 274 . and personal Self-actualization. "Be all that you can be" relied on which of the psychological influences on behavior? a.5-61 MOTIVATION APPLICATION The U. and safety Physiological. safety.S. psychological. physiological. with self-actualization needs at the top. and physiological Safety. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Figure 5-5 illustrates the hierarchy of needs. personal. 5-62 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following lists the hierarchy of needs in its correct order. c. self-actualization. d. 5-63 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL The most basic of our needs are physiological. what category of needs is of the highest order? a. Once the physiological needs are met. e. and self-actualization. social. According to the hierarchy of needs. social. b. d. safety. social. Figure 5-5 Other Location: web Rationale: People have both physiological needs and learned needs. physiological. c. beginning with the most basic? a. Motivation Learning Perception Antecedent states Lifestyle Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: The slogan suggested that the Army could satisfy an individual's need for selfactualization. Intellectual needs Emotional needs Self-actualization needs Domination needs Psychological needs Answer: c Page: 105. and self-actualization Safety. b.

c. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105. 275 . self actualization needs. d. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-66 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs. food. c. d. b. e. b. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: a Page: 105. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-65 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs water. e. a. a. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—safety needs.5-64 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Those needs which are basic to survival and which must be satisfied first are: a. and shelter would be considered __________ needs. personal needs. physiological needs. safety needs. d. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: b Page: 105. b. self-preservation and physical well-being would be examples of __________ needs. social needs. e. c.

physiological safety social personal self-actualization Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: The Michelin tire ad seeks to appeal to parents' needs to ensure the safety of their children. a. The ad copy touts the dramatically improved traction of Michelin radial tires in rain and snow and informs parents of the ways in which the tires will help them protect and ensure the well-being of their children. b. b. b. a. d. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—social needs 5-69 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are represented by the need for achievement. and self-respect are __________ needs. 5-68 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are __________ needs. e. The marketers of Michelin tires are attempting to appeal to consumers' __________ needs.5-67 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL A magazine ad shows a cherubic baby sitting inside an automobile tire. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—personal needs 276 . e. c. d. c. d. status. c. prestige. e. a. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: c Page: 105.

personal needs. Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment. b.” This ad is most likely to appeal to people's __________ need. “Living Up to Their Potential. d. a. physiological needs. safety needs. and self-respect. self actualization needs. 5-71 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Conesco's life insurance asks the question. c. Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: The school wants the parents to know that the school will make sure that each student achieves as much as possible. b. d. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Personal needs are needs that are represented by the need for achievement. b. Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Personal needs Self actualization needs Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: Safety needs involve self-preservation and physical well being. e. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the needs in the hierarchy of needs? a. c. e. status.” This ad is appealing to the parents' desire to satisfy their children's: a. 5-72 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for The King's Daughters' School. has the headline. d. c. prestige. Providing security for one's family would help to satisfy that need.5-70 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Acura is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau. social needs. “Go in the Direction of Your Dreams. a private academy for children. 277 . e. “How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space.

5-73 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Which of the following needs involves personal fulfillment? a. purchase process. b. Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 5-75 PERSONALITY Personality is: a. culture. d. based on perception. not important to consumer behavior. b. b. e. motivation. essential to developing culture. perception. c. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 278 . e. c. personality. needed to achieve prestige. d. c. someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations. physiological needs safety needs social needs personal needs self actualization needs DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—self-actualization needs 5-74 PERSONALITY DEFINITION Someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations refer to his or her: a. e. d.

a. a. d. e. c. 5-78 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is true? a. d. the FCC has denounced subliminal messaging as deceitful. Subliminal messages are legal in the United States. b. Feeling young may be an important element of a person’s self-concept. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau. “How old will you be when you stop feeling 29?” The ad is using __________ to appeal to its target market. The text gives an example of a current Times Warner CD game that uses subliminal messaging. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States. e. 279 . Self-evaluation Self-concept Aspirational concept Individualized perception Personal perception Answer: b Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—self-concept 5-77 SELF-CONCEPT APPLICATION The ad for Dove body wash asks the question.5-76 PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT DEFINITION __________ is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. e. d. self-concept greed lust avarice hedonism Answer: a Page: 106 Rationale: Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. No organizations have used subliminal messages since the time people used to regularly go to drive-ins to watch movies. b. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supports the usage of subliminal perception. c. There is no substantive scientific support for the concept of subliminal perception. c. b.

e. b. The soft drink company would be attempting to influence the behavior of the consumers in a manner the consumers might object to if they were aware of what was occurring. b. Answer: c Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: The strongest ethical argument against subliminal advertising is that it exploits a psychological vulnerability in human perception to persuade consumers to act in a manner they might not if they were consciously making the choice. a. selective attention. Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—selective perception 280 . subliminal advertising might rob the consumer of the freedom to make a choice.5-79 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT APPLICATION Suppose a soft drink company sponsored a made-for-television movie with the understanding that subliminal images of its product logo would be interspersed throughout the program. d. b. if it did have any effect on behavior. Motivation Attitude formation Conformance Perception Illumination Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Key term definition—perception 5-81 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION DEFINITION Because the average consumer operates in a complex information-rich environment. d. selective perception. c. c. stimulus discrimination. selective retention. Soft drinks can cause tooth decay. organizes. 5-80 PERCEPTION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which an individual selects. d. Children might be watching the program. The soft drink company may not have paid a fair price to have the images of its logo placed in the movie. In other words. Which of the following is the strongest argument that such a marketing strategy would be unethical? a. e. e. The images of the product logo might interfere with the plot and impact of the movie. the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called: a. c. selective exposure. and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world.

