No. 1. 2. 3.

Subject

Pages

Content Title and introduction

1 2

Vanilla utilization and varieties of 3-5 vanilla in Malaysia

4. 5.

Important vanilla in industry Malaysia

5-6

Common propagation practise in vanilla 6-7 cultivation

6.

Good management practises in vanilla 7 production

7.

The pest and disease of vanilla and their 7-9 control measures

8. 9. 10. 11.

Harvesting and post ±harvest handling Major products of vanilla industry Conclusion References

9-10 10-11 11 12

1

The tip is acute to acuminate and the base somewhat rounded. adventitious roots. vanilla is widely used in both commercial and domestic baking. Despite the expense. it is rarely found outside the pacific region. herbaceous perennial vine. The leaves are large. which is produced from grinding the entire bean after it¶s been dried. The internodes are 5 ± 15 cm in length. The veins are numerous. The petiole is short. large. parallel and indistinct. and are 8 ± 25 cm long and 2 ± 8 cm broad. pale greenish yellow flowers are about 10 cm in diameter and are fugacious. The roots at the base ramify in the humus or mulch layer. vanilla is highly valued for its flavour. climbing by means of adventitious roots up trees or other supports to a height of 10 ± 15 meters. flexuouse and brittle. It has narrower leaves. Root . subsessile leaves are alternate. 2 . There are two vanilla types. whitish. and canalized above. Vanilla is the second most expensive spice after saffron. its long. For the structure vanilla planifolia is a fleshy. They are 1 ± 2 cm in diameter and are dark green and photosynthetic with stomata. because growing the vanilla seed pods is labor-intensive. perfume manufacture and aromatherapy. monopodial stems are simple or branched. waxy. flat. the pods have a lower vanillin content. long. and the bean¶s extract or a synthetic imitation which is used to flavour a whole range of culinary products from cakes and cookies to ice cream. aerial. The second is Vanilla Tahitensis (Tahitian Vanilla). this type is the subject of this manual. thick. which is often referred to as a vanilla bean. cylindrical. For the flowers. vanilla powder. As a result. the seedpod of the plant. For the stem. are produced singly opposite the leaves and adhere firmly appressed to the support up which the plant climbs. about 2 mm in diameter. vanilla refers to a plant. Vanilla Fragrens Var Planiflora. In cultivation it is trained to a height which will facilitate hand pollination and harvesting. oblong-elliptic to lanceolate. Literally. and are succulent.TITLE Vanilla INTRODUCTION Vanilla has both a literal and a figurative meaning. fragrance. fleshy.

The sprout reaches 1. Medicinal To block quorum sensing in bacteria Used in aromatherapy VARIETIES OF VANILLA AVAILABLE IN MALAYSIA Vanilla abundiflora Vanilla abundiflora is an evergreen climbing plant. For cosmetics Perfumes 3. the entire sheet measures up to 32 centimeters in length and eleven inches in width. For culinary Flavouring ice-cream 2. and the petiole is about 1.3 to 1. the internodes are 6. it reaches a height of six feet or more. The leaves are oblong to lanceolate . The leaves are oblong oval.6 centimeters in diameter. significantly blunt tip.75 inches in width. Family Classification Phylum Order Genus Distribution Orchidaceae Plantae Magnoliophyta Asparagales Vanilla Borneo Vanilla kinabaluensis Vanilla kinabaluensis is an evergreen climbing plant. 3 . pointed front moved out.5centimeters. it reaches ten to 20 meters in height growth.VANILLA UTILIZATION 1.5 to three inches long. The petiole is long and 1.5 centimeters long. the entire sheet measures 25 inches in length and 8. they end in a short patch.

The leaf stem isan inch long. moved out front long and pointed. Family Genus Phylum Order Distribution Species Orchidaceae Vanilla Magnoliophyta Asparagales Borneo Vanilla havilandii 4 .5 centimeters wide.5 to 5. The leaves are of thinner texture. Malesia Vanilla havilandii Vanilla havilandii is an evergreen vine.Family Classification Phylum Order Genus Distribution Kingdom Class Distribution Orchidaceae Plantae Magnoliophyta Asparagales Vanilla Borneo Plantae Magnoliopsida Peninsular Borneo Malaysia to Vanilla griffithii Family Genus Classification Phylum Class Order Distribution Orchidaceae Vanilla Plantae Magnoliophyta Liliopsida Asparagales W. The leaves are ten to17 centimeters long and 2. The leaves are oval to lanceolate.

