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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Education is something that is essential for human life, whether human civilization evolved, is inseparable from the existence of education. To increase resources in order to realize the dynamics of a dynamic civilization. On the other hand, education is a basic human needs anytime and anywhere. Without education, people will not grow and develop properly. The reason is given advantages by God to thinking and develop and cultured higher than with other creatures. Therefore education is an attempt to humanize the man himself, so man is to grow and evolve into a creature endowed advantages compared with other creatures. In Indonesia, education became one of the major programs in national development. Advanced and developing a nation is largely determined by the state of education undertaken by the nation. The government has made laws that govern the implementation of education. In the Law no. 20 of 2003 concerning the system of National Education states that the nuances and processes of learning so that learners actively, developing the potential for him to have the spiritual power of religion, self-control, personality, intelligence, noble character, and the skills needed themselves, society, nation and state .The development is a change that lasts a lifetime with increasing structure and function of the body is more

complex in the ability of coarse motion, fine motion, speech and language as well as socialization and independence. The characteristics of child growth and development, among others, lead change, correlated with growth, has a continue stage and have a fixed pattern. The development of speaking and writing is a process that uses expressive language in shaping meaning. The development of children talking at the beginning of the voice. According to Dyson's opinion that the development of speaking sometimes individuals can adjust to his own wishes, this is not the same as writing. A baby from day to day will experience the development of language and speech, but of course every child is not exactly the same achievements, there are some fast talking that takes a little longer. To help progress the mother can help provide stimulation tailored to the uniqueness of each child. In line with the growth and physical maturity especially concerned with the process of talking, communication is growing and expanding, for example by people in the surrounding environment and grow with others who are just known and friendly with him. There are significant differences between the understanding language and speaking. Language includes all forms of communication, both saying or in oral form. Writing, sign language, the language of gestures, pantomime or facial exspression art. While the speech is spoken which is the most effective form of communication, and the most important and widely used. Language development is always increased with increasing age of the child. Parents should always pay attention to developments, because at this time, largely determines the learning

process. It can be. Done by giving a good example, provide motivation for children to learn and so on.

Stages of child language development talk in general Language development is divided into two great periods, namely: Prelinguistik period (0-1 years) and Linguistics (1-5 years). Starting this period began to desire a child linguistic say the first word, which is the most amazing moment for parents. Linguistic period is divided into three major phases, namely : 1.Phase one word or Holofrase In this phase, children use one word to express thoughts kornpleks, whether as desires, feelings or findings without a clear difference. For example the word sat, bag: a child can mean "I want to sit", or a chair seat, it can also mean "mommy was sitting." New parents can understand and comprehend what is meant by the child, if we know in what that context spoken word, while observe expression movement and other body language. In general, the first word that said by children is a noun, after some time then followed by a verb. 2. Second phase is more than one word Phase two words appear in children aged about 18 months . In this phase, children are able to make simple sentences consisting of two words. Sentences are sometimes composed of the principal sentence and the predicate, sometimes the principal object of the sentence with incorrect grammar. After the two words, comes the sentence with three words, followed by four words and so on. In this period the language used by children are no longer self-centered, and from

himself. Start doing communication with others seamlessly. Parents began to question and answer with a simple child. Children began to be told by the sentences themselves are simple. 3. The third phase is the phase of differentiation The last period of infancy which happen between the ages of two and a half to five years. Child's skills in speaking began smoothly and rapidly growing. In speaking of children not only increase the vocabulary that would be awesome but the child was able to start saying word for word according to its kind, especially in the use of nouns and verbs. Children have been able to use the pronoun "I" to call himself, was able to use the word in the plural, prefixes, suffixes and communicate more smoothly again with the environment. Children can begin to criticize, question, answer, ruling, telling and other forms of sentences that are common to a conversation "style" adult. Vygostky a Russian psychologist in his book (The Development of Higher Forms of Attention in Childhood, 1979, Page 14 ) explained there are three stages of speech development in children is closely linked to the development of the child's thinking, namely:
1. External phase. That occurs when the child speaks externally where the

source comes from thinking outside the child who gives guidance, information and perform a responsibility to the child.

Egocentric stage. That is where the children speak according to his thinking and speech patterns of adults.


Internal phase. That is where the thought process of children have an appreciation of the ability to speak fully.

Talk is one of the most effective communication tool. Since children are still infants string times to realize that by using body language needs can be met. But it is not understood what is meant by a child. Therefore, both infants and small children trying to get other people always understand the point. This is to encourage people to learn to speak and prove that the speech is the most effective communication tool than the other form of communication used by the child

prior to articulate. Therefore, for children to talk not just an achievement will but also serve to achieve the goal, for example: 1) As of satisfying the needs and easy for children to talk their wants. With explain needs and desires without having to wait for others to understand the cries, gestures or facial expressions. Thus the ability to speak can reduce the frustration caused by the child's parents or the environment do not understand what is meant by a child. 2) As a means to attract the attention of others. In general, every child feels happy to be the center of attention of others. With the conversational skills of children argue that the other person's attention to it easily obtained through a variety of questions posed to parents for example, where children are forbidden to say the words are inappropriate. In addition it can also speak to express ideas, though often does not make sense-for parents, and even using the conversational skills of children can dominate the situation ". After there is good communication between children and companion. 3) As a means to foster social relationships. Child's ability to communicate with others is an important requirement to be part of the group in his neighborhood. With the communication skills of children more easily

accepted by groups of peers and can get more opportunity to get a role as a leader of a group, when compared with children who are less skilled or have no ability to communicate properly. 4) As a means to evaluate oneself. From the statements of others kids can learn how the feelings and opinions of the person against something he had said. In addition to the children also get the impression assess how the environment itself. In other words, children can evaluate themselves through others. 5) To be able to influence the thoughts and feelings of others. Children who love to comment, hurt or say something unpleasant about others can lead to children not popular or unpopular with the environment. In contrast to children who like saying pleasant words can be a major medal. For children to be accepted and get sympathy from the environment. 6) To influence the behavior of others. With the ability to speak well and confidently child can affect other people or peers who misbehave a friend politeness. Ability and skill to speak well can also represent a major capital for the child to become a leader in the environment because a friend absolutly trust and sympathetic to him.

