pmom;wpfrsufESmvQif aiGusyfwpfoef;ESifh wefaeaom

þtHhbeef; pmtkyfrl&if;

a,meoH Zifa,mf\
xl;axG qef;jym;yHk (6) csuf
(1) jzpfay:vmyHktxl;
pma&;olukd,fwkdifu 0efcHonfrSm olonf þpmtkyfukd a&;olomjzpfí jyKpkolrSm olr[kwf&ygaMumif;?
jyKpkolonf þurÇmrS tjcm;yk*d¾Kvf wpfOD;vnf; r[kwfygwJh/
(2) ausmfMum;vmyHktxl;
aMumfjim twGuf txl;wvnf aiGukefaMu;us rcH&bJ? avnmwGifyef;&dS avatmufuod qkdovdk
pmayowif; EIwfavn§if; oufoufjzihfom wGifus,fvmjcif; jzpfonf/
(3) teuft"dyÜg,fxl;yHk
pmtaeusOf;oavmuf pmteufus,fonf/ BuD;i,fr[l zwf½Iolwkdif;onf avmuDavmukwf tusdK;twGuf
rdrdwkdhtBudKuf p½dkuf0goem txHktvkduf t"dyÜg,faumufMuNyD; yDwdjzpfvsuf pHEIef;jyKzG,f twk,lzG,f
tcsufrsm;ukd awGhMuonfcsnf; jzpfonf/ zwfzl;aom olu tjcm;olrsm;ukdvnf; twif;zwfckdif;onfcsnf;
jzpfonf/
(4) pmzwfy&dowfxl;yHk
vlhtvTmtukefESifh vlwef;pm;tm;vHk;ukd tkyfNcHK pyf[yfrdaeavaomaMumifh? urÇmhtaemuf wpfjcrf;wGif
q,fausmfoufrsm;rS oufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm;txd? ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;rSonf ygarmu©rsm;txd?
tvkyform;rsm;rSonf 'g½dkufwm refae*smrsm;txd? bmoma&; t,HktMunf r&dSolrsm;rSonf bmomrsdK;pHk
*kdPf;csKyf*kdPf;tkyfrsm;txd? ukefonf v,fvkyf yGJpm;rusef 0,fMu? zwfMu? aqG;aEG;Mu azmufonfcsMu?
a0zefMu? ½IHcsMu? csD;rGrf;Mu? vufaqmiftjzpf 0,fay;MuESifh tkwftkwfusufusuf jzpfaeMuonf/
(5) aiGpnfyHktxl;
&ESifhNyD; aiGa':vm (74) odef; nDrQ usyfaiG (4) uka#xJwGif EkdifiHwumtm; xyfrH½dkufEdSyfjzefhjzL;cGifh
bmomjyefxkwfa0cGifhrsm;ukd a&mif;csí&aom aiGrsm;ESifh ½kyf&Sif½dkufNyD;í jyoaomtcg ay:vmOD;rnfh
tjrwfaiG\ &mckdifEIef; ig;q,fwkdh ryg0ifao;acs? ,if;aiGrsm;rygao;bJ avmavmq,f pmwpfvHk; usyf
5000d EIef; pnfESifhaeonf/ ( 1970 ausmfu wefzkd;jzpfygonf/ ,ckwefzkd;ukd rSef;MunhfMuyg/)
(6) ta&mif;&oufwrf;&SnfyHktxl;
urÇmhpmtkyfavmuwGif ta&mif;&qHk; rnfonfhpmtkyfrqkd xkwfa0aomtcgrSpí 4-5-6 vomvQif
ta&mif;&qHk; pmtkyfpm&if;wGif qufygaeEkdifonf/ þpmtkyfrl 1970 ckESpfrSpí? ,ck 1973 ckESpf
Zlvkdifvwkdifatmifvnf; urÇmhta&mif;&qHk; pmtkyfq,ftkyf pm&if;pOfBuD;wGif qufwkdufyg0ifNrJ
yg0ifaeqJjzpfonf/

rmwdum
tykdif; (1)
iSuftkyfavmuukd pGefhcGmvkdjcif; . . . . . . 1
tMuOfcH&jcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
tykdif; (2)
urf;ukefatmif wwfpGrf;jcif; . . . . . . . 9
iSuftkyfavmuokdh jyefoGm;jcif; . . . . . . 14
oifwef;pjcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
tykdif; (3)
q&mrked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
aojcif; . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
cspfjcif;w&m;awmfjrwf . . . . . . . . . . . 27

a,meoH Zifa,mf

boef; ( "r®du )

tykdif; (1)
iSuftkyfavmuukd pGefhvkdjcif;
tcsdefonfum; eHeufcif;/ opfvGifaom aerif;onf odrfarGhvSaom yifv,fjyif\ td&&dvIdif;i,frsm;ukd
a&Ttqif;wvufvufjzifh NydK;jyufwifhvQrf;aeap\/
urf;ajcrS wpfrkdiftuGmwGif wHigavSwpfpif;onf yifv,fa&ukd zuferf;arTh,rf;vsuf&dS\/ iSufZifa,mf
taygif;tzkdh eHeufpm opfpnf½kdufoHonf avxkukd jzwfausmfvmí taumifwaxmifausmf yg&dSaom
yifv,fZifa,mf iSufwpftkyfonf ay:vmNyD; tpmrsm;ukd olhxufig wkd;a0Sh vk,ufaeMuukef\/ Zifa,mfrsm;tzkdh
ysm;yef;cyfrQ tvkyfrsm;aom aehwaeh\ tpaywnf;/
okdhaomfvnf; a,meoHZifa,mfrlum; avSESifhvnf;reD; urf;ESifhvnf;a0;uGmaom ae&mwGif olcsnf;
waumifxnf;wnf; tysHavhusifhaeav\/ ayw&m tjrifhaumif;uifwGif olhajcaxmufrsm;ukd atmufodkhcsí
EIwfoD;ukdarmhum awmifyHrsm;ukd ukdif;nTwfvmatmifjyKvsuf cufcJemusifpGmjzifh tysHavhusifhae\/ awmifyHrsm;ukd
uk d i f ; nT w f v matmif jyKvk y f j cif ; onf tysH a ES ; jcif ; iS m pG r f ; Ek d i f a vonf / ol h r suf E S m uk d avajyavn§ i f ;
omomuav;wkd;umrQom jzpfonfhwkdifatmifvnf;aumif;? yifv,fonf olhatmufwnfhwnfhü wefh&yfae[ef
&dSvmonfh wkdifatmifvnf;aumif; olonf t&dSefukd avQmhíavQmhí csae\/ olonf rsufpdrsm;ukd arS;um
aMumufzG,fvdvd pl;pl;pkdufpkduf Munhfhvsuf toufatmifhí awmifyHrsm;ukd wvuf . . . r . . . rQ ykdí
ukdif;nTwfvkdufonf/ xdktcg olhtarT;rsm;onf axmifBuGvmNyD;vQif olonf ½kyfao;BudK;jywf bHk;bHk;BuD;
atmufokdhusav\/
yifv,fZifa,mfwkdh[lonf tysHwGif rnfonfhtcgrQ wdrf;,kdifjcif;vnf; r&dS½kd;trSef/ b,faomtcgrQ
wvdrfhacgufauG; usjcif;vnf; r&dS½kd;trSef/ yifv,fZifa,mfwkdh tzkd þodkhjzpf&jcif;onf &SufzG,fvdvdjzpfí
*kPfodu©mvnf; usbd\/
okdhaomfvnf; a,meoHZifa,mfonf uavu0 aumufu& iSufNydef;waumifr[kwf/ r&SufraMumufbJ
awmifyHrsm;ukd xyfrHíjzefhum? xyfrHí wkefwkefcgcg cufcufcJcJ ukdif;nTwfumom t&dSeft[kef avQmh&mavQmh&mrS
tawmifrsm;avckdí wzefusjyefaomfvnf; t½IH;ray;bJ wzef tm;opfavh&dSaom iSufpGrf;aumif;aywnf;/
yifv,fZifa,mf tajrmuftjrm;onf urf;ajcrSonf tpm&dS&mokdh tpm&dSrSonf urf;ajcokdh or½dk;ustwkdif;om
ysHwwfMu\/ xkdhxufykdí tysHwwfatmif *½krrlMu/ iSufZifa,mf trsm;pktzkdh ysHoef;rIonf ta&;BuD;aomudpö
r[kwf/ olwkdhtzkdh tpm;pm;rI omvQif ta&;BuD;\/ a,meoHZifa,mftzkdhrl tpmu udpörBuD;vS? tysHomvQif
udpöBuD;jzpf\/ ysHoef;jcif; twwfynmukdomvQif t&m&mxufolykd jrwfEkd;\/
1

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
ol\ þtawG;tac: t,ltqonf olhtm; tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm;ESifh cyfwef;wef; jzpfap\/ waeukef
waumifxnf;wnf; tBudraf ygif; &mESichf sDí tedrw
hf iG f tawmifjzefv
h suf qef;qef;Mu,fMu,f av[kepf ;D trsdK;rsdK;ukd
prf;oyfvsuf avhusifhaeaom a,meoHukdMunfhí olhrdbrsm;uaomfyif aMumufvefhpkd;&drfjcif;jzifh olhtay:
pdwfysufvmMu\/
olhtzkdh todÓPfwrsdK; wkd;vm\/ bmaMumifh[lírl olrod/ a&jyiftxuf olhawmifyHwpfzufpmrQyif
r&dSvSaom tjrifhrsdK;ü olysHavvQif olonf avxJü tm;odyfrpkduf&yJ ykdí MumMumaeEkdif\/ tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm;
vk y f a eustwk d i f ; ajcpH k c sí a&jyif o k d h qif ; ouf j cif ; rsd K ;uk d v nf ; ol j yKavh j yKxr&d S / ajcpH k u k d uk d , f E S i f h
wajy;wnDwnf;jzpfatmif aemufokdh ypfuyfvsufom a&jyifokdh olavQmqif;avh&dS\/ urf;ajcokdh tuyfwGifvnf;
olonf þenf;ESifESif ajcrsm;ukd wGJavmif;rcsbJ avQmqif;\/ ajcaxmufí rDSaomae&mrSpí ukef;bufokdhvnf;
oJjyifay:wGif wvSrf;jcif; avQmufvmavh&dS\/ þZifa,mf rqefaom tusifhrsdK;ukd jrif&Muaom olhrdbrsm;onf
olhtay: tBuD;tus,f trSefyif pdwfysufMu\/
olhrdcifu olhtm; þokhdar;\/ ]]bmjzpfvkdh? a,m&,f/ 'DtkyfxJu rd½dk;zvm wjcm;iSufawGvkd Zifcsif;rQrQ
a,mfcsif;wlwl jzpfvmatmifvkyfzkdh rif;twGuf abmufr,faMumifh cufae&wmwkH;/ rif;[m y,fvDuifiSuf
t,fvfAufpxa&mhpf iSufrsm;ukd abmufr,faMumifh wkwkNyD; tedrfhysH usifhusifhae&wmwHk;/ abmufr,fhaMumifh
tpm;ukdvJ rpm;awmhwmvJ? a,meoH&,f . . . rif;[m t½dk;eJh tarT;csnf; vQyfvQyfom &dSawmhw,f/
]]t½dk;eJh tarT;csnf;yJ &dSawmhwmukd usaemfrrlygbl; arar&,f/ usaemfvJ avxJrSm bmukdvkyfEkdifyD; bmukd
rvkyfEkdifovJ qkdwmukd usaemfodcsifaewmygyJ/ wjcm;r[kwfygbl/ 'gygyJ/ usaemfodcsifaevkdhyg/}}
olhzcifuvnf; olhtm; oem;aomtm;jzifh þokdkhqkd\/ ]]aqmif;OwkvJ ra0;awmhbl;? avSawGvJ
tvmenf ; awmh r ,f / a&jyif u ig;awG v J a&euf x J ajymif ; ul ; Muawmh r ,f / rif ; [m twwf w ck c k u k d
avhvmrSjzpfr,fqkd,if tpm;twwfeJh tpm;&zkdh twwfukdom avhvmprf;yg/ 'DtysHtvkyf[m aumif;awmh
aumif;ayr,fvkdh av[kefpD;wJh tvkyfrsdK;qkdwm pm;&wmrsdK;rS r[kwfyJ? rif;vJ odom;yJ r[kwfvm;/ rif;ysH&wJh
taMumif;&if;[m tpm;pm;rItwGuf jzpfw,fqkdwm rif;rarhprf;ygeJh/}}
a,meoHonf þacscGswf qHk;rcsufukd vufcHaomtrlt&mjzifh ½dkusdK;pGm acgif;ndwf\/ aemuf
&uftenf;i,fcefhwGif olonf tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm;enf;wl aexkdifjyKusifh&ef BudK;pm;awmh\/ wu,fyif
BudK;pm;ayonf/ wHigavSrsm;ESifh abwHwm;wkdifrsm; w0dkufwGif aygifrHk tykdif;tprsm;ukd xkd;okwfumae\/
okdhaomfvnf; olonf þtvkyfrsdK;ukd qufí vkyfraeEkdif/
t"dygÜ ,fr&do
S nfh tvkyrf sKd ;[k olxifro
d nf/ b,fEh ,
S Af sm? Zifa,mftdk tiwfBuD;waumifu olu
h v
dk u
dk x
f ;dk vkhd
oltvkt,uf BudK;pm;&,lxm;wJh ig;ti,fuav; wpfaumifukd wrifwum csay;vkduf&w,f r[kwfvm;/
'Dtpm;twGuf ukef&wJh tcsdefawGukd tysHavhusifhjcif;jzihfom ukefvGefapzkdh aumif;wm/ avhvmp&m oif,lp&m
edó,nf;awGuvJ trsm;BuD;awmifrSyJ/
rsm;rMumrD a,meoHZifa,mfonf yifv,fxüJ olcsn;f xD;wnf; jzpfaejyef\/ qmavmifvsuf aysm&f iT v
f suf
tysHjyefí avhusifhvsuf&dS\/
olavhusifhoif,laeonfum; vsifjrefrIjzpf\/ &ufowåywf wpfywfcefhrQom avhusifhNyD;ao;\/
okdhavmufusifhumrQyif olonf tvsifjrefqHk;[laom touf&SifqJ Zifa,mfxufyif vsifjrefjcif; taMumif;ukd
ykdí od&dS wwfuGsrf;vm\/
aywpfaxmiftjrifh tmum,HwGif olonf ol\ awmifyHrsm;ukd tpGrf;ukef½kdufcwfvsuf t&dSef,lNyD;aemuf
xkdt&dSeft[kefjzifh ½kwfjcnf;aZmufxkd;jyKum wnhfwnhfrwfrwfBuD; atmuf&dS yifv,fvIdif;rsm;qDokdh rD;yGifhvkrwwf
pk d u f x k d ; qif ; ouf \ / þok d h pk d u f x k d ; qif ; ouf r I r S m Zif a ,mf i S u f r sm;tzk d h tvG e f h t vG e f cJ , Of ; aom
tvkyrf sdK;jzpfaMumif;ukd olonf þwpfBudrrf Qjzifh od\/ ajcmufpuúeu
hf mvtwGi;f yif olonf wpfem&DvQif rkid (f 70)
EIef;jzifh vIyf&Sm;ae\/ þEIef;okdh a&mufvQif iSufrsm;tzkdh pkdufxkd;usqif;ae&mrS tay:okdh jyefí aumhwufEkdifatmif
awmifyHrsm; taetxm;ukd tajymif;& txdef;& tvGefyifcufcJ\/
ol o nf tBud r f B ud r f þok d h j zpf \ / rnf o k d h y if owd x m;aomf j im;vnf ; ? rnf o k d h y if tpG r f ; uk e f
tm;opfaomfjim;vnf; tjrefEIef; BuD;vmwkdif; BuD;vmwkdif; þenf; ESifESifyif olhukd,fol rxdef;Ekdifjzpf\/
2

