Chapter 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR Test Item Table

Major Section of the Chapter Level 1: Definition (Knows Basic Terms & Facts) Savvy Automakers Know Thy Custom(h)er (pp. 99-100) Consumer Purchase Decision Process (pp. 100-104) Psychological Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 104-111) Level of Learning Level 2: Conceptual (Understands Concepts & Principles) 1, 2 Level 3: Application (Applies Principles) 3

Sociocultural Influences on Consumer Behavior (pp. 112-117) Video Case: Ken Davis Products. Inc.: Barbecue Sauces for Nonimprovisers (pp. 118-119)

4, 5, 7, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 37, 38, 41, 43, 46, 49, 51, 52, 179 58, 59, 60, 64, 65, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 76, 80, 81, 84, 87, 89, 91, 94, 95, 98, 100, 101, 103, 104, 107, 108, 112, 115, 119, 120, 125, 126, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 183 139, 141, 143, 144, 147, 148, 149, 154, 155, 157, 167, 173, 174, 186

8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 18, 19, 21, 25, 29, 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 48, 50, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 178 62, 63, 67, 78, 83, 86, 90, 93, 96, 105, 106, 109, 110, 116, 117, 118, 121, 127, 129, 130, 181, 182, 184

6, 14, 17, 26, 32, 39, 40, 44, 45, 47, 177, 180 61, 70, 71, 72, 77, 79, 82, 85, 88, 92, 97, 99, 102, 111, 113, 114, 122, 123, 124, 128, 136, 181, 183

137, 138, 142, 145, 153, 156, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 168, 169, 170, 171, 186, 187, 188 175, 176

140, 146, 150, 151, 152, 159, 164, 165, 166, 172, 185, 188, 189

Note: Bold numbers indicate short essay questions.

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CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
5-1 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Which of the following statements about how women buy cars today is true? a. b. c. d. e. Women have no particular likes or dislikes which makes it very difficult to view them as a viable target market. Most women actually enjoy the price negotiation process. To accommodate women customers, automobile dealers have not changed the way they sell cars in the last three decades. Women are most likely to make their car purchase selection as a result of information provided by a friend or a relative. Women rely more heavily on promotional information to make their final car purchase decision than men do. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: d Page: 99 Rationale: Choice d is a correct statement. Regarding the incorrect choices, recognition of women as purchasers and influencers in car and truck buying has altered the behavior of dealers, including doing away with negotiation. Women look at promotional material, but do not rely on it to make their final decision. 5-2 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER Who buys 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks? a. b. c. d. e. Men Women Teens People representing ethnic minority groups None of the above. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: b Page: 99 Rationale: Women buy about 60 percent of new cars and light trucks. As a group, they spend over $81 billion on new cars and trucks for their personal use, and influence 80 percent of all new car sales.

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5-3 CHAPTER OPENING EXAMPLE: THE AUTO CUSTOM(H)ER

APPLICATION

When General Motors started selling its Saturn cars, it announced that the cars would have a nonnegotiable price. A customer who wanted to buy a Saturn would pay the posted price. General Motors probably adopted this pricing policy because: a. b. c. d. e. the industry was discussing the abandonment of self-regulation practices. women have an intense dislike of the car-buying process, yet still want to buy a car. many recent immigrants into the United States were not accustomed to negotiation. research showed that price negotiation was socially irresponsible. a sluggish economy guaranteed that negotiations would produce a less than adequate return on investment.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: General Motors, like the other car manufacturers, was aware that women buy 60 percent of all new cars and light trucks. Additional research had shown them that 78 percent of women disliked the car-buying process and often refuse to negotiate the price. (Many of the recent immigrants to the U.S. come from countries where negotiations are expected for each purchase.) 5-4 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR DEFINITION

__________ describes the actions a person takes in purchasing and using products and services. a. b. c. d. e. Marketing Market research Consumer behavior Consumer management Purchase development

Answer: c Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—consumer behavior 5-5 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS DEFINITION

The stages a buyer passes through in making choices about which products and services to buy is called the: a. b. c. d. e. situational analysis sequence. VALS inventory. purchase decision process. hierarchy of learning. routine response sequence.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Key term definition—purchase decision process

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c. Answer: a Page: 100. e. the price will be about $150. problem recognition alternative evaluation cognitive dissonance routine response behavior post purchase behavior Answer: a Page: 100. d. b. Figure 5-1 Rationale: As Figure 5-1 illustrates. The initial step in the process is problem recognition. experience cognitive dissonance. consult a personal source of information. The new substance not only absorbs shock better. b. 5-7 PROBLEM RECOGNITION DEFINITION During the purchase decision process. experience problem recognition. c. d. thereby improving the wearer's speed and jumping ability. a person at the __________ stage will realize that the difference between what he or she has and what he or she would like to have is big enough to actually do something about it a. a buyer passes through five stages of the purchase decision process when making choices about which products and services to buy. consult a public source of information. Nike believes this new characteristic—promoted as reflex response—will make the new shoe a superior product.5-6 PROBLEM RECOGNITION APPLICATION Nike has developed a new cushioning substance for use in the soles of athletic shoes. Based on responses of people who have tried the new product. Due to increased costs of materials and production. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Text term definition—problem recognition 255 . consumers must first: a. e. make a purchase decision. it rebounds more completely. Nike is confident consumers will have a relatively favorable evaluation of the shoe. To have a favorable evaluation.

d. e. an individual at the problem recognition will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. The student perceives she would be unable to get to class on time without a car.5-8 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When the marketing student said. d. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. yields brand names that might meet the criteria. c. d. e. b. Information search Problem recognition Purchase behavior Alternative evaluation Pre-purchase cognition Answer: b Page: 100 Other Location: web Rationale: During the purchase decision process. “It's really hard for me to get to class on time without a car. c. 256 .” she was entering which stage of the consumer decision process? a. b. 5-9 PROBLEM RECOGNITION CONCEPTUAL When Marty attended his first statistics class. b. Marty realized that he was unable to do his assignments without a calculator. and develops consumer value perceptions? a. 5-10 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Which stage in the consumer purchase decision process suggests criteria to use for the purchase. In which stage of the consumer purchase decision process was Marty when he made this realization? a. e. Purchase decision Alternative evaluation Information search Problem recognition Postpurchase behavior Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: During the purchase decision process. he realized that he ought to buy a calculator or else he would be unable to do his assignments. an individual at the problem recognition stage will perceive differences between his or her ideal and actual situations as big enough to trigger a decision. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. c.

c. is glued to the television every Sunday afternoon as he watches his favorite teams.5-11 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL The question “How long is the warranty for this CD player?” would be asked during the __________ stage in the consumer purchase decision process. Primary external sources of information for many consumers are family and friends. b. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Evaluation Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. 5-12 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL In which stage in the consumer purchase decision process would a consumer ask. an avid football fan. the consumer may seek information from external sources. the next step in the decision making process is to search for information. c. Problem recognition Evaluation of alternatives Purchase decision Information search Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: After a consumer has recognized a problem. "Is installation included in the price of this air conditioner?" a. In which step of the purchase decision making process is Eddie engaged? a. the risk of making a bad decision is high. problem recognition information search alternative evaluation purchase decision All of the above. 257 . He thinks games would be more enjoyable on a big screen television. 5-13 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL Eddie. b. Eddie started talking with his friends to learn more about the various brands of big screen televisions. d. e. b. e. c. Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: After recognizing a problem. and the cost of gathering information is low. d. a. When past experience or personal knowledge does not provide adequate information upon which a consumer can make a decision. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need. e. d. a consumer begins to search for information about what product or service might satisfy the newly discovered need.

5-14 INFORMATION SEARCH

APPLICATION

When an elementary school teacher needed to buy poster board for her class, she remembered that she had found some poster board at three stores: her local 99 Cents Only store, Walgreen’s, and at her Family Dollar Store. What term best describes the information search method used by the teacher? a. b. c. d. e. Personal external source Public external source Market-dominated external source Internal search Market-dominated internal source

Answer: d Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-15 INFORMATION SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Thao's friend Mike turns 21 next week and will have a party. Thao decided to purchase a CD as a present. Because they like the same music, Thao scanned her memory for various CD options. This is an example of what action in the consumer purchase decision process? a. b. c. d. e. Memorization External search Evaluative criteria Antecedent states Internal search

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search such as Thao recalling various CD options. 5-16 INTERNAL SEARCH DEFINITION

A(n) __________ in the consumer purchase decision process occurs when consumers scan their memory for previous experiences with products or brands. a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition internal search external search purchase task antecedent state

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: Text term definition—internal search

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5-17 INTERNAL SEARCH

APPLICATION

A mother of two toddlers would most likely use an internal search process exclusively when purchasing: a. b. c. d. e. a gift for a best friend. a DVD player. disposable diapers. perfume. a weekend getaway.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. Because diapers are frequently purchased items, the mother would likely recall from memory which brand she prefers. 5-18 INTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Amy is an avid mystery reader and has decided to purchase a mystery book for her best friend. Since the two friends enjoy the same types of mysteries, Amy will know exactly which book her friend would like. When Amy was scanning her memory for various mystery book options, she was engaged in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: b Page: 100 Rationale: When a person scans his or her memory for previous experiences with products or brands, he or she is engaged in an internal search. 5-19 EXTERNAL SEARCH An external search for product information is especially important when: a. b. c. d. e. the cost of gathering information is low. review of past experience provides adequate information. the risk of making a wrong purchase decision is low. the item is frequently purchased. any of the above conditions exist. CONCEPTUAL

Answer: a Page: 100 Rationale: An external search for information is especially needed when past experience is insufficient, the risk of making a wrong decision is high, and the cost of gathering information is low.