Factors affecting the child speaks Early childhood known as the chatterbox, because often the child can speak easily uninterrupted speech. The most important factors in the children say much that is: 1. Intelligence. That is more intelligent (smart) child, the sooner the child master the skills of speaking.

2. Type of discipline. Ie children who tend to be raised by way more discipline than in a violent speech. 3. The position of the sequence. That is the eldest son tends to / encouraged parents to talk much than his brother. 4. The amount of family 5. Socio economic status 6. Race Status 7. Bilingual 8. Classification of sex roles Potential Speaking Children Powered by A Few Things: 1) Maturity means of speaking. Speaking ability also depends on the maturity of the tools to speak. For example, throat, palate, oral cavity wide and Iain could affect maturation speak. The new equipment has to function properly after perfect and can form or produce a word well as beginning to speak. 2) Readiness to talk. Mental readiness of children depends on the growth and maturation of the brain. Readiness is usually started in children aged between 1218 months, which discbut teachable moment of speech development. This is when the child really ready to learn. Speech truly. If there is no disturbance of children will soon be able to speak even if not clear meaning. 3) There is a good model for emulated by children. Children may require a specific model-to be able to pronounce the word correctly to be combined with other words that it becomes a meaningful sentence. The model can be obtained from others, such as parents or siblings, who often listened to the radio or TV, or movie actor who speaks in clear and meaningful. Children will have trouble if it

does not ever get likes models mentioned above. By itself the potential of children can not develop properly. 4) The opportunity to practice. When children get less exercise conversational skills will arise often frustrated and even angry that the cause is not understood by the parents or the environment: less children, in turn, obtain motivation to learn to speak generically called "child is slow" speech. 5) Motivation to learn and come. Motivate and train the child to speak is very important for children due to meet his need to harness the potential of children. Parents should always try to motivate children to talk do not be distracted or get directions. 6) Guidance. Tutoring for children is essential to develop their potential. Therefore parents should like to give an example or model for children, talking quietly that easily followed by children and parents are ready to give criticism or making true when speaking children do something wrong. Guidance should always be carried out continuously and consistently so that children do not have difficulty when talking with others. Measures to foster children's language: 1. Reading. This activity is the most important activities that can be done with the child every day. When parents read, point to pictures in books and mentioned the name of the picture aloud. Ask children to point to the same picture with the existing mentioned. Make reading a fun and interesting for children and do it every day. 2. Talk about simple activities that parents and children to do using simple language.

3. Introduce new words to children every day, can be the names of plants, animal name or the name of the food prepared for him. 4. Try not to finish the sentence the child. Give him a chance to discover for yourself the right word that he wants to convey. 5. Talk to your child every day, and look at them when talking or listening to them. Let them know that they are very important. Here are some ways to stimulate speech development for toddlers more smoothly and he likes to talk: Tell your busy life. Talking about out loud what you are doing and throw questions for toddlers. Keep talking, though you seem silly because toddlers can not answer. So the 'role model'. When your toddler says "grandchildren" for milk, use correct pronunciation when you respond, "It's your milk." Develop mastery of language by adding new words, eg "your milk is white color, very good." This strategy will not only increase the number of vocabulary but also teaches how to word combinations. But avoiding corrected her self. Indicates an error could make it uncomfortable child. Even the child's age and even then may begin to feel that whatever he does is always wrong in the eyes of mothers. Posing "stupid". Give toddlers a chance to ask and express their needs before you give him. For example, when playing, he was rolling the ball and you know she wants you to return the ball to him, pretend you just do not understand, give a puzzled expression and asked, "You have what?" Pause as this will encourage him to communicate.

Stay real. Avoid excessive to say or speak in slang or language unintelligible to the association that children aged 1-2 years. Parents should speak in sentences regular basis and in correct language, which will help children understand how to combine words into meaningful sentences. Delays and hazards (noise) in the speech development in children. If the level of speech development is under the level of quality of speech development is largely the same child who can be known from the precision in the use of vocabulary (language) the child at the time with their peers talking words continue to be young to play with words . Delay spoke not just affect the child's academic and personal adjustment of the most serious impact is on children's early reading skills at school entry. Many causes of speech delay in children is generally low level of intelligence that makes the child may not learn to speak as good as his peers, a normal or high intelligence, lack of motivation for children to know that they can communicate adequately with the form pre- talking urge parents / people adults, limited opportunities for speaking practice strict limits on how much they are allowed to speak at home. One reason is undoubtedly the most common and most serious is the inability to encourage / motivate the child to speak, even when the child starts babbling. If the child is not given stimulus (stimulation) are encouraged to chattering, it will hamper the use in the language / vocabulary is good and right. Deficiency is a cause of serious urge delay in speaking children can be seen from the fact that if parents do not only talk to their children but also use a wider vocabulary and varied, as for the child's ability in speaking of the fastest growing fast and is an example: children of middle-class is more or whose parents


are anxious to get them (children) learn to speak earlier (faster) and better. Much less likely to experience delays in speaking to children. While children from lower class whose parents are unable to provide the impetus for them, whether the lack of time because they do not realize how important a child's speech development in these students. Specifically identified a number of factors that influence language development, namely: a. Cognition (Process Gaining Knowledge) Individual high and low cognitive ability will affect how quickly the development of individual languages. This is relevant to the earlier discussion that there was a significant correlation between the language of one's mind. b. Patterns of Communication in the Family. In a family of many-way communication pattern will accelerate the development of language families.
c. Total Number of Children or Family.