b. side impact bars. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. or made available to the conscious mind. 281 . selective perception. While Marshall was unaware of the term. selective retention. he saw the term three more times that week. stimulus discrimination. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. remembered. This is probably the result of: a. This is an example of __________ perception. or made available to the conscious mind. retentive interpretive reclusive selective subliminal Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. remembered. But you do notice that it has a high-performance engine that can take it to high speeds. e. selective intuition. 5-83 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL You watch a television commercial for a new automobile and you do not notice it has dual airbags.5-82 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION APPLICATION Many have described 2002 as the year of the palindrome—a word or phrase that reads the same whether read from right or left. c. once he read an article about palindromes for his English class. as indicated in the film footage. d. e. c. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. d. Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. b. and antilock brakes. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. selective attention. a.

b. and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs. 282 . selective perception. selective exposure. b. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. she did not see a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine that suggested that some fat in our diet is healthy. e. selective exposure. stimulus discrimination. selective comprehension. tuning out. stimulus discrimination. retention. d. d. d. subliminal perception. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective exposure 5-85 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE APPLICATION Because Marla is so strongly committed to a fat-free diet. selective comprehension.5-84 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE DEFINITION The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent is called: a. behavioral learning. such as the need for a new car. He begins to notice ads for many cars he wasn't aware of previously. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent. selective retention. but the reason Marla did not see it is probably the result of: a. This is an example of: a. selective perception. The report was contained in the newspaper that Marla reads daily. c. selective retention. c. 5-86 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE CONCEPTUAL Charlie needs to purchase an automobile to drive to his new job in the city center. selective exposure. such as information that some fat is healthy when Marla is so committed to a fat-free diet. e. b. c. e.

a. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective comprehension 5-88 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION Tyler was offended by the brand name of a new product for women. 5-89 SELECTIVE RETENTION DEFINITION As a result of __________. c. d. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective analysis stimulus discrimination Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: A consumer using selective comprehension is interpreting information so that it is consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs. She believes that the name is demeaning to women and that its use means the manufacturer is unsympathetic to women. b. b. selective exposure. stimulus discrimination. consumers do not remember all the information they see. read. d.5-87 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION DEFINITION Interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs is called: a. c. selective analysis. e. a. e. or hear even minutes after exposure to it. selective retention. b. Tyler will not purchase this product. c. Due to __________. d. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective perception subliminal discrimination Answer: a Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective retention 283 . e. selective comprehension.

adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and/or snappy background music. d. hear. providing brochures for consumers to take home. temporal uncertainty. but believes there may be a negative consequence is called: a. CONCEPTUAL hiring well known celebrities to sponsor their products. Furniture and automobile retailers often give consumers product brochures to take home after they leave the showroom to help them remember. b. 5-91 PERCEIVED RISK DEFINITION The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. 284 . c. using a more convoluted store layout. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Key term definition—perceived risk 5-92 PERCEIVED RISK APPLICATION For which of the following products is perceived risk likely to be the greatest for a female who has just taken her first job after college graduation? a. perceived risk.5-90 SELECTIVE RETENTION Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by: a. e. or read. A magazine subscription to Glamour A cell phone Flowers to decorate her new apartment A new outfit for her first day at work A pair of jeans to wear on weekends Answer: d Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. e. b. even minutes after exposure to it. a negative antecedent. e. Answer: c Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see. b. spatial uncertainty. d. c. d. offering extended service warranties. c. but believes there may be a negative consequence associated with making the wrong purchase decision. buyers' remorse. Wearing the new outfit represents a perceived risk as she does not know how she may be thought of at her new job based on how she looks in her new outfit.

d. c. d. Obtain seals of approval for products Secure endorsements from influential people Provide trial usage of the product Provide warranties and guarantees All of the above Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Recognizing the importance of perceived risk. e. Psychosocial perception Acculturation Attitudinal identification Dynamic growth Learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Key term definition—learning 5-95 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING DEFINITION __________ learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a type of situation built up through repeated exposure to it. b. 5-94 LEARNING DEFINITION __________ refers to those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning. d. e. c. b. Perceptual Retentive Functional Motivated Behavioral Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—behavioral learning 285 . e. c. a. b. companies develop strategies to make consumers feel more at ease about their purchases.5-93 PERCEIVED RISK CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is a method marketers can use to reduce perceived risk for consumers? a. a.

c. even when food was not presented. d. and Turpentine. d. b. Leather. the appeal of the scent is due to: a. cognitive learning. Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment proved. e. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. Dandelion. This experiment is an example of: a.5-96 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING CONCEPTUAL The famous experiment wherein Dr. drive. Because repeated exposure to these scents have made people connect them with some important event or memory. cue. Changing antecedent states The scientific method Tone as a motivator Cognitive dissonance Behavioral learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. Woodsmoke. functional adaptation. c. e. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. response. selective learning. Sugar Cookie. 5-97 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. e. Pavlov presented dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell resulted in dogs that salivated when the bell was rung. Lobster. reinforcement. c. 5-98 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE A need that moves an individual to action is a(n): a. d. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—drive 286 . behavioral learning. b. b. attitude. cognitive dissonance. Brownie.