Many consumer also like to eat ice cream vanilla flavoured. According to initial plans to identify 500 settlers to plant vanilla 1 hectare each. high demand for natural vanilla in the world market place. So that. some investors in Malaysia have entered into an agreement with FELDA to buy back green vanilla beans from FELDA and will be processed for the export market.000 tons. Vanilla will be Malaysia's new major commodity. it is expected to produce 3. which is expected to help farmers earn a lucrative income. in Malaysia we need to plant more vanilla plant to fulfil the demand of vanilla. into a major commodity after rubber and palm oil because 5 .it means that demands of vanilla is high. which had been widely sought after in the food flavouring and fragrance industry. Agriculture and Agro-Based Industry Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin said efforts were being made to turn vanilla. Based on world production of natural vanilla. Based on the total world export . with high prices and growing demand for essential goods.Vanilla borneoneensis Family Genus Phylum Order Distribution Species Classification Class Distribution Orchidaceae Vanilla Magnoliophyta Asparagales Borneo Vanilla havilandii Plantae Liliopsida Borneo IMPORTANT IN THE VANILLA INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA By majority of the world dominated by the use of synthetic vanilla (97%). Many consumer like to use vanilla flavouring in their cooking. Total world exports is now 4. The demand of vanilla is high because the utilization of vanilla is widespread. Malaysia aimed to focus on the production of world standard pure vanilla extract and become a major producer for the world market.000 tonnes of green vanilla beans and then the next process can produce 300 tons of dried vanilla is available for export.

The poly bags should have five or six holes at the base to avoid water stagnation. Any part of the vine can be selected for stem cutting. The cuttings should be kept in shade for one week before planting in the poly bags. which are in vegetative phase excluding the tender shoots at the tip. 6 . Introduce vanilla as a new crop will also avoid Malaysia's dependence on rubber and palm oil. Tissue culture plantlets: Tissue cultured vanilla plantlets can also be used for field planting.the country could tap the pure vanilla extract world market. Vermi compost can also be mixed with potting mixture. The plant of vanilla also are meant for assisting poor rural farmers through contract farming introduced. 2.three nodes can be used for generating rooted cuttings by planting them in polythene bags [15 cm x 15 cm and 100 . but vines of current year's growth. Rooted cuttings: It is advisable to plant smaller cuttings with fewer nodes on Iy after rooting in poly bags. The planted cuttings should be provided with shade and watering should be done once in two days. dried cow dung and sand in the ratio 1:1:1. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu have shown that both the stem/rooted cuttings and tissue cultured plantlets are comparable in terms of eventual productivity though the tissue cultured plantlets grow at a slower pace in the first year of planting. Smaller cuttings with at least two . 3.12 internodes in each cutting.150 gauge]. It is ideal to have a minimum of 10. Studies conducted by the Board in about 450 plots in Kerala. COMMON PROPAGATION PRACTISES IN VANILLA PRODUCTION 1. Stem cuttings Stem cuttings of one meter length or less can be used for planting. The tissue-cultured plantlets are to be hardened in nurseries for about six months prior to field planting after they become at least 30 cm tall. Only one cutting should be planted in each polybag and it should be tied to a support made by placing a small twig or stick or split bamboo in the poly bag. are most ideal. The potting mixture may be prepared by mixing fertile top soil.