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
aywpfaxmiftjrifh tumaAGokdh olwufNyD;vQif a&S;OD;pGm a&Shwnfhwnfh tm;ukefysH\/ xkdhaemufatmufokdh
apmufxkd;axmifvkdufBuD; pkdufcsvkduf\/ jyefíaumhwuf&mwGif ol\ vuf0JbuftawmifyHonf avckdoGm;í
olonf vuf0JbufqDokdh t&dSefjyif;pGmjzifh vl;vdrfhoGm;\/ ol\ vuf,mbuf awmifyHjzifh jyefíxdef;vkduf&mwGif
xkdawmifyHvnf; avckdoGm;jyefojzifh olonf vuf,mbufqDokdh *sifuJhokdh ywfcsmvnfvsuf wvdrfhacgufauG;
usjyef\/
þwpfBudrf jyeftwufwGifvnf; olowdvpfoGm;jyef\/ q,fBudrfajrmuftxd olBudK;pm;jyef\/
xkdq,fBudrfpvHk; wGifyif wpfem&DvQif rkdif (70) EIef;okdh a&muf&dSaomtcgwkdif; tcgwkdif; olonf tarT;rsm;
wzGm;zGm;jzifh xdef;rekdif odrf;r&jzpfum yifv,fa&xJokdh 0kef;ueJ acG;usus\/
olonf &T&J pJT adk om a&0wfvBkH uD;jzifh aemufq;kH wGif þokx
hd ifr\
d / þtcuf\ aomhcsufonf tjrefEeI ;f BuD;
vmaomtcg awmifyHrsm;ukd rvIyfEkdifatmif xdef;xm;Ekdifjcif; jzpfvdrfhrnf/ awmifyHrsm;ukd tBudrf ig;q,ftxd
½kdufcwfNyD;vQif rvIyfatmif xdef;xm;Ekdifjcif; jzpfvdrfhrnf/
ayESpfaxmiftjrifh AvmaAGokdhwufí BudK;pm;jyef\/ atmufokdh pkdufcsjyef\/ EIwfoD;ukd atmufpkdufvsuf
awmifyHrsm;ukd tukefjzefhvsuf wpfem&DvQif rkdifig;q,fEIef;ukd ausmfonhftcgrSpí olhukd,fol xdef;xm;Ekdif\/
tvGefhtvGef tm;xkwf&av\/ þwpfBudrfürl olatmifjrif\/ q,fpuúefhumvtwGif; olonf wpfem&DvQif
rkdifukd;q,fEIef;okdh a&muf&dSav\/ a,meoHZifa,mfonf Zifa,mfrsm;tzkdh urÇmhtvsifEIef; pHcsdefopf wifvkdufayNyD/
okdhaomf þatmifjrifjcif;onf cPwmrQom Mum\/ pkdufqif;ae&mrS jyefírwfvkdufNyD;vQif olhawmifyHrsm;\
axmifch sdK;ukd jyifvu
dk o
f nfh tjcm;rJüh ,ciftBudrrf sm; twkid ;f yif xde;f rEkid f odr;f r& r½IrvS jzpf&jyef\/ wpfem&DvQif
rdkifukd;q,fEIef;okdh a&mufavaomf avxkonf olhtm; 'dkif;erkduftwl xdckdufvm\/ a,meoH Zifa,mfonf
avxJwGif aygufuGJum yifv,fjyif tkwfcif;ay:okdh 0kef;ueJ us&acs\/
olowdjyef&vmaomtcg aea&mifaysmufuG,foGm;cJhonfrSm MumvSayNyD/ yifv,fjyif0,f va&mifxJü
arsmae\/ ol h a wmif y H r sm;onf EI w f c rf ; em;rsm; pk w f j ywf a eaom cJ a csmif ; rsm;ozG , f av;vH v m\/
xkdawmifyHrsm;xufyif ykdíav;aom tav;csdefrsdK;jzifh qHk;½IH;rIonf olhaMumjyifay:0,f ykdzdwGef;csvsuf&dS\/
xkdtav;csdefu olhtm; yifv,fatmufajcokdh qkdufa&mufatmif qGJcsoGm;Ekdifygap[líyif rmefavQmhum
rwkefwufao;ESifh qE´jyKrd\/ 'grSom udpöNidrf;ayvdrhfrnf/
a&xJokdh epfjrKyfoGm;pOf olhtwGif; oEÅmefxJü xl;qef;í vIdPfoHygaom toHaMomBuD;wpfckukd Mum;&\/
]]a0hvnfaMumifywfvyk af evkhd b,f&yghrvJumG / ig[m Zifa,mfwpfaumify/J ighobm0ukd igvGeq
f efvhdk b,f&yrvJ/
ysHoef;jcif; twwfudk 'gavmufawmif igwwfusG rf;&r,fq&dk if ighacgif;xJrmS OD;aESmufrsm;tpm; avaMumif;twwf
yH k p H c syf a wG o m &d S & rS m aygh / ig'D a vmuf a wmif jref j ref B uD ; ysH E k d i f & r,f q d k & if igh r S m od r f ; iS u f r sm;vk d
tawmifrsm;wkdae&rSmaygh/ ig;ukdrpm;bJ MuGufukdom pm;ae&rSmaygh/ ightaz ajymwmrSefw,f/ 'DrdkufwGif;eufrIukd
igarhypf&r,f/ wjcm;Zifa,mfrsm;&dSwJh ighiSuftkyf&dS&mukd igjyefoGm;&r,f/ ½dk;½dk;omrmef Zifa,mfwpfaumif tjzpfeJhyJ
iga&mifh&JaeEdkif&r,f/
xkdtoHonf wjznf;jznf; aysmufuG,fav\/ yifv,fZifa,mfiSufrsm;tzkdh ntcg usufpm;&mae&monf
urf;ajcomjzpf\/ xkdtcdkufrSpí a,meoHonf omrefZifa,mf wpfaumiftjzpfESifhom aeawmhrnf[k
t"d|mefjyKvkduf\/
olhrdbrsm;ESifh olhtazmftm;vHk;wkdhvnf; olhajymif;vJvmrIukd auseyfMuNyD;vQif pdwfESvHk; ydkí
csrf;ajrhMuvdrfhrnf/
olonf EH;k csdcsdjzifh arSmifraJ eaom a&jyifrS tay:odhk ysHwuf\/ olwwfNyD;om;jzpfonfh odyt
f m;rpku
d &f aom
tedrfhysHenf; twwfukd oljyefí aus;Zl;wifrdonf/
tedrfhysH ysHaerdvsufom; jzpfaeonfukd olowd&í 'Dvkdb,f[kwfrvJ? ig[m t&ifwkef;u igrS
r[kwfawmhbJ/ t&ifwkef;u wwfcJhzl;orQukd ig[m rusifhoHk;&awmhbl;? wjcm; Zifa,mfawGeJh ig[m
wlwlbJr[kwfvm;? wjcm; Zifa,mfawGvkdyJ igysH&r,f/ xkdhaMumifh olonf aywpf&m tjrifhokdh ysHwufNyD;vQif
urf;bufqDokdh wGifwGifBuD; a0[if c&D;ESifav\/
3

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
iSuftkyfxJrS ½dk;½dk;iSufwpfaumif tjzpfESifhom aeawmhrnf[k pdwfykdif;jzpfNyD;rS olhrSm aeomxkdifom
jzpfoGm;\/ olhukd twwfqef; wwfapcsifvkdh tysHqef; toef;qef; vkyfckdif;cJhonfh qE´BuD;ESifh olonf ,ck
tqufjywfavNyD/ ,ckvkd vHk;vHk;vufavQmhvkdufrS t½IH;[lonfvnf;r&dSawmh/ bmukdrQ rpOf;pm;bJ urf;ajcay:&dS
rD;a&mifrsm; &dS&mqDokdh arSmifBuD;xJ ysHoef;ae&onfrSm vSvkdufavjcif;/
arSmifBuD;xJrSm/ þokdhatmfvkdufaom toHarmif;BuD;onf rkd;csKef;vkdufouJhokdh xdefvefhzG,f&m
jrnf[def;vkduf\/ yifv,fZifa,mfrsm;qkdwm b,fawmhrS arSmifBuD; rJBuD;xJ rysHbl;uG/
a,meoHonf xkdtoHukd em;pGifhvkduf&ef owdr&dS/ Munfh&jrif&onfrSm vSvkdufyav [kom olawG;ae\/
a&ay:wGif xif[yfaeaom va&mifESifh rD;a&mifrsm;onf olhtzkdh numvtwGif; xkd;jyvsuf&dSaom vrf;jyrD;wef;
uav;rsm;ozG,f pD&&D &dSbd\/ wdwfqdwfí omawmifhom,m &dSvS\/
atmufukd qif;ysHuG/ Zifa,mfrsdK;qkdwm b,fawmhrS arSmifBuD; rJBuD;xJrSm rysHbl;uG/ rif;omarSmifBuD;xJ
ysH&rnfh iSurf sdK;jzpfae&if rif;rSm ZD;uGurf sufpad wG &d&S rSmaygh/ rif;&Jah cgif;xJrmS OD;aESmufrsm;tpm; avaMumif;twwf
yHkpHcsyfawGom &dS&rSmaygh? rif;[m odrf;iSufvdk tawmifwkd&rSmaygh/
aywpf&mtjrifh nOfhtarSmifxJwGif a,meoHonf usDwdaMumifawmif jzpfoGm;\/ ol\ a0'emrsm;ESifh
t"d|mefrsm;onf aysmufuG,fukef\/
tawmifwkdrsm;? odrf;iSuf\ tawmifwkdrsm;/
'g[mig&SmaewJh tajzaygh/ iSuftES,f rvdrfrkd; rvdr®m jzpfvkdufavjcif;[,f? ighrSm tck vkdtyfaewmu
tawmif wkdwkduav;yJ? igvkyf&rSmu ightawmifrsm;ukd wkdatmifusHKxm;NyD; tawmifzsm;uav;awGeJhom ysHzkdh[myJ?
tawmifwkdrsm;/
olonf rJeufaom yifv,fxuf0,f ayESpfaxmifjrifhatmif ysHwufNyD; jzpfrjzpfudkvnf; olrawG;?
aoab;ukdvnf; olriSJhbJ awmifyHrsm;\ a&Shykdif;rsm;ukd olhudk,fvHk;ü wif;MuyfpGm usKHuyfí awmifyHrsm;\
"m;ajr§mifyHk&dS tpGef;zsm;rsm;ukd avxJwGif jzefhvsuf atmufokdh aZmufxkd;qif;av\/
avonf olhOD;acgif;tm; bDvl;obufozG,f jrnf[D;wkdufcwf\/ wpfem&DvQif rkdif (70)? rkdif (90)?
rkdif (120) . . . xkdxuf xkdxufjrefaom EIef;jzifh w[kefwnf; xkd;qif;aeav\/ ,ck wpfem&DvQif rkdif (140)
EIe;f wGif ,cif rkid f (70) EIe;f rSmuJo
h hdk tawmifrsm;ukd xde;f &onfrmS rcufv/S tawmifzsm;rsm;ukd vSnv
fh u
dk o
f nfq½dk rkH Q
vSnhfvkdufjcif;jzifh tvsm;vkduf tysHrsdK;okdh jznf;n§if;om,mpGm ajymif;vkdufNyD;vQif va&mufatmufü
tajrmufqHwpfvHk;yrm vIdif;rsm;ay:wGifvQyfí rD;cdk;a&mifwef;wpfwef; wef;oGm;ouJhokdh ysHoef;\/
avqefjzpfí rsufpdrsm;ukd wtm;arS;vsuf oltaysmfBuD; aysmfavownf;/ wpfem&DvQif rkdif (140)
uG?oludk,fudkvJol xdef;xm;EkdifcJhw,fav/ ayESpfaxmiftjrifhtpm; ayig;axmiftjrifhuom igxkd;qif;&if
b,fuavmuftxd jrefvdrfhavrvJ rod . . .
,cif cPu oljyKcJhaom t"d|mefrsm;udkvnf; olowdr&awmh avt[kef wHjrufvJSwGif xkdt"d|mefrsm;
ygoG m ;acsNyD / ok d h w apvnf ; xk d t "d | mef r sm; ratmif j cif ; twG u f aemuf w zef aemif w &jcif ; ol r jzpf ?
vdyfjymroefhjcif;vnf; r&dS/ olhuwdol zsufvkdufonfukd ol0rf;renf;/ ½dk;½dk;ukyfukyf omrmefb0rsdK;ukd vufcHaom
Zifa,mfrsdK;omvQif þuwdrsm;udk rzsuf0Hh/ tysHtwwfwGif xdyfwef;okdh a&mufaeaom olwpfOD;tzkdh þuwdrsdK;ukd
xdef;&efrvdk/
aexGufvQifxGufxGufjcif; a,meoHZifa,mfonf tysHusifhaeavNyD/ ayig;axmiftjrifh tumabmifrS
olah tmufohdk Munfv
h u
dk af omf wHigavSrsm;onf tpuftaysmufuav;rsm;om jzpfae\/ eHeufpm t&SmxGuMf uaom
Zifa,mfiSuftkyfBuD;ukd MunfhvkdufvQifvnf; 0dkif;BuD;ywfywf vnfaeaom rIefrGm;rGm; zkHrIefhwdrfvdyfrsm;om jzpfae\/
olhtoufESihf olhukd,f NrJvsufyif &dSae\/ yDwdjzifh tenf;i,fwkefwkef,if,if jzpfvsuf aMumufpdwfxdef;xm;
Ekdifjcif;ukdvnf; *kPf,lvsuf&dS\/ xkdhaemuf olonf qkdif;ryg AHkrqifhbJ awmifyHrsm;\ a&Shykdif;ukd twGif;okdh
uyfum awmifyH\ tNrdwftem;rsm;ukdom jzefhvsuf atmuf&dS yifv,fjyifokdh xkd;pkdufvkduf\/ ayav;axmifukd
ausmf u svmaomtcg tqH k ; pG e f j zpf a om tjref E I e f ; uk d &av\/ avxk o nf toH j zif h twd N yD ; aom
r[m&HwHwkdif;BuD;yrm jzpfvm\/ rnfokdhyif zdwkd;aomfvnf; xkdwHwkdif;um;ra&Gh/ olonf atmufwnfhwnfhokdh
wpfem&DvQif (214) rkdifEIef;jzifh ,ckusqif;ae\/ xkdtcdkufü olhtawmifrsm;om tu,fíyGifhoGm;vkdufvQif olonf
4