The maker of Demeter perfumes treats smells as if they were: a. e. cue demotivator motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—response 287 . but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. responses. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter. Leather. Dandelion. e. drive cue attitude response reinforcement DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—cue 5-101 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE A(n) __________ is the action taken to satisfy a drive. c. Brownie. b. 5-100 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE A(n) __________ is a stimulus or symbol that one perceives. and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. c. d. and Turpentine. reinforcements. drives. d. Lobster. e. b. a. c. attitudes. cues. b. d.5-99 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. a. Woodsmoke. Sugar Cookie. Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: A cue is a stimulus (in this case a smell) perceived by consumers.

c. c.5-102 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT APPLICATION Joan is hungry (drive). A negative cue A demotivator Negative reinforcement Negative response Negative stimulus Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—negative reinforcement 288 . d. reinforcement. achievement drive. In terms of behavioral learning. she sees an advertisement (cue). Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: The reinforcement is the reward. e. the great taste of the food is a(n): a. e. a. goes to the store and buys the product (response). 5-103 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT A(n) __________ is the reward for satisfying a drive. d. preference. prestige. b. a. b. d. cue reinforcement motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—reinforcement 5-104 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION ___________ has occurred if what the consumer experiences upon responding to a stimulus is not pleasant. c. e. b.

b. selective comprehension selective retention stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination routine response behavior Answer: c Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. Using the same brand name to launch new products is one common application of this concept. c. a. b. e. d. The consumer would have the same feelings toward one Law & Order series as for another. d. e. 5-107 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DEFINITION __________ occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. a. d. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus generalization 289 . e.5-105 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory? a. even before the new show was seen. Selective comprehension Selective retention Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. b. 5-106 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL When the television production company that produces the Law & Order series uses the Law & Order name on two other series (Law & Order: Special Victim’s Unit. and Law & Order: Criminal Intent). it relies on __________ to convince fans of the original show that the new shows will be equally well crafted. c. c.

e. c. stimulus generalization. e. e. b. cognitive dissonance. d. Betty exhibits __________. a. d. selective comprehension. such as chocolate bar tastes.5-108 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION DEFINITION __________ refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus discrimination 5-109 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Consumers' ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of: a. d. 5-110 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Betty contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheese and cheese with regular fat content. c. Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. If they are to be believed. Tom says that he cannot tell a difference between the two products. a. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. b. such as fat-free and regular cheese. c. stimulus discrimination. b. selective retention. 290 . while Tom does not.

d. d. e. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—cognitive learning 5-113 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION In the first chapter of this text. b. The authors hoped you would use __________ to conclude marketing is an interesting subject and worthy of your time and effort. e.5-111 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION APPLICATION Comparative advertising in which one brand is compared to another is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. cognitive learning cognitive dissonance behavioral learning functional adaptation selective learning Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behavior and adjusting your own accordingly. 5-112 COGNITIVE LEARNING DEFINITION Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting one's own behavior accordingly is what type of learning? a. a. b. c. c. Marketers who use comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that its product is better than the other one. the authors describe how marketing is not something alien to you like Shakespeare or physics—it is something you are already very familiar with because you observe marketing throughout many different facets of life. 291 . c. b. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 111 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to a person's ability to perceive differences among similar products. e. a. d.

b. e. Learning is closely connected to brand loyalty because habits are learned.5-114 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION When Betty Crocker advertises that baking a cake from one of its mixes tastes just like homemade. b. d. e. Brand loyalty can reduce the perceived risk associated with the buying of certain products. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions. d. CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 109 Rationale: Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. c. a. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Marketers attempt to influence cognitive learning by linking a brand with an idea. b. Betty Crocker is linking a box mix to home cooking. c. d. it is influencing which type of learning? a. 5-115 BRAND LOYALTY DEFINITION __________ is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. 292 . e. Brand bias Brand discrimination Brand loyalty Behavioral learning Selective perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—brand loyalty 5-116 BRAND LOYALTY Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is true? a. c. In this case. Brand loyalty is accurately described by all of the above. The incidence of brand loyalty is declining in North America.

Nonetheless. d. perception. 5-119 ATTITUDE DEFINITION A(n) __________ is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. taste or use of the products without labels). high-involvement problem solving. consumers are unable to distinguish among brands when given blind tests (i. extended problem solving.e. consumers have strong preferences for specific brands of these products. c. personal problem solving. beer. routine problem solving. 5-118 ATTITUDE A learned predisposition to be thrifty or patriotic reflects a(n): a. and there is a close link between habits and brand loyalty. d. even when prices are similar. This strong brand preference is the result of: a. and cosmetics. c. attitude. b. e. limited problem solving. value. e. d. a. b. b. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving. Such products include cigarettes. e. c.5-117 BRAND LOYALTY CONCEPTUAL Considerable research has documented that in many product categories. liquors. motivation. belief value attitude motivation perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—attitude 293 . belief.