A family who has many family members, child's language development faster, because of communication vary in comparison with that have only a single child and no other members besides the nuclear family. d. Birth order position. Language development of children born in the middle position will be faster than firstborn or youngest children. This is due to the eldest son has a communication downward direction only and the youngest only has the direction of communication upwards only.
e. Bilingual (Use two languages)


Children raised in families that use more than one language or better, and faster language development than those who only use one language only because children are accustomed to using language varies. For example, in the home he uses language and English language support outside the home he uses the Indonesian language. The era of globalization has led to a very tight competition among nations. Nations that have the ability to compete will make a profit and vice versa nation that does not have the ability to compete will reap loss. The ability to compete is determined by the strength factor of competitiveness. In the current era of globalization such as the English language plays an important role in international communication both in the field of development, technology, economics, and education. Line with globalization, the need for English language skills increasingly needed. Therefore not surprising that the experts who engaged in the education world feel the need to provide intensive english lessons and continuing to the students in secondary schools even after the children were still in elementary school. At secondary school level has a lot of junior and senior high school who made pioneering international school and already many schools who obtain the status of International School. These schools prepare their students for the future they can compete globally. Recognizing the importance of quality education and a desire to catch up in education compared with other countries, governments are encouraged to make a major breakthrough in the field of education by designing international school.


International School is a school that already meets the National Standards of Education covering the content standards, process standards, competency standards, standards of educators and education personnel, facilities and infrastructure standards, management standards, financial standards, and assessment standards. The National Standards of Education was enriched with some elements of education refers to the standard of education one member state Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and / or other

developed countries that have a particular advantage in the field of education so that it has competitiveness in international forums (Sofa, 2009) . Today the people of Indonesia considers that the International Standard Bilingual School became icons, even become one of the number one choice school. There are many Bilingual school now in Indonesia especially in Jakarta. Generallly the school providing a curriculum for young children which follows the principles of early childhood development and learning, They learning play, stories, painting , music, arts and craft and the use of age related educational equipment and teaching materials in an environtment which stresses learning by doing. Many children are growing in the field of education ranging from how to speak, how to lead, and connect with friends around, because bilingual education has been taught from an early age is still. Based on the thought above, the author tries to do a study entitled How The Children Growing in Bilingual Education



The Reason for Choosing the Title Learning a foreign language (English) in Jakarta has more structured curriculum that starts at the elementary level. Teaching English at an early age, usually begins at the stage of preliminary school, play group, or equivalent school. Authors interested in one school preschool who initiated the introduction of the English language from an early age. Because of the interest in it, the authors observed process and write in this paper writing, in addition to increasing the knowledge of its readers, as well as to demonstrate the importance of school students to get their bilingual towards higher levels of learning English.


The Aim of the writing This Paper has two purposes, namely, practical and academic purposes. 1. The practical purpose was to apply the knowledge acquired support of English for three years in the ABA National University seek knowledge in the form of paper writing. 2. Academic aim is to meet the requirements of D-3 exams that write a paper as a final task. 3. To know what the activities of children in Bilingual School


The Scope of Writing


Paper writing should be limited only in terms of - issues related to the purpose of the informal education english language, through bilingual school education so writing became focused and not stray anywhere. 1.5 The Methods of Writing The write up describes subjects of the topic in a descriptive way and is not intended to provide scientific evidence, to use the Theory but simply contains the thoughts of the writer is routine, orderly and reasonably. 1.6 The Organization of writing To make ease of writing the author in preparing this paper the organization of writing as follows: TITLE : How The Children Growing in Bilingual Education CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 CHAPTER II The Background The Reason for Choosing the Tittle The Aim of Writing The Scope of The Writing The Methods of Writing The Organization of Writing



2.2 2.3

Bilingual Teaching Three Types of Bilingualism 2.3.1 Types of bilingual education


Bilingual Language Development 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 History of bilingual education Opposition to bilingual education The activities of children


Advantages of Bilingualism 2.5.1 2.5.2 The scientific aspect of bilingualism Common problems in bilingual school


: DISCUSSION 3.1 Parental Concern 3.1.1 Bilingualism and Language delay 3.1.2 Bilingualism and Language Confusion 3.2 An Approach to Running Bilingual Classes 3.2.1 3.2.2 Language learning and Television Basic Instruction in bilingual classes