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5-20 EXTERNAL SEARCH

DEFINITION

In the consumer purchase decision process an external search for product information occurs when: a. b. c. d. e. the consumer gathers information from outside sources. the consumer gathers information from friends. the consumer gathers information from product-rating organizations. the consumer gathers information from advertising. any of the above conditions exist.

Answer: e Page: 100 Rationale: Text-term definition—external search 5-21 EXTERNAL SEARCH CONCEPTUAL

Christina wants to purchase a new computer. She is unsure about what hardware and software she will need. As a result, she has begun asking for advice from friends and relatives. In addition, she has talked to several computer salespeople and has looked at some websites. Christina is engaging in: a. b. c. d. e. problem recognition. an internal search. an external search. a purchase task. the creation of an antecedent state.

Answer: c Page: 100 Rationale: Christina is externally searching for information about computers. An external search is especially important when the cost of gathering information is low, when past experience is insufficient and when the risk of making a wrong decision is high. 5-22 PERSONAL SOURCES DEFINITION

Examples of personal sources of information for an external information search include: a. b. c. d. e. advertising. Consumer Reports magazine. sales personnel. friends and relatives. point of purchase displays.

Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—personal sources

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e. and point-of-purchase displays in stores. and include advertising. private information consumer-controlled public information family marketer-dominated Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Marketer-dominated sources of information originate with the sellers of products and services. a.5-23 PUBLIC SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a public source of information for an external information search is: a. friends and relatives. advertising. point of purchase displays. d. c. c. but he couldn't decide what he wanted to eat. b. c. e. d. Consumer Reports magazine. Answer: b Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—public sources 5-24 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES DEFINITION An example of a marketer-dominated source of information for an external information search is: a. d. personal experience. b. b. salespeople. friends and relatives. When Marlon saw the television ad for chocolate-stuffed Oreo cookies. 261 . e. Consumer Reports magazine. Answer: e Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—marketer-dominated sources 5-25 MARKETER-DOMINATED SOURCES CONCEPTUAL Marlon was hungry. he knew exactly what he wanted. sales personnel. Marlon's information search was shorted by the appearance of a __________ source. consumer programs on talk radio stations. point of purchase displays.

"The Volvo has reclining bucket seats. which represent both the objective attributes of a brand and the subjective ones you use to compare different products and brands. Answer: d Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 5-28 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION When you set out to buy a DVD player for yourself. 5-27 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA DEFINITION The objective and subjective attributes of a brand consumers use to compare different products are called: a. b. d. the evoked set. e.5-26 ALTERNATIVE EVALUATION APPLICATION Keisha is in the process of buying a new car appropriate to her role as the newest vice president at her company. b. e. factors you might consider before purchase are called __________. the information search stage helped the consumer to collect needed information to use to seek value." In which stage of the purchase decision process is Keisha? a. evaluative criteria. c. e. antecedent states. information sources. the bucket seats or an exceptional stereo represent the alternatives that need to be evaluated. In this case the purchase will be a car. b. temporal states. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—evaluative criteria 262 . d. c. the alternative evaluation stage provides evaluative criteria by which to make a decision. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: The problem recognition stage was prompted by the need for appropriate transportation. She was overheard telling a co-worker. but the Cadillac has front and back stereo speakers. d. a. c.

Collectively. and Wheaties. e. such as the different unsweetened flake cereals. b. b. evaluative set. A value group An evoked set An evaluative criterion An impulse set A discriminative group Answer: b Page: 101 Rationale: The evoked set is the group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in a product class. evoked set. aspiration group.5-29 EVALUATIVE CRITERIA CONCEPTUAL When Judy decided to buy an electric can opener as a wedding present. c. e. c. hot buttons informational alternatives evaluative criteria buying decision-makers consumer attributes Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Evaluative criteria represent both the objective attributes of a brand (the ability to attach under a cabinet) and the subjective ones (sleek styling) a person uses to compare different products and brands. d. b. You can think of three brands that you consider acceptable from among all the brands of which you are aware: Post Toasties. d. c. 263 . what is this group of cereal brands called? a. Answer: c Page: 101 Rationale: Text term definition—evoked set 5-31 EVOKED SET CONCEPTUAL You want to buy some dry breakfast cereal and you are in the mood for unsweetened flakes. alternative selection group. d. These are __________ Judy used during the alternative evaluation stage of the purchase decision process. she wanted to buy a brand name opener that attached under a cabinet and that had sleek styling. evolved set. e. 5-30 EVOKED SET DEFINITION The group of brands a consumer would consider acceptable from among all the brands in the product class of which he or she is aware is the: a. a. Kellogg's Corn Flakes.

b. Therefore.” The co-worker was in which stage in the consumer purchase decision process? a. it most likely should focus on: a. trying to determine the most important evaluative criteria skateboarders use when judging the product.5-32 EVOKED SET APPLICATION BMW StreetCarver is a skateboard that features BMW's technology in its wheel suspension. c. 264 . Problem recognition Alternative evaluation Information search Purchase decision Post purchase evaluation Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives of the evoked set. “Thank you for taking my call so quickly. The most important evaluative criteria establish the brands in consumers' evoked set. Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: The key influence in determining the products in the evoked set is to have a set of important attributes. which stabilizes the board's sleek design and allows for greater control around sharp curves. which matches the evaluative criteria employed by consumers. BMW is concerned with making sure its skateboard is in the evoked sets of potential skateboard buyers. b. making sure its advertisements get on the air during sporting events. which matches consumers' interests. e. d. I'd like to order number 1284H. making appeals directed towards motivational ego needs. In this case. 5-33 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Raul overheard one of his co-workers in a phone conversation say. as illustrated in Figure 5-1. the 12 inch covered omelet pan and use the easy pay plan. e. reducing the post-purchase dissatisfaction that may result from purchasing its product. the consumer makes a purchase decision. such as exhibition skateboarding. c. by identifying the most important attributes a firm can design a product. creating personality profiles for skateboarders. d.

e. The purchase stage requires choosing from whom to buy.” Which stage of the consumer purchase decision process is demonstrated by Maria's conversation? a. e. involvement aspiration acculturative response motivation selective perception Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 265 .5-34 PURCHASE DECISION CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process is true? a. 5-36 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION A consumer's __________ refers to the personal. 5-35 POSTPURCHASE BEHAVIOR CONCEPTUAL Maria has just told her supervisor. “I'm so glad I bought the Motorola P280 phone rather than those other models I was looking at. I haven't seen another phone with that feature. Figure 5-1 Rationale: Having examined the alternatives in the evoked set. Answer: e Page: 102. c. Satisfied buyers tell three other people about their experience and dissatisfied buyers tell nine people about their experience. I have really enjoyed the fact that its stream service gives me an always-on connection to the Internet. d. a. b. e. b. Problem recognition Information search Alternative evaluation Purchase decision Postpurchase behavior Answer: e Page: 102 Rationale: During the postpurchase stage. All of the above statements about the purchase stage of the consumer purchase decision process are true. d. Two choices remain in this step: 1) from whom to buy and 2) when to buy. The purchase stage follows the alternative evaluation stage in the consumer purchase decision process. The act of picking a brand is the result of the purchase decision. c. The purchase stage includes deciding when to buy. social. c. a consumer compares the purchased product with his or her expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied. d. and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer. consumers are almost ready to make a purchase decision. Figure 5-1 illustrates the consumer purchase decision process. b.

Offer coupons for Dasani bottled water. 266 . and economic significance of a purchase to the consumer is called: a. culture. involvement. b. have serious personal consequences. e. Make good use of Dasani stock-outs. c. Persuading retailers to stock only one brand is unlikely unless they are paid. b. Make the purchase decision high involvement. c. reflect one’s social image. The decision is and will remain a low-involvement one. selective perception. making good use of Dasahi stock-outs does not make sense. How can a marketer convince people to buy Dasani instead of one of the numerous other brands displayed on retailers' shelves? a. d. aspiration. Do any or all of the above Answer: c Page: 102 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. be characterized by all of the above. Answer: a Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-38 INVOLVEMENT High-involvement purchases tend to: a. be expensive. c. social. d. e. motivation. b. e. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 102 Rationale: Key term definition—involvement 5-39 INVOLVEMENT APPLICATION The purchase of a bottle of water is a low-involvement purchase.5-37 INVOLVEMENT DEFINITION The personal. avoiding stock-out decisions would benefit Dasani. be characterized by none of the above. Convince retailers to only offer Dasani water. d.

limited problem solving situations. d. b. called __________. e. or chewing gum? a. consumers recognize a problem. The college students are involved in: a. unlimited problem solving situations. c. e. These behaviors are characteristics of routine problem solving. Routine problem solving Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: For these types of products. 5-42 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Between classes. frequently purchased products. routine problem solving situations. make a decision. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. intensive problem solving situations. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. b. Answer: b Page: 103. The purchase process for such items. extensive problem solving situations. c. Their choices are generally made quickly and with little or no effort to consider alternative product offerings. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. 5-41 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives in the purchase of soap and milk. many college students stop at conveniently located vending machines for their favorite candy bar and soft drink. 267 . e. is virtually a habit. routine problem solving uses minimal time spent searching. soda.5-40 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would normally be used to purchase such items as toothpaste. d. a. b. c. and spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives. d. Consumers typically spend very little effort or time seeking or evaluating alternatives.