Motorola joined with VoiceStream to create a phone that has an always-on Internet connection. adding a new important attribute. a. d. changing the importance of a specific attribute. b. Cell phones that can be connected to computer modems and used to upload or download information are commonplace. Marketers spend lots of money on activities to change attitudes. but slow. b. e.5-120 BELIEFS DEFINITION __________ are one’s perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes. c. Answer: c Page: 110 Rationale: Adding a new attribute--always-on feature—is one of three methods of attitude change available to marketers. 294 . Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. Answer: e Page: 110 Rationale: Marketers use all of the first three approaches in attempts to change consumer attitudes. Companies have spent millions of dollars in their attempts to change consumer attitudes. b. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by adding new attributes to a product. stimulus generalization. 5-122 ATTITUDE CHANGES APPLICATION Cell phones have been available for quite awhile and Motorola is a recognized brand name of cell phones. All of the above statements about changing consumer attitudes are true. because it is so difficult to do. c. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing the perceived importance of attributes. Promoting a new benefit of continuous Internet connection should lead to a favorable attitude toward the cell phone by: a. c. Beliefs Values Attitudes Predispositions Opinions Answer: a Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—beliefs 5-121 ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about changing consumer attitudes is true? a. e. changing beliefs about a specific attribute. reducing perceived risk. d. e. d.

what they consider important in their environment. c.5-123 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Tums antacid stresses the fact that it is a calcium supplement in its advertisements. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. c. e. It also stresses the health benefits of calcium. Answer: a Page: 110 Rationale: Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. By focusing on this attribute. culture subculture social class lifestyle reference group Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—lifestyle 295 . adding a new attribute to the product. Since consumers know Tums already contains calcium. a. it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude towards Tums. P&G had to spend lots of money debunking the false claim and request help from the ASPCA before consumers would purchase the product in the numbers expected. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. This promotion to debunk a false claim changed consumers' attitudes by: a. Answer: a Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: P&G had to change consumers' beliefs that the spray was deadly to their pets before consumers could see the value of its odor controlling capabilities. 5-124 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray manufactured by Procter & Gamble. it was tagged as a pet killer. a new attribute had not been added. changing the basic product. d. d. lowering the price. 5-125 LIFESTYLE DEFINITION A __________ is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources. d. When Febreeze was introduced. b. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. b. changing the basic product. adding a new attribute to the product. c. Most people already know Tums contains calcium. e. and what they think of themselves and the world around them. The new promotion is trying to change the attitude toward Tums by: a. b. e. changing the perceived importance of the attribute. lowering the price.

Interests Activities Opinions Norms Hobbies Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources (activities. c. b. c. cognitive learning level. e. demographics. what they consider important (interests). including eating out. e. b. which is identified by how people spend their time. b. c. and what they think of themselves and the world (opinions). psychographics. Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: One aspect of lifestyle is way of living. 296 . d. e. 5-128 LIFESTYLE APPLICATION Ads depicting happy families in Red Lobster restaurants are segmenting the market based on: a. consumer socialization.5-126 PSYCHOGRAPHICS Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyle is: a. social statistics. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—psychographics 5-127 LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is NOT a good measure of consumer lifestyle. or psychographics? a. stage of the decision process. including hobbies). family life cycle. sociographics. lifestyles. physiological needs. d. d.

c. Attitudes. Principle-oriented consumers are members of Generation X. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as action-oriented consumers. e. b. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as principle-oriented consumers. which consumer group tries to match their behavior with their views of how the world is or should be? a. studies on the hierarchy of effects. lifestyle analysis programs. 5-131 LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION According to the VALS program. d. e. The VALS program seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as action-oriented consumers. b. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: The most prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) analysis is the VALS program. e. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as status-oriented consumers. The acronym VALS stands for Value. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: VALS stands for Values and Lifestyles. c.5-129 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM The SRI's VALS Program is one of the most prominent examples of: a. 5-130 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM Which of the following statements about the VALS program is true? a. learning theories studies. purchasing behavior studies. b. Principle-oriented Status-oriented Action-oriented Reward-oriented Achievement-oriented Answer: a Page: 110. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—principle-oriented consumers 297 . and Learned Suppositions. d. language study programs. developed by SRI International and currently run by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. c. Principle-oriented consumers are older consumers. d.

e. achievement-oriented. achievement-oriented. action-oriented. strugglers. e. Answer: c Page: 110. status-oriented.5-132 LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS Consumers who are motivated by the actions and opinions of others are: a. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—action-oriented consumers 5-134 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. d. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110. believers. achievers. b. Figure 5-6 Rationale: These are all characteristics of actualizers. actualizers. principle-oriented. enjoy variety. consumers who account for eight percent of the population and are successful. take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources are called: a. d. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—status-oriented consumers 5-133 LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION Consumers who are intensely involved in social and physical activity. sophisticated. d. c. b. and are risktakers are: a. b. Answer: a Page: 111. active. action-oriented. c. e. principle-oriented. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psychographic segmentation. status-oriented. 298 . reward-oriented. fulfillers. reward-oriented. c.