: CLOSING 4.1 4.2 Conclusion Suggestion




II.1 What is Bilingualism It is interesting to see that the answer to a question What is bilingualism it seems to provoke the thougth deeper.Baetens-Beardsmore comment that bilingualism is a term that has open-ended semantics (1982 p 1). In other words, the term bilingualism may mean different things to different people as there is no one definition for bilingualism. For the average speaker, bilingualism can be loosely defined as the use of two languages or the native-like control of two languages. The first definition highlights the use of two languages as a key criterion which may well include speakers who only have rudimentary formulaic expressions, e.g., greetings in the second language. In stark contrast, the second definition imposes a stringent requirement in terms of language proficiency. As is evident, each definition represents a position at different ends of the proficiency continuum even though, in reality, most bilinguals probably fall somewhere in the middle of this continuum. Moreover, often what we read in the literature about how bilinguals should be defined are views of experts which may not reflect the views of speakers themselves. Though the discussion of how bilingualism should be defined has often centred on the issue of language competence, this focus overlooks other socio-cultural and cognitive factors which are just as relevant when discussing the performance of bilinguals. Hence, the aim of this first unit is to show that bilinguals are part of a wider socio-cultural milieu and any description of bilingualism needs to account for how bilinguals utilize and interact with the resources in the community. We will show that the impact of social, psychological and cultural variables on the bilingual individual is


ultimately central to the experience of being bilingual, and that an understanding of these factors underpins all questions raised in this area of study. This unit will not attempt to provide an exhaustive definition of bilingualism as this is widely covered elsewhere (see for example, Hornby 1979; SkutnabbKangas 1981; Baetens-Beardsmore 1982; Romaine 1989; Hoffmann 1991; Baker 2006). Instead, the aim is to equip readers with the necessary skills and insight to assess and interpret research drawn from bilingual populations. In order to achieve this, we will first examine how the bilingual experience has been chronicled and examined by various researchers. We will also look at how some factors may exert an influence over our perceptions of bilinguals and how they function. In the course of the discussion, key issues surrounding the description of bilingualism will be highlighted with a view to providing some guidelines which will be useful in engaging with debate and research into bilingualism.

II.2 Bilingual Teaching Bilingual teaching is a model of the use of two languages to deliver curriculum materials with the aim to strengthen students' competency in a foreign language. By using this model there are two main things the students obtained, namely the mastery of science and literacy in two languages. Until now many countries that implement bilingual teaching, such as the Philippines, Australia, Japan, China, and America. The purpose of this implementation is to accelerate the improvement of quality education for children from various community groups that can simultaneously achieve alignment of national standards in science

and language mastery. Indonesia aims to get the alignment of the quality of education, both at national and international levels. There are many models implement in teachings (Stephen Krashen, 1997), which some schools to use English for some actors and the use of mother tongue in other subjects. In the next model used two languages at once in one subject, where students are facilitated by two teachers. One person completely teachers use English, while the other one fully use the mother tongue. There are also other models in which a teacher provides teaching materials in two languages. The other is from the students, how to incorporate students who have a mother tongue English with students who speak another tongue. In doing so it changes the language of instruction, which was originally the language of my mother into the Indonesian language. This is a new era using the Indonesian language as an introduction. Indonesian were originally used only in fourth grade, which later changed since first grade. Even when the initial disagreement, but gradually Indonesian through learning have become commonplace in our country. Because ordinary language can indeed. Three major factors that support the smooth process of changing the past is any teacher who is fluent in both Indonesian and my mother language, the book is available at the school students and a strong commitment from all stakeholders. Impact of strengthening it further seen in the 1980's where the experts are optimistic that Indonesian language can serve as a language of science. Their argument is based on reality, faculty, students and medical techniques that use in Indonesian language, as an introduction. This is an indicator that Indonesian


adequate as an introduction to modern science. This optimism is further strengthened when the Australian set the Indonesian language as a foreign language learned in school. In fact, students from Alaska who arrived in Indonesia in 1984 has been good in terms of Indonesia in his country because there are courses in the Indonesian language in his country. In the next period a strong sense of optimism that does not continue. This is because the mastery of knowledge of Indonesia is not as fast as other nations. The ability to translate science into Indonesian, not to pursue the development of science. Finally, use the Indonesian language as the language of science can not adapt to increasingly rapid changes in science. The consequence is the growing importance of mastering English as an international language and the language of science. The latest development in the 2000 showed that the more rapid mastery of English by the nation India, China, Malaysia, Korea, Philippines, Singapore, and other ASEAN region. This is in line with the development of information and communication technology era. That is why there is no other option for Indonesia unless the start bilingual learning programs, English-Indonesian, which is expected to make English as a second language in the homeland. People use the term bilingualism in different ways. For some, it means an equal ability to communicate in two languages. For others, it simply means the ability to communicate in two languages, but with greater skills in one language. In fact, it is more common for bilingual people, even those who have been bilingual since birth, to be somewhat "dominant" in one language

II.3 Three Types Of Bilingualism The following three types of bilingualism are usually used by researchers to describe bilingual children:
a. Simultaneous bilingualism b. Receptive bilingualism c. Sequential bilingualism

1. Simultaneous bilingualism: Learning two languages as "first languages". That is, a person who is a simultaneous bilingual goes from speaking no languages at all directly to speaking two languages. Infants who are exposed to two languages from birth will become simultaneous bilinguals. 2. Receptive bilingualism: Being able to understand two languages but express oneself in only one. Children who had high exposure to a second language throughout their lives, but have had little opportunity to use the language would fall in this category. For example, many children in Chinese or Mexican immigrant households hear English on TV, in stores and so on, but use their home language (Chinese or Spanish) in everyday communication. When they enter preschool or kindergarten, these children are likely to make rapid progress in English because their receptive skill in English language has been developed.
3. Sequential bilingualism: Learning one language after already