There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. in limited problem solving. 5-45 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Which problem solving variation would likely be used for clothing. is virtually a habit. 268 . There is little time or effort used in researching options in these situations. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. consumers typically seek some information. a. c. frequently purchased products. b. or electric can openers? a. a. e. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: Routine problem solving is typically the case for low-priced. in limited problem solving. sheets and towels. d. a restaurant for dinner. from a few number of external information sources to help them evaluate alternatives. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: b Page: 103. e. d. and typifies low-involvement decision-making. d. b. consumers typically seek some information. c. c. b.5-43 ROUTINE PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION The purchase process used when consumers spend little effort seeking external information and evaluating alternatives is called __________. or a pair of sandals. e. 5-44 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION A typical consumer would most likely use __________ in choosing a blender. routine response behavior limited problem solving extended problem solving simulated selection classical conditioning Answer: b Page: 103.

Limited Extended Habitual Classical Routine Answer: a Page: 103: Figure 5-3 Rationale: In this case the person seeks some information but has little interest in spending time or effort in searching out the right place to purchase the item. c. which are illustrated in Figure 5-3. as long as she receives a very liberal return policy should anything go wrong. or personal computers? a. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3.5-46 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION Consumers seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives when they are engaged in a __________ process. a. d. 5-48 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Which problem solving variation would likely be used for real estate. b. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help them evaluate alternatives. c. e. She is NOT concerned about where she buys it. d. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: In limited problem solving. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. automobiles. These are characteristics of limited problem solving. e. 5-47 LIMITED PROBLEM SOLVING APPLICATION Elizabeth has decided to purchase a radar detector and plans to call several friends for information about alternative brands. In making her decision Elizabeth will engage in which of the following problem solving methods? a. c. b. b. Routine response behavior Limited problem solving Extended problem solving Simulated selection Integrated problem solving Answer: c Page: 103. 269 . d. e.

c. Answer: c Page: 103. routine response behavior. simulated selection. routine problem solving limited problem solving extended problem solving situational problem solving rational problem solving Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process. c. 5-51 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The purchase task. Figure 5-3 Rationale: As illustrated by Figure 5-3. to find a gift they both will like. extended problem solving makes use of each stage of the consumer purchase decision process including considerable time and effort on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. 5-50 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING CONCEPTUAL Robin wants to find the perfect gift for her grandparents' 50th wedding anniversary. c. b.5-49 EXTENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION When consumers use each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process in the purchase of a product. d. a. b. b. temporal effects. d. She started looking for the gift last month and expects to spend another couple of months. marketing mix influences psychological influences situational influences sociocultural influences evaluative criteria Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 270 . if needed. extended problem solving. they are using which of the following? a. and considerable time and effort is spent on external information search and in identifying and evaluating alternatives. physical surroundings. limited problem solving. integrated problem solving. social surroundings. e. which affect the purchase decision process. e. and antecedent states are all examples of __________. d. Robin is engaging in: a. e.

dependent variables. b. temporal effects. 5-54 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: SOCIAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL Three teenaged girls spent hours at the store trying on various outfits. “How do you think this outfit looks?" This situation is most closely related to which of the following situational influences? a. d. and asking each other. d. antecedent states. social surroundings. Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Text term definition—situational influences 5-53 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PURCHASE TASK CONCEPTUAL When a man picks up a teddy bear in a toy store and tells the clerk. frame of mind. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: a Page: 103 Rationale: The reason for engaging in the decision process (the son’s first birthday) is called the purchase task. 271 . d. spatial surroundings. including other people present when a purchase decision is made. e. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: b Page: 103 Rationale: Social surroundings. and: a. c. looking at possible combinations. "This is for my son's first birthday. b.5-52 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The five situational influences that have an impact on a consumer's purchase decision process are the purchase task. independent variables. e." which situational influence has he demonstrated? a. physical surroundings. may affect what is purchased. c. b. c. e.

Carlos thought. c. so we could take an extra hour and relax a bit. can influence purchase behavior and choice. But the boss is out of town. but are unable to do so because the retailer won't accept a check without several forms of identification. e. music in retail stores. a.5-55 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: PHYSICAL SURROUNDINGS CONCEPTUAL As he hunted for tomato juice. will influence where consumers have breakfast and lunch and what is ordered 272 . e. “Its noon. b. such as time of day or the amount of time available. d. 5-56 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: ANTECEDENT STATES CONCEPTUAL The ads for Visa debit cards show people who need to make a purchase quickly. One says to the other. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: e Page: 103 Other Location: web Rationale: Antecedent states. and crowded aisles may alter how purchase decisions are made. Which situational influence is Visa using to show the benefits offered by its debit cards? a.” Their conversation illustrates which situational influence? a. 5-57 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES: TEMPORAL EFFECTS CONCEPTUAL Two colleagues discuss where to go for lunch. e. c. b. he has vowed never to shop at that store again. Purchase task Social surroundings Physical surroundings Temporal effects Antecedent states Answer: d Page: 103 Rationale: Temporal effects. d. so most of the restaurants will be crowded. d. b. which include the consumer's mood or amount of cash on hand. "Nothing in this store is logically arranged. c. purchase task social surroundings physical surroundings temporal effects spatial surroundings Answer: c Page: 103 Rationale: Physical surroundings such as decor. As a result of __________.” Then he banged his cart into the side of a display because the aisle was so crowded.

and lifestyle are called: a. and lifestyle.5-58 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES Which of the following is NOT considered a psychological influence? a. learning. perception. motivation personality perception antecedent state lifestyle DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 104. perception. e. b. e. 5-59 PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION The concepts useful for interpreting buying processes and directing marketing efforts such as motivation and personality. and lifestyle are useful for interpreting buying processes. attitudes. beliefs. b. c. attitudes. values. values. d. values. beliefs. routine problem solving influences. b. 5-60 MOTIVATION __________ is the energizing force that stimulates behavior to satisfy a need. Answer: b Page: 104 Rationale: Psychological concepts such as motivation and personality. d. social influences. d. e. Selective perception Antecedent state Motivation Cognitive dissonance Perception DEFINITION Answer: c Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—motivation 273 . perception. learning. learning. a. Antecedent states are a situational influence. c. beliefs. Figure 5-4 Rationale: The five psychological influences are: motivation and personality. and attitudes. situational influences. rational influences. c. psychological influences.

5-62 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following lists the hierarchy of needs in its correct order. and self-actualization. social. social. Motivation Learning Perception Antecedent states Lifestyle Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: The slogan suggested that the Army could satisfy an individual's need for selfactualization. and self-actualization Safety. c. e. social. c. b. physiological. b. what category of needs is of the highest order? a. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Figure 5-5 illustrates the hierarchy of needs. safety. d. physiological. psychological. safety. c. b. The hierarchy of needs pyramid is illustrated in Figure 5-5. personal. and physiological Safety. d. 5-63 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL The most basic of our needs are physiological. social. Personal. followed by safety. beginning with the most basic? a. 274 . with self-actualization needs at the top. Once the physiological needs are met. and social Answer: b Page: 105. personal. Figure 5-5 Other Location: web Rationale: People have both physiological needs and learned needs. personal. people seek to satisfy their learned needs. e. According to the hierarchy of needs. and personal type needs. physiological. and personal Self-actualization. Army former advertising theme. e. Intellectual needs Emotional needs Self-actualization needs Domination needs Psychological needs Answer: c Page: 105. d. self-actualization. and safety Physiological. social.S.5-61 MOTIVATION APPLICATION The U. "Be all that you can be" relied on which of the psychological influences on behavior? a.

d. c. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-66 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs. a. social needs. e. a. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—safety needs. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: b Page: 105. physiological needs. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105. c. safety needs. b. and shelter would be considered __________ needs. personal needs. food. e.5-64 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Those needs which are basic to survival and which must be satisfied first are: a. e. self actualization needs. 275 . d. d. b. c. self-preservation and physical well-being would be examples of __________ needs. b. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: a Page: 105. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—physiological needs 5-65 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION In the hierarchy of needs water.

c. b. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: c Page: 105. physiological safety social personal self-actualization Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: The Michelin tire ad seeks to appeal to parents' needs to ensure the safety of their children. The marketers of Michelin tires are attempting to appeal to consumers' __________ needs. physiological safety social personal self actualization Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—personal needs 276 . a. prestige. a. d. The ad copy touts the dramatically improved traction of Michelin radial tires in rain and snow and informs parents of the ways in which the tires will help them protect and ensure the well-being of their children. 5-68 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are concerned with love and friendship are __________ needs. b. a. e. d. e. status.5-67 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS CONCEPTUAL A magazine ad shows a cherubic baby sitting inside an automobile tire. d. b. c. and self-respect are __________ needs. e. Figure 5-5 Rationale: Text term definition—social needs 5-69 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS DEFINITION Those needs that are represented by the need for achievement. c.