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
wpfoef;rQavmufaom tpdwftrTmrsm; tjzpfokdh z½dkz&J zGmBuJoGm;vdrfhrnfukd olodí olonf ysHvTm;iSufyrm
tawmifrsm;ukd ydwfvkduf\/ t&dSeft[kef[lonf wefckd;tmPmaywnf;/ t&dSeft[kef[lonf yDwdcsrf;omaywnf;/
t&dSeft[kef[lonf aomoP tvSw&m; tppfaywnf;/
tjrif h a ywpf a xmif wd r f t mumok d h ouf q if ; rd a omtcg ol o nf awmif p H k u d k jzef h v k d u f \ /
olhawmifyHzsm;wkdhonf avt[kefukd wzwfzwf½dkufcwfvsuf yHko@mefroJuGJawmhbJ rIefrTm;rTm; arS;aw;aw;om
&dSawmh\/ olhrsufpd xJwGif avSESifh Zifa,mftkyfwkdhonf Mu,fOuúmysHrsm;yrm olhxHokdh ',drf;',dkifBuD; w&dSefxkd;
wkd;0ifvmaeMu[ef jrif&\/ iSuftkyfonfvnf; olhvrf;aMumif; wnfhwnfhBuD;wGif &dSae\/
cufuNyD/ &yfívnf;r&/ ol&&dSaeaom tjrefEIef;rsdK;ü rnfuJhokdh ,drf;auGh&onfudkvnf; olrodao;/
xkhdaMumifh olonf rsufpdrsm;ukd pHkrdSwfxm;vkduf\/
aexGuNf yD; rMumrDuav; xked eH ufcif; xkt
d csdeüf olt
h jzpfq;dk onfum; a,meoHZifa,mfonf eHeuftpm&Sm
xGufvmonfh Zifa,mftkyf\ tv,fA[kd wnfhwnfhtwGif;okdh wpfem&DvQif (212) rkdifEIef;jzifh rsufpdrsm; pHkrdSwfum
ava&mawmifyaH rT;rsm;yg w[D;[D; Ncdr;f vsuf 'vMurf;BuD; &rf;um;ae\/ þwpfBudrw
f iG rf l aumif;usKd ;jyKwwfaom
Zifa,mfewfa'0gonf olhtm; oem;aomtm;jzifh NyHK;íapmifrvkduf\/ rnfolrQrao/
aumif;uifwdrf,HbufqDokdh olhEIwfoD;ukd armhvkdufonfhtcgwGif olonf wpfem&DvQif rkdif(160) EIef;jzifh
ysHaevsufom; &dSao;\/ rkdifESpfq,fEIef;okdh avQmhcsvkdufNyD;vQif awmifyHrsm;ukd zGifhvkdufaomtcg atmufzufay
av;axmiftedrfh&dS yifv,fjyifwGif wHigavSonf aygifrHkwpfzJhpm t&G,fom&dS\/
ol\ atmifjrifrIukdomol wNrHKNrHK awG;aerd\/ tqHk;pGefaom tjrefEIef;jzifh ysHEkdifavNyD/ Zifa,mfiSuf
rwpfaxmif wpfaumifzGm; uav;awmhjzifh wpfem&DvQif (214) rkdifEIef;jzifh ysHEkdifavNyDa[h/ jzpfawmifh jzpfcJaom
t&maywnf;/ Zifa,mfwkdh\ orkdif;\ wpfckwnf;aom tBuD;qHk;r*Fvm &awmifh&cJ tcgtckdufaywnf;/
a,meoHZifa,mftzkdh xkdtcgrSpí acwfopfwHcg;onf [if;vif;BuD; yGifhavNyD/ wukd,fwnf; avhusifh&m pcef;okdh
yHsoGm;NyD;vQif ay&Spfaxmiftjrifh a0[ifokdhwufí atmufokdh OD;apmufxkd;&ef olhawmifyHrsm;ukd ½kyfodrf;um olonf
w[kefxkd; xkd;ívSnfhenf; wdrf;enf; 0kdufenf;rsm;ukd wwfatmif avhusifhavawmhownf;/
awmifyrH sm;rS tarT;wpfacsmif;ukd wqHjcnfrQ taetxm; ajymif;vku
d ½f jkH zifh aMumufcref;vdvd tjrefEeI ;f jzifh
us,fjyefah om puf0idk ;f pdww
f pfcu
k dk aumif;uifxufü acsmarmpGm a&;qGEJ idk af Mumif; olawG&h v
Sd m\/ þvQdK0h u
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ol r awG h c if u tarT ; wpf a csmif ; wpf r Qif x uf y k d í taetxm; tajymif ; rS m ;cJ h v Qif aoewf u snf q H y rm
c½k y wf v nf o G m ;wwf a Mumif ; vnf ; ol B uH K zl ; \/ þok d h j zif h a,meoH Z if a ,mf o nf þajrBuD ; bH k w G i f
aumif;uif*Gsrf;bm; tpGrf;ukd yxrOD;qHk;jyEkdifonfh wu,fhZifa,mf iSufausmfiSufarmf jzpfvm\/
a,meoHonf tjcm; yifv,fZifa,mfrsm;ESifh pum;pjrnfajym&efyif tcsdefrxm;bJ aepkwfpkwf
0ifomG ;NyD;onhf wkid af tmifvnf; tysHr&yfao;/ olonf axmifvu
dk f puf0idk ;f yHk ysHenf;ukd vnf;aumif;? t&pfusJaom
0uftlyHkysHenf;ukd vnf;aumif;? vuf0J&pf*sifvnfyHk yHsenf;ukdvnf;aumif;? Zifa,mfiSufrsm;\ tawmif&GufzGifhyHk
yHsenf;ukdvnf;aumif;? pMumjywif;yHk ysHenf;ukd vnf;aumif; wwfuGsrf;avhusufvm\/
urf;ay:&dS Zifa,mftkyfxJokdh oljyefa&muf&dSaomtcg rkd;pkwfpkwfcsKyfavNyD/ tvGefyif yifyef;EGrf;&dvsuf
rl;aemufaemuf &dSae\/ okdhwapvnf; taysmfBuD;aysmfí axmifvkduf puf0kdif;yHk *Gsrf;wpfywfxkd;um 0uftl&pfyHk
ukd,fukd tomvSdrfhNyD;rS ajcrsm;ukd ajrcs\/ a,meoHonf þokdhvQif BuHpnfawG;awmrd\/ tvsifEIef;
t[kefwHwkdif;BuD;ukd igxkd;azmufEkdifcJhonfrSm oif;wkdhom Mum;odMu&if t½l;trl; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om jzpfMurSmyJ/
b0qkdwm toufarG;0rf;ausmif;jcif; twwfwwf½HkESifh NyD;&wmr[kwf? b0qkdwm touf&SifaeEkdifatmifom
vkyfaezkdh r[kwfao;? wjcm;wwfp&mawGvJ trsm;BuD;&dSao;w,fqkdwm oif;wkdhodvmMurSmyJ? aeh&dSoí
wHigavSrsm;eJh urf;ajctMum; ul;csnfoef;csnfESifh ysif;&dNiD;aiGhvmatmif vkyfvkyfae&wmcsnf;xuf? b0qkdwm
'Dxuf,kwåd&dSwJh t"dyÜg,fBuD;eJh ygvm;? wkdhwawG[m ukd,fhukdudk,frodrI tarSmifBuD;xJu qGJyifhrwifEkdifom;yJ?
wkdhwawG[m rGefjrwfrI? todÓPf&dSrl? wwfuGsrf;rIrsm;eJh jynfhpHkwJhowå0gawG jzpfvmatmif wkdhudk,fwdkif
vkyf,lEkdifom;yJ? wkdhwawG[m vGwfvGwfvyfvyfBuD; uGswfwrf;0ifEkdifom;yJ? uGswfwrf;0ifEkdifatmif tysHwwfzkdh
wkdhoif,lEkdifpGrf;&dSom;yJ/
5

a,meoH Zifa,mf

boef; ( "r®du )

tMuOfcH&jcif;
tem*gwfumvrS ESpfrsm;onf qkvmbfuwdtjynfhESifh 0if;0if;awmufvsuf toHwaMumfaMumfjzifhvnf;
zdwfac:vsuf&dS\/
yifv,fZifa,mfrsm;onf a,meoHqif;vmaomtcg iSufaumifpD tpnf;ta0;twGuf pk½Hk;NyD;om;
jzpfae\/ BudKwifí pka0;aeESifhMuonfrSm xif&Sm;\/ trSefpifppfum; pk½Hk;MuNyD;aemuf olhtvmukd
apmifharQmfaeMujcif;om jzpf\/
]]a,meoHZifa,mf tv,fukdBuGyg}} Zifa,mftBuD;tuJrsm;\ þtoHonf yGJobif tcrf;tem;wckukd
zGifhvSpfaom toHrsdK;yrm wnfMunfcHnm;vS\/ tv,fokdhBuGí &yfygqkdaom þtajymrsdK;onf &SufzG,fvdvd
odu©mcs uHjyKjcif; t"dyÜg,f&dS\/ Zifa,mfol&Jaumif;rsm;ukd olaumif;jyKaom yGJrsdK;wGif tcsD;tajr§mufuH tjyKcHzkd
tv,fokdh MuGpHyg[k qkdavh&dS\/ ol\ *kPfaus;Zl;rsm;ukd wzGm;zGm; cHwGif;rqH csD;tHhajymzkdhom jzpfrSmygyJ
[laomtxifjzifh a,meoHu þokdhawG;rd\/ reufu tpm&SmxGufMuwJh iSuftkyfxJ igjzwfysHrdvkdh jzpfrSmaygh/
tvsifEIef; t[kefwHwkdif;ukd igxkd;azmufEkdifcJhwm olwkdhjrifvkdufMuvkdh jzpfrSmaygh/ 'gayr,fh igu bm*kPfawGukdrS
rvkdygbl;/ igawGhvmcJhorQukd? igwwfvmcJhorQukdom olwdkhukd a0rQay;vkdwJh pdwfqE´yJ &dSygw,f/ wkdhwawG
tm;vHk;ukd rsufESmwl½lrS iHhvifhapmifhajr§mfaewJh qkvmbfBuD;awGqDukdom nTefjyvkdwmygbJ/ a,meoHonf
tv,fA[kdokdh csDav\/
Zifa,mfacgif;aqmifBuD;u þokdkhqkdvkduf\/ ]]a[h . . . a,meoHZifa,mf? rifhtazmf Zifa,mfawG
jrifomatmif odu©mcsuH tjyKcHzkdh tv,fukd oGm;NyD; &yfprf;yg}}
a,meoHonf ysOfxlxlwpfcsyfjzifh t½dkufcHvkduf&bdouJhokdh jzpfoGm;\/ olh'l;rsm;vnf; ,dkifvm\/
olhtarT;rsm;vnf; EGJh,kdiftdwGJukef\/ olhem;xJü armif;aomtoHBuD;wpfck jrnf[def;vm\/ odu©mcsuH tjyKcH&zkdh
iSufA[kdrSm ol&yfae&NyD? rjzpfEdkifwm? b,fhES,f tvsifEIef; t[kefwHwkdif;BuD;ukd xkd;azmufatmifjrifcJhjcif;[m
b,fa&mufoGm;ovJ/ olwkdhem;rvnfMuygbl;/ olwkdh rSm;MuavNyD/ olwkdhrSm;ukefMuNyD/
6

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
cHnm;aom toHBuD;u qufíqkdvkdufonfrSm ]]olh&Jh . . . ykd;pkd;yufpuf a&mufwwf&m&m wm0efrJh tjyKtrl
aMumifh . . . ol[m Zifa,mftdrfaxmifpkBuD;&Jh *kPfeJh tpOftvmawGukd csdK;azmuf zsufqD;apmfum;cJhwmrkdh . . . }}
odu©mcsuH tjyKcH&jcif;onf olhtzkdh Zifa,mfwkdhabmifrS MuOfjcif;zJjcif; cH&NyD;aemuf a0;vSpGmaom
ausmufurf;yg;apmufrsm; rJZmzsm;okdh oGm;í ukd,fxnf;omcsnf; wpfa,mufwnf;vQif? txD;usef taveawm
tjzpf b0qHk;&rnfom jzpfownf;/
toHBuD;u qufqkdjyef\/ ]]a,meoHZifa,mf? waehus rif;odvdrfhraygh? wm0efrJh uyufupuf jyKvkyfvkdh
rif;twGuf tusKd ;rS r&Ekid ?f b0qkw
d mvnf; rod&ao;wJh t&mvkrhd w
S ?f b0qkw
d m[m odvJ rodEikd w
f hJ tpdaEÅ,w&m;
wpfyg;&,fvkdhrSwf? odwmeJh odEkdifwm wpfckwnf;uawmh 'DajrBuD;bHkxJ wkdhwawG a&muf&dSvmwm[m pm;zkdheJh
toufeJhukd,f MumMumNrJEkdifoavmuf NrJatmif aeoGm;EkdifzkdhyJ}}
Zifa,mfw\
hdk aumifpt
D pnf;ta0;wGif tb,frnfaom Zifa,mfrsKd ;rS cGe;f wkejhf yefí EIwv
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okdhaomfvnf; a,meoHonf þokdhxkacs\/ ]]b,fhES,fAs? uGsefawmf wm0efrJh jyKvkyfw,fwJhvm;/ uGsefawmfhnDrsm;
tpfurdk sm;wk/hd b0&Jh t"dygÜ ,fehJ b0&Ju
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hdk m
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d mavAs/ uGsefawmftck
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iSuftkyfBuD;onf ausmufcJ ausmufwHk;rsm;uJhokdh rwkefrvIyf ikwfwkwfBuD; aeMu\/
Zifa,mftaygif;wkdhonf rif;[m wkdhrsdK;½dk;ukd apmfum;armfum; zsufqD;ypfwmyJ[k wpfoHwnf; tkef;tkef;jzjz
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a,meoHZifa,mfonf ol\ aehnrsm;udk wpfaumifxD;wnf; ukefvGefap&jim;vnf; a0;vHvSaom
acsmufurf;yg;rsm;okdh a&muf½Hkomru xkdhxufausmfvGefíyif us,fjyefhpGm usifvnfusufpm;&\/ ol\
wpfckwnf;aom 0rf;enf;rIum; txD;useftjzpfESifh ae&jcif;r[kwf? ysHoef;jcif;twwf\ bkef;Muufoa&onf
Zifa,mftaygif;ay:wGif NzdK;a0&ef apmifhajr§mfaeonfukd tjcm;aom Zifa,mfwkdhu r,HkEkdif jzpfaejcif;omwnf;/
olwkdhcrsm rsufpdzGifhí Munfhjrif&ef jiif;qkdaeMujcif;wnf;/
a,meoHonf ysHoef;jcif;twwfukd waehwjcm; ykdíykdí wwfvm\/ avwkd;onfh olhudk,f {&d,mukd
enf;Ekid o
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k t
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atmufokdhaxmifvkduf xkd;qif;jcif;onf olhtm; yifv,fa&rsufESmjyif\atmuf q,fayü pka0;oGm;vmaeavh
&dSonfh ig;NrHK;rsm;twGif;odkh a&mufoGm;ap\/ þokdhjzifh yifv,fjyifatmuf q,fayt&yfwGif vQmt&omxl;ukd
olcpH m;&\/ touf&iS af e&eftwGuf wHigavSrsm;ESihf aygifro
hkH ;dk rsm;ukd olrvkad wmh/ avxJwiG yf if oltyd w
f wfvm\/
urf;tvGefü wkdufcwfaeaom avaMumif;ukdvnf; nOfhtcg jzwfoef;í ae0ifrS aexGuftwGif; rkdifwpf&m
c&D;aygufa&mufEkdif\/ þokdhaom twGif;tZöswå wefcdk;rsdK;jzifhyif olonfxlxyfaom yifv,fESif;wkduf
ESif;awmrsm;ukd xkd;azmufjzwfoef;í rsufpdusdef;avmufatmif awmufyMunfvifaeaom txufaumif;uif,H
okdhvnf; ysHwufEkdif\/ wjcm;Zifa,mfwkdif; Zifa,mfwkdif;tzkdh ajrBuD;ay:wGif &yfvsufom rif;vGif rkd;ESif;wkdhrS
wyg; tjcm;bmrQrodEkdifaom tcsdeftcg &moDrsdK;wGif olhtzkdhrl aerif;onf omvsuf&dS\/ jrifhrm;aom
aumif;uif,HrS av[kefrsm;ukd pD;eif;vsuf olonf urf;ajcESifha0;aom twGif;ykdif; ukef;t&yfa'orsm;okdhvnf;
oGm;a&mufum csdKjrefaom cJbG,fykd;aumif rTm;aumifrsm;ukd NrdK;NrdK;jrufjruf oHk;aqmif&\/
Zifa,mfwpfokdufvHk; wpftkyfvHk;twGuf olwpfcsdefu ajr§mfvifhrdaomt&mukd ,ckolwpfa,mufwnf;om
&&dSaeavNyD/ ysHoef;jcif; twwfukd oloif,lqnf;yl;cJh\/ oif,l&mü cHcJh&aom 'ku©rsm;udk oltrIrxm;?
0rf;enf;jcif;vnf; r&dS/
NiD;aiGhysif;&djcif;? xdwfvefhaMumuf&GhHjcif;? trsufa'go xGufjcif;[laom "avhp½kdufoHk;rsdK; &dSaeavonfh
twGuf Zifa,mfwkdhonf þrQavmuf oufwrf;wkdawmif;Mu&\[k a,meoHonf od&dSvm\/ a,meoH\
pdwfoEÅmefü þtaMumif;w&m;oHk;yg; uif;aysmuf qdwfokOf;aeaomaMumifhyif olonf temuif;rJh r&dSab;uif;
oufwrf;&SnfpGm aeEkdifbdawmif;/
7