established a first language. This is the situation for all those who


become bilingual as adults, as well as for many who became bilingual earlier in life. Languages are learned most readily during the toddler and preschool years and, to a lesser extent, during elementary school. Therefore, children growing up in bilingual homes and/or receiving bilingual education easily acquire both languages. Throughout much of the world, bilingualism is the norm for both children and adults. In the past, immigrants to the United States often began learning and using English in their homes as soon as possible. In the early 2000s, however, many immigrants choose to maintain their native language at home. Bilingual children are at an advantage in this increasingly multilingual nation. Types of bilingual education Bilingual education is common throughout the world and involves hundreds of languages. In the United States bilingualism is assumed to mean English and another language, often Spanish. More than 300 languages are spoken in the United States. In New York City schools, classroom instruction is given in 115 different languages. Bilingual education includes all teaching methods that are designed to meet the needs of English-language learners (ELLs), also referred to as "limited English proficient" (LEP) students. There are numerous approaches to bilingual education, although all include English as a second language (ESL). ESL is English language instruction that includes little or no use of a child's native language. ESL classes often include students with many different primary languages. Some school districts use a


variety of approaches to bilingual education, designing individual programs based on the needs of each child. A common approach is transitional bilingual education (TBE). Transitional Bilingual Education programs include ESL; however, some or all academic classes are conducted in children's primary languages until they are well-prepared for English-only classes. Even children who converse well in English may not be ready to learn academic subjects in English. Often these children spend part of the school day in an intensive ESL program and the remainder of the day receiving instruction in their primary language. Bilingual teachers may help students improve their primary language skills.

Bilingual/bicultural programs include instruction in the history and culture of a student's ethnic heritage. Studies have shown that children who receive several years of instruction in their native language learn English faster and have higher overall academic achievement levels that those who do not. Two-way bilingual or dual-language programs use both English and a second language in classrooms made up of both ELLs and native English speakers. The goal is for both groups to become bilingual. Children in two way bilingual education programs have been found to outperform their peers academically. Many educatorsand a segment of the publicbelieve in the English immersion approach, even if ELLs do not understand very much in the classroom. In this approach nearly all instruction is in English, and there is little or no use of other languages. If the teacher is bilingual, students may be allowed to ask questions in their native language, but the teacher answers them in English. Some

schools employ structured English immersion or sheltered English, in which teachers use pictures, simple reading words, and other techniques to teach ELLs both English and academic subjects. II.4 Bilingual Language Development Language acquisition is very similar for monolingual and bilingual children, although some experts view bilingualism as a specialized case of language development. Children growing up in homes where two different languages are spoken usually acquire both languages simultaneously. Although their acquisition of each language may be somewhat slower than that of children who are acquiring a single language, their development in the two languages combined is equivalent to that of monolingual children. Bilingual language learners proceed through the same patterns of language and speech development as children acquiring a single language. Their first words usually are spoken at about one year of age, and they begin stringing two words together at about age two. Even if the two languages do not share similarities in pronunciation, children eventually master them both. There are two major patterns of bilingual language development, both occurring before the age of three. Simultaneous bilingualism occurs when a child learns both languages at the same time. In the early stages of simultaneous bilingual language development, a child may mix words, parts of words, and inflections from both languages in a single sentence. Sometimes this occurs because a child knows a word in one language but not in the other. Some bilingual


children initially resist learning words for the same thing in two languages. Children also may experiment with their two languages for effect. During the second stage of bilingual language development, at age four or older, children gradually begin to distinguish between the two languages and use them separately, sometimes depending on where they are. One language may be used less formally to talk about home and family, whereas the other language may be used more formally, perhaps for relating events that took place outside the home. Often children find it easier to express a specific idea in one language rather than the other. Bilingual children also go through periods when one language is used more than the other. Some children may begin to prefer one language over the other, particularly if that language is spoken more frequently in their home or school. Bilingual children usually are not equally skilled in both languages. Often they understand more in one language but speak more in the other. Sequential bilingualism occurs when children use their knowledge of and experience with a first language to rapidly acquire a second language. The first language may influence the way in which they learn and use their second language. Learning the second language is easier for children if the sounds, words, and vocabulary of the languages are similar. Bilingual language development usually proceeds more smoothly when both languages are introduced early and simultaneously. When the parents each use a different language with their child, the child is less likely to experience language confusion.


Research indicates that there are numerous advantages to bilingualism. Bilingualism has been reported to improve the following skills:

verbal and linguistic abilities general reasoning concept formation divergent thinking metalinguistic skills, the ability to analyze and talk about language and control language processing

These abilities are important for reading development in young children and may be a prerequisite for later learning to read and write in a new language. History of bilingual education Although bilingual education has been used in the United States for more than 200 years, the 1968 Title VII amendment to the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) instituted federal grants for bilingual education programs. This legislation led to the development of appropriate teaching and learning materials and training for teachers of bilingual students. In 1974 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the San Francisco school system had violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by not providing Englishlanguage instruction for Chinese-speaking students. All school districts were directed to serve ELLs adequately, and bilingual education quickly spread throughout the United States. In the 1980s a group called Asian Americans United filed a class-action lawsuit charging that Asian Americans were not being

provided with an equitable education because they were not offered bilingual classes. The result of this suit was the creation of sheltered ESL, in which ESL students take all of their classes together. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001President George W. Bush's major education initiativereauthorized the ESEA. It also imposed penalties on schools that did not raise the achievement levels of ELLs for at least two consecutive years. Although most research indicates that it often takes seven years for ELLs to attain full English fluency, the new federal law allows these children only three years before they must take standardized tests in English. Schools with large numbers of children speaking many different languages are particularly disadvantaged under the law. A 2003 survey by the National Education Association found that 22,000 schools in 44 states failed to make the required yearly progress on standardized tests, primarily because of low test scores by ELLs and disabled students. The National Association for Bilingual Education claims that NCLB sets arbitrary goals for achievement and uses "invalid and unreliable assessments." Furthermore, although the NCLB requires teachers to be qualified, as of 2004 there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers for ELLs. Some communities have developed early-intervention programs for Spanish-speaking parents and preschoolers to help children develop their Spanish language skills in preparation for entering English-only schools. In May of 2004, the U.S. Department of Education and faith-based community leaders launched an initiative to inform Hispanic, Asian, and other