“Go in the Direction of Your Dreams. has the headline. d.” This ad is appealing to the parents' desire to satisfy their children's: a. d. e.” This ad is most likely to appeal to people's __________ need. a private academy for children. self actualization needs. Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: The school wants the parents to know that the school will make sure that each student achieves as much as possible. b. physiological safety social personal psychological Answer: d Page: 105 Rationale: Personal needs are needs that are represented by the need for achievement. 5-72 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for The King's Daughters' School. Self-actualization needs involve personal fulfillment. physiological needs. 277 . status. c. “How do you plan on supporting your family after you pass away?” The ad shows a tombstone with a sign that offers the face of the stone as ad space. Providing security for one's family would help to satisfy that need. d. social needs. “Living Up to Their Potential. safety needs.5-70 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Acura is headlined by a quote from Henry David Thoreau. 5-71 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS APPLICATION An ad for Conesco's life insurance asks the question. b. c. b. a. e. prestige. Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Personal needs Self actualization needs Answer: b Page: 105 Rationale: Safety needs involve self-preservation and physical well being. e. and self-respect. The ad is intended to appeal to which of the needs in the hierarchy of needs? a. c. personal needs.

purchase process. e. physiological needs safety needs social needs personal needs self actualization needs DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Text term definition—self-actualization needs 5-74 PERSONALITY DEFINITION Someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations refer to his or her: a. e. b. essential to developing culture. d. not important to consumer behavior. needed to achieve prestige. e. based on perception. d. perception. c. c. b. d. motivation. Answer: e Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 5-75 PERSONALITY Personality is: a. someone’s consistent behaviors or responses to recurring situations. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 105 Rationale: Key term definition—personality 278 .5-73 MOTIVATION : HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Which of the following needs involves personal fulfillment? a. culture. personality. c. b.

c. d. b. self-concept greed lust avarice hedonism Answer: a Page: 106 Rationale: Self-concept is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. 5-78 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT Which of the following statements about subliminal perception is true? a. a. c. Subliminal messages are legal in the United States. e.5-76 PERSONALITY: SELF-CONCEPT DEFINITION __________ is the way people see themselves and the way they believe others see them. No organizations have used subliminal messages since the time people used to regularly go to drive-ins to watch movies. d. a. “How old will you be when you stop feeling 29?” The ad is using __________ to appeal to its target market. Self-evaluation Self-concept Aspirational concept Individualized perception Personal perception Answer: b Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—self-concept 5-77 SELF-CONCEPT APPLICATION The ad for Dove body wash asks the question. d. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. e. c. Feeling young may be an important element of a person’s self-concept. The use of subliminal messaging is monitored by the Better Business Bureau. e. the FCC has denounced subliminal messaging as deceitful. b. b. The text gives an example of a current Times Warner CD game that uses subliminal messaging. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supports the usage of subliminal perception. Subliminal messages are illegal in the United States. 279 . There is no substantive scientific support for the concept of subliminal perception.

In other words. if it did have any effect on behavior. Answer: c Page: 106 Other Location: web Rationale: The strongest ethical argument against subliminal advertising is that it exploits a psychological vulnerability in human perception to persuade consumers to act in a manner they might not if they were consciously making the choice. c. The soft drink company may not have paid a fair price to have the images of its logo placed in the movie. The soft drink company would be attempting to influence the behavior of the consumers in a manner the consumers might object to if they were aware of what was occurring. selective perception. c. 5-80 PERCEPTION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which an individual selects. e.5-79 ETHICS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ALERT APPLICATION Suppose a soft drink company sponsored a made-for-television movie with the understanding that subliminal images of its product logo would be interspersed throughout the program. selective retention. The images of the product logo might interfere with the plot and impact of the movie. Which of the following is the strongest argument that such a marketing strategy would be unethical? a. Children might be watching the program. c. subliminal advertising might rob the consumer of the freedom to make a choice. Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Text term definition—selective perception 280 . d. organizes. Motivation Attitude formation Conformance Perception Illumination Answer: d Page: 106 Rationale: Key term definition—perception 5-81 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION DEFINITION Because the average consumer operates in a complex information-rich environment. and interprets information to create a meaningful picture of the world. selective exposure. a. d. Soft drinks can cause tooth decay. selective attention. d. b. b. stimulus discrimination. e. b. the human brain attempts to organize and interpret information with a process called: a. e.

This is an example of __________ perception. remembered. he saw the term three more times that week. b. a. or made available to the conscious mind. or made available to the conscious mind. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. e. once he read an article about palindromes for his English class. side impact bars. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. selective retention. selective attention. e. selective intuition. 281 . retentive interpretive reclusive selective subliminal Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. This is probably the result of: a. b. Answer: d Page: 107 Rationale: Selective perception occurs because consumers operate in a complex environment. as indicated in the film footage. 5-83 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL You watch a television commercial for a new automobile and you do not notice it has dual airbags. While Marshall was unaware of the term. But you do notice that it has a high-performance engine that can take it to high speeds. c. remembered. d.5-82 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION APPLICATION Many have described 2002 as the year of the palindrome—a word or phrase that reads the same whether read from right or left. d. and they are unable to respond to all stimuli to which they are exposed. The selective perception process filters the information so that only some of it is understood. c. stimulus discrimination. selective perception. and antilock brakes.

stimulus discrimination. 282 . Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective exposure 5-85 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE APPLICATION Because Marla is so strongly committed to a fat-free diet. tuning out. retention. d. e. she did not see a recent report by the New England Journal of Medicine that suggested that some fat in our diet is healthy.5-84 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE DEFINITION The tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent is called: a. 5-86 SELECTIVE EXPOSURE CONCEPTUAL Charlie needs to purchase an automobile to drive to his new job in the city center. behavioral learning. d. selective exposure. but the reason Marla did not see it is probably the result of: a. and to ignore messages that are inconsistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs. selective perception. The report was contained in the newspaper that Marla reads daily. c. selective comprehension. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. Answer: c Page: 107 Rationale: Selective exposure is the tendency to pay attention to messages consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs and to ignore messages that are inconsistent. selective exposure. subliminal perception. such as the need for a new car. e. c. selective perception. selective comprehension. selective exposure. e. He begins to notice ads for many cars he wasn't aware of previously. d. stimulus discrimination. This is an example of: a. b. b. b. c. selective retention. selective retention. such as information that some fat is healthy when Marla is so committed to a fat-free diet.

c. e. e. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective perception subliminal discrimination Answer: a Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective retention 283 . selective retention. c. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Text term definition—selective comprehension 5-88 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION APPLICATION Tyler was offended by the brand name of a new product for women. 5-89 SELECTIVE RETENTION DEFINITION As a result of __________. read. stimulus discrimination. d. a.5-87 SELECTIVE COMPREHENSION DEFINITION Interpreting information so that it is consistent with your attitudes and beliefs is called: a. consumers do not remember all the information they see. Tyler will not purchase this product. a. She believes that the name is demeaning to women and that its use means the manufacturer is unsympathetic to women. e. c. or hear even minutes after exposure to it. b. selective analysis. b. d. selective exposure. Due to __________. selective retention selective comprehension selective exposure selective analysis stimulus discrimination Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: A consumer using selective comprehension is interpreting information so that it is consistent with his or her attitudes and beliefs. selective comprehension. b. d.

perceived risk.5-90 SELECTIVE RETENTION Retailers can reduce problems associated with selective retention by: a. e. d. adopting advertising campaigns that use bright colors and/or snappy background music. c. 5-91 PERCEIVED RISK DEFINITION The anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. b. Answer: b Page: 107 Rationale: Key term definition—perceived risk 5-92 PERCEIVED RISK APPLICATION For which of the following products is perceived risk likely to be the greatest for a female who has just taken her first job after college graduation? a. A magazine subscription to Glamour A cell phone Flowers to decorate her new apartment A new outfit for her first day at work A pair of jeans to wear on weekends Answer: d Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Perceived risk is the anxiety felt because the consumer cannot anticipate the outcomes of a purchase. but believes there may be a negative consequence associated with making the wrong purchase decision. Answer: c Page: 107 Other Location: web Rationale: Selective retention means consumers do not remember all they see. even minutes after exposure to it. e. temporal uncertainty. a negative antecedent. 284 . b. d. providing brochures for consumers to take home. using a more convoluted store layout. Furniture and automobile retailers often give consumers product brochures to take home after they leave the showroom to help them remember. spatial uncertainty. Wearing the new outfit represents a perceived risk as she does not know how she may be thought of at her new job based on how she looks in her new outfit. c. b. or read. CONCEPTUAL hiring well known celebrities to sponsor their products. e. d. c. hear. buyers' remorse. offering extended service warranties. but believes there may be a negative consequence is called: a.

5-94 LEARNING DEFINITION __________ refers to those behaviors that result from repeated experience and reasoning. e. a. b.5-93 PERCEIVED RISK CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is a method marketers can use to reduce perceived risk for consumers? a. b. d. Psychosocial perception Acculturation Attitudinal identification Dynamic growth Learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Key term definition—learning 5-95 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING DEFINITION __________ learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a type of situation built up through repeated exposure to it. Perceptual Retentive Functional Motivated Behavioral Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—behavioral learning 285 . d. c. c. companies develop strategies to make consumers feel more at ease about their purchases. c. a. e. e. Obtain seals of approval for products Secure endorsements from influential people Provide trial usage of the product Provide warranties and guarantees All of the above Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Recognizing the importance of perceived risk. d. b.

c. e. selective learning. drive. the appeal of the scent is due to: a. Dandelion. attitude. d. and Turpentine. Lobster. 5-97 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. This experiment is an example of: a. e. b. even when food was not presented.5-96 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING CONCEPTUAL The famous experiment wherein Dr. Woodsmoke. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. 5-98 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: DRIVE A need that moves an individual to action is a(n): a. b. Leather. Sugar Cookie. Brownie. functional adaptation. b. cognitive learning. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. response. e. d. reinforcement. Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. c. Changing antecedent states The scientific method Tone as a motivator Cognitive dissonance Behavioral learning Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Behavioral learning is the process of developing automatic responses to a situation built up through repeated exposure to it. This is what the classic Pavlov experiment proved. Because repeated exposure to these scents have made people connect them with some important event or memory. cognitive dissonance. DEFINITION Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—drive 286 . behavioral learning. d. cue. c. Pavlov presented dogs with food at the same time he rang a bell resulted in dogs that salivated when the bell was rung.