word-of-mouth activity and psychographics. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Members of the strugglers segment have the least resources and are poor. Answer: e Page: 111. Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. personality and lifestyle. Strugglers Believers Makers Actualizers Experiencers Answer: d Page: 111. believers. They also have the most resources to spend on things they value. Which of the following VALS segments would be most suitable for their product? a. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Actualizers enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. e. e. psychographics and demographics. actualizers. d. c. 299 . consumers who are poor. e. 5-137 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. d. opinions. often uneducated. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate “finer things” and will pay the premium. or behavior of others. often uneducated and frequently concerned about their well-being are called: a. achievers. strugglers. c. fulfillers.5-135 LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. b. which will bloom in consumers' gardens just a few weeks after spring planting so people who didn't or couldn't plant bulbs in the fall will have spring flowers. 5-136 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS APPLICATION Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psyhchographic segmentation. Two important aspects of personal influence are: a. b. b. d. and frequently concerned about their well-being. lifestyle and motivation. c.

or behaviors of others. a. b. d. opinion leaders. This group consists of __________ for activewear clothing. syncratic decision makers aspirational opinion leaders autonomous leaders joint decision makers Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others. b. d. DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—opinion leaders 5-140 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Your company is introducing a new line of activewear for teenagers and invites the members of the cheerleading squad to a private display of the line. parental guidance peer pressure opinion leadership government regulation pricing levels Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word of mouth activity. 300 . decision makers. achievers. e. c. e. They are more likely to be important for products that provide a form of self-expression. c. a.5-138 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. c. b. 5-139 OPINION LEADERS Individuals who have social influence over others are called: a. d. brand loyal consumers. a reference group. e. opinions.

5-143 REFERENCE GROUPS DEFINITION __________ are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards. Action-oriented consumers Principle-oriented consumers Suncultures Social classes Reference groups Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—reference groups 301 .5-141 WORD OF MOUTH People influencing each other during conversations is called: a. which is people influencing each other in personal conversations. If Procter & Gamble had not been so convinced it was a potentially very successful product. consumer ethnocentrism. action-oriented communication. personal selling. cultural insensitivity. When Febreeze was introduced. opinion making. a lack of back translation. misinformed business strategy. e. c. c. Answer: a Page: 112 Rationale: The rumor is an example of negative word of mouth. b. d. it was tagged as a pet killer by people in a chat room and the rumor spread. e. negative word of mouth. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—word of mouth 5-142 WORD OF MOUTH CONCEPTUAL Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. d. d. publicity. b. Febreeze could have been deleted from the P&G product line as a result of: a. c. word of mouth. a. e. b.

e. A membership group is one to which a person actually belongs. d. a golf club would focus its marketing efforts on people who view the current members as a (n) __________ group. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—membership group 5-145 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP CONCEPTUAL Students who wear sweatshirts displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in a(n) __________ group a. A dissociative group is one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. new members should view the golf club members as an aspiration group. e. d. a. achieving aspiration dissociative pressure involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. b. b. Besides wanting the chance to play. c. a. but three groups have clear marketing implications. c. b.5-144 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person actually belongs is called a(n) __________ group. e. 302 . d. 5-146 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION To attract new members. An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. dissociative aspiration membership identification political Answer: c Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Consumers have many reference groups. c.

including fraternities and social clubs. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences. b. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—disassociative group 303 . that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. e. that a person feels is excessively high above him or her socioeconomically. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-149 REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP DEFINITION A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is called a(n) __________ group. a. d. c. to which a person belongs. d. e. c.5-147 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be associated with is called a(n): __________ group. d. that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. c. b. preference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-148 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP An aspiration group is a group: a. b. e. a.

304 . e. d. c.5-150 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION The American Express advertising claim that "membership has its privileges" creates which type of reference group? a. 5-152 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION If a fraternity wanted to attract new members. membership aspiration dissociative reference involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Since a fraternity is a membership group. If you were the marketing VP for Quality Electronics. 5-151 REFERENCE GROUPS APPLICATION Frank Wright is a stereo buff who will go to great lengths when making stereo equipment purchases.. b. b. He believes having the right equipment is important because many people will see the stereo when they visit his home. it should focus on people who viewed the current members as a(n) __________ group. b. and your market was primarily made up of people just like Wright. c. d. Aspiration group Dissociative group Secondary reference group Integrated group Membership group Answer: a Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. Inc. d. e. a. potential new members should view the fraternity as an aspiration group. which influence source would you most likely build into your promotional messages? a. e. Situational influences Perceptual risk influences Self-concept influences Reference group influences Cognitive dissonance influences Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but not of necessities—groups exert a strong influence on the brand chosen when its use and consumption is highly visible to others. c.

c. passage through the family life cycle.5-153 FAMILY INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL __________ influences on consumer behavior result from consumer socialization. necessary to earn the approval of their family. knowledge. important to being able to know the manager at the point of sale when they go shopping. d. Consumer acclamation Consumer socialization Consumer enculturation Purchasing socialization Purchasing enculturation Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 5-155 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. e. necessary to function as consumers. c. necessary to spot special sales and report them to other retailers. b. knowledge. Functional Demographic Family Social Personal Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Family influence on consumer behavior results from three sources: consumer socialization. e. d. b. b. d. required to get along with other consumers at the supermarket and in other retail outlets. c. a. a. e. and decision-making within the family or household. and attitudes: a. passage through the family life cycle. and decision-making within the family. Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 305 . 5-154 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which people acquire the skills.