parents of ELLs about the NCLB. It featured the "Declaration of Rights for Parents of English Language Learners under No Child Left Behind." As of 2004 American public schools include about 11 million children of immigrants. Approximately 5.5 million students10 percent of the public school enrollmentspeak little or no English. Spanish speakers account for 80 percent of these children. About one-third of children enrolled in urban schools speak a primary language other than English in their homes. Between 2001 and 2004, 19 states reported increases of 50 to 200 percent in Spanish-speaking students. ELLs are the fastest-growing public school population in kindergarten through twelfth grade. Between 2000 and 2002, nationwide ELL enrollment increased 27 percent. About 25 percent of California public school children are ELLs. However, there is a profound shortage of bilingual and ESL teachers throughout the United States. Although 41 percent of U.S. teachers have ELLs in their classrooms, only about 2.5 percent of them have degrees in ESL or bilingual education. The majority of these teachers report that they are not well-prepared for teaching ELLs. About 75 percent of ELLs are in poverty schools, where student turnover is high and many teachers have only emergency credentials.

Opposition to bilingual education In 1980 voters in Dade County, Florida, made English their official language. In 1981 California Senator S. I. Hayakawa introduced a constitutional amendment to make English the country's official language. In 1983 Hayakawa founded U.S. English, Inc., which grew to include 1.8 million members by 2004. U.S. English argues the following premises:

The unifying effect of the English language must be preserved in the United States.

Bilingual education fails to adequately teach English. Learning English quickly in English-only classrooms is best for ELLs, both academically and socially.

Any special language instruction should be short-term and transitional.

In 1986 California voters passed Proposition 63 that made English the state's official language. Other states did the same. In 1998 Californians passed Proposition 227, a referendum that attempted to eliminate bilingual education by allowing only one year of structured English immersion, followed by mainstreaming. Similar initiatives have appeared on other state ballots. However, only 9 percent of the California children attained English proficiency in one year, and most remained in the immersion programs for a second year. Prior to the new law only 29 percent of California ELLs were in bilingual programs, in part because of a shortage of qualified teachers. Since the law allowed parents to apply for waivers, 12 percent of the ELLs were allowed to remain in bilingual classes. In January of 2004, as part of a lawsuit settlement, the California State Board of Education was forced to radically revise the implementation of their "Reading First" program. Previously California had withheld all of the $133 million provided by NCLB from ELLs enrolled in alternative bilingual programs.

The Activities of Children


A kid's first day at school is a major milestone. There's a lot to take in: new adults, new classmates, new routines--- sometimes even a new language. The first day of school does not have to be daunting, though. There are plenty of activities to ease bilingual first-graders into their new class. Roll Call

Greet members of the first-grade class in a variety of ways, such as: "Good Morning, Hola, Buenos Dias, Guten Morgen." Ask the children how many different ways they know of saying hello. At roll call, invite them to answer with the greeting of their choice. The idea is to put all members of the class, bilingual or otherwise, at ease. The presence of bilingual learners in any class provides an opportunity for everyone to learn more about languages.

Days of the Week

Ask the class to recite the days of the week in English. Then recite the days of the week yourself, in a language spoken by your bilingual learners. Display a list of weekdays in both languages. Invite the children to recite the days of the week, first in one language, then in the other. If anyone is unsure of the pronunciation, ask fellow class members to help out. This encourages the children to see themselves as expert speakers.


Making Friends

Stand the children in a circle. Say: "Hello, what's your name?" in both English and another language of the bilingual students. Show how to respond with: "My name is ..." in both languages. Invite the children to ask one another's names, swapping places in the circle as they do so. Later, they can draw themselves with their classmates, adding speech bubbles to show the conversations they practiced at circle time.


Teach the children to count the numbers one to 10 in another language. Then conduct a quick mental arithmetic quiz, with simple addition and subtraction facts. Challenge the children to give their answers in their second language. This activity gives everyone a taste of a new language and breathes new life into a routine classroom exercise.


Ask the children to draw maps of their new classroom, with labels to show where everything is kept. Encourage class members to make five labels in English and five in another language. Display the children's maps to the whole class and invite them to read the different labels.


Show the class a picture-book story which has very few words. A good choice is "Welcome to Kindergarten" by The teacher, which is about a first

day at school and just has pictures. Ask an individual child to tell the story for a particular page. Ask a classmate to tell the same part of the story in another language. Encourage the class to share the story to the end, in both languages. II.5 The Advantages of Bilingualism In Jakarta students are immersed in the English language and follow a complete and challenging education program conforming to the English national curriculum. Immersion in another language gives children the opportunity to become bilingual in a natural and effective way. The children learn while acting on concepts, creating, listening, actively participating, and learning new skills. Studies have shown that there are many benefits to introducing another language early, and maintaining it through a lifetime. A bilingual education offers the chance to: - Discover and understand another culture - Develop capacity to learn and understand educational concepts - Have a more analytical mind - Increase the childs ability to learn a 3rd or even a 4th language - Develop more tolerance and open-mindedness - Develop different ways of thinking - Stimulate the intellect - Improve IQ - Transfer concepts more easily