The pits are to be filled with fertile soil before planting the supports. The support trees can also be used for providing shade. The size of the pits should be 40x40x40 cm and the spacing of two meter between rows and 1. hole. The cuttings for support trees should be planted at least six months prior to planting of vanilla. The activities one by one and then burned at once in one carried out at night.5 metre within a row should be maintained. there are many more attempts at using biotechnology to produce substitutes. and ventures for new natural production. Like other botanical products from developing nations.4. Cuttings of 1 . SUPPORTS AND SHADE: Vanilla being a climbing orchid needs some support to grow. THE PESTS AND DISEASE OF VANILLA AND THEIR CONTROL MEASURES Pest No.5 to 2 metre length with 4 to 5 cm diameter are to be used. from taking cuttings out of the country to mapping the genome of valued plant. in labeling laws. They should be planted in the corner of the pits. Casuarina. 2 Grasshopper sword Damage / eat young leaves and Spray PESTONA or Natural BVR stems vanilla. Some commonly used support trees are Glyricidia. old-fashioned attempts to cut or dilute real vanilla with synthetic vanilla. Low branching trees with rough bark and small leaves are preferred as support trees. vanilla plants have been a focus of bioprospecting. GOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTISE IN VANILLA PRODUCTION The control that the flavour industry maintains in grading and certifying vanilla as real versus synthetic. When natural vanilla prices have been consistently high. It also requires about 50 percent shade. Mulberry and Erythrina lithosperma. and in consumer preferences for natural products are all part of the vanilla industry¶s complexity. 1 Pest Snails Explanation Attack and damage Control stems. Plumeria. Manually by taking and collecting snails flowers and fruit. Larvae of this pest damage Spraying PESTONA 7 3 Stem borer .

which attacked the plant and the land around there misellium white fungus like fur with lots of brown Sclerotium. leaves. appear brown and wet. brown and finally dry. Stem attacked would the NASA POC + Natural GLIO. 2 Stem rot The stem occurred in black spots Reducing moisture and good drainage. the plant becomes Maintaining soil fertility with fertilizers. and adjust the occurs during the highest humidity. wrinkles. 1 Disease Root rots Symptoms Control Black roots. and when attacking the middle of the fruit will be black. 8 . 4 Caterpillars and Damaging the shoots. Symptoms: the base of the stems spraying Natural GLIO + sugar. production was first reached. beginning with Natural GLIO prevention. Spraying PESTONA the caterpillars fire stems and flowers crested Disease No. 3 Rotten fruit Appear when attacking the base of Natural spraying GLIO + sugar dose of 1young fruit so many pieces falling 2 teaspoons per 10 liters of water. usually provision of lime to taste. 4 Stem rot The fungus Sclerotium sp.vanilla plant stem that causes vanilla plants slowly wither and die. brown and eventually die. then dry off. Use the base of the stem rot-free seed. that will spread quickly and when the cuttings will be planted dyed in circular.

5 Brown spots on Dark brown spots and eventually (1) Immediately attacked by picking fruit fruit rot. the highest yield and levels of safe water 2. and then burn it (2) Spraying with Natural GLIO 10 dose of 1-2 liters of water. The fruit is collected in bamboo baskets and maintained so as fruit is not injured or disabled and sorting based on size. level of maturity and the fruit of defect> 20 cm 6. leaves. 9 Postharvest diseases Post-harvest handling is good HARVESTING AND POST-HARVEST MANAGEMENT 1. around 2-3 months How to harvest it is best to pluck ripe fruit one by one without disturbing other fruits in one cluster is still raw. Perform withering to stop the process of respiration that occurs in fruit. yellowish brown Cut and burn affected parts. set up the fruit looks smooth and clearly moisture and drainage. visible and not the attacked 8 Red rust spots on leaves and continue to Remove infected parts and adjust the spread until the next dry leaves humidity of the garden by pruning the die tree protector. Harvest season between May to July. The characteristics of vanilla are ready for harvest that is the color changed from dark green to light green shiny bleak with small stripes of yellow color that gradually widens until the end of the fruit 3. low ash content. 9 . to maintain quality of vanilla. kill the cells of fruit and vanilla without reducing the activity levels of enzymes in the fruit. 5. 6 Brown spots on Stem looks brown spots which Cut and burn the affected stems stems eventually blackened and curled sections and die 7 Antraknos Stems. 4. Picking at the age of 240 days (8 months) will produce a dried vanilla with a high vanillin content. shape.

Etc. VANILLA SUGAR VANILLