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AUTHOR2: LAVANYA. V B.TECH 3RD YR, ECE MIST, HYDERABAD firstname.lastname@example.org
In particular. Recently most of the researches are going on embedding microchips in medications to create "smart pill" technology.0”. especially when it comes to medical compliance and the treatment of long-term medical conditions including diabetes.ABSTRACT While many industries are making cutbacks. developed by Proteus Biomedical. will transmit data from the body to doctors. mobile devices promise a world of new applications for patients and medical providers alike. For this purpose in this paper we are presenting The chip-on-a-pill. hypertension and obesity. Medical providers and patients alike can use wireless technology to better manage healthcare treatment programs and costs as well as improve the overall well being of the nation. healthcare is one industry that promises resilience and strength. . In the following papers we have tried to present a small overview of latest innovations in medical field that includes the concept of continuous monitoring of human body and detecting the vital signs of crucial diseases in advance called “BODY 2. "Smart pills" senses what's happening in the body and deliver that information to the patient's doctor. heart disease. helping them to track med intake and tweak dosage and the “Smart pill” embedded with microchips developed by Novartis.
And with nifty little gadgets getting less expensive and more sophisticated by the day. the new wave of constantly tracked.INTRODUCTION In the midst of the data and gadget revolutions. What if “we could monitor our body’s reaction to our medications in real time?”… What if “my pacemaker could also manage my diabetes??”. and implant space is absolutely enormous. and Now researchers at the University of Florida have engineered a smart pill with a tiny antenna and microchip that could signal when it has made it into a patient's stomach--reporting to a cell phone or computer that she has taken her medicine. health information tracking devices are part of the key to answering our healthcare needs. 2008microchip enabled pharmaceuticals in clinical trials. so there is no way we can do justice to the . and devices for automatically dispensing medicine at the right time. What if “we could better coordinate our care with doctors??”… What if “my nokia was also my personal health companion???”… What if “we could take control of our diseases and live longer???”…. 2005. r reminding patients to take their meds The medical monitoring. There are already pill bottles that wirelessly report to a computer when a cap has been opened. 2004. 2010. If we once take the usage of technology in medicine we will find: 2001. 2006millions of people used handheld or on-body wireless health & wellness devices. device. With healthcare growing more and more expensive. a new. crossbreed movement is emerging: around-the-clock health information tracking devices. Their design is the latest of several high-tech pill-reporting efforts to improve patient adherence and provide accurate reporting.first totally implantable cochlear implant. Now TECHNOLOGY+COMMUNICATON+HE ALTHCARE made this possible.0: the “networked” body. We seem to be moving towards something we like to call Body 2.. The medicine cabinet of the future could help make sure patients take their medications on time via a myriad of smart technologies. databased health information... people are turning to alternative ways to take care of themselves and monitor their health. Now intelligent medicine is an emerging field of personalized therapies incorporating electronics and wireless communications.first internet-based remote monitoring of pacemakers.wireless ingestible camera approved used to diagnose gastro-intestinal disorders.4 billion people carry mobile phones.
40 percent of hospital readmissions for heart failure happen because patients fail to take their medications properly. The use of technology improves patient compliance. this system would make sure people are taking their meds. With tuberculosis or mental illness. . where you want to make sure they're taking the meds. The development of smart pill was motivated by the fact that so many medical problems stem from drug compliance problems. According to Savage. and potentially cut down on nursing time.myriad of companies and research projects that are out there.
In the future your doctor might call you before you have a heart attack. Unfortunately. We can call this concept body 2. and hundreds of other bodily vital signs and malfunctions were not being continuously anticipated and monitored by medical implants. It does not provide continuous access to bodily fluids. As an example. technology. The answer is that most of the interesting body monitoring we desire requires direct access to the blood stream and other bodily fluids.0. and the immune system quickly The trio of biomedicine. enzymes. Real-time monitoring of chemical concentrations in your blood could allow for increasing or decreasing dosages accordingly.THE CONTINOUS MONITORING OF BODY Did you ever stop to think how silly and also how dangerous it is to live our lives with absolutely no monitoring of our body’s medical status? Years from now people will look back and find it unbelievable that heart attacks. medicine dosages could be tailored precisely to your body chemistry and metabolism. or the networked body. and wireless communication are in the midst of a merger that will easily bring continuous. Sensors implanted permanently into the blood stream are what is needed. but the difficulty is that moisture.0. responding to an alarm sent out by monitoring systems in your body that have detected the precursors . With body 2. we must wonder why body monitoring is not already more successful and widespread. The huge amounts of data that would be accumulated from hundreds of thousands of continuously monitored people would be nothing short of a revolution for medical research and analysis.BODY 2. the needed innovations are either already developed or will be soon. 24×7 monitoring of several crucial bodily functions in the years ahead. Given the advantages. This data could be harvested to understand the minute by minute changes in body chemistry that occur in response to medication. sugar levels. hormone imbalances. but some of the best commercial products won’t make it to the market until years of testing have proven their safety. A straightforward technique is to prick the skin periodically to extract and analyze blood. as is often the case with medical products. stress. and so on. infection. The possibilities are enormous.0. strokes. the daily fluctuations in hormone levels of hundreds of thousands of individuals could be tracked and charted 24/7 to determine a baseline from which abnormalities and patterns could be extracted. and we need it now! to a heart attack hours or days ahead of time. and this is not an easy problem to overcome. yet this only works for periodic monitoring.
wreak havoc on mechanical devices and destroy them. and this must be addressed. . Implants also pose several opportunities for life threatening infection to take hold.
The pill. releases a sand grain sized microchip into the body in addition to releasing the prescription.PROTEUS PILL EMBEDDED WITH MICROCHIP ingests their medicine The Raisin is made from ingredients “all found in the food chain.” Thompson assured the audience. and devices for automatically dispensing medicine at the right time. could bring this technology to consumers in a mere matter of years. a big leap that. He also noted that the technology could be embedded into any pill out there and since its rollout is imminent. ingestible microchip called the Raisin that can be put into medicines. The chip-on-a-pill. The microchip. Edible underwear. and for reminding patients to take their meds. The chip is activated by stomach acids and can transmit to an external receiver from within the body. SMART PILL The medicine cabinet of the future could help make sure patients take their medications on time via a myriad of smart technologies. There are already pill bottles that wirelessly report to a computer when a cap has been opened. it is especially welltimed considering the number of drug patents set to expire in the next few years. Now researchers at the University of Florida have engineered a smart pill with a tiny antenna and microchip that could signal when it has made it into a patient's stomach--reporting to a cell phone or computer that she has taken her medicine. will transmit data from the body to doctors. called Raisin. helping them to track med intake and tweak dosage. called Raisin. developed by Proteus Biomedical. but edible microchips? Now that is cool. Their design is the latest of several high-tech pill-reporting efforts to improve patient adherence and provide accurate reporting Proteus Biomedical is one of the biggest companies which specialize in creating a digestible. which can monitor whether a person actually . yes. the Proteus system is about to be tested in two clinical trials in the UK. Raisin is made up of: Proteus Biomedical’s edible microchip. Now. if successful.
and the signal is confined within the body. The IEM . rather than a radio. each pill contains an "ingestible event marker" (IEM). potentially including the time when the patient ingested the pill. Mark Zdeblick. wrapped in a thin label etched in silver nano-ink. Both the antenna and microchip communicate with an external transmitter. similar to the ones in iPhones. The transmitter sends low frequency pulses into the body. respiration is monitored by detecting changes in the impedance of the electrodes as the chest expands and contracts. says that the IEMs could cost less than a penny each when manufactured in volume. activity is monitored with a miniature accelerometer. Proteus says. along with data collected from the microchip. Combining the parameters can reveal behavioral measures such as sleep patterns FUNCTIONING OF PILL: In the Raisin system.consists of a sand-grain-size microchip with a thin-film battery that is activated on ingestion. and the type of pill taken. COMPOSITION OF SMARTPILL The prototype pill is composed of a standard pill capsule. the IEM sends through the body's tissues a highfrequency electrical current that's modulated in such a way that it provides a unique marker of the pill. The team also outfitted the label with a tiny microchip. which can be loaded with sensors to detect measurements like body temperature or pH levels. and bodily movement. the company's CTO. comprising an antenna. or placed underneath the skin as a subcutaneous insert. which researchers say could be fashioned into a wearable device such as a wristband. and sends pulses back. the pill's antenna tunes into the transmitter's specific frequency. as it is exposed to water. The receiver also contains sensors that monitor physiological parameters such as heart rate. It's not an RFID technology: it uses the conductive tissues of the body to conduct the signal. Once swallowed. The electrical current is picked up and logged by a receiver on a patch placed on the patient's chest or abdomen. is nontoxic because it is made from materials similar to those in a vitamin pill. Heart rate is monitored by detecting the electrical activity of the heart. respiration. The battery.
not hours. but what about a chronic patient who needs constant monitoring? Perhaps taking a pill every few days is not much of a chore. but it would be significantly better to have realtime data all the time that can be analyzed automatically and warn a patient as necessary. allowing for constant monitoring for years. like temperature and heart rate. patients require immunosuppressive drugs to reduce the risk of organ rejection. including pressure.The pill is capable of transmitting data continuously for up to 72 hours. It would be permanently implanted. "With tuberculosis or mental illness. The system could also pass along important biometrics.0. which it plans to package first with existing medication that mitigates dangers of organ transplant. but this kind of therapy can increase the chances of infection. It is created from fully digestible food products and is powered by stomach acid. which is great for a routine check-up at the doctor’s office. where you want to make sure they're taking the meds. pH and temperature. and a good application of the microchip technology. . HOW LONG THE MICROCHIP LASTS IN THE BODY???? There is no word yet as to how long the microchip lasts within the body. These dual dangers make dosage an important metric for doctors to monitor. With body 2. Novartis has exclusive rights to the technology. The Smart Pill only stays in the body for a three day maximum at a time (it depends on the patient’s evacuation time). Following a transplant. That is the key difference between today’s technology and that of body 2. so it is likely that it would only last slightly longer than the medication with which it is packaged. there would be no need to continually ingest the microchip.0. this system would make sure people are taking their meds. ADVANTAGES • The use of technology to improve patient compliance.
Today's roadways are filled with mentally impaired drivers who are doped up on medications." • • The microchip is able to transmit the patient’s vital signs (heart rate and such) in realtime. the pill's antenna picks up the transmitter's low frequency energy. The problem is actually far worse than drunk drivers. Now this is a use I actually do agree with. which can get expensive. They were able to find a low frequency POLICE DRUG SCANNERS: Cops. Employer drug scanners: Employers who are interviewing potential job candidates might be able to buy (or make) simple drug scanning devices that detect the presence of a pharmaceutical microchip broadcast signal. To counter this. This provides real. Doctors will then be able to tell exactly what physiological changes occurred with medication and change dosages as needed for an optimal patient response. the main way companies can keep track of whether subjects take a given drug or placebo is through patient diaries. With employers right now drowning in health insurance costs. One big advantage of the smart pill is that it doesn't require an onboard battery. easy way for corporations to avoid taking on anyone who might create a cost burden on their health insurance plans This might be very useful for employer’s medications. Doctors can monitor physiological parameters such as heart rate before. could use a similar scanning device to determine if a driver at the scene of an accident might be medication impaired. The researchers have so far tested the smart pill in models that simulate the electrical properties of a human body. and yet virtually nothing is being • .• • and potentially cut down on nursing time. A red light tells them you're broadcasting medication data. this could provide a simple. companies test the drug on very large populations of subjects in order to get statistically relevant results. Who don't want to hire people taking They invite you in for an interview and quietly scan for drug broadcast data. and they calmly tell you the interview is over and "we'll get back to you. and potentially cut costs • • signal that elicited a response from the pill's antenna within a few milliseconds. Instead. tailored drug therapy. during. by the way. and after taking the medication to better understand the impact of the medication on the patient Currently. too. individualized. says pills that report back when ingested could significantly improve a drug trial's accuracy. which can be easily doctored to skew a drug trial's results. Smart pills could also help pharmaceutical companies test new drugs.
They could then theoretically decode that data and use it to determine what health condition that customer might be suffering and then push competing generic pharmaceuticals as a replacement. If they resolve that issue.• • done to combat this problem of "medicated drivers. The Raisin system would achieve the same goal with less intrusion such as automated reminders from cell phones that could momentarily turn on the external transmitter to search for the presence of a pill. This could be used to violate your privacy by sharing that data with other government agencies or it The design employ relatively passive external receivers." And because the signal doesn't go beyond the skin. the University of Florida's design relies more on the external transmitter to send signals. to my knowledge. • A microchip that transmits data obviously must have a power source. searching for the presence of a pill. and to swallow them seems risky to your health. Proteus says that even if two users came into physical contact. then obviously that information can be picked up by anything nearby. the conduction of electricity from one person's skin to the others would be too weak for inadvertent data exchange to happen. especially if you're swallowing several microchips per day. The materials used in capacitors and batteries. the system could be paired with other technologies. in which patients with contagious illnesses such as tuberculosis are required to be observed by a health-care provider as they take each dose of their medication. how much energy you can store in that wristwatch to be sufficient. the advantage would be the simplicity and small size of the pill. suppose a local pharmacy store installs a microchip signal detector in their main door entrance in order to track people who are broadcasting medication data. . In contrast. If these microchips are broadcasting information. The system would also eliminate the need for direct observed therapy." As a power solution. he suggests. meaning it needs to have a very small battery or capacitor of some sort. are toxic to the human body and should never be eaten. Government agents could carry "pharma microchip scanners" that determine what pills you're taking right now. the pills in one person's stomach wouldn't trigger the receiver in another person's body.. including potentially unscrupulous individuals or organizations who might put it to a nefarious use. • Data privacy CONSTRAINTS • Another huge concern with microchips that transmit data is data privacy. For example. Microchips are not food. "The question is.
they are going to broadcast raw signal data that can be detected and decoded quite easily. and there isn't room for much of a CPU or power source inside these tiny microchips.could even be sold off to third-party marketing companies. . I very much doubt the data being broadcast by the microchips in these pills will be encrypted because encryption requires real processing power. Most likely.
or have to switch medication several times. As per the cliché. psychiatric help and elderly care. with participating patients receiving medication for birth control. If you were in the 2% who will experience a particular side effect.CONCLUSION The for potentials meld of man and machine? Either way. post-op management. but medical breakthroughs like the Smart Pill are slowly building the practice of medicine up to that point. Will diseases be eradicated and people live forever due to this magic . new advents in technology make new things possible – some we want. That could mean patients wouldn’t need to wait weeks to determine if a drug was compatible. The tracking that the Raisin system is capable of performing gives patients similar feedback as the care that they would receive in the hospital. your doctor could know before it kicked in.0 has not yet arrived. Although the road to continuous body monitoring poses challenges. The clinical trials are set to begin within this year. This new type of commonplace monitoring technology is beneficial to both doctors and patients. but the question of privacy is tightly wrapped up in this kind of biotech. We should start discussing what to do once it arrives. and some we don’t. Body 2. Body 2. We’ve talked about the promises of body 2. these challenges are certainly within our means to overcome. The promise for customizable treatments is a powerful one. humanity will be closer to that utopian goal than it ever has before. Of course there are far less benign examples. As the chip technology is improved. allowing for detailed care while the patient is free to go about normal activities. it could be used to watch individual drug uptake and action. early detection of diseases and constant monitoring of disorders will lead to a better survival rate and better quality of life for those who suffer.0. and it’s already a driving force in biotech. but keeps beds free and costs down. Microchipped medication will be here soon. and exciting progress is being made all over the world personalized medicine are tremendous. when that revolution happens.0 is certainly in the near future and. treatments could be fully customizable in real-time.
com Reuters www.singularityhub.com Naturalnews Google search engine Wikipedia .proteusbiomedical.REFERENCES • • • • • • www.
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