- Have a proficiency in adapting to new situations - Be more sensitive in interpersonal communication - Have better results in mathematics and music (Brocas area) - Better succeed in school - Reach and exceed ones own academic potential

The scientific aspect of bilingualism: The scientist Paul Broca discovered in 1861 that a particular area in the brain was dedicated to language acquisition. Later, other scientists discovered that Brocas area was also the area of mathematical development and music appreciation


After more than 35 years of research, Jean Petit, a French psycholinguist, along with American scientists, established that: - The best age to learn a second language is between 0 and 7 years - Up to 5 languages can be learned during that period - Discrimination between sounds is very easy for young children and mistakes are minimal - The learning process at that age is compared to a TGV (fastest train ever) - After 7 the learning process slows down - At 13 the articulation and sound production mechanism (phoneme and allophone) are programmed on monolingual mode (this is why adults have trouble learning a second language) - Canadian researchers have found an average difference of 14 points in IQ between a bilingual and a monolingual student - Writing and reading with the same alphabet is easier - Mathematics and music skills are enhanced by learning a 2nd language - The best learning conditions are the following:

Start as soon as possible No favoritism between native tongue and second language Intensity, continuity, exposure and use of the second language Instrumental and communicative approach Native teacher Positive and warm emotional environment Bottom line: a bilingual education is a gift for life! Common Problems in Bilingual School Language and learning difficulties occur with the same frequency in monolingual and bilingual children. However, as the number of bilingual children in the United States increases, it becomes increasingly important for parents and pediatricians to understand the normal patterns of bilingual language development in order to recognize abnormal language development in a bilingual child. If a bilingual child has a speech or language problem, it should be apparent in both languages. However detecting language delays or abnormalities in bilingual children can be difficult. Signs of possible language delay in bilingual children include the following:

not making sounds between two and six months of age fewer than one new word per week in children aged six to 15 months fewer than 20 words in the two languages combined by 20 months of age limited vocabulary without word combinations in children aged two to three years of age

prolonged periods without using speech difficulty remembering words missing normal milestones of language development in the first language of a sequentially bilingual child

Language development in bilingual children can be assessed by a bilingual speech/language pathologist or by a professional who has knowledge of the rules and structure of both languages, perhaps with the assistance of a translator or interpreter.



Discussion III.1 Parental Concern

The purpose of this digest is to help pediatricians, speech language pathologists, classroom teachers, and other professionals who work with bilingual children and their parents understand common parental concerns related to bilingual childrearing and become familiar with the current science on bilingual child development. Greater insight into both issues will allow these professionals to provide more effective and scientifically sound advice to parents. Although many parents believe that bilingualism results in language delay, research suggests that monolingual and bilingual children meet major language developmental in similar times. Despite many parents fear that using two languages will result in confusion for their children, there is no research evidence to support this. On the contrary, use of two languages in the same conversation has been found to be a sign of mastery of both languages. Many parents rely heavily on television to teach the second language; yet this is best considered a fun source of secondary support for language learning. Human interaction is the best method for fostering language learning. Contrary to the widespread notion among parents that bilingualism results in bigger, better brains, parents more realistically can expect their bilingual children to gain specific advantages in targeted areas, such as greater understanding of language as an abstract system.


Bilingualism and Language Delay Many of the parents we interviewed believed that their children had experienced or were likely to experience language delay as a result of their dual language environment. The same view is prevalent in the popular parenting literature. Such sources frequently note that acquisition of two languages can result in language delay, though many also suggest that the long-term benefits of bilingualism are important (e.g., Fabian, 2003; Foreman, 2002; Murkoff, 2003; Pruett, n.d.). It is important to differentiate between the popular use of the term language delay in reference to a child who is perceived to take longer than average to begin to speak but who is well within the normal range of productive vocabulary development (Fenson et al., 1994) and the clinical use of the term to refer to significant delays in the development of language, which can be either primary (not associated with another disorder) or secondary (associated with conditions such as autism). A lack of understanding of the different uses of the term may result in undue concern for some parents interested in raising their children with two languages.

Bilingualism and Language Confusion Many of the parents interviewed worried that their children would experience confusion due to exposure to two languages. Some believed that language delay was the result of this confusion. Several advice publications (e.g., Eisenberg, Murkoff, & Hathaway, 1989; Honig, n.d.) suggest that confusion could be avoided by using the one-parent, one-


language approach to bilingual childrearing, in which each caregiver uses only one language with the child and parents refrain from using two languages in the same conversation. However, research indicates that the ability to switch back and forth between languages, sometimes called code-switching, is a sign of mastery of two linguistic systems, not a sign of language confusion, and that children as young as 2 are able to code-switch in socially appropriate ways (Lanza, 1992). Research also shows that many normally developing bilingual children mix their two languages, with the type and amount of code-switching depending on environmental factors, such as how much the parents or wider community engage in code-switching.