d. and engage in interaction necessary with the sales clerk. Then she takes Megan shopping and allows her to select what she wants to buy. The most financially secure of any of the family groups is singles with children. she is allowed to make her own selection. consumer socialization. Young marrieds with children are the most likely group to buy life insurance. 5-157 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEFINITION The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through. Only 23. The family life cycle concept describes a continuum along which developing families can be arbitrarily placed.5-156 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Beth gives Megan $2 allowance a week. consumer acclamation. e. b. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel. d. pay for it herself. knowledge. the family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options.5 percent of all households today are composed of traditional families. e. birth to death formation to retirement the birth of children to retirement the birth of children until children leave home marriage to retirement unless a divorce occurs Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—family life cycle 5-158 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is true? a. b. e. c. each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. b. Megan's mother encourages the development of: a. purchasing socialization. When Megan purchases the item. c. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families. Singles with children are the least financially secure of households with children. In this way. and consumer electronics. Megan's mother suggests she save her money until she has enough saved to pay for the desired item. purchasing enculturation. consumer enculturation. If the item desired costs more than $2. from __________. Young singles are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group. d. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. c. 306 . automobiles. a.

5-161 FAMILY DECISION MAKING Which of the following statements about family decision making is true? a. d. With a joint decision-making style. joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: Since family life cycle concept describes the stages a family progresses through from formation to retirement. e. and homes. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: As a rule. c. joint and judgmental. Decisions about cars. e.5-159 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE APPLICATION Cathy is the director of marketing for a manufacturer of laundry detergent. She has just received a research report using family life cycle related data. With autonomous decision making. b. the information in answer e is most likely to be in the report. Only introverts use competitors’ products. Which of the following is most likely to be present in this report? a. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine. vacation. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. b. d. 5-160 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The two major styles of family decision making are: a. and homes are typically made jointly. and car maintenance. e. c. With autonomous decision making. Husbands tend to make all decisions about cars. 307 . both the husband and the wife make most decisions. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Two decision-making styles exist: spouse dominant and joint decision-making. the husband would make all the decisions about groceries. c. democratic and autocratic. vacation. Young married couples with children are heavy users of her company’s products. The two types of family decision making are joint and spouse-dominant. The use of joint decision making is related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses. Middle class customers will be very receptive to the firm’s promotional campaigns. joint and family-integrated. Her company sells products that are likely to produce cognitive dissonance. medicine. b. The firm’s customers have very active life-styles. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive. Spouse dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. most decisions are made by the male. d. joint and spouse-dominant.

d. he told Keith to do that. achiever. Keith did not take on the role of decision maker. experiential. b. and decision-maker. purchaser. opinion leader. Mrs. decision-maker. and decision makers. need driven. the father told Keith to determine what features were needed and some costs. e. decision-maker. Monroe suggested the new computer needed an ergonomic keyboard. Monroe and Wendy acted as information gatherers. and user. Car tires Children's toys Family vacations Medicine All of the above Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Family vacations are typically selected jointly. opinion leader. purchaser. because she was having some problems with her wrists. and user. 5-163 FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint family decision making? a. that role was taken by his father. Gatekeeper is not one of the five roles listed in the text. 5-164 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION When Keith Monroe told his father the family needed a new computer. d. decision-maker. Monroe and Wendy acted as users and influencers. e. influencer. Mrs. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. inner directed. an influencer. Answer: d Page: 114 Rationale: The five roles are information gatherer. aspiration group. opinion leader. Mr. Keith took on all the roles except that of purchaser. and user. a user. Mr. decision-maker. Mr. belonger. and user. users. b. influencer. b. c. Monroe did not engage in information gathering. Monroe said what they bought would depend on what Keith learned. CONCEPTUAL membership group. Mrs. influencer.5-162 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The five roles of individual family members in family decision making are: a. Wendy acted as a user and an influencer. purchaser. Monroe acted as an information gatherer. c. d. Family members assume different roles for different products and services and this knowledge is important to marketers. e. c. outer directed. emulator. Monroe took on all of the roles. sustainer. Answer: d Page: 114 Other Location: web Rationale: Mrs. and a gatekeeper. 308 . information gatherer. Wendy Monroe asked that the new computer have a faster modem for her chat room visits.

influencer. and information gatherer. There is no family member serving as information gatherer. The father asks his mother to determine how much a trip to New York would cost the family and if they could stay with relatives while they were there. the grandparents are the only family members who will have the role of: a. he has taken on all of the roles. e. The father wants to stay home this year and use the vacation money to work on the house. The only role played by the mother and the grandmother is influencer. Since the father will make the final vacation decision. Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: The grandparents are the only people who will be living in the assisted living facility. c. decision maker. a mother. d. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: The grandmother is an influencer. and one set of grandparents. Mary. The mother and the daughter. 5-166 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION The Lee family is composed of five children. b.5-165 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION It is time for the Ramirez family to plan its annual vacation. d. 309 . e. given her choice to go to New York. Therefore. The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers. c. influencer. a father. The grandmother plays the roles of user. she is also an information gatherer. wants to visit relatives in New York. The family has to decide to move the grandparents to an assisted living facility. want to go to the beach. In terms of the roles played by individual family members. information gatherer. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. user. they are the only ones to have the role of user. The paternal grandmother. who lives with them. b. Because the father asks her to find out the cost and accommodations for a trip to New York. gatekeeper.