e. reinforcements. d. b. Lobster. attitudes. b. Woodsmoke. Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: A cue is a stimulus (in this case a smell) perceived by consumers. e. Dandelion. The maker of Demeter perfumes treats smells as if they were: a. a. but only one that breaks down fragrances into elements so people can wear the particular scents with which they have emotional ties. b. Brownie. drives. Leather. cue demotivator motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—response 287 . Sugar Cookie.5-99 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE APPLICATION There are many perfumes on the market. d. c. responses. d. The perfume's manufacturer is Demeter. and Turpentine. a. e. c. and it makes over 150 different fragrances with names like Dirt. drive cue attitude response reinforcement DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—cue 5-101 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: RESPONSE A(n) __________ is the action taken to satisfy a drive. cues. c. 5-100 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: CUE A(n) __________ is a stimulus or symbol that one perceives.

goes to the store and buys the product (response). b. d. d. a. cue reinforcement motivation response stimulus DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—reinforcement 5-104 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT DEFINITION ___________ has occurred if what the consumer experiences upon responding to a stimulus is not pleasant. Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: The reinforcement is the reward. achievement drive. prestige. d. A negative cue A demotivator Negative reinforcement Negative response Negative stimulus Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—negative reinforcement 288 . b. c. c. preference. e. e. c. In terms of behavioral learning.5-102 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT APPLICATION Joan is hungry (drive). 5-103 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: REINFORCEMENT A(n) __________ is the reward for satisfying a drive. a. e. b. the great taste of the food is a(n): a. she sees an advertisement (cue). reinforcement.

even before the new show was seen. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus generalization 289 . b. and Law & Order: Criminal Intent). d. b. selective comprehension selective retention stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination routine response behavior Answer: c Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus (cue) is generalized to another stimulus. e. 5-106 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL When the television production company that produces the Law & Order series uses the Law & Order name on two other series (Law & Order: Special Victim’s Unit. e. c. e. a. 5-107 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION DEFINITION __________ occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. c.5-105 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS GENERALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory? a. d. b. d. Using the same brand name to launch new products is one common application of this concept. it relies on __________ to convince fans of the original show that the new shows will be equally well crafted. The consumer would have the same feelings toward one Law & Order series as for another. c. Selective comprehension Selective retention Stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Answer: c Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus generalization occurs when a response brought about by one stimulus is generalized to another stimulus. a.

Tom says that he cannot tell a difference between the two products. Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Reinforcement Behavioral learning Selective retention Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Text term definition—stimulus discrimination 5-109 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Consumers' ability to perceive taste differences in chocolate bars is an example of: a. stimulus generalization. Betty exhibits __________. 5-110 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION CONCEPTUAL Betty contends that she can taste the difference between fat-free cheese and cheese with regular fat content. cognitive dissonance. b. a.5-108 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION DEFINITION __________ refers to a person’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. a. such as chocolate bar tastes. c. d. If they are to be believed. 290 . c. while Tom does not. selective comprehension. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 108 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to one’s ability to perceive differences among similar products. b. b. c. selective retention. stimulus discrimination. e. such as fat-free and regular cheese. d. d. e. e.

b.5-111 BEHAVIORAL LEARNING: STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION APPLICATION Comparative advertising in which one brand is compared to another is intended to cause consumers to perceive differences between the products featured in the advertising. Marketers who use comparative advertising are trying to use __________ to make consumers believe that its product is better than the other one. The authors hoped you would use __________ to conclude marketing is an interesting subject and worthy of your time and effort. cognitive learning cognitive dissonance behavioral learning functional adaptation selective learning Answer: a Page: 108 Rationale: Cognitive learning involves making the connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others’ behavior and adjusting your own accordingly. c. c. a. b. cognitive dissonance selective retention selective comprehension stimulus generalization stimulus discrimination Answer: e Page: 111 Rationale: Stimulus discrimination refers to a person's ability to perceive differences among similar products. 5-112 COGNITIVE LEARNING DEFINITION Making connections between two or more ideas or simply observing the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjusting one's own behavior accordingly is what type of learning? a. d. e. 291 . d. b. a. e. c. e. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—cognitive learning 5-113 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION In the first chapter of this text. d. the authors describe how marketing is not something alien to you like Shakespeare or physics—it is something you are already very familiar with because you observe marketing throughout many different facets of life.

CONCEPTUAL Answer: e Page: 109 Rationale: Brand loyalty is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. b. Stimulus discrimination Cognitive learning Brand loyalty Stimulus generalization Behavioral learning Answer: b Page: 108 Rationale: Marketers attempt to influence cognitive learning by linking a brand with an idea. Brand loyalty results from the positive reinforcement of previous actions. 5-115 BRAND LOYALTY DEFINITION __________ is a favorable attitude toward and consistent purchase of a single brand over time. Brand bias Brand discrimination Brand loyalty Behavioral learning Selective perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—brand loyalty 5-116 BRAND LOYALTY Which of the following statements about brand loyalty is true? a. c.5-114 COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLICATION When Betty Crocker advertises that baking a cake from one of its mixes tastes just like homemade. Betty Crocker is linking a box mix to home cooking. it is influencing which type of learning? a. b. c. Learning is closely connected to brand loyalty because habits are learned. e. b. Brand loyalty can reduce the perceived risk associated with the buying of certain products. d. 292 . The incidence of brand loyalty is declining in North America. d. e. c. In this case. e. Brand loyalty is accurately described by all of the above. a. d.

belief. c. taste or use of the products without labels). e. This strong brand preference is the result of: a. and cosmetics. Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Habit formation is the basis of routine problem solving. consumers have strong preferences for specific brands of these products. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: An attitude is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. belief value attitude motivation perception Answer: c Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—attitude 293 . consumers are unable to distinguish among brands when given blind tests (i. and there is a close link between habits and brand loyalty. perception. attitude. high-involvement problem solving. extended problem solving. liquors. personal problem solving. b. value. b.5-117 BRAND LOYALTY CONCEPTUAL Considerable research has documented that in many product categories. routine problem solving. beer. 5-119 ATTITUDE DEFINITION A(n) __________ is a learned predisposition to respond to an object or class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way. e.e. motivation. c. c. 5-118 ATTITUDE A learned predisposition to be thrifty or patriotic reflects a(n): a. d. e. limited problem solving. even when prices are similar. a. d. b. Nonetheless. d. Such products include cigarettes.

but slow. changing the importance of a specific attribute. adding a new important attribute. stimulus generalization. Answer: e Page: 110 Rationale: Marketers use all of the first three approaches in attempts to change consumer attitudes. d. 294 . Promoting a new benefit of continuous Internet connection should lead to a favorable attitude toward the cell phone by: a. c. e. b. e. e. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing the perceived importance of attributes. c. Companies have spent millions of dollars in their attempts to change consumer attitudes. Cell phones that can be connected to computer modems and used to upload or download information are commonplace. Answer: c Page: 110 Rationale: Adding a new attribute--always-on feature—is one of three methods of attitude change available to marketers. b. d. reducing perceived risk. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. All of the above statements about changing consumer attitudes are true. b. Motorola joined with VoiceStream to create a phone that has an always-on Internet connection. 5-122 ATTITUDE CHANGES APPLICATION Cell phones have been available for quite awhile and Motorola is a recognized brand name of cell phones. a. Marketers attempt to change attitudes by adding new attributes to a product. Marketers spend lots of money on activities to change attitudes. Beliefs Values Attitudes Predispositions Opinions Answer: a Page: 109 Rationale: Key term definition—beliefs 5-121 ATTITUDE CHANGE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about changing consumer attitudes is true? a. d.5-120 BELIEFS DEFINITION __________ are one’s perception of how a product or brand performs on different attributes. because it is so difficult to do. c. changing beliefs about a specific attribute.

d. e. Most people already know Tums contains calcium. Answer: a Page: 110 Rationale: Tums is trying to change the perceived importance of consuming calcium. The new promotion is trying to change the attitude toward Tums by: a. changing the basic product. e. When Febreeze was introduced. b. changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes. c. it is hoped consumers will have a more favorable attitude towards Tums. d. b. it was tagged as a pet killer. c. lowering the price. a. Since consumers know Tums already contains calcium. Answer: a Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: P&G had to change consumers' beliefs that the spray was deadly to their pets before consumers could see the value of its odor controlling capabilities. lowering the price. This promotion to debunk a false claim changed consumers' attitudes by: a. adding a new attribute to the product.5-123 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Tums antacid stresses the fact that it is a calcium supplement in its advertisements. By focusing on this attribute. e. changing the perceived importance of the attribute. changing the basic product. what they consider important in their environment. c. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. adding a new attribute and re-positioning the product. adding a new attribute to the product. culture subculture social class lifestyle reference group Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—lifestyle 295 . 5-124 ATTITUDE CHANGE APPLICATION Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray manufactured by Procter & Gamble. a new attribute had not been added. 5-125 LIFESTYLE DEFINITION A __________ is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources. It also stresses the health benefits of calcium. b. P&G had to spend lots of money debunking the false claim and request help from the ASPCA before consumers would purchase the product in the numbers expected. and what they think of themselves and the world around them. d.

what they consider important (interests). physiological needs. social statistics. e. and what they think of themselves and the world (opinions). e. including eating out. which is identified by how people spend their time. sociographics. Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: One aspect of lifestyle is way of living. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110 Rationale: Text term definition—psychographics 5-127 LIFESTYLE CONCEPTUAL Which of the following is NOT a good measure of consumer lifestyle. c. d.5-126 PSYCHOGRAPHICS Another name for the analysis of consumer lifestyle is: a. psychographics. stage of the decision process. 5-128 LIFESTYLE APPLICATION Ads depicting happy families in Red Lobster restaurants are segmenting the market based on: a. including hobbies). cognitive learning level. b. b. e. demographics. consumer socialization. Interests Activities Opinions Norms Hobbies Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identified by how people spend their time and resources (activities. family life cycle. d. b. or psychographics? a. c. c. 296 . lifestyles. d.