III.2 An Approach to Running Bilingual Classes

Language Learning and Television Many parents we interviewed relied heavily on commercial language materials such as books, videos, television programs, and music CDs to help their children learn a second language. Likewise, much of the popular press and advice literature stresses the value of books and videos, often providing long lists of language learning television and video programs (Eisenberg et al., 1989; Langley, 1999;Lichtenberger, n.d.). Yet research clearly indicates that some activities are more effective than others in promoting second language acquisition and bilingualism. In particular, we know a growing amount about the limits of television and video as instructional aides


with young children. For instance, recent studies have examined the process of perceptual narrowing in infants, that is, infants gradual loss of the ability to perceive sounds unlike those in the language(s) to which they are regularly exposed. Researchers have found that live interaction (e.g., reading or talking to a child) is more effective than exposure to recorded sounds (e.g., television) in reversing the narrowing process (Kuhl, Feng-Ming, & Huei-Mei, 2003). Other studies have found that, for older children, being read aloud to in the second language increases second language vocabulary much more than watching television in that language (Patterson, 2002). In short, while audio and video materials can serve as a positive and entertaining source of support for language learning, human interaction is the best method for fostering both first and second language development.

Basic Instruction In Bilingual Classes One approach to developing language teaching is an approach based on the task. This approach can be tried in a bilingual classroom. According to Nunan (2004), the task is a piece of classroom work which involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning and in which their intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form. Understanding of tasks like these that should be applied in bilingual classes taught subjects in the International Bilingual School. In the context of the International Bilingual School, where English is used as the language of


instruction, completing a task (task completion) in the process of learning in the classroom requires skills using English grammar (language forms) and understanding of the substance of the subject matter (meaning or content knowledge). So the English language serves as a tool to accomplish learning tasks. This understanding can be translated into pedagogical steps using a pedagogical framework (Willis, 1996, 2005) consisting of pre-task, task cycle, and feedback. At the stage of pre-task, teachers explain the important concepts of the subject matter (technical and semi-technical vocabulary), relationships between concepts, and linguistic issues that are essential to understand the material or text. In step task cycle, the teacher and explain the task (task) that will be done students, a facilitator for students in the process of doing the task, and the feedback phase, the teacher gives feedback on the results of student work. Input can be directed to improving the substance of the task or it could be to mistake the English language. To implement such an approach learning with a teacher needs to master the skills to use the functions of language skills and provide feedback both during lessons and feedback for the tasks to be completed by the students. Teaching based on the task has a very strong theoretical foundation. Theories that form the basis of this approach is the interactionist theory (Pica, Kanagy, & Falodun, 1993). This theory says that the most effective way to learn is through interaction. In the classroom there are many opportunities to listen and understand new concepts, exchange opinions, exchange ideas among students and with teachers. Learning objectives not only to understand the concept, but also to train the ability to use language (English) as a means to exchange ideas or


opinions in an effort to achieve the objectives of the assigned task (task goal). In this connection, Long (1983, 1996) suggests that learning can occur if students obtain comprehensible input (comprehensible input) as a result of meaningful interaction. The implications of this theory is that in order to place learning in the classroom, is necessary to create opportunities for students to held interaction because the interaction is an important pre-requisite for the occurrence of learning. This can happen if the learning activities are designed based on the task or delivery tasks. Learning materials that are considered to encourage interaction among students is that learning materials are, among others: (a) requires students to exchange information, (b) contains the information to be conveyed by way of two directions, (c) has a clear purpose, (d) contain the problem to be solved together.


CHAPTER IV CLOSING Conclusion Being bilingual may give advantages to individuals because of greater mental flexibility, concept superiority, information diversity, and higher verbal IQ ability. It is believed that bilinguals have an advantage in mental skill sets and flexibility. The dominant belief at this time is that there is a superiority of divergent thinking abilities among bilinguals. The ability of children with two languages gives rise to control and divergent ability over problems of a nonverbal nature due to the diversified skill sets at work. Therefore the problem solving process is different from others used previously at a young age by children who only have a single language knowledge base. Due to this flexibility, and increased knowledge base, bilingual children are more likely to express themselves without the constraints of symbols. When a child must learn their literacy skills in two languages at the same time the advantage of bilingualism may be lost. Children must discover the relation between written code and sound, as well as, sound to written code. and proposes the use of word problems in dominant language for the acquisition of math knowledge. Thus, we can say that children can learn second language quickly as compare to the adults. Reasoning behind this research study was to help justify and clarify the rearing of the researchers children who are both four years old in a bilingual environment. The children in question have the cognitive ability to relate in two


languages their thoughts, memory, and compared to others they seem to learn seamlessly. Their thinking pattern when engaged in either of the two languages seems to switch instantly within their surroundings. Raising children in a bilingual setting, we can see firsthand the difference in the cognitive process.

Suggestion In reading the writing of this paper, the reader should have been able to understand the benefits of language as a communication tool that is a very important role in community life. Both the English and Indonesian with the many bilingual schools both languages must be understood by children from an early age.
Authors recommend to readers, especially parents who have children

and want to enter into a bilingual school occasionally check it properly, using the material that makes children eager to learn two languages, I think this will be no problem. The important thing is children with learning difficulties should not be entered in a Bilingual school. And parents must also consider whether the bilingual school is in conformity with the curriculum in ordinary schools. Bilingual schools in Indonesia are usually attended mostly by Indonesian. This type of school like ordinary school, teach both languages, English and Indonesian which included in their curriculum. Obscurity caused by bilingual school should be made clear; not merely for money, because everyone want better institution which is really able and responsible to run an education body. Teacher quality must be maintained, so that

people who want to enter children do not become victims. Government regulations must be secured for permittion, is any Bule allowed to teach. This course is very degrading the nation itself, for using foreign workers who are not qualified and if you want to set up bilingual schools, it should be considered timely whether there is a maturity structure for this, is there a ready curriculum, objectives and the targets are also clear. The targets of who, why, and how they are applied to, should all be questioned. Is human resources department able to carry out what we have already had for this kind of school.



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