normative groups. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. disassociative groups. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. e. African-American women spend more on health and beauty products than white women. African-Americans spend more than whites on children’s apparel. or national. Answer: d Page: 115 Rationale: There are differing consumption patterns between African-Americans and whites. African-Americans respond more to products that appeal to their heritage. d. subcultures. b. e. While African-Americans are price conscious. culture with unique values. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. c. b. footwear. and telephone services. ideas. c. Answer: e Page: 115 Rationale: Although similarities outweigh differences. and attitudes are referred to as: a. The typical African-American family is five years younger than the typical white family. all of the alternatives describe consumption patterns that differ between African-Americans and whites. African American women spend three times more on health and beauty products than while women. 5-169 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. The typical African-American family is five years older than the typical white family. e. family life-cycle stages. b. d. African-Americans are strongly motivated by quality and choice. d. reference groups. 310 . Answer: d Page: 115 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—subculture 5-168 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. Recent research indicates that while African-Americans are price conscious. For example.5-167 SUBCULTURE DEFINITION Subgroups within the larger. There are no differences between African-Americans buying patterns and white buying patterns. While price-conscious. c. African-American men spend more on health and beauty products than white men.

d. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests that individuals and families divide into assimilated and non assimilated. All of the above statements about Hispanic buying patterns are true. b. b. with respect to food preparation or consumption. Answer: e Page: 116 Rationale: Research on Hispanic buying practices has uncovered each of the buying patterns described in a. and d. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groups—assimilated. c. Generalizations about buying patterns of Asian-Americans are difficult to make because there is great diversity among its members. c. b. 311 . Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. non-assimilated. c. All of the above statements about Asian-American buying patterns are true. d. CONCEPTUAL Hispanics are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are brand loyal. e. Hispanics consider advertising a credible product information source. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing racial/ethnic subculture. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very different from the typical American consumer. Convenience of use is not an important product attribute to Hispanic homemakers. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers. Asian-Americans are the slowest growing racial/ethnic subculture. 5-171 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Asian buying patterns is true? a. and recent immigrants. e.5-170 HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is true? a.

hold professional and managerial positions. George. Non-assimilated. each with a different Asian label The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great the generalizations about the buying patterns are difficult to make All of the above Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Assimilated Asian-Americans are conversant in English. clinging to their ancestral language and customs Assimilated. d.5-172 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS APPLICATION An Asian family living in San Francisco for four generations has three children. is in medical school. Fred is a second-year business student. b. c. The oldest son. b. a. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition--assimilated 5-174 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are recent immigrants who still cling to their native languages and customs. d. c. and exhibit buying patterns very like other typical American consumers. a. e. e. 5-173 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are conversant in English. requiring eight different varieties of California-grown rice. b. c. highly educated. d. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition—nonassimilated 312 . Susan is a concert pianist at the age of 21. exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers Recent immigrants. The family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian buying patterns? a. e. and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. highly educated.

Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. b. b..? a. Inc. Mail surveys Telephone surveys In-depth personal interviews Focus group studies The firm does not do market research Answer: d Page: 119 Rationale: Although Barbara Davis solicits informal feedback from current and potential customers. the efficiency of its national distribution. e. 313 . 5-176 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. its entrance into electronic technologies. the variety of its products. d. the case indicates that the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. is focus group studies.. its being a local company. Inc. d. CONCEPTUAL What is the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. none of the above. to its being a local company. e.. Inc. INC. c. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 118 Rationale: Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. c. INC.5-175 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. Inc. to: a.

) Page: 103 314 . and extended problem solving are three general variations in the consumer purchase decision process. You currently do not have one. models. or could reflect on the consumer's image. Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process because the item to be purchased is expensive. Products such as stereo equipment. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help evaluate alternatives. Give an example of when each might be used. Using the five steps in the purchase decision process. 2) Information search: check internal and external sources for information about different car makes. Routine problem solving is used for low-priced. Answer: Routine. (Student examples will vary. frequently purchased products such as toothpaste or milk. 5) Post-purchase evaluation: evaluate car in terms of expectations. Page: 100-102 5-178 PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS CONCEPTUAL Compare and contrast routine problem solving.CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS 5-177 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS APPLICATION You will be graduating soon and have been offered your dream job. Answer: This purchase would require five purchase decision stages: 1) Problem recognition: the car is needed for the new job. This process may apply to the purchase of a toaster or a decision on a restaurant. limited. and investments typically require extended problem solving. In limited problem solving. 3) Alternative evaluation: consider objective and subjective attributes from evoked set. describe the process you will go through to make this purchase. and extended problem solving. 4) Purchase decision: decision made after judging the alternatives. The new position requires some traveling. or situations where little time or effort is possible. so you will need a car. Little effort is made to seek information or evaluate alternatives. has social consequences. and features. automobiles. limited problem solving.