c. d. purchasing behavior studies.5-129 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM The SRI's VALS Program is one of the most prominent examples of: a. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 110 Other Location: web Rationale: VALS stands for Values and Lifestyles. Principle-oriented consumers are older consumers. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as status-oriented consumers. The acronym VALS stands for Value. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as action-oriented consumers. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—principle-oriented consumers 297 . Principle-oriented consumers are members of Generation X. Experiencers and Makers are both classified as action-oriented consumers. d. e. e. Principle-oriented Status-oriented Action-oriented Reward-oriented Achievement-oriented Answer: a Page: 110. lifestyle analysis programs. learning theories studies. b. c. The VALS program seeks to explain why and how consumers make purchase decisions. language study programs. d. developed by SRI International and currently run by SRI Consulting Business Intelligence. Believers and Fulfilleds are both classified as principle-oriented consumers. studies on the hierarchy of effects. 5-131 LIFESTYLE: PRINCIPLE-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION According to the VALS program. and Learned Suppositions. 5-130 LIFESTYLE: VALS PROGRAM Which of the following statements about the VALS program is true? a. which consumer group tries to match their behavior with their views of how the world is or should be? a. b. b. c. e. Attitudes. CONCEPTUAL Answer: d Page: 110 Rationale: The most prominent example of lifestyle (or psychographic) analysis is the VALS program.

e. reward-oriented. c. e. action-oriented. fulfillers. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 110. Figure 5-6 Rationale: These are all characteristics of actualizers. believers. achievement-oriented. Answer: a Page: 111. achievement-oriented. consumers who account for eight percent of the population and are successful. b. e. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—action-oriented consumers 5-134 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. sophisticated. d. take-charge people with high self-esteem and abundant resources are called: a. active. c. 298 . Figure 5-6 Rationale: Text term definition—status-oriented consumers 5-133 LIFESTYLE: ACTION-ORIENTED CONSUMERS DEFINITION Consumers who are intensely involved in social and physical activity. d. c. status-oriented. achievers. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psychographic segmentation. Answer: c Page: 110. principle-oriented. reward-oriented. strugglers. actualizers. and are risktakers are: a. status-oriented. d. action-oriented.5-132 LIFESTYLE: STATUS-ORIENTED CONSUMERS Consumers who are motivated by the actions and opinions of others are: a. b. b. enjoy variety. principle-oriented.

psychographics and demographics. personality and lifestyle. Two important aspects of personal influence are: a. c.5-135 LIFESTYLE: STRUGGLERS DEFINITION According to the VALS profile. c. word-of-mouth activity and psychographics. c. which will bloom in consumers' gardens just a few weeks after spring planting so people who didn't or couldn't plant bulbs in the fall will have spring flowers. strugglers. opinions. lifestyle and motivation. opinion leadership and word-of-mouth activity. e. d. consumers who are poor. b. 5-136 LIFESTYLE: ACTUALIZERS APPLICATION Dutch tulip growers have developed pre-sprouted bulbs. b. Figure 5-6 Rationale: Members of the strugglers segment have the least resources and are poor. 299 . Figure 5-6 Rationale: Actualizers enjoy the finer things in life and are receptive to new products. Figure 5-6 illustrates the complete VALS psyhchographic segmentation. actualizers. They also have the most resources to spend on things they value. Strugglers Believers Makers Actualizers Experiencers Answer: d Page: 111. Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. 5-137 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. d. believers. often uneducated. b. or behavior of others. d. Which of the following VALS segments would be most suitable for their product? a. Nurseries plan to promote the pre-sprouted tulips to people who appreciate “finer things” and will pay the premium. e. fulfillers. often uneducated and frequently concerned about their well-being are called: a. achievers. and frequently concerned about their well-being. e. Answer: e Page: 111.

c. They are more likely to be important for products that provide a form of self-expression. a. opinions. b. opinion leaders. c. e. 300 . Two aspects of personal influence that are important to marketing are __________ and word of mouth activity. a reference group. e. b. or behaviors of others. brand loyal consumers.5-138 PERSONAL INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL A consumer's purchases are often influenced by the views. decision makers. a. parental guidance peer pressure opinion leadership government regulation pricing levels Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders exert direct or indirect influence over others and word-of-mouth activity influences others through conversation. d. 5-139 OPINION LEADERS Individuals who have social influence over others are called: a. d. This group consists of __________ for activewear clothing. e. b. d. c. DEFINITION Answer: e Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—opinion leaders 5-140 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Your company is introducing a new line of activewear for teenagers and invites the members of the cheerleading squad to a private display of the line. syncratic decision makers aspirational opinion leaders autonomous leaders joint decision makers Answer: c Page: 112 Rationale: Opinion leaders are individuals who exert direct or indirect social influence over others. achievers.

Answer: a Page: 112 Rationale: The rumor is an example of negative word of mouth. cultural insensitivity. b.5-141 WORD OF MOUTH People influencing each other during conversations is called: a. publicity. misinformed business strategy. Action-oriented consumers Principle-oriented consumers Suncultures Social classes Reference groups Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—reference groups 301 . c. consumer ethnocentrism. negative word of mouth. b. which is people influencing each other in personal conversations. a. e. e. c. DEFINITION Answer: d Page: 112 Rationale: Key term definition—word of mouth 5-142 WORD OF MOUTH CONCEPTUAL Febreeze is an odor-controlling spray that is manufactured by Procter & Gamble. b. If Procter & Gamble had not been so convinced it was a potentially very successful product. personal selling. a lack of back translation. it was tagged as a pet killer by people in a chat room and the rumor spread. action-oriented communication. word of mouth. d. opinion making. d. c. When Febreeze was introduced. d. e. Febreeze could have been deleted from the P&G product line as a result of: a. 5-143 REFERENCE GROUPS DEFINITION __________ are people to whom an individual looks as a basis for self-appraisal or as a source of personal standards.

An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. A dissociative group is one that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. d. e. c. d.5-144 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person actually belongs is called a(n) __________ group. dissociative aspiration membership identification political Answer: c Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Consumers have many reference groups. 302 . a. b. b. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—membership group 5-145 REFERENCE GROUPS: MEMBERSHIP GROUP CONCEPTUAL Students who wear sweatshirts displaying the Greek letters for fraternities or sororities to which they belong are demonstrating pride in a(n) __________ group a. c. A membership group is one to which a person actually belongs. e. e. a. d. a golf club would focus its marketing efforts on people who view the current members as a (n) __________ group. but three groups have clear marketing implications. b. achieving aspiration dissociative pressure involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be identified with. new members should view the golf club members as an aspiration group. c. 5-146 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION To attract new members. Besides wanting the chance to play.

that a person wishes to maintain a distance from because of differences in values or behaviors. c. b. preference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-148 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP An aspiration group is a group: a. a. e. e. to which a person belongs. d. including fraternities and social clubs. DEFINITION Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—aspiration group 5-149 REFERENCE GROUPS: DISASSOCIATIVE GROUP DEFINITION A reference group that a person wishes to maintain distance from because of differences in values or behaviors is called a(n) __________ group. a. that a person knows he or she can never really fit into because of basic cultural differences. b. d. b. that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. d. c. that a person feels is excessively high above him or her socioeconomically. e. c.5-147 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP DEFINITION A reference group to which a person wishes to belong or wishes to be associated with is called a(n): __________ group. primary reference membership aspiration disassociative integrated Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—disassociative group 303 .

d. and your market was primarily made up of people just like Wright.. c. e. If you were the marketing VP for Quality Electronics.5-150 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION The American Express advertising claim that "membership has its privileges" creates which type of reference group? a. b. Inc. e. He believes having the right equipment is important because many people will see the stereo when they visit his home. a. Aspiration group Dissociative group Secondary reference group Integrated group Membership group Answer: a Page: 113 Rationale: An aspiration group is one that a person wishes to be a member of or wishes to be identified with. 5-152 REFERENCE GROUPS: ASPIRATION GROUP APPLICATION If a fraternity wanted to attract new members. d. membership aspiration dissociative reference involvement Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Since a fraternity is a membership group. 5-151 REFERENCE GROUPS APPLICATION Frank Wright is a stereo buff who will go to great lengths when making stereo equipment purchases. Situational influences Perceptual risk influences Self-concept influences Reference group influences Cognitive dissonance influences Answer: d Page: 113 Rationale: Reference groups have an important influence on the purchase of luxury products but not of necessities—groups exert a strong influence on the brand chosen when its use and consumption is highly visible to others. e. c. it should focus on people who viewed the current members as a(n) __________ group. b. which influence source would you most likely build into your promotional messages? a. d. c. 304 . b. potential new members should view the fraternity as an aspiration group.

and decision-making within the family or household. necessary to earn the approval of their family. required to get along with other consumers at the supermarket and in other retail outlets. c. d. necessary to function as consumers. d. c. d. important to being able to know the manager at the point of sale when they go shopping. passage through the family life cycle. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. b. and attitudes: a. 5-154 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION __________ is the process by which people acquire the skills. e. knowledge. Consumer acclamation Consumer socialization Consumer enculturation Purchasing socialization Purchasing enculturation Answer: b Page: 113 Other Location: web Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 5-155 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. b.5-153 FAMILY INFLUENCE CONCEPTUAL __________ influences on consumer behavior result from consumer socialization. c. e. e. Functional Demographic Family Social Personal Answer: c Page: 113 Rationale: Family influence on consumer behavior results from three sources: consumer socialization. and decision-making within the family. a. b. a. Answer: e Page: 113 Rationale: Text term definition—consumer socialization 305 . knowledge. passage through the family life cycle. necessary to spot special sales and report them to other retailers.

5-157 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE DEFINITION The family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through. c. 306 . b. she is allowed to make her own selection. d. d. automobiles. consumer socialization.5 percent of all households today are composed of traditional families. knowledge. purchasing enculturation. When Megan purchases the item. Only 23. Young singles represent a target market for recreational travel. Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Consumer socialization is the process by which people acquire the skills. Singles with children are the least financially secure of households with children. birth to death formation to retirement the birth of children to retirement the birth of children until children leave home marriage to retirement unless a divorce occurs Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Key term definition—family life cycle 5-158 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE Which of the following statements about the family life cycle is true? a. If the item desired costs more than $2. c. In this way. d. and engage in interaction necessary with the sales clerk. b. Then she takes Megan shopping and allows her to select what she wants to buy. The most financially secure of any of the family groups is singles with children. consumer acclamation. each bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. pay for it herself. CONCEPTUAL Answer: b Page: 113 Rationale: Regarding the incorrect options. Megan's mother suggests she save her money until she has enough saved to pay for the desired item. purchasing socialization. e. e. from __________.5-156 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION CONCEPTUAL Beth gives Megan $2 allowance a week. Young marrieds with children are the most likely group to buy life insurance. Young singles are more likely to buy life insurance than any other group. b. a. The majority of households today are composed of traditional families. and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. Megan's mother encourages the development of: a. c. the family life cycle concept describes the distinct phases a family progresses through from formation to retirement. consumer enculturation. and consumer electronics. The family life cycle concept describes a continuum along which developing families can be arbitrarily placed. e.

Her company sells products that are likely to produce cognitive dissonance. and homes. Which of the following is most likely to be present in this report? a. joint and spouse-dominant. Middle class customers will be very receptive to the firm’s promotional campaigns. d. 5-160 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The two major styles of family decision making are: a. e. joint and family-integrated. vacation. With autonomous decision making. Only introverts use competitors’ products.5-159 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE APPLICATION Cathy is the director of marketing for a manufacturer of laundry detergent. b. joint and judgmental. the information in answer e is most likely to be in the report. CONCEPTUAL Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Two decision-making styles exist: spouse dominant and joint decision-making. medicine. and car maintenance. She has just received a research report using family life cycle related data. c. 307 . 5-161 FAMILY DECISION MAKING Which of the following statements about family decision making is true? a. b. both the husband and the wife make most decisions. e. Young married couples with children are heavy users of her company’s products. The use of joint decision making is related to the educational levels achieved by the spouses. The firm’s customers have very active life-styles. Decisions about cars. c. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: Since family life cycle concept describes the stages a family progresses through from formation to retirement. and homes are typically made jointly. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: As a rule. With autonomous decision making. democratic and autocratic. The two types of family decision making are joint and spouse-dominant. c. the husband would make all the decisions about groceries. Spouse dominant decisions are those for which either the husband or wife is responsible. The two types of family decision making are joint and autonomous. e. d. With a joint decision-making style. vacation. Wives typically make decisions about food and medicine. b. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. d. spouse-dominant and spouse-submissive. most decisions are made by the male. joint decision making increases with the education of the spouses. Husbands tend to make all decisions about cars.

b. achiever. outer directed. b. c. Mr.5-162 FAMILY DECISION MAKING The five roles of individual family members in family decision making are: a. and a gatekeeper. Monroe and Wendy acted as information gatherers. c. Mr. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. c. d. Gatekeeper is not one of the five roles listed in the text. Wendy acted as a user and an influencer. Answer: d Page: 114 Rationale: The five roles are information gatherer. e. CONCEPTUAL membership group. 308 . Monroe and Wendy acted as users and influencers. opinion leader. inner directed. need driven. purchaser. Monroe said what they bought would depend on what Keith learned. and user. influencer. purchaser. decision-maker. Monroe acted as an information gatherer. Family members assume different roles for different products and services and this knowledge is important to marketers. and user. Wendy Monroe asked that the new computer have a faster modem for her chat room visits. a user. purchaser. users. influencer. Car tires Children's toys Family vacations Medicine All of the above Answer: c Page: 114 Rationale: Family vacations are typically selected jointly. emulator. and user. belonger. opinion leader. 5-163 FAMILY DECISION MAKING CONCEPTUAL Which type of purchase is most likely to be the result of joint family decision making? a. Monroe suggested the new computer needed an ergonomic keyboard. Mrs. decision-maker. Monroe took on all of the roles. e. Mr. b. influencer. and user. Monroe did not engage in information gathering. and decision makers. decision-maker. he told Keith to do that. an influencer. sustainer. d. the father told Keith to determine what features were needed and some costs. e. Answer: d Page: 114 Other Location: web Rationale: Mrs. Keith did not take on the role of decision maker. experiential. 5-164 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION When Keith Monroe told his father the family needed a new computer. aspiration group. because she was having some problems with her wrists. Keith took on all the roles except that of purchaser. information gatherer. opinion leader. Mrs. and decision-maker. Mrs. decision-maker. that role was taken by his father. d.

e. and information gatherer. want to go to the beach. b. The mother and the daughter. The paternal grandmother. user. a mother. c. Which of the following sentences BEST describes the roles the individual family members played in making this decision? a. who lives with them. The family has to decide to move the grandparents to an assisted living facility. d. wants to visit relatives in New York. 5-166 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION The Lee family is composed of five children. b. d. Since the father will make the final vacation decision. Because the father asks her to find out the cost and accommodations for a trip to New York. Mary. the grandparents are the only family members who will have the role of: a. c. Answer: e Page: 114 Rationale: The grandmother is an influencer. she is also an information gatherer. information gatherer. The grandmother plays the roles of user. Therefore. There is no family member serving as information gatherer. e. decision maker. gatekeeper. The females in the family only play two roles—users and influencers. influencer. given her choice to go to New York.5-165 FAMILY DECISION MAKING APPLICATION It is time for the Ramirez family to plan its annual vacation. The only role played by the mother and the grandmother is influencer. Answer: a Page: 114 Rationale: The grandparents are the only people who will be living in the assisted living facility. The father asks his mother to determine how much a trip to New York would cost the family and if they could stay with relatives while they were there. a father. he has taken on all of the roles. influencer. The father wants to stay home this year and use the vacation money to work on the house. In terms of the roles played by individual family members. and one set of grandparents. 309 . they are the only ones to have the role of user.

African-Americans spend more than whites on children’s apparel. and attitudes are referred to as: a. or national. b. There are no differences between African-Americans buying patterns and white buying patterns. d. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice. Answer: d Page: 115 Other Location: web Rationale: Key term definition—subculture 5-168 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. African-Americans respond more to products that appeal to their heritage. Answer: e Page: 115 Rationale: Although similarities outweigh differences. 5-169 AFRICAN-AMERICAN BUYING PATTERNS CONCEPTUAL Which of the following statements about African-American buying patterns is true? a. normative groups. African-American men spend more on health and beauty products than white men. Recent research indicates that while African-Americans are price conscious.5-167 SUBCULTURE DEFINITION Subgroups within the larger. subcultures. and telephone services. The typical African-American family is five years younger than the typical white family. c. reference groups. While price-conscious. The typical African-American family is five years older than the typical white family. family life-cycle stages. b. d. African American women spend three times more on health and beauty products than while women. disassociative groups. For example. c. 310 . c. African-Americans are strongly motivated by quality and choice. While African-Americans are price conscious. d. e. culture with unique values. b. ideas. All of the above statements about African-American buying patterns are true. all of the alternatives describe consumption patterns that differ between African-Americans and whites. African-American women spend more on health and beauty products than white women. Answer: d Page: 115 Rationale: There are differing consumption patterns between African-Americans and whites. footwear. e. e. they are strongly motivated by quality and choice.

c. Answer: e Page: 116 Rationale: Research on Hispanic buying practices has uncovered each of the buying patterns described in a. e. CONCEPTUAL Hispanics are willing to pay a premium price for premium quality and are brand loyal. and recent immigrants. non-assimilated. b. c. b. Hispanic buying preferences are strongly influenced by family and peers. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great that generalizations about buying patterns of this group are difficult to make. and d.5-170 HISPANIC BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Hispanic buying patterns is true? a. b. 311 . Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very different from the typical American consumer. Convenience of use is not an important product attribute to Hispanic homemakers. d. e. All of the above statements about Hispanic buying patterns are true. Generalizations about buying patterns of Asian-Americans are difficult to make because there is great diversity among its members. Assimilated Asian-Americans exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. 5-171 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS Which of the following statements about Asian buying patterns is true? a. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests individuals and families divide into three groups—assimilated. with respect to food preparation or consumption. c. Consumer research on Asian-Americans suggests that individuals and families divide into assimilated and non assimilated. d. Asian-Americans are the fastest growing racial/ethnic subculture. Asian-Americans are the slowest growing racial/ethnic subculture. Hispanics consider advertising a credible product information source. All of the above statements about Asian-American buying patterns are true.