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
tjcm;Zifa,mf ESpaf umifonf nOft
h cgü a&muf&v
Sd mNyD;vQif a,meoHwpfaumifx;D wnf; oljrwfE;dk vSaom
aumif;uif,H0,f csrf;ajrhnifompGm av[kefpD;vsuf&dSonfukd awGhMu\/ olhtawmif wpfzufwpfcsufü olhukd&Hí
ay:vmaom xkdZifa,mfESpfaumifonf Mu,fa&miftvm; oefhpifvS\/ olwkdhrS NydK;jyufaom tvif;a&mifonf
avtjrifhü odrfarGhjcif;? &if;ESD;jcif;wkdhjzifh vQrf;awmufvsuf&dS\/ olwkdh\ cspfp&mtaumif;qHk; tcsufonfum;
tysHuGsrf;usifyHkwnf;/ wpfzufwpfcsufpDwGif tawmifzsm;jcif; wpfvufrwdwdom tNrJyif r,kwfrvGef
tuGmxm;vsuf ysHoef;í oloGm;av&m&mokdh uyfajr§mifí twlvkdufaeEkdifrIaywnf;/
a,meoHonf pum;wpfceG ;f rQ rajymbJ xkZd ifa,mfEpS af umifudk pdeaf c:onfh taejzifh prf;Munhaf vawmh\/
tjcm;rnfonhf Zifa,mfrQ rvkdufEkdif ratmifEkdifaom tprf;toyf tppfaq;rsdK;aywnf;/ olonf avcdkí
acG;ususjcif; rjzpf½Hkwr,frQom &dSaomEIef;rsdK;jzifh ajz;aES;pGmysH\/ Zifa,mfrsufESmpdrf; ESpfaumifvnf; olESifhtwl
xufcsyfruGm aES;auG;pGm vkdufysHEkdifukef\/ olwkdhvnf; taES;ysHenf;ukd wwfuGsrf;Muayoukd;/
a,meoHonf awmifyHrsm;ukd acgufodrf;vsuf udk,fukd c½kywfvdSrfhum atmufokdh wpfem&DvQif rkdif(190)
EIef;jzifh w[kefxkd; qif;vkduf\/ rsufESmpdrf;ESpfaumifvnf; olhenf; twkdif;yif yHkyef;rysufapbJ vkdufqif;Mu\/
aemufqHk; olonf ,if;t&dSefjzifhyif txufokdh wzef t&pfusJaom 0uftl&pfyHk ysHenf;jzifh axmifvkduf
jyefwuf\/ olpdrf;ESpfaumifvnf; tNyHK;rysuf olESifhtwl vdSrfhum ysHwufMu\/
olonf ,ck tvsm;vkduf cPMumrQ ysHoef;NyD;vQif ]]uJaumif;NyD? cifAsm;wkdhu b,folawGvJ}} [k
ar;vkduf\/
]]wkhd[m rif;&JhtkyfxJu a,meoH? rif;&Jh aoG;&if;om;&if nDtpfukdrsm;ayghuGm/}} xkdpum;oHrsm;onf
tm;tifjynfhESifh ajymaompum;rsm; jzpfaomfvnf; nifomvS\/ ]]wkdhrif;qDukd a&mufvmjcif;[m rif;ukd tjrifhokdh
aqmifMuOf;zkdh? ukd,fhbHk udk,fheef; udk,fhtdrfukd jyefac:zkdhaygh}}
]]bmAs? usKyfbHk usKyftdrf/ usKyfrSm bHk&,ftdrf&,fvkdh r&dSbl;As/ usKyfiSuftkyfqkdwmvJ r&dSbl;/ usKyf[m
tzJMuOfcHcJh&olyg/ awmifukef;avaMumif;BuD;&Jh xdyfzl;rSm ckusKyfwkdh ysHaeMuw,f/ aemufxyf aywpf&m
ESpf&mxufvGefNyD; 'D . . . tkdrif;&ifha&mfvSwJh usKyfukd,faumifBuD;ukd ryifhEkdifawmhbl;}}
]]r[kwfbl;av? a,meoH&,f . . . rif;wwfNyD;om;yg? ausmif;wpfausmif;NyD;vkdh aemufausmif;wpfausmif;
pwufzkdh tcsdefa&mufaeNyDuGJh}}
ynmÓPftvif;onf (a,meoHrodvkdhom) olhoEÅmefukd olhb0wavsmufvkH; xkwfcsif;ayguf azgufxGif;
0if;awmufvsuf&dS\/ xkdtcdkufwGif a,meoH\ twGif;ü ÓPftvif;onf olodomatmif xif&Sm;pGm
awmufvif;av\/ rsufEmS pdr;f ESpaf umif ajymvku
d af om pum;rsm;onf rSeaf ypGwum;/ olonf ckeuxufyí
dk jrifph mG
ysHoef;vsuf &dSayonf/ tdrfjyefzkdh tcsdefvnf; a&mufavNyD/
olrh sufprd sm;onf aumif;uifudk jzwfoef;í þrQavmuf tysHrsdK;pHk wwfc&hJ aom ae&mjzpfonfh aiGjynfwef
ukef;jyifajrBuD;bHkokdh aemufqHk;Munhfjcif;rsdK;jzifh twefMumatmif vSnfhMunhfaerd\/
]]uJ? usKyfawmh vkdufzkdh toifhyJ}} [k aemufqHk;wGif olajymvkduf\/
onfhaemuf a,meoH Zifa,mfonf Mu,fvHk;rsm;yrm 0if;awmufaom tazmfESpfaumifESifhtwl
arSmiftwdjzpfatmif rnf;eufaeaom aumif;uifxJü aysmufuG,foGm;avawmhownf;/

8

a,meoH Zifa,mf

boef; ( "r®du )

tykdif; (2)
urf;ukefatmif wwfpGrf;jcif;
aMomf . . . onf[macrm&dyfNrHK xifyg&Jh/ þokdhawG;rdí olhudk,fol NyHK;&,frd\/ þbHkokdhysHwuf
0ifa&mufcgpom &dSao;? bHktaMumif; pdppfaeonfrSm rckd;rcHjyK&m a&mufojzifh NyHK;rdjcif;jzpf\/
uk d , f a &mif u d k , f 0 g awmuf y aom Zif a ,mf E S p f a umif E S i f h t wl awmif y H j cif ; ,S O f í ajrBuD ; jyif r S
wdrfrsm;txufokdh ysHwufvmpOfwGif olhukd,fcEÅmukd,fvnf; tjcm;Zifa,mfESpfaumifenf;wl awmufyvmonfukd
oljrif&\/ rSefygayonf/ ,ck&dSaeaom a,meoH Zifa,mfvnf; ,cifu a,meoHZifa,mfyifjzpf\/ okdhaomf
tjyifA[d'¨ ½kyftqif; toGifo@mefonf ajymif;vJavNyD/
ukd,fcE¨monfvnf; Zifa,mfcE¨mrsdK;aywnf;/ okdhaomf ,cif cE¨ma[mif;uJhokdhrsdK; vHk;0r[kwf?
ykdítysHtoef;aumif;ae\/ ,cifajrBuD;bHk b0a[mif;wGif pkdufxkwfcJhzl;aom vHkhvrsdK;\ wpf0ufrQjzifh
,cktjrefEIef;vnf; ESpfq&í tvkyfvnf; ESpfjyefNyD;Ekdifayonf/
ol h t arT ; rsm;onf qG w f q G w f j zL azG ; azG ; vuf v m\/ ol h a wmif y H r sm;vnf ; tBud r f r sm;pG m
yGwfwkdufxm;tyfaom aiGjym;rsm;ESifhtwl pif;vHk;acsm nufrGwfí tjypfuif;pifbd\/ olonf 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om
jzpfvsuf þwjzpfvJ awmifyHrsm;taMumif;ukd píavhvmawmh\/ awmifyHrsm;twGif;okdh tm;tifpGrf;yum;
oGwfoGif;rIukdvnf; olpwifavawmh\/
wpfem&DvQif rkdif (250) EIef;jzihf ysHEdkifvmaomtcg tvsm;vkdufwajy;wnf; tjrefqHk;ysHEkdifaomEIef;okdh
a&mufcgeD;acsNyD[k olxif\/ wpfem&DvQif (273) rkdifEIef;jzifh ysHvmEkdifaomtcgwGifvnf; þonfyif
tjrefq;kH EIe;f aywnf;[k xifrjd yefí tenf;i,frQ pdwyf suaf erd\/ þuk,
d cf E¨mtopf\ pGr;f Ekid rf o
I nf tueft
h owf
&dSaeayvdrhfrnf/
9

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
,cifu tvsm;vkduf wajy;wnf; tysHEIef;xuf ,ckEIef;um; ykdyifydkjim;aomfvnf; tqHk;pGefaom
tvsifEIef;okdhrl a&muf&dSaeNyD/ xkdpHcsdefukdcsdK;&ef tvGefBuD;aom vHkhv0D&d,rsdK; vkdayvdrfhrnf/ þokdhaom
aumif;uifbHkrsdK;ü t&m&mtzkdh twm;tqD; tuefhtowf tydwftyif r&dSxkdufacswum;[k olxifrd\/
wdrfrsm;onf [if;vif;aygufukef\/ olhtazmf olhtapmifhrsm;u ]]vkd&mc&D;ukd qkdufqkdufNrdKufNrdKuf
a&mufygap? ab;roD &efrcbJ oufqif;Ekdifygap? a,meoH}} [k EIwfqufNyD;aomf rkd;ysHavvQdK;í uG,fukef\/
a,meoH o nf yif v ,f w pf c k \ txuf r S vT o G m ;yH k E S , f txpf t aigh & d S a om urf ; ½d k ; wef ; qD o k d h
ysHoef;vsuf&dS\/ awmifurf;yg;apmufrsm;ay:wGif Zifa,mftenf;i,frQomvQif txufokdh xkd;wufaeaom
avaMumif;rsm;ukd pD;eif;aeMuukef\/ ajrmufbufta0;wGif rsufjrifwqHk;&dS rdk;ukyfukyfBuD; ydwfqD;aeaom
t&yfüvnf; Zifa,mftenf;i,frQom ysHaeMuukef\/ tjrifopfrsm; tawG;opfrsm; tar;opfrsm;onf
olüay:vmukef\/ tb,fhaMumifh Zifa,mfrsm; þrQavmuf enf;yg;aeoenf;/ þvkdaumif;uifbHkrsdK;onf
Zifa,mftkyfrsm;jzifh tjynfhtodyf jzpfaeoifhvS\/ igvnf; ,ck aumufumiifum tb,fhaMumifh þrQ
arm[kdufvm&oenf;/ aumif;uifbHkrS Zifa,mfrsm;[lonf arm½dk;xHk;pHr&dSqkd/ tdyf½dk;xHk;pHvnf; r&dSqkd/
'Dpum;ukd olb,fuMum;cJhygvdrfh/ ajrBuD;bHkü aecJh&onfh olhb0taMumif;ukd olwjznf;jznf; arhavNyD/
ajrBuD;bHkonf olukd,fwkdif twwfynm tajrmuftjrm; oif,lwwfuGsrf;vmcJhonfh ae&m jzpfonfum; trSefyif/
okdhaomfvnf; xkdae&mü jzpfzl;BuHKzl;onfrsm;ukd tao;pdwf rrSwfrdawmh/ rIefrTm;rTm; a&;aw;aw; t&dyfozG,fom
ÓPfü xifEkdif\/ tpm;twGuf tvkt,uf wkdufMu& ckdufMu&qkdvm; . . . bmvm;? zJMuOfjcif;cH&?
odu©mcsuHjyKjcif; cH&qkdvm; . . . bmvm;? aoaocsmcsmawmh rrSwfrdawmh/
urf ; ½d k ; wef ; ay:&d S Zif a ,mf w pf u sd y f E S p f a ,muf o nf ol h x H o k d h v mí wpf a umif w pf a vrQvnf ;
b,fpum;ukdrQrajym/ olhukdvmí ysLysLiSmiSm c&D;OD;BudK jyKMuonfukdrl a,meoHod\/ þae&monf olhbHkolheef;
olhtdrfjzpfaMumif;ukdvnf; olod\/ olhtzkdh aehxl;aehjrwfBuD; waehjzpf\/ xkdaehBuD;\ tp aexGufudkrl
olrrSwfrdawmh/
urf;ajcokdh qif;ouf&ef olvSnfhvkduf\/ awmifyHrsm;ukd ½kdufcwfí ajray:rS wpfvufr tjrifhwGif
wcPrQ wefhNyD;aemuf oJay:okdh ayghyg;pGm ajccsvkduf\/ tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm;vnf; oufqif;Mu\/ okdhaomf olESifh
oufqif;yHkjcif; rwl/ wpfaumifwpfavrQ tawmif½kdufcwfzkdh a0;pG? tarT;wpfrQifukdaomfyif rvIyfMu/ olwkdhonf
awmifpHkukd jzefhvsuf avxJwGif 0kdufum? b,fuJhokdh[lrl olrod? tarT;tawmifrsm;ukd ukdif;nTwfvsuf
ajcaxmufrsm;ESihf ajrBuD; xdvu
dk o
f nfEiS hf wNydKifeuf tysHvnf;&yfomG ;\/ txde;f todr;f aumif;vku
d af vjcif;[,f/
tm;uszG,f&mBuD;/ okdhaomfa,meoHonf w[kduf[kduf wa[mfa[mfESifh tawmfBuD;&dEGrf;í tyifyef;BuD;
yifyef;aeojzifh prf;rMunfhvkdawmh/ urf;ajcaomifjyifwGif &yfvsuf ,ckwkdifatmif pum;vnf; wpfcGef;rQ rajymbJ
usdef;pufoGm;\/
aemuf aemufaeh&ufrsm;wGif a,meoHonf þae&müvnf; ysHoef;jcif; twwfynmtaMumif;
oif,lavhvmp&m edo,nf;rsm;rSm olpGefhypfcJhaom bHkb0a[mif;ü uJhokdhyif tajrmuftjrm; &dSaeao;onfudk
okjd rif\/ okahd omf jcm;em;rIwpfcu
k m;&d\
S / olpOf;pm;awG;BuHovkd pOf;pm;awG;BuHMuaom Zifa,mfrsm; þae&mü&d\
S /
olwhdk ud,
k pf u
D ,
dk if S tzkhd b0\ ta&;tBuD;qH;k udpo
ö nf rdrw
d \
hdk tESpNf cdKufq;kH tvkyrf sdK;ü tNyD;wkid f urf;ukeaf tmif
wwfajrmufjynfhpHkjcif;qDokdh vSrf;wuf&efjzpf\/ olwdkh tjrwfEkd;qHk; tjyKqHk;tvkyfonfum; ysHoef;jcif;
twwfynmayyifwnf;/ olwkdh tm;vHk;onf cHhnm;okdufNrdKufaom iSufrsm;jzpf\/ olwdkhonf aehw"l0 wpfem&DNyD;
wpfem&D w&HrpJ tysHavhusifhvsuf txufwef; avaMumif;twwfxl;rsm;ukd BuHqprf;oyf wDxGifaeMuukef\/
a,meoHonf olpGefhypf xGufcGmvmcJhaom ajrBuD;bHktaMumif;ukd tawmfMumjrifhpGm arhae\/ xkdbHka[mif;ü
Zif a ,mf t k y f o nf ysH o ef ; jcif ; twwf \ aumif ; usd K ;csrf ; omuk d rjrif v k d í rsuf p d r sm;ud k aph a eatmif
wtm;BuD;rdSwfvsuf tpm;&Sma&;ESifh tpm;twGuf ckduf&efrsm;a&; tusdK;ukdtwGuf olwkdh\ awmifyHrsm;ukd
taMumif;t&if;jyKumomvQif aeMuukef\/ a,meoHonf &Hzef&Hcg xkdvGefcJhaom b0taMumif; wpfcsufwavukd
cPMumrQ owd&\/