Answer: Situational influences are: 1) the purchase task. include surroundings such as décor. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby thing she sees because she wishes so much that she were pregnant. Having her sister with her while she is shopping relates to the social surroundings. 4) temporal effects. The only situational influence not mentioned is physical surroundings. too. 3) physical surroundings. and crowding in retail stores that may alter how purchase decisions are made. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. music. wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend's baby shower. which is this evening. Page: 103 5-180 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES APPLICATION Ruth. 5) antecedent states. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. Since she won't have any time between work and the shower. 2) social surroundings. who has no children. Page: 103 315 . include the other people present when a purchase decision is made and may also affect what is purchased. Which situational influence was not described? Answer: The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. The fact that she has limited shopping time is the temporal effect.5-179 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION Name and briefly describe the five situational influences that affect the purchase decision processes. the reason for engaging in the decision in the first place. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this question. she must shop today during her lunch break. include the consumer’s mood or the amount of cash on hand which influence purchase behavior and choice. such as time of day or the amount of time available that may influence consumer purchase decisions.

selective exposure. 3) Adding new attributes to the product—Ford might add a new attribute. how to make purchase decisions. however logical the message had actually been. Consumers learn which information sources to use. and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably. Page: 110 316 . such as a video tape player for people in back seat. For example. Answer: The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret information. Learning is also important because it relates to habit formation which is the basis of routine problem solving and brand loyalty. or hear. a loud and intrusive television commercial for a used car lot might attract the attention of a viewer. read.5-181 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION How do selective perception. and selective retention differ? Provide an example to illustrate each. the viewer might be unable to name the advertiser. selective comprehension. which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives. a person who was trying to lose weight might interpret a "low fat" mayonnaise as "no fat. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs.) Page: 106-107 5-182 LEARNING Why is learning important to marketing? Answer: Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. when the caller finished the listener might say that the caller made no sense at all. even minutes after exposure to it. This might occur when a radio talk show had a caller whose political views were contrary to those of the listener. Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see. and. (Student examples will vary. but shortly after it was over." and therefore as having no effect on gaining weight. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. 2) Changing the perceived importance of attributes—Ford might try to increase the perceived importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford's pollution control characteristics. Page: 108 5-183 ATTITUDE CHANGE DEFINITION/APPLICATION CONCEPTUAL What are the three approaches marketers use to change consumers attitudes? How might Ford Motor Company apply these three methods in its marketing activities? Answer: 1) Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attitudes—Ford may emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers concerns about reliability. For example. in general.

the makers of Dr. he was selected for the Dr Pepper ads with the hope he would act as an opinion leader—an individual with a social influence over other people. Pepper hope that consumers are influenced to buy Dr. 2) their own purchasing and product usage experiences. children may develop brand preferences which may last a lifetime. Page: 113 317 . Children learn how to purchase by: 1) interacting with adults in purchase situations.5-184 LIFESTYLE What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time (activities). lifestyle analysis has proven useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products. Pepper because of Brooks’ endorsement of the product. In other words. what they consider important in their environment (interests). As early as age two. knowledge. Page: 110 5-185 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Why would Dr Pepper select country music performer Garth Brooks to appear in an ad campaign? How would he be a sociocultural influence on consumer behavior? Answer: Garth Brooks is a famous country music performer and he would have a personal influence on consumers. Page: 112 5-186 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL What is consumer socialization? How do children learn how to purchase? Answer: Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills. For example. Because he is famous and many people regard him favorably. and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions). The analysis of consumer life-styles (also called psychographics) has produced many insights into consumer's behavior. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers.

5-187 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE How is the family life cycle related to marketing? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. which holds that each family progresses through a number of distinct phases from point of formation to retirement. ideas. Variations in American subcultures also involve styles of dress. young singles' buying preferences are for nondurable items. and attitudes of a particular American subculture can affect the marketing of a product. or national. culture. Page: 113 5-188 SUBCULTURE CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION What is a subculture? What are some examples of products targeted at American subcultures? Answer: Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values. A Pennsylvania-Ohio subculture can favor scrapple for breakfast. the importance of subcultural differences becomes apparent. Companies recognize that the norms and values of subculture also affect purchasing behavior. Answer: Student example will vary. ProLine beauty products for Blacks. and attitudes within the larger. Examples of some marketing efforts directed at American subcultures include McDonald's promotions in Spanish. but may include the observation that a subculture made up of people of English ancestry may like creamed fish and minced beef in a cup of Yorkshire pudding. These differences can be observed on the menus of restaurants and in the product inventories of grocery stores where such subcultures represent a significant portion of the local population. From this observation comes the family life cycle concept. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. ideas. (Student examples will vary. Page: 115-117 318 . describe how the values. while young married couples without children typically purchase home furnishings and gifts for each other. and home decor. When one recognizes that one in four Americans today is African American. whereas Texans may prefer chicken fried steak. and special Campbell's soups for the Southwest. subculture is frequently used to target markets. types of music enjoyed. For example. or from what you have heard from a friend or relative. among many other factors. or Asian American. all of which affect consumer marketing significantly.) Page: 115-117 5-189 SUBCULTURE APPLICATION From your own experience. whereas people of Hungarian ancestry may prefer carp soup and lots of paprika in their stews. Therefore. Hispanic.

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