d. requiring eight different varieties of California-grown rice. each with a different Asian label The diversity of the Asian subculture is so great the generalizations about the buying patterns are difficult to make All of the above Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Assimilated Asian-Americans are conversant in English. is in medical school. clinging to their ancestral language and customs Assimilated. b. and exhibit buying patterns very like other typical American consumers. The family is likely to exhibit which of the following Asian buying patterns? a. a. Susan is a concert pianist at the age of 21. d. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: b Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition--assimilated 5-174 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: NONASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are recent immigrants who still cling to their native languages and customs. c. e. b. a. c. and exhibit buying patterns very much like the typical American consumer. hold professional and managerial positions. b. Non-assimilated. d. e. George. Non-assimilated Assimilated Recent Typical Atypical Answer: a Page: 116 Rationale: Text term definition—nonassimilated 312 . exhibiting buying patterns very much like other typical American consumers Recent immigrants. highly educated. highly educated. Fred is a second-year business student. The oldest son. e.5-172 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS APPLICATION An Asian family living in San Francisco for four generations has three children. c. 5-173 ASIAN BUYING PATTERNS: ASSIMILATED ASIAN DEFINITION __________ Asian Americans are conversant in English.

the case indicates that the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products.5-175 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. Inc.. d.? a. to its being a local company. Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. INC.. Inc. 5-176 VIDEO CASE: KEN DAVIS PRODUCTS. Inc. its entrance into electronic technologies. e. the efficiency of its national distribution. b. is focus group studies. Mail surveys Telephone surveys In-depth personal interviews Focus group studies The firm does not do market research Answer: d Page: 119 Rationale: Although Barbara Davis solicits informal feedback from current and potential customers. none of the above.. 313 . to: a. Inc. c. d. its being a local company. b. CONCEPTUAL Answer: a Page: 118 Rationale: Barbara Davis attributes the success of Ken Davis Products. CONCEPTUAL What is the primary form of market research conducted by Ken Davis Products. c. INC. the variety of its products. e.

limited. In limited problem solving. and extended problem solving are three general variations in the consumer purchase decision process. or could reflect on the consumer's image. Routine problem solving is used for low-priced.) Page: 103 314 . 4) Purchase decision: decision made after judging the alternatives. 3) Alternative evaluation: consider objective and subjective attributes from evoked set. Extended problem solving uses each of the five stages of the consumer purchase decision process because the item to be purchased is expensive. (Student examples will vary. frequently purchased products such as toothpaste or milk. Answer: This purchase would require five purchase decision stages: 1) Problem recognition: the car is needed for the new job. 5) Post-purchase evaluation: evaluate car in terms of expectations. has social consequences. or situations where little time or effort is possible. Products such as stereo equipment. so you will need a car. automobiles. and investments typically require extended problem solving.CHAPTER 5 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR SHORT ESSAY QUESTIONS 5-177 PURCHASE DECISION PROCESS APPLICATION You will be graduating soon and have been offered your dream job. models. and extended problem solving. consumers typically seek some information or rely on a friend to help evaluate alternatives. Page: 100-102 5-178 PROBLEM-SOLVING VARIATIONS CONCEPTUAL Compare and contrast routine problem solving. Using the five steps in the purchase decision process. Give an example of when each might be used. This process may apply to the purchase of a toaster or a decision on a restaurant. and features. You currently do not have one. The new position requires some traveling. describe the process you will go through to make this purchase. limited problem solving. 2) Information search: check internal and external sources for information about different car makes. Little effort is made to seek information or evaluate alternatives. Answer: Routine.

the reason for engaging in the decision in the first place. Page: 103 315 . Having her sister with her while she is shopping relates to the social surroundings. She is planning on taking her sister with her to help make the selection. include the consumer’s mood or the amount of cash on hand which influence purchase behavior and choice. Which situational influence was not described? Answer: The purchase of a special baby gift for a best friend is the purchase task. include the other people present when a purchase decision is made and may also affect what is purchased. 4) temporal effects. wants to buy a special baby gift for her best friend's baby shower. Ruth knows she will be ready to buy every baby thing she sees because she wishes so much that she were pregnant. Since she won't have any time between work and the shower. Answer: Situational influences are: 1) the purchase task. music. Her desire to have a baby of her own is an antecedent state. include surroundings such as décor. 3) physical surroundings. 2) social surroundings. who has no children. too. and crowding in retail stores that may alter how purchase decisions are made. The fact that she has limited shopping time is the temporal effect. which is this evening. The only situational influence not mentioned is physical surroundings.5-179 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES DEFINITION Name and briefly describe the five situational influences that affect the purchase decision processes. 5) antecedent states. Page: 103 5-180 SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES APPLICATION Ruth. such as time of day or the amount of time available that may influence consumer purchase decisions. Identify each of the situational influences that are described in this question. she must shop today during her lunch break.

Page: 110 316 . read. the viewer might be unable to name the advertiser. Consumers learn which information sources to use. Answer: The human brain employs a process called selective perception to organize and interpret information. selective comprehension. Page: 108 5-183 ATTITUDE CHANGE DEFINITION/APPLICATION CONCEPTUAL What are the three approaches marketers use to change consumers attitudes? How might Ford Motor Company apply these three methods in its marketing activities? Answer: 1) Changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attitudes—Ford may emphasize quality control in its ads to reduce consumers concerns about reliability. which evaluative criteria to use when assessing alternatives.5-181 SELECTIVE PERCEPTION CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION How do selective perception. a loud and intrusive television commercial for a used car lot might attract the attention of a viewer. 2) Changing the perceived importance of attributes—Ford might try to increase the perceived importance of pollution control in automobiles and then create awareness of Ford's pollution control characteristics. but shortly after it was over. Selective exposure occurs when people pay attention to messages that are consistent with their attitudes and beliefs and ignore messages that are inconsistent. when the caller finished the listener might say that the caller made no sense at all. and. a person who was trying to lose weight might interpret a "low fat" mayonnaise as "no fat. (Student examples will vary. For example. For example. even minutes after exposure to it. how to make purchase decisions. however logical the message had actually been.) Page: 106-107 5-182 LEARNING Why is learning important to marketing? Answer: Learning is important to marketing because much consumer behavior is learned. such as a video tape player for people in back seat. Selective comprehension involves interpreting information so it is consistent with one's attitudes and beliefs. This might occur when a radio talk show had a caller whose political views were contrary to those of the listener. and hope consumers will perceive this new attribute favorably." and therefore as having no effect on gaining weight. Learning is also important because it relates to habit formation which is the basis of routine problem solving and brand loyalty. selective exposure. 3) Adding new attributes to the product—Ford might add a new attribute. or hear. in general. Selective retention means consumers do not remember all the information they see. and selective retention differ? Provide an example to illustrate each.

the makers of Dr. For example. In other words. As early as age two. he was selected for the Dr Pepper ads with the hope he would act as an opinion leader—an individual with a social influence over other people. 2) their own purchasing and product usage experiences. Children learn how to purchase by: 1) interacting with adults in purchase situations. lifestyle analysis has proven useful in segmenting and targeting consumers for new and existing products. and what they think of themselves and the world around them (opinions). Pepper because of Brooks’ endorsement of the product. The analysis of consumer life-styles (also called psychographics) has produced many insights into consumer's behavior. children may develop brand preferences which may last a lifetime.5-184 LIFESTYLE What does lifestyle mean and why is it important to marketers? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Lifestyle is a way of living that is identifiable by how people spend their time (activities). Page: 110 5-185 OPINION LEADERS APPLICATION Why would Dr Pepper select country music performer Garth Brooks to appear in an ad campaign? How would he be a sociocultural influence on consumer behavior? Answer: Garth Brooks is a famous country music performer and he would have a personal influence on consumers. Page: 113 317 . and attitudes necessary to function as consumers. knowledge. Pepper hope that consumers are influenced to buy Dr. Page: 112 5-186 CONSUMER SOCIALIZATION DEFINITION/CONCEPTUAL What is consumer socialization? How do children learn how to purchase? Answer: Consumer socialization is a process by which people acquire the skills. what they consider important in their environment (interests). Because he is famous and many people regard him favorably.

culture. These differences can be observed on the menus of restaurants and in the product inventories of grocery stores where such subcultures represent a significant portion of the local population. For example. Therefore.5-187 FAMILY LIFE CYCLE How is the family life cycle related to marketing? CONCEPTUAL Answer: Consumers act and purchase differently as they go through life. ideas. ideas. young singles' buying preferences are for nondurable items. Variations in American subcultures also involve styles of dress. Page: 113 5-188 SUBCULTURE CONCEPTUAL/APPLICATION What is a subculture? What are some examples of products targeted at American subcultures? Answer: Subculture refers to a subgroup with unique values. all of which affect consumer marketing significantly. and special Campbell's soups for the Southwest. which holds that each family progresses through a number of distinct phases from point of formation to retirement. the importance of subcultural differences becomes apparent. but may include the observation that a subculture made up of people of English ancestry may like creamed fish and minced beef in a cup of Yorkshire pudding. ProLine beauty products for Blacks. From this observation comes the family life cycle concept. (Student examples will vary. subculture is frequently used to target markets. Page: 115-117 318 . Hispanic. or Asian American. while young married couples without children typically purchase home furnishings and gifts for each other. or national. Companies recognize that the norms and values of subculture also affect purchasing behavior. When one recognizes that one in four Americans today is African American. among many other factors. each phase bringing with it identifiable purchasing behaviors. describe how the values. whereas Texans may prefer chicken fried steak. A Pennsylvania-Ohio subculture can favor scrapple for breakfast. types of music enjoyed. or from what you have heard from a friend or relative.) Page: 115-117 5-189 SUBCULTURE APPLICATION From your own experience. whereas people of Hungarian ancestry may prefer carp soup and lots of paprika in their stews. Examples of some marketing efforts directed at American subcultures include McDonald's promotions in Spanish. and home decor. Answer: Student example will vary. and attitudes within the larger. and attitudes of a particular American subculture can affect the marketing of a product.

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