10

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
a,meoHonf olb
h 0a[mif; taMumif;ukd wpfeeH ufwiG f owd&vmjyef\/ tysHtwwfoif olq
h &mESit
hf wl
awmifyHrsm; ydwfvsuf vdSrfhysH ysHjcif;twwfukd avhusifhNyD;aemuf aomifjyifay:okdh qif;í tem;,laepOfwGif
jzpf\/
a,meoHonf olhq&mtm; þokdhar;cGef;xkwf\/ ]]q&m qmvDAif? Zifa,mfawG b,fa&mufukefMuovJ}}
þokdhar;vkduf&mwGif EIwfrS toHrxGuf? pdwfraemjzifhom ar;vkdufjcif;jzpf\/ ]]uD;uD;*wf*wf}} [lí toHrjyKbJ
þbHkrS Zifa,mfrsm;onf wpfOD;ESifhwpfOD; EIwfajymjzifhr[kwf? pdwfraemjzifhom qufoG,fMu\/ a,meoHvnf;
þokdhqufoG,frIü vG,fvifhwul usifhom;&vm\/ ]]onfrSm bmaMumifh usKyfwkdh Zifa,mfOD;a& enf;ae&wmwkef;}}
usKyfESihf cifAsm; ESpfaumifwifyJvm;/ uGsefawmfxGufvmwJh ae&mrSmqkd&if . . . }}
]]Zifa,mfawG axmifechJ sDNyD;&dw
S mukd igodygw,f}} [k qmvDAifu acgif;wcgcgjzifh olph um;ukd qufvu
dk \
f /
]]igodwJh tajzwpfckwnf;uawmh a,meoH&,f? rif;[m iSufwpfoef;rSm wpfaumifxl; tjzpfBuD;jzpfvkdhomaygh/
wkdhwawG trsm;pk[m 'Dukdtvmta&muf aES;Muw,fuGJh/ wpfbHku tjcm;bHkukd ul;ajymif;Mu&mrSmvJ a&muf&dSvmwJh
wjcm;bHk[mvJ bHka[mif;eJh qifwl½dk;rSm;jzpfwmrkdh b,fbHku wkdhvmcJhovJqkdwmudkvJ wkdharhoGm;Muw,f/ 'Duae
b,fbu
kH dk OD;wnfaew,fqw
dk mvJ wdrhk rI? ypöKyÜef wnfw
h nfBh uD;jzpfatmif tcku
d t
f wefu
h dk tcku
d t
f wefh taejzifo
h m
wkdhaeavh&dSwmyJ/ owå0g&,fvkdh jzpfvm&mrSm b0&Jhudpq
ö kdwmrsdK;[m pm;zkdhcsnf;yJ r[kwfbl;/ &efjzpfaezkdh csnf;vJyJ
r[kwfzl;? ukd,fhttkyf toif;xJrSm wefcdk;tmPm&zkdhcsnf;yJvJ r[kwfbl;/ b0qkdwm 'Dxuft"dyÜg,f &dSw,fvkdh
wkyhd xr rod&cif? b,fEpS b
f 0jcm; ul;ajymif; vmcJ&h ovJ qkw
d mukd t&dyt
f jrGuaf vmuf rif;od&v
hJ m;? b0jcm;aygif;
taxmif? a,meoH b0jcm;aygif; taomif;a[h? onfhaemuf wjcm;b0jcm; wpf&mavmufjzpfNyD;rS tNyD;wkdif
urf;ukefatmif wwfajrmufjcif; qkdwmvJ &dSayoukd;vkdh wkdhodpjyKvmw,f/ wzef tjcm;b0jcm; aemufxyf
wpf&mavmufMumrS b0&JhudpöawG[m 'DtNyD;wkdif urf;ukefatmif wwfajrmufjcif;ukd awGhqkdufzkdh&,f
xkwfazmfjyozkdh&,f jzpfw,fqkdwm wkdhodvm&w,f/ wkdhwawGvJyJ 'Ded,mrtwkdif; jzpf&wmtrSefaygh/ wkdh&Jh,acgif
aemifvmvwåH b0[mvJ ,ckb0rSm oif,lqnf;yl; wwfajrmufwmawGay:rSm wnfw,f/ ,ckjzpfqJb0rSm
b0rS oif,lqnf;yl; wwfajrmufcJhjcif; r&Sd&if ,acgif aemifjzpfvwåH b0[mvJ ,ckb0eJh bmrSxl;rSm r[kwfbl;?
wax&mxJyJ jzpfrSmyJ ausmfeif;&zkdh tuefhtowfawG tcsKyftcs,fawG twm;tqD;awGeJh o,fykd;&zkdh cJtav;qGJ
wNyHKwacgif;BuD;eJh jzpfNrJjzpfaerSmyJ/}}
q&m qmvDAifonf olhtawmifrsm;ukd jzehfvsuf avaMumif;qef&ef vSnfhvkdufNyD;vQif þokdhajym\/
]]'gayr,f v k d h ? a,meoH ? rif ; [m wpf b 0xJ r S m wwf a jrmuf c J h w mawG u rsm;vG e f ; vk d h Mum;b0aygif ;
wpfaxmifraecJh&bJ 'Db0ukd a&mufvmwmaygh/}}
wcPtwGi;f yif olwEhdk pS af umifonf avxJohdk a&mufí avhusiahf eMu\/ ESpaf umifjzpfojzifh wpfaumifu
b,f q k d v Qif wpf a umif u nm? wpf a umif u nmqk d v Qif wpf a umif u b,f wajymif ; wjyef vk y f & \/
ukd,fvdSrfhysHjcif;onf a,meoHtzkdh txl;cuf\/ tb,fhaMumifh[lrl; a,meoHonf olhq&mESifh uajymif;ujyef
pOf;pm;í vkyu
f idk af e&aomaMumifw
h nf;/ xkw
d iG rf uao;? vdrS yhf Hk tcsufwidk ;f wGiv
f nf; olq
h &mESihf pnf;uku
d 0f g;uku
d f
csufnD&ao;\/
]]uJ aemufwpfBudrf jyefvkyfMuOD;pkdh}} [k q&mqmvDAif uqkd\/ ]]aemufwpfcg xyfvkyfMuOD;pkdh}} [k
xyfwvJvcJ idk ;f \/ aemufq;kH wGif ]]at;? aumif;w,fa[h? [kwNf yDa[h}} [k qk\
d / onfah emuf olwo
hdk nf axmifvu
dk f
puf0dkif;yHk tysHukd p avhusifhMu\/
wpfnaomtcg nOfhtysH rvkyfMuaom Zifa,mfrsm;onf oJaomifjyifay:ü wpkwa0;wnf; &yfvsuf
pOf;pm;cef;xkwfaeMu\/ a,meoHonf t&JpGefhum tzkd;tdkq&mBuD;csef; Zifa,mfxH csOf;uyf\/ q&mBuD;csef;
Zifa,mfonf þavmurS vGefaomt&yfokdh xGufvdrfhrnf xGuf&yfaygufoGm; vdrfhrnf[k ajymprSwfjyKMu\/
a,meoHu ]]q&mBuD;csef; cifAsm;}} [k rqkd0Hh qkd0Hh0HhvQif &GH&GHaMumufaMumufESifh ac:vkduf\/

11

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
tzkd;tkdZifa,mfvnf; olhtm; MuifempGm Munfhí ]]at; om;om; bmvJ}} [k qkd\/ tzkd;tdkonf
touft&G,faMumifh tkdrif;rpGrf; jzpfae&rnfhtpm; ykdíyif tm;tifESifh jynhfpHkaeao;\/ iSuftkyfxJwGif
ysHjcif;twwfü olrwlatmif Ekdifeif;uGsrf;usifNyD; jzpf\/ rnfonfh Zifa,mfukdyifrqkd tEkdif,lEkdif\/
tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm; wjznf;jznf;om avhusifhoif,lae&aom twwfrsdK;tm;vHk;ukd tzkd;tkdonf wwfajrmufNyD;
jzpf\/
]]q&mBuD;cifAsm;/ 'Dae&m[m acrm&dyfNrHKawmh vHk;vHk;r[kwfwefygbl;? [kwfygovm; q&mBuD;}}
tzkd;tkdonf va&mifxJwGif NyHK;vsuf ]]a,meoH Zifa,mf rif;[m avhvmoif,laeqJyJ}} [k qkd\/
]]'gjzifh 'DuaeNyD; aemuf bmjzpfrSmvJ? uGsefawmfwkdh b,fqDukd csDwufaeMuygovJ? ab;rJh&dyfNrHK qkdwJhae&m
r&dSbl;vm;}}
]]b,f[kwfrvJ a,meoH&,f/ acrm&dyfNrHKqdkwm r&dSbl;/ acrm&dyfNrHKqkdwm ae&mXmevJ r[kwfbl;/
tcsdefumvvJ r[kwfbl;? acrm&dyfNrHKqkdwm tNyD;wkdifatmif wwfpGrf;jcif;tjzpf? vkdavao; r&dSatmif jynfhpHkjcif;
tjzpfukd ac:wm/}} tzkd;tkdonf cPMum qdwfqdwfaeNyD;vQif ]]rif;[m awmfawmfjrefjrefBuD; ysHEkdifol
wpfOD;r[kwfvm;}} [kar;\/
]]uGsef . . . uGsefawmf tjrefysHwmukd odyfBudKufNyD;? tjrefom ysH&&if uGsefawmf odyfaysmfwmyJ}} [k a,meoHu
tHhMooGm; [efjzifhajym\/ tzkd;tkdu olawmfrSef;ukd odESifhxm;onfh twGufvnf; *kPf,lrdonf/
]]tNyD;wkdif urf;ukefwJh tjrefEIef;ukd rif;pa&mufwmeJh wNydKifeuf rif;[m csrf;omtwd acrm&dyfNrHKukdvnf;
pa&mufwmyJ? a,meoH/ tJ'DtjrefEIef;[m wpfem&Dukd rkdifwpfaxmifvJ r[kwfbl;uG? rkdifwpfoef;vJ r[kwfbl;uG?
tvif;a&mif&hJ tjrefEeI ;f vJ r[kwb
f ;l uG/ bmjzpfvv
hdk J qkad wmh *Pef;ta&twGuf tjciftwG,f twkid ;f twmqkw
d m
b,f*Pef;rqkd tuefhtowf&dSaewJh twGufyJ/ tNyD;wkdifatmif jynfhpHkwwfpGrf;jcif;qkdwm tuefhtowf
e,fedrdwftpGeftzsm; tNrdwftem; r&dSbl;uG/ . . . tNyD;wkdif urf;ukefatmif jynfhpHkwJh tjrefEIef;qkdwm? ighom;?
acrmudk a&muf&dSjcif;yJ . . .}}
bmrajym nmrajymESihf tzdk;tkdonf ½kyfjcnf;aysmufuG,foGm;NyD;vQif ayig;q,ftuGmwGif &dSaom a&pyfü
bGm;ueJ oGm;ay:av\/ þtjzpftysuf tm;vHk;onf wrk[kwftwGif; jzwfueJ jzpfysufjcif;om jzpf\/ xkdhaemuf
a&S;enf;wlyif pdwåu©P ( wpuúefh\ wpfoef;pdwfwpfpdwf ) twGif;wGif aysmufuG,foGm;NyD;vQif a,meoHESifh
ycHk;jcif; ,SOfum &yfvsufom; jzpfaejyef\/ tzkd;tdkcsef;u ]]'g[m taysmfupm;jcif; wpfrsdK;ayghuG,f}} [k qkd\/
a,meoHonf &ifoyf½Iarm tHhMooGm;\/ acrm&dyfNrHKtaMumif; qufar;&efyif arhoGm;\/ ]]'Dvkdjzpfatmif
b,fenf;eJh vkyfvkdufwmvJ/ 'Dvkdvkyfwm ukd,fxJ pdwfxJ b,fvkdjzpfoGm;ygovJ/ b,favmufa0;a0;txd
'DvkdvkyfEkdifygovJ/}}
tzkd;tdku ]]oGm;vkd&m b,fvkdXmersdK;udkrqkd b,fvkdtcsdefumvrsdK;ukdrqkd aygufa&mufEkdifwmaygh}} [k
ajzMum;\/ ]]ig[m pdwful;aygufwJh ae&mwkdif; ae&mwkdif;eJh umvwkdif; umvwkdif;qDukd oGm;a&mufcJhNyD;NyD/}}
tzkd;tdkonf yifv,fbufokdh vSrf;MunhfNyD;vQif þokdh qufjyef\/ ]]tHhMop&myJuGm/ c&D;wGifrIukdom t"du xm;NyD;
tNyD;wkdif urf;ukefatmif jynhfpHkrIukdawmh raxrJhjrifjyKwJh Zifa,mfrsm;[m c&D;vJMuefhMumw,f/ b,fukdrSvJ
ra&mufb;l / tNyD;wkid f urf;ukeaf tmif jynfph rkH u
I dk y"meNyKNyD; c&D;wGirf u
I dk omrnjyKwJh Zifa,mfrsm;[m b,fqu
D rdk qkd
oGm;EkdifMuw,f/ ckcsufcsif;qkd csufcsif;yJ aygufa&mufEdkifMuw,f/ a,meoH? rSwfxm;aemf? acrm&dyfNrHKqkdwm
ae&mXmevJ r[kwfbl;? tcsdefumvvJ r[kwfbl;qdkwm/ bmjzpfvkdhvJqkdawmh XmeumvqkdwmawG[m t"dyÜg,f
&dSukd r&dSvkdhyJuG/ acrm&dyfNrHKqkdwm . . . }}
a,meoHonf rodao; rwwfao;onfh t&mudk odcsifaZm wwfcsifaZm rTefrTefjzifh ukd,frsm;yif
wkefvmvsuf tzkd;tkdtm; ]]ckeu ysHovkd yHswwfatmif uGsefawmfhukd oifray;Ekdifbl;vm; cifAsm}} [k ar;vkduf&m?
tzkd;tdku ]]oifay;Edkifwmaygh rif;om oif,lcsif&if}} [k ajz\/
]]uGsefawmf oif,lvkdygw,f/ b,fawmh oifay;rSmvJ}}
]]ckaygh? rif;BudKuf&if}}
]]ckevkd uGsefawmf ysHwwfcsifvdkufwm}} [k a,meoHu qkd\/ olhrsufvHk;rsm; twGif;wGif xl;qef;aom
ta&mifwpfa&mifonf 0if;awmufvm\/ ]]uGsefawmf bmvkyf&rvJ qkdwmudkom ajymyg/}}
12

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
tzkd;tkdcsef;onf Zifa,mfi,fukd wcsdefvHk; aocsmpGm pl;pl;pkdufpkduf Munhfvsuf aES;aES;ajymqkd\/
pdwfjrefoavmuf tysHjrefEkdifzkdh (b,fqDukdrqkdayghuGm) rif; pvkyf&rnfh tvkyfukdawmh rif;[m oGm;vkd&m c&D;ukd
a&mufESifhaeNyD;vkdh odvkdufjcif;yJ . . . }}
tzkd;tkdcsef;\ tajymt& a,meoHtzkdh t"dutcsuf[m ukd,fhukd,fukdukd,f jrifyHkjrifenf; ajymif;vkdufzkdhyJ/
ol[m awmifyHtjzefh av;q,fhESpfay&dSaom þudk,fcE¨mtwGif;wGif vnf;aumif;? yHkpHrsm;csí rSwfom;xm;Ekdifaom
ysHenf; ysH[eftrsdK;rsdK;ukd ysHEidk pf rG ;f &So
d nfh þuk,
d cf E¨m twGi;f wGiv
f nf;aumif;? tueft
h owf tcsKyftcs,f &daS eaom
udk,fcE¨m twGif;wGifvnf;aumif;? ydwfavSmifxm;jcif; cHae&ol[lí olhukd,fol jrifaejcif;ukd &yfpJypfvkduf&rnf/
olh&Jh obm0trSefonf a&;rSwfjcif; rjyK&ao;aom *Pef;uJhokdh NyD;jynfhpHkí Xme umvwkdhukd vTrf;rdk;um ae&mwkdif;
ae&mwkdif;ü wcsdefwnf; a&muf&dSaeavonf[k todÓPftvif; xif&Sm;jzpfjcif;onf omvQif t"du jzpf\/

13

a,meoH Zifa,mf

boef; ( "r®du )

iSuftkyfavmuodkh jyefoGm;jcif;
a,meoHonf þtcsuf þtxmukd oJoJrJrJ rSwfom;qGJukdifvsuf waehNyD;waeh aerxGufrDu
nOfhoef;acgifausmftxd BudK;pm;tm;xkwfav\/ okdhBudK;pm;ayrifhvnf; olonf rlv&yfaeaom ae&mrS
wpfqHjcnfrQra&Gh/
tzkd;tkdcsef;u ]],HkMunf tm;xm;rIqkdwmukd arhypfvkduf? arhypfvkduf[k xyfcgxyfcg ajymavh&dS\/
]]tysHwwfzkdhqkdwm ,HkMunftm;xm;rIrvkdbl;uG/ ysHjcif;twwfukd em;vnfzkdhomvkdw,f/ ,HkMunftm;xm;rIESifh
ysHjcif;twwf em;vnfrIqkdwm twlwlyJ/ uJaemufwpfBudrf xyfBudK;pm;OD;/}}
xkdhaemuf wpfaehaomtcg a,meoHonf urf;ay:ü&yfvsuf rsufpdrsm;ukd rdSwfum pdwfpl;pkdufrItvkyfukd
vkyfae\/ xkdpOfwGif tzkd;tkdu olhtm; ,cifwavQmufvHk; ajymqkdqHk;rcJhorQ tvHk;pHkukd a,meoHonf
ÓPfa&mifvufvuf vQufwjyufjzifh wrk[kwfcsif; xkd;xGif;í odvkduf\/ ]][ . . . rSefvkdufavjcif;? ig[m
tNyD;wkdif urf;ukefatmif NyD;NynfhpHkwJh Zifa,mfwpfaumif jzpfaeygyaum? tuefhtowf tcsKyftcs,f r&dSwJh
Zifa,mfyJ}} [k olonf 0rf;omvHk; qkdhoGm;\/
tzkd;tkdBuD;csef;u atmifjrifaom toHrsdK;jzifh ]]at; . . . aumif;w,fa[h}} [k qkd\/
a,meoHonf rsufpdrsm;ukd zGifhvkduf\/ ,cif olaezl;aom urf;ajcrsdK;ESifh vHk;0uGJjym;jcm;em;aom
urf;ajcwpfckay:ü tzkd;tkdBuD;csef;ESifhtwl ESpfa,mufwnf;&yfvsufom; jzpfae\/ a&pyftxd opfyifrsm;&dS\/
txufaumif;uifwGif ae0g trTmyl;ESpfpif;vnf; vSnfhvsuf&dS\/
tzkd;tkdBuD;csef;u ]]aemufqHk;awmh rif;[m xkd;xGif;[kwfrSef todÓPfukd aygufa&mufoGm;NyDyJ/ 'gayr,fh
txdef;todrf;tvkyfrSm rif;eJeJvkdao;w,f}} [k qkd\/
a,meoHonf Muufaoaovsuf ]]uGsefawmfwdkh ck b,fukd a&mufaeMuovJ}} [k ar;\/
xl;qef;aom ywf0ef;usifukd vHk;0*½krjyKbJ tzkd;tdkBuD;onf xkdar;cGef;ukd þpum;wkdhjzifh z,f&Sm;
ypfvkduf\/ ]]N*dKvfwpfckay: igwkdha&mufaewm txift&Sm;aygh? aumif;uifpdrf;pdrf;eJh? aevJESpfpif;aygh/}}
a,meoHonf taysmfBuD;aysmfvGef;í ]]jzpfw,fa[h}} [k atmfvkdufrd\/ þtoHonf olajrBuD;bHkrS
xGufcGmvmcJhonfh aehrSpí ol\EIwfrS yxrOD;qHk; xGufjrnfwGefjrL;aom O'gef;usL;jcif; toHaywnf;/
]]jzpfwmaygh? a,meoH&,f}} [k tzkd;tkdu qkd\/ ]]rif;bmvkyfaew,fqkdwmukd rif;omodae&if bmrqkd
tNrJwef; jzpfwmaygh/ uJ . . . tck txdef;todrf; taMumif; . . .}}
14

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
olwdkhjyefMuaomtcg arSmifaeavNyD/ tjcm;aom Zifa,mfrsm;onf a,meoHukd a&Ta&miftqif;&dSaom
rsufprd sm;jzifh aMumufaMumuf&&hGH hGH MunfMh u\/ tb,fah Mumifq
h adk omf tjrpfpu
dk w
f ,
G b
f o
d uJo
h hdk rvIyrf &Suf Mumjrifph mG
&yfae&mrS jzKef;ueJ a,meoH aysmufuG,foGm;onfudk qwfqwfBuD; olwkdh jrifvkduf&aomaMumifhwnf;/
a,meoHonf Zifa,mftrsm;\ csD;rGrf;pum;ukd cPrQom onf;cHvsuf em;axmifNyD;vQif ]]uGsefawmf[m
'DrSm Zifa,mfopfyg? pumpum &Sdygao;w,f/ cifAsm;wkdh qDuom uGsefawmfu oif,lqnf;yl;&rSmyg}} [k qkd\/
teD ; wG i f &yf a eaom q&mqmAD v if u þok d h q k d \ / ]]'gawmh r[k w f b l ; xif w ,f ? a,meoH /
tESpfwpfaomif;twGif; igukd,fwkdifawGhzl;cJhwJh Zifa,mfiSufawG tm;vHk;xJrSm rif;wpfa,muf[mjzifh oif,l
qnf;yl;wJh ae&mrSm taMumuft&GHh twGefhtqkwf tenf;qHk;yJ/}} iSuftkyfonf NidrfoGm;\/ a,meoHvnf;
&Sufukd;&Sufuef;jzifh *PmrNidrf jzpfae\/
tzkd;tkdcsef;onf þokdhtrdefh&dS\/ ]]rif;tvkd&dS&if? tcsdefumvukd ausmfeif;wJh tvkyfeJh wkhdpMuwmaygh/
jzpfNyD;twdwf umvqDokdha&m jzpfvwHh tem*gwfumvqDukdyg ysHEkdifwJh txdaygh/ tJ'Dtcgusawmh rif;[m
tcufqHk;tvkyf? wefcdk;t&dSqHk; tvkyf? aysmfp&m taumif;qHk; tvkyfukd pvkyfzkdh toifhjzpfaeayvdrfhr,f/
tJ'Dtvkyfuawmh wjcm;r[kwfbl;? txufukdysHwufNyD; oem;jcif; w&m;awmfjrwfeJh cspfjcif;w&m;awmfjrwfwkdh&Jh
t"dyÜg,ftw¦ukd od&dSatmif avhvmzkdhyJ/}}
wpfv okdhr[kwf wpfvESifh tvm;wl[k xif&aom tjcif;t&monf ukefvGefavNyD/ a,meoHonf
ynmqnf;yl; wwfuGsrf;onfh EIef;rSm aMumufcref;vdvd jzpfbd\/ olonf tawGhtBuHK ½dk;½dk;rsm;wGif tNrJwef;
twwfjref vS\/ ,ckrl olonf tzkd;tkdcsef;\ txl;wynfhausmf jzpfonfrkdh tarT;tawmif wzGm;zGm;ESifh acwfrDS
uGefjyLwm pufiSufBuD;yrm ynmopf ÓPfopfrsm;ukd odrf;usHK;vufcHaeayownf;/
rjyefvrf;twdkif; xGuf&yfaygufí tzkd;tdkcsef; uG,faysmufoGm;awmhrnfh aeh&ufum; qkdufa&mufavNyD/
tzkd;tdkonf a&S;a&S;uwnf;upí ,ckwdkifatmif Zifa,mfrsm;tm; at;aq;om,mpGm pum;ajymqkdvsuf
b0[loa&Gh\ rjriftyfaom oabmw&m;ukd ykdí xkd;xGif;od&dSvmatmif r&yfwrf; qnf;yl;aeMu&ef? ravQmhwrf;
avhusifhaeMu&ef? rqkwfwrf; tm;xkwfaeMu&ef? vIHaqmf wkdufwGef;cJh\/ xkdaeh xkdtcg xkdokdh Zifa,mfrsm;tm;
acscGswfqHk;r aepOfyif tzkd;csef;\ tarT;trQifwkdhonf 0if;awmufvm\/ tjcm; Zifa,mfrsm;u olhtm;
rMunhfEkdifonf txdrQyif xdefxdefBuD; 0if;vufvm\/
tzkd;tkd\ tEdrÅ aemufqHk;pum;rsm;rSm ]]a,meoH? cspfjcif;w&m;awmfjrwf vkyfief;ukd rif;qufNyD; usifhBuH
tm;xkwfaeayawmh}} [lownf;/
Zifa,mfwkdhonf rsufpdrsm;udk wzefzGifhEkdifí zGifhMunfhvkdufaomtcg tzkd;tdkcsef; r&dSawmhNyD/
aeh & uf r sm; uk e f v G e f a vaomf a,meoH o nf ol x G u f c G m vmaom ajrBuD ; bH k t aMumif ;
rMumcPawG;aerdonfukd owdxm;rd\/ [kdrSmwkef;u tckodwm&Jh q,fyHkwpfyHk odkhr[kwf tyHkwpf&myHk
wpfyHkrQavmufukd wu,fvkdhrsm; odcJh&vQif b0qkdwm b,favmufrsm; t"dyÜg,f &dSvdrfhrvJ/ a,meoHonf
oJaomifjyifay: &yfvsuf [kdajrBuD;bHkrSm tuefhtowf tcsKyftcs,fxJu vGwfajrmufatmif BudK;pm;aewJh
Zifa,mfwpfaumif wpfavawmhjzifh &dSaumif;&dSaevdrfhrnf [kvnf;aumif;? ysHoef;rI\ t"dyÜg,f tw¬onf
avSwpfpif;u aygifrkefhwpfzJh wpfp&ap&eftwGuf c&D;xGuf&ef udpo
ö myJ [laomtjrift,ljzifh rausreyfEkdifonfh
Zifa,mf wpfaumifwpfavawmhjzihf &dSaumif; &dSaevdrfhrnf[k vnf;aumif;? iSuftkyfAdkvfyHk tvnfwGif
rd r d a wG h & d S v maom trS e f w &m; taMumif ; uk d zG i f h a jymrd o jzif h tMuOf t zJ cH & aom Zif a ,mf r sd K ;yif
wpfaumifwpfavawmhjzihf &dSaumif;&dSaevdrfhrnf[k vnf;aumif;? BuHpnfawG;awmae\/ a,meoHonf
cspfjcif;w&m;awmfjrwf oifcef;pmrsm;ukd avhusifhav? cspfjcif;w&m;awmfjrwf\ oabmukd od&dSvmatmif
ykdívkyfavav? ajrBuD;bHkokdh jyefoGm;vkdpdwf ykdíay:avav jzpfae\/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf a,meoHonf
wpfaumifBuGufb0ESifh aecJhaomfjim;vnf; enf;jyq&mwpfOD;jzpfzkdh uHZmwm ygvmol jzpfaeaomaMumifhwnf;/
xk d h j yif b 0 a,meoH o nf cspf j cif ; w&m;awmf j rwf yG m ;rsm;a&;ES i f h pyf v sOf ; í þok d h o m cH , l v k d j cif ;
qE´&dSaeaomaMumifhwnf;/ opömtrSefw&m;ukd ukd,fwkdifxdawGhcHpm;zkdh enf;aumif;vrf;aumif; uav;ukdrQ
awmif;qkdvmaom tjcm;Zifa,mf wpfaumifwpfavtm; olhawGhzl;aom trSefw&m;ukd a0rQay;tyfjcif;onf
cspfjcif;w&m;awmfjrwfukd vufawGhusifhoHk; aqmufwnfjcif; rnfay\ [lvkd/
15

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
pdwftBuHtpnfESihf tjrefEIef;csif;wlatmif ysHoef;jcif; twwfü tavhtusuf 0oDabmf ajrmufNyD;jzpfí
xked nf;ukd tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm;tm; oifMum;ykchd sae&aom q&mqmvDAiftzkrhd l a,meoHEiS hf tawG;t,lcsi;f rwku
d q
f idk /f
q&m qmvDAifonf oHo,jzifh þodkhajym\/ ]]a,meoH&,f? rif;[m wpfBudrfu tMuOfcH jzpfzl;w,f/
rif;b0a[mif;u Zifa,mfawGu rif;&Jhpum;rsm;ukd vufcHem;qifMuvdrfhrnfvkdh rif;bmaMumifh xifrdovJ/
[kdpum;yHkukd rif;Mum;zl;rSmaygh/ tjrifhqHk;ysHwJh Zifa,mf[m ta0;qHk; jrifw,fwJh/ 'Dpum;yHk[m aoG;xGufatmif
rSefw,f/ rif;vmcJhwJhbHku Zifa,mfawG[m ajrBuD;ay:rSm w*D;*D;w*yf*yfeJh wa[mifa[mif wavmifavmif
tcsif;csif; &efjzpfaeMuwm/ 'Dcsrf;ajrh&dyfNrHKu rkdifwpfaxmifavmuf ta0;rSm olwkdh&dSMuwm/ 'geJhawmif olwkdh&dSaewJh
ae&muaeNyD; 'DbHkukdvSrf;jrif&atmif rif;u vkyfay;csifw,fvkdh rif;uqkdEkdifao;yavuG,f? a,meoH&,f? olwkdh[m
olwdhk&Jh tawmifzsm;awGudkawmif rjrifEkdif jzpfaewmyJ/ 'DrSm aeprf;yg/ rif;ajymp&m &dSwmawGudk em;vnfvmatmif
b0tqifjh rifah ewJh 'DuZifa,mfrsm;uko
d m ulnaD eprf;yg}} q&mqmvDAifonf þae&mwGif cPrQ &yfqidk ;f NyD;aemuf
þodhkvnf; qufajymao;\/ ]]pOf;pm;Munfhprf;yg? tzkd;tkdcsef;om olhbHkb0a[mif; rsm;qDukd jyefoGm;cJh&if
bmjzpfrvJ? 'Dvkdqdk rif;aum b,fvkdae&mrsdK;ukd a&mufaervJ qkdwmav}}
þaemufqHk;ar;cGef;onf txdqHk; trdqHk; jzpf\/ q&m qmvDAifajymwm rSefayw,f/ tjrifhqHk;ysHwJh
Zifa,mf[m ta0;qHk; jrifowJh/
tvGefÓPfaumif;í oifMum;&vG,faom Zifa,mf{nfhonfrsm; ESifhtwl a,meoH qufae\/
ok d h a omf v nf ; ol h q E´ t vk d a [mif ; onf jyef í ay:vm\/ oif M um;ay;í &rnf h Zif a ,mf wpf a umif
ESpfaumifavmufawmhjzifh ajrBuD;bHkrSm &dSaumif;&dSrSmyJ/ oludk,fwkdif ajrBuD;bHkrSm tMuOfcH jzpfae&wkef;u
tzkd;tkdcsef;om a&mufvmcJhr,fqkd&if oltck b,fuavmufxd ykdNyD; todynmawG &dSaevdrfhrvJ/
a,meoHonf aemufqHk;wGif raeEkdifawmhyJ qmvDAiftm; þodkhajymavawmh\/ ]]qmvD? uGsefawmf
ajrBuD;bHkukd jyefoGm;rS jzpfawmhr,f/ q&mh&Jh wynfhawG[m [efusaeNyDyJ/ Zifa,mfopfawG xyfa&mufvm&if
olwdhk[m q&mhukd ulnDEdkifygvdrhfr,f/}}
q&m qmvDAifonf oufjyif;csaomfvnf; tjiif;pum; ryGm;awmh/ ]]ighrSm rif;ukd vGrf;vkdh woo
jzpfaeawmhrSmyJ? a,meoH&,f}} [kom qkd\/
a,meoHonf olhq&mtm; tjypfwifpum; þokdhqkd\/ ]]&Sufp&mBuD;? q&mqmvD&,f/ rawGa0prf;ygeJh/
'Dvkdqdk uGsefawmfwkdh aehpOfavhusifhaewm[m bmvJ/ uGsefawmfeJh q&m rdwf&if;aqG&if;awG jzpfaewm[m
tu,fírsm; XmeeJh umvrsdK;ay:rSmom wnfaew,fqkd&if XmeeJhumv ESpfckpvHk;u uGswfatmif vGwfatmif
uGsefawmfwkdh atmifjrifvmwJh tcg uGsefawmfwkhd[m uGsefawmfwkdh&Jh toif;tyif; rdwfaqG tjzpfukd zsufqD;ypf&m
a&mufroGm;aybl;vm;/ Xmeqkdwmukd tEkdif,lvkduf&if ]'Dae&m} qkdwmyJ usef&dSawmhw,f? umvqkdwmukd
tEkdif,lvkduf&if ]ck 'Dtcsdef} qkdwmyJ usef&dSawmhw,f/ 'Dawmh ]'Dae&m} eJh ]ck 'Dtcsdef} pyfMum; tv,frSm q&meJh
uGsefawmf wpfBudrf odkhr[kwf ESpfBudrfavmufawmh awGhqHkaumif; awGhqHkEkdifvdrfhr,fvkdh q&mrxifaybl;vm;}}
qmvDAifonf r&,fbJ raeEkdifawmh/ olu MuifempGm ajymqkdonfrSm ]]a[h? iSuf½l;/ ajrBuD;bHk wpf½dk;rSm &dSwJh
Zifa,mfwpfaumifaumifukd txufrkdifwpfaxmifu vSrf;jrifEkdifatmif vkyfEkdifwJh yk*d¾Kvfxl;rsm; ay:vm&ifav
tJ'D yk*dK¾ vfBuD;[m a,meoHyJvkdh igawmh atmufarhvkdufrSmyJ/}} qmvDAifonf oJjyifukd iHkMunfhvsuf ]]oGm;a&mhc½kdh?
rdwfaqGBuD; a,meoH}} [k EIwfqufvkduf\/
]]oGm;NyD? q&mqmvDAif/ uGsefawmfwkdh jyefawGhMuOD;rSmyJ/}} xkdEIwfqufoHrsm; ESifhtwl a,meoHonf
tjcm;aom umvwpfck\ urf;ajcay:ü &dSaeaom Zifa,mftkyf BuD;rsm;[lonfh edrdwfyHkukd pdwfxJwGif
vSrf;jrifrdvkduf\/ ig[m t½kd;eJh tarT;qkdwJh ½kyf"mwfom r[kwfbl;? bmurQ uefhowf csKyfcs,frxm;wJh
uGswfwrf;0ifw&m;eJh vGwfajrmufpGm ysHoef;rIw&m;awGukd xkd;xGif;odjrifwJh ÓPfynmqkdwJh emrf"mwfwpfckyJ[k
0oDabmfajrmufNyD;aom pdwfjzifh olhukd,folvnf; jyefí qifjcifrd\/

16

a,meoH Zifa,mf

boef; ( "r®du )

oifwef;pjcif;
zvufcsmvif;'f Zifa,mfonf i,fyifi,f&,
G af omfvnf; b,fiu
S t
f yk rf sdK;urQ þrQavmuf &uf&ufpufpuf
þrQ t"r®w&m;rJh n§if;qJuvljyKjcif;ukd cH&aom olhvkdiSufrsdK;r&dS avwum; [laom tjzpfrSefukdrl
aumif;aumif;BuD;od&dS\/
]]olwkdhbmajymajym igawmh *½krpkdufbl;}} [k olawG;awm rdaeonf/ a0;vHvSaom urf;yg;apmufrsm;okdh
ysHoGm;&if; olhrsufpdrsm;onf &Da0vm\/ ]]ysHoef;rIqkdwm ae&mwpfcku tjcm;wpfae&mukd a&mufatmif
tawmifrsm;ukd wzyfzyf ½dkufvIyfaejcif;om r[kwfbJ 'gxuf t"dyÜg,f&dS&r,f/ bmr[kwfwJh jcifu . . . u . .
. aumifawGvJ tawmifwzyfzyf ½dkufvIyfwwfom;yJ/ oufBuD;&G,fBuD; jzpfwJh Zifa,mfwpfaumifukd vSnhfywfysHNyD;
pnfvdSrfhyHk ysHenf; ysHjyrdwmuav;eJh tMuOfcH jzpf&avw,f/ olwdkhwawG[m aMumifawmifuef;awGrsm;
jzpfaea&mhovm;/ olwkdhwawG rjrifEkdifbl;vm;/ ysHjcif;twwfukd wu,fwwfvkdh &vmrnfh bkef;wefckd; usufoa&
taMumif;ukd oif;wkdh pOf;pm;rMunhf Edkifbl;vm;/}}
]]oif;wkhd bmxifxif? igawmh *½krpkduf/ ysHjcif;twwf qdkwm bm&,fvkdh oif;wkdh odatmif igjyvkdufr,f/
oif;wkdh t,ltqtwkdif; ig[m ykefpm;ykefuefvkdaom oabm&dSaew,fqkd&if olykefoluef tppfBuD; jzpfaewmukdyJ
ig*kPf,lw,f/ bmjzpfao;ovJ/ oif;wkdh wpfaehus&if 0rf;enf;yufvuf jzpfvmatmif igvkyfjyr,f . . .}}
ponfjzifh BuHK;0g;ae\/
17

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
þpum;rsm;onf zvufcsmZifa,mf\ OD;acgif;wGif;ü om,mn§if;aysmif;vSaom toHrsdK;jzifh
ay:vmMuaomfvnf; olhtm; txdwfwvefh jzpfoGm;ap\/ avxJwGif *,drf;*,dkif jzpfoGm;&avmufatmif ol
xdwfxdwfjymjym jzpfoGm;\/
]]zvufcsm Zifa,mf/ 'gavmufvJ olwdhktay: r&ufpufygeJh/ rif;ukd olwkdhu zJMuOfvkdufwm olwkdhom
temw& jzpfoGm;wmyJ/ wpfaehus olwkdhodvmrSmyJ/ rif; tck jrifwmukd olwdkhvJ wpfaehus jrifvmvdrfhraygh/
olwkdhukd cGifhvTwfNyD; em;vnfvmatmif olwkdhukd ulnDyg/}}
þtoHrsm;onfum; zvufcsmZifa,mf\ nmbuf awmifyHrsm;ESifh wpfvufrrQ uyfajr§mifvsuf
vdu
k v
f yH sHoef;aeaom tjcm;Zifa,mfwpfaumif\ pum;rsm;wnf;/ ,if;Zifa,mfonf avmu"mwfBuD;wpfcv
k ;kH wGif
tawmufyqHk; Zifa,mfjzLjzpf\/ zvufcsmZifa,mfonf ol\ tjrefqHk; tjrefEIef;jzpfvk eD;eD;EIef;jzifh ysHoef;ae\/
rsufESmpdrf; Zifa,mfonf tarT;trQif wpfyifwpfavrQyif rvIyfbJ olhab;u tomuav; tvG,fwul
vkdufysHae\/
zvufcsm Zifa,mfonf cPMumrQ acgif;½IyfoGm;\/
]]bmjzpfaewmvJ? igrsm; ½l;oGm;ava&mh ovm;/ igrsm; aooGm;ava&mhovm;/ bmvJ[}}
þtoHrsm;onf ol\pdwfxJü wkd;wkd;uav;jzifh tajzukdom qifhac:ae\/ ]]zvufcsm Zifa,mf?
rif;tysHwwf csifovm;}}
]][kwfuJh? uGsefawmf tysHwwf csifygw,f}}
]]zvufcsm Zifa,mf? tysHwwfcsifwJh rif;&Jh qE´[m yZmrQavmuf BuD;rm;ovJ? rif;&Jh iSuftkyfukd cGifhvTwfNyD;
'DrSm tysHoif/ tysHwwfawmh wpfaehus olwkdhxHjyefNyD; olwkdh odjrifvmatmif olwkdhukd rif;ulnDr,fqkdwJh pdwfrsdK;
&dSvmatmifukd rif;&Jh ysHcsifwJh qE´[m BuD;rm;&Jhvm;}}
zvuf c sm Zif a ,mf o nf rnf r Qyif pd w f e maeonh f iS u f r sd K ; rnf r Qyif rme*k P f armuf a eonf h
iSufrsdK;wpfaumif jzpfae apumrl? þusufoa& r*Fvmtaygif;ESifh jynhfpHkoaom? tysHvnf; tvGefaumif;aom
þokdhaom Zifa,mf yk*Kd¾ vfBuD; wpfOD;ukd vSnfhywf ajymqkdaeí rjzpfawmhí? ]][kwfuJh? BuD;rm;ygw,f}} [k nifompGm
jyefajzvkduf\/
xkdtcg udk,fa&mifukd,f0g awmufyaeaom xkdyk*d¾Kvfu tvGefMuifemaom toHjzifh þodkhqkd\/
]]'Dvkdqkd tvsm;vkduf ysHrIeJh wkdh pMupkdh . . . }}

18

a,meoH Zifa,mf

boef; ( "r®du )

tykdif; (3)
q&mrked
a0;vHvSaom urf;yg;apmufrsm;ay:wGif a,meoHonf 0JysHvsuf? zvufcsm Zifa,mfbufqDokdh
rsufpdtm½kHpkdufaeonf/ þwapmufuef;av; zvufcsmonf tawmfqHk; tysHtwwfoif wynhfwpfaumif
jzpfvkeD;yg;rQyif tysHaumif;bdonf/ olonf avxJwGif tm;tiftjynhfESifh ayhgyg;vsifjref\/ t&m&mxufykdí
ta&;BuD;aom olt
h &nftcsif;onfum; ysHoef;jcif; twwfukd wwfajrmuf&ef rD;yGiv
hf rk wwf jyif;jyaom tomqE´
aywnf;/
a[m? ckyif olvmNyD/ rD;ckd;a&mif tqif;&dSí yHkoP²mef ruJGjym;bJ rIef&DrIefrTm;om jrif&aom t&mwpfckonf
aumif;uifrS axmifvkduf 'dkifAifxkd;qif;ae&mrS jzKef;ueJ tvm;vkduf w½I;½I; toHus,fBuD;ESifh wpfem&DvQif rkdif
(150) EIef;jzihf q&ma,meoHteD; jzwfí ysHoef;oGm;\/ onhfaemuf ½kwfjcnf;yif olonf axmifvkduf apmufxkd;
0uftl&pfvSnhfysHyHk ( tvSnfhaygif; wpfq,hfajcmufBudrf owfrSwfxm;aom ysHyHk ) ukd ysHav\/ vSnhfvkdufonhf
tcgwkdif;wGif tvSnhf\ trSwfpOfukd atmf&Gwf\/
]] . . . &Spf . . . ukd; . . . wpfq,f . . . q&ma,meoH? aES;oGm; jyefNyD wq,fhwpf . . . q&mhvkdyJ
wdwd&d&duav; wefhwefhoGm;csifvkdufwm . . . wpfq,fhESpf . . . tkd? awmuf rjzpfygvm; . . . wpfq,fhoHk; . . .
'DaemufqHk; oHk;Budrf . . . r& . . . wpfq,hf . . . t . . . t . . . t . . . trav;As}}
olonf tuswGif trsufa'go acsmif;acsmif;xGufrdaomaMumifh MumyGwfzsm;yrm ykdítusqdk;\/
apmufxkd;BuD; aemufjyefuGsrf;jzifh wvdrfhacgufauG; r½IrvS tusem\/ aemufqHk;jyefí xdef;Ekdifaomtcg
olhq&ma,meoH\ atmufaywpf&mwGif w[D;[D; [kdufae\/
]]q&ma,meoH&,f? q&mhtcsed af wGudk uGseaf wmf jzKef;ypf&m usaeNyD? uGseaf wmhu
f u
dk tvGe;f wk;H vGe;f ygw,f/
xyfwvJvJ vkyfayr,fh uGsefawmf &vdrhfr,f rxifygbl;}}
q&m a,meoHonf olhqDukd iHkMunhfvsuf acgif;wndwfndwfjzihf ]]rif;u 'kdifAifu txGufrSm 'gavmuf
tm;,lae&ao;orQ ywfvHk; rif; b,fawmhrS &rSm r[kwfbl;/ zvufcsm rif;[m 'dkifAiftqHk;rSm wpfem&Dudk
rkdifav;q,f avsmhoGm;wmukd;? nifnifomomav; avQmueJ jzpf&r,f? rSwfxm;aemf/}}
19

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
a,meoHonf Zifa,mfi,f&dS&mokdh qif;vmNyD;vQif ]]uJ? wkdhESpfa,muf nDwlnmwl vkyfMunhfMuOD;pkdh/
'kdifAifutxGufukd owdxm;aemf/ odyftm;rpkduf&bJ avQmueJ acsmacsmarmarm xGufvmwmrsdK; jzpf&r,f/}}
oHk;v ukefqHk;aomtcg a,meoHü tjcm;wynfh ajcmufaumif&dSvm\/ tukefvHk;onf tMuOfcHrsm;csnf;
jzpf\/ pdwfcsrf;omjcif; tusdK;rSvGJí tjcm;rnfonfh tusdK;ukdrQ vkdvm;iJhuGufjcif; r&dSbJ ysHoef;rI twwfqef;
twwfopf taMumif; EIdufEIdufcGswfcGswf odvkdolrsm;csnf; jzpf\/
odwapvnf; olwt
hdk zkhd atmifatmifjrifjrif avhusif&h efum; rcuf/ tb,fah Mumifh þysHoef;jcif; twwfudk
oif,lavhvm aeMu&oenf; [laom aemufqG,f&dS usdK;aMumif; ,kwådtcsufpkü ÓPfrsufpduGif;uGif;
todvif;atmif t&nfvnfwhJEkdifa&;onf vufawGh tysHavhusifha&;xuf ykdí olwkdhtwGuf cufae\/
a,meoHonf olwkdhtm; naewkdif; naewkdif; aomifjyifay:wGif þokdhajymjyavh&dS\/
]]wkdhwawG ukd,fpDukd,fpD pifppftm;jzifhawmh r[mZifa,mfBuD;&Jh yHkyGm;emrfw&m;"r® wpfckwpfckpDyJ/
b,ftuefhtowfrsdK; b,ftcsKyftcs,frsdK;rQ r&dSwJh vGwfajrmufa&;w&m;ukd xkd;xGif;odjrifwJh ÓPfynm emrf"mwf
wpfckwpfckpDyJ/ pHEIef;ukduf ysHoef;jcif;qkdwm wkdh&Jhobm0 tppftrSefukd xkwfazmfjyozkdh wufvSrf;&m avScg;xpf
wpfxpfy/J wku
hd kd wkycf snzf ahJG ESmifxm;wJh tueft
h owf tcsKyftcs,w
f idk ;f ukd wkzhd ,f&mS ;ypf&r,f/ 'DtjrefEeI ;f taES;EIe;f
aumif;uif*Gsrf;bm;pwJh twwfrsm;ukd wkdhtck oif,lavhvmae&wm[m 'DtwGufyJ . . . }}
. . . ol\ wynhfrsm;onf waehukef tysHusifh&mrS ajcukefawmifyef;usí tdyfaysmfaeMuukef\/ olwkdhonf
avhusifhrIukd vkdvkdvm;vm;jzifh ESpfNcdKufMu\/ avhusifh&mwGif vsifjrefjcif;vnf; &dSí pdwfwufBuGjcif;vnf; &dS\/
avhusifhjcif;onf wwfajrmufvkdpdwfukd ief;ief;wuf jzpfap\/ avhusifhavav wwfajrmufcsifavav jzpfMu\/
okdhwapvnf; pdwf"mwf tBuHtpnf txiftawG; tvkdqE´paom emrfw&m;rsm;\ ysHoef;rIonfvnf; av"mwf?
ajr"mwf tarT;tawmif ½kyfw&m;rsm;\ ysHoef;rIuJhokdhyif {0uef t&dStrSef jzpfEdkifonfukd wynfhtm;vHk;teuf
rnfonfhwynfh wpfaumifwpfavrQ zvufcsmZifa,mf tygt0if ouf0if ,HkMunfvmjcif; r&dSao;acs/
a,meoHu tjcm;aomtcgrsm;ü ajymqkdoGefoifavh &dSonfrSm ]]rif;wkdh&Jh ukd,fcE¨m wpfckvHk;
tawmifzsm;wpfcku tjcm; tawmifzsm; txd[m rif;wkdh jrifomatmif toGifoP²mef wpfrsdK;eJh ay:ae&wJh
rif;wkdh&Jh pdwfom jzpfw,fqkdwm rSwfxm;Mu/ rif;wkdh&Jh emrfcE¨mukd wkyfaESmifcwfcsnfxm;wJh oHBudK;awG[mvJ
jywfoGm;wmyJ . . .}} a,meoHukd,fwkdif trsdK;rsdK; tjym;jym;aom y&d,m,f enf;Oyg,f taxGaxGjzifh
&Sif;ajymaomfvnf; olwkdhtzkdh em;0ifyD,Hjzpfaom yHkjyif0w¬Kukd Mum;emae& bdouJhokdhom jzpf\/ olwkdhonf
tdyfcsdefukdom ykdívkdvm;\/
aemufwpfvMumavaomf q&ma,meoHonf . . .
]]uJ? iSuftkyfqDukd wkdhjyefoGm;Muzkdh tcsdefwefNyD}} [k qkdvkdufonf/
]]uGsefawmfwkdh toifh rjzpfao;ygbl;}} [k u,fvfAif Zifa,mfu qkd\/ ]]uGsefawmfwkdhukd olwkdhu qD;BudKrSm
r[kwfygbl;? uGsefawmfwkdh[m tMuOfcHawGyg? uGsefawmfwkdhudk vufrcHrJhae&mukd b,fjyefvkdhjzpfrvJ}}
]]wkdh[m wkdhtvkd&dSwJh ae&mb,fae&mukd rqkd wkdhaygufa&mufEkdifatmif wkdh[m vGwfajrmufaew,f/ wkdhbmyJ
jzpfcsifjzpfcsif jzpfEkdifatmifvJ wkdh[mvGwfajrmufaew,f/}} þpum;rsm; tqHk;wGif a,meoHonf oJjyiftxufokdh
wufí ta&Sht&yfbufokdh vSnhfvsuf iSuftkyfae&m ajrBuD;bHkokdh ysHav\/
wynfhwkdhonf acwåcP pdwf'ku© jzpf&av\/ iSuftkyf\ xHk;pHtwkdif; tMuOfcHiSuf[lonf
b,faomtcgrQ jyefvmcGihf r&daS p& [laom Oya'BuD;wpf&yf &daS v\/ ESpaf ygif;wpfaomif;rQ twGi;f wGif xkOd ya'ukd
usL;vGefaomtrI[lí wpfrIaomfyif rjzpfcJhpzl;/ Oya'u ]]'DrSmae}} [k qkd\/ a,meoHurl ]]'DrSm raeeJh? jyefMu}}
[k qkd\/ ,ckqkdvQif a,meoHonf yifv,fxJwGif wpfrkdifcefh c&D;wGifNyD; jzpfvdrfhrnf/ olwkdhom þuJhokdh
rwifrusjzpfum wGefhqkdif;aeMuvQif q&ma,meoHonf &efvkdaom iSuftkyfwGif;okhd wpfaumifwnf;
a&mufoGm;&Smvdrfhrnf/
]]uJ? wkdhwawG[m iSuftkyfxJu iSufawG r[kwfawmhwmrkdh iSuftkyfOya'ukd wkdhvdkufemzkdh rvkdbl;/
vkdMuao;vm;uG}} [k zvufcsm Zifa,mfu &Sufukd;&Sufuef;ESifh qkdvkduf\/
]]'djyiftaMumif;awGvJ &dSao;w,f/ [kdrSmrsm; &efyGJjzpf&if wkdh 'DrSm&dSaewmxuf [kdrSm&dSaewmu
q&ma,meoHtzkdh ykdaumif;wJh tultnDjzpfvdrfhr,f/}}
20

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
xkdhaMumifh olwkdhonf a,meoHukd trDSvkdufMuav\/ xkdaeheHeufwGif OD;a&tm;jzifh &Spfaumifonf
taemuft&yfrS eEGif;ruif; ESpfqifhyHkpHjzifh ysHoef;oGm;Mu\/ wpfOD;\ awmifyHrsm;onf tjcm;wpfOD;\
awmifyHrsm;ESifh txufatmuf xdvkrwwf&dS\/ iSuftkyfaumifpD pnf;a0;aeusjzpfaom urf;ajcaomifjyifay:okdh
wpfem&DvQif (135) rkdifEIef;jzifh a&mufvmMuukef\/ q&m a,meoHu xdyfqHk;u acgif;aqmifjyKí? zvufcsmu
ol\ vuf,mbufwGif nufanmpGm ysHvsuf? [ife&D u,fvfAifu vuf0JbufwGif waysmfwyg;? xkdiSufpkonf
wpfaumifwpfpyfwnf; jzpfbdonfhtvm; vuf,mbufokdh ajz;nif;pGm vSdrfhcsvkduf\/ ckqkd . . . tvsm;vkduf .
. . wajy;wnDwnf;/ . . . xkdrS . . . ajymif;jyef . . . xkdrS . . . wajy;wnDwnf;okdh . . . olwkdhtm;vHk; tay:ü
avxkonf MumyGwf½kdufoHuJhokdh jrnf[D;vsuf&dS\/
atmufaomifjyifwGif &dSaeaom Zifa,mfiSuftkyfBuD;\ w*yf*yf w*Dw*D a[mifa[mif usnfusnf
jrnfwrf;vsuf aehw"l0 oGm;vmvIyf&Sm;aerI tpOfoEÅmefBuD;onf txufaumif;uif,H&dS þiSufpk[laom
"m;rBuD;jzifh tjzwfcHvkduf& bdouJhokdh wdueJ jywfawmufoGm;\/ Zifa,mfrsufpdaygif; &Spfaxmifonf rsufawmif
wpfcsuf rcwfbJ tay:okdh armfMunhfaeMuukef\/ a,meoH\ wynfhrsm;onf wpfaumifNyD; wpfaumif txufodhk
axmifvkduf puf0kdif;yHk tjynfhysHNyD;aemuf iSuftkyfBuD;udk 0kdufysHum aomifjyifay:okdh taES;ysH ysHvsuf jzKef;ueJ
qif;&yfvu
dk \
f / xkadh emuf a,meoHonf þtjzpfrsdK;rSm aehpOfaehwidk ;f awGah eus tjzpfrsdK;rkhd ½k;d ae[ef toGit
f rljzifh
wynhfrsm; tay: a0zefcsufxkwfjcif; tvkyfukd pwifavownf;/ a,meoHu avSmifNyHK;NyHK;í ]]OD;qHk;
pajym&rSmuawmh rif;wkdhtm;vHk;[m tkyfpktzJGhrSm enf;enf;aemufusaew,f}}
þiSufpk jyefvmrIonf Zifa,mfiSuftkyf avmuBuD;tzkdh vQyfjyufí rkd;BudK;ypfvkduf bdokdh jzpf\/
[kdiSufawG[m tMuOfcHawGa[h? olwkdhjyefvmMuw,f? 'g . . . rjzpfEkdifbl;? &efyGJjzpfvdrfhrnf [laom zvufcsm\
a[mudef;rSm iSuftkyfBuD;\ ½kwf&ufcwfrI xJwGif aysmufuG,foGm;\/
iSuftkyfBuD;xJrS Zifa,mfi,ftcsdKhu þokdhqkd\/ ]]at;? [kwfw,fav? olwkdh[m tMuOfcHawG
jzpfcsifjzpfr,f/ 'gayr,fhvkdh 'Dvkd tysHrsdK; ysHwwfatmif olwkdh b,frsm;oGm; oifcJhMuygvdrfh}}
iSuftkyfBuD;\ tBuD;tuJxHrS qifhqkdvkdufaom trdefhawmfukd iSuftkyfwavQmufvHk; jyefhESHh&ef
pnfvnfap&mü wpfem&DeD;yg;Mum\/ olwkdhukd ta&;rpkdufMueJh/ tMuOfcHwpfOD;ukd pum;ajymwJh Zifa,mf[m?
olvJ tMuOfcH jzpfvdrfhr,f/ tMuOfcHwpfOD;ukd MunhfwJh Zifa,mf[mvJ iSuftkyfBuD;&Jh Oya'ukd azmufcsdK; usL;vGef&m
a&mufw,f/
rD;cdk;a&mif tarT;tawmifrsm;ESifh NyD;aom iSufausmukef;taygif;onf xkdtcdkufrSpí a,meoHbufokdh
vSnfhMunhfMuukef\/ okdhaomf a,meoHum; odvkduf[efrwl/ olonf olhwynfhrsm;tm; xkdiSufaumifpD y&dowf
&dSaeaom aomifjyif ay:wGifyif avhusifhcef;rsm;ukd vkyfckdif;\/ olh wynfhrsm;ukd tpGrf;ukef BudK;pm;Mu&ef
zdckdif;avawmh\/
]]rmwifZifa,mf}} [k olatmfac:vkduf\/ ]]taES;ysHenf;ukd rif;wwfNyDvkdh ajymw,f/ ck rif;oufao
oufuef rjyEkdif&ifawmh rif;ajymwm tvum;yJ/ uJ . . . yHsjyprf;a[h}}
xkdtcg ½dk;½kd;ukyfukyf aewwfaom rmwif 0DvD,H Zifa,mfi,fuav;onf q&m\ tBudrf;tarmif;ukd
cH&í vehfzsyfNyD; ysHjyav&m olhukd,folyif r,HkEkdifavmufatmif taES;ysH ysHwwfonfht&mü {w'*f &av\/
avajyavn§if; tEkqHk;rsdK;ukd &ifqkdifum olonf awmifyH wpfcsufrQ rcwfbJ tawmifrsm;ukd ukdif;nGwfum
oJjyifrS wdrfrsm;okdh olhudk,fol yifhr wGef;wifEkdif\/ wdrfrsm;rS oJjyifokdh jyeftqif;wGifvnf; þenf;wl tHhzG,fo&J/
xkdtvm;wlyif csm;a&mfvif Zifa,mfvnf; awmifavBuD;ukd pD;í ayESpfaomif; av;axmif tjrifhokdh
wufum avat;usJusJxJrS ukd,ftom;rsm;yif ajzmhawmhawmh jymwmwmjzpfvsuf jyefqif;vm\/ tHhMojcif;
0rf;ajrmufjcif; jzpf\/ eufjzefcg xkdxufjrifhatmif ysHOD;rnf[k pdwfwif;í qHk;jzwf\/
aumif;uif bm;*Gsrf;twwfukd olrsm;wumxuf ykdí jrwfEkd;aom zvufcsm Zifa,mfonf (16) Budrf
vdSrfh&aom axmifvkduf taES;vdSrfhqif;yHkukd atmifjrifpGm ysHjyEkdif\/ aemufwpfaehwGif tcsdKay: oumavmif;
ouJhokdh vSnf;bD;oP²mef *Gsrf;oHk;jyefyif xkd;jyvkdufao;\/ okdhkxdk;jy&mwGif olonf olhtawmiftarT;rsm;jzifh
aea&mifukd xif[yfí atmufaomifjyifay:okdh vQyfa&mifjyufcs\/ aomifjyifay:rSvnf; wpfpHkxufykdrsm;aom
rsufpdtcsdKhonf txufokdh wdwfwcdk; vSrf;MunhfMuukef\/
21

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
a,meoHonf em&Dwkdif; em&Dwkdif;ü olhwynfhwpfaumifpD\ eHab;wGif xufMuyfruGm vkdufysHí
pHjyjyKvkyfjcif;? tBuHay;jcif;? zdckdif;jcif;? vrf;nTefjcif; jyKvsuf&dS\/
ol o nf ol h w ynf h r sm;ES i f h t wl nOf h t cgvnf ; ysH v suf ? wd r f r sm;uk d v nf ; azmuf x G i f ; vsuf ?
avrkefwkdif;rsm;ukdvnf; ausmfeif;vsuf &dS\/ xkdpOftcg iSuftkyfBuD;onf ajrBuD;wGif txdwfwvefh tjyGwftodyf
uaomua&m wkd;BudwfaeMuukef\/ qif;&Jbdawmif;/
tysHoiftvkyf NyD;pD;aomtcg wynfhrsm;onf oJjyifokdh qif;oufí tem;,lMu\/ a,meoHajymqdkaom
pum;rsm;ukd olwkdhonf waehwjcm; ykdí *½kwpkduf em;axmifvmMu\/ wynfhrsm;onf a,meoHajymaom
aMumifwufwuf tcsdKhpum;tcsufrsm;ukd em;rvnfEkdifMuaomfvnf; tcsdKhpum;rsm;ukdrl aumif;pGmem;vnfí
wefzkd;xm;Mu\/
xkdhaemuf nOfhtcgü q&ma,meoH\ ywfywfvnf wGif&dSaom wynfhiSuf0dkif;onf wpfpwpfp wpf0kdif;rS
ESpf0kdif;jzpfvm\/ 'kwd,0kdif;onfum; wjcm;r[kwf? arSmifBuD;xJwGif vma&mufBuNyD; tcsif;csif; Munfhvnf;
rMunhfcsif tjrifvnf; rcHcsifyJ wdwfwckd; MumjrifhpGm em;axmifMuNyD;aemuf rkd;raomufrD wjznf;jznf; tvQdKtvQdK
aysmufuG,foGm;avh&dSaom ( iSuftkyfBuD;xJrS ) iSufwpfcsdKh rsm;aywnf;/
a,meoH\ jynfawmfjyefaemufykdif; wpfvtMumwGif iSuftkyfBuD;xJrS iSufwpfaumifonf Mum;aersOf;ukd
jzwfausmfí a,meoHxH ysHjcif;twwfukd avhvmoif,lvkdaMumif;jzihf c,0yfwGm;vm\/ wJ&ifhvkd;0Jvf
Zifa,mfyifjzpf\/ iSut
f yk o
f nf olt
h m; ½IcH sjcif; tMuOfcH wHqyd cf wfjcif;jyK\/ olonf a,meoH\ &Spaf umifajrmuf
wynfhjzpf\/
aemufwnwGif iSuftkyfBuD; twGif;rS uwfar;e'f Zifa,mfonf olhvuf0JawmifyHukd '&GwfqGJvsuf xkd,drf;
þ,kdifjzifh aomifjyifukd jzwfausmfí a,meoH\ ajc&if;wGif NydKvJ0yfqif;um aovkarsmyg; toHrsdK;jzifh
]]u,fawmfrlyg cifAsm? ysHjcif;twwfxuf uGsefawmfydkNyD;vkdcsifwm wjcm;bmrS r&dSygbl;}} [k wkd;wkd;uav; ajym\/
a,meoHu þokdh olhtm;ajym\/ ]]'Dvkdqdk vkdufcJh igeJhtwl ajrBuD;rS tay:okdh wufvkdufcJh/ igwkdh p
ysHMu&atmif}}
]]q&m? q&m rodao;bl; xifw,f/ uGsefawmfh tawmif? uGsefawmf 'Dtawmifukd vIyfvkdhr&bl;}}
]]ar;e'f Zifa,mf? rif;[m rif;yJ jzpfEkdifatmif? rif;[m rif;ukd,ftppf jzpfEkdifatmif 'DrSmtck
vGwfajrmufaeNyDaum/ rif;&Jhvrf;ay:rSm bmurQ wm;qD;jcif; rvkyfEkdifawmhbl;uG/ 'g[m r[mZifa,mfBuD;&Jh
ed,mrOya'yJ? wu,fukd &dSwJh Oya'uG}}
]]uGsefawmf tck ysHEkdifNyDvkdh ajymaewmvm; cifAsm}}
]]rif;vGwfajrmufaeNyDvkdh igajymaewm}}
½kwfjcnf;yif ar;e'fZifa,mfonf awmifyHrsm;ukd jzefhvsuf nOfhtarSmif\ avxkxJokdh wufav\/ olonf
tjrifhay ig;&mrS wtm;ukef þokdh [pfaMuG;vkduf\/
]]igysHEkdifNyD? a[h em;axmifMuprf;? igysHEdkifoa[h}} atmufrS iSuftkyfBuD;onf þolhtoHaMumifh tdyf&mrS
Ekd;vmMu\/
iSuftkyfxJrS iSufrsm;onf wjznf;jznf; a,meoH&dS&mokdh wpfaumifp ESpfaumifp vma&mufaeMu\/
aexGufcsdefa&mufaomf wynfhrsm; 0kdif;&yfaeaom puf0dkif;tjyifbuf ywfywfvnfwGif Zifa,mfaygif;
wpfaxmifeD;yg; &dSvm\/ olwkdhonf ar;e'fZifa,mfukd r,HkEkdifaom rsufpdjzifh MunhfaeMu\/ olwkdhukd
tjcm;Zifa,mfrsm; jrifoGm;Murnfukdvnf; olwkdh raMumufMuawmh/ a,meoH Zifa,mf\ pum;rsm;ukdvnf;
em;vnf&ef BudK;pm;tm;xkwf aeMuukef\/
a,meoHonf tvGefw&mrS ½dk;½kd;pif;pif; jzpfaom taMumif;t&mrsm;ukd ajymqkd\/
]]Zifa,mfwpfaumiftzkdh ysHjcif;twwfynm[m avsmfuefwJhtwwfyJ? Zifa,mfrsdK;&Jh obm0 tppftrSef[m
vHk;0 vGwfajrmufjcif; w&m;yJ/ tJ'D vGwfajrmufjcif;ukd qefhusifwJh t&m[loíukd - bmyJjzpfjzpf? t,loD;rIyJ
jzpfjzpf? tcsKyftcs,fyJ jzpfjzpf? xHk;wrf;t& pnf;pepf t"avh trlt&m tjyKtusifhyJ jzpfjzpf? b,ftoGif b,fyHkeJh
&dSaewmyJ jzpfjzpf - y,fcs pGefhypf&r,f/}}
22

a,meoH Zifa,mf
boef; ( "r®du )
]]y,fcs pGehfypf&r,f . . . }} iSufpkxJrS toHwpfoH xGufvm\/ iSuftkyfBuD;&Jh Oya'o jzpfaevJbJ 'DvkdyJ
vkyf&rSmvm;}}
a,meoHu þokdhajzMum;\/ ]]vGwfajrmufa&;okdh ykdhaqmifwJh Oya'o[m wpfckwnf;aom Oya'
tppfjzpfw,f/ 'guvGJvkdh wjcm;Oya' tppf r&dS/}}
tjcm;toH wpfoHuvnf; þokdhqkdao;\/ ]]usKyfwkdhvJ cifAsm;vkdyJ ysHEkdifr,fvkdh cifAsm; bmaMumifh
ajymEkdifovJ? cifAsm;[m wjcm;Zifa,mfawGxuf ykdNyD; xl;jcm;w,f? yg&rDvJ &dSw,f? ewfa'0grsdK;vJ jzpfw,f?
wjcm; iSufawGxufvJ jrwfw,f/}}
]]'Dvkdqdk zvufcsm? vkd;0Jvf? csm½dkvif Zifa,mfwkdhukd Munhfvkdufprf;/ olwkdhukdvJ xl;w,f jrwfw,f
yg&rD&dSw,fvdkh qkdOD;rSmvm;? pifppfawmh olwkdh[m usKyfvkd cifAsm;wkdhvkdygyJ? bmrS ykdrxl;ygbl;/ cifAsm;wkdheJh olwkdhrSm
jcm;em;csuf wpfckwnf;yJ &dSw,f/ wpfckwnf;qkdrS wckwnf;yJ/ tJ'Djcm;em;csufuawmh olwkdh[m olwkdhudk,folwkdh
pifpifbm jzpfaew,fqkdwm pem;vnfNyD;? tJ'D em;vnfwJh[mukdvJ olwkdh[m pNyD; vufawGh usifhoHk;aeMuw,f}}
zvufcsm Zifa,mf rSwyg; tjcm;Zifa,mftm;vHk;onf aerxd xkdifrom wvIyfvIyf w&G&G jzpfukef\/
ol w k d h vk y f u k d i f v mcJ h orQ tm;vH k ; onf þonf r S vG J í wjcm; bmrQ r[k w f y guvm;[k ol w k d h ck r S
oabmaygufMuukef\/
iSufrsm;onf tpkvkduf tNyHKvkduf aehpOfaehwkdif; vmíar;jcif; MunfndKjcif; ylaZmfjcif;? ½IHcsjcif;
vkyfMuukef\/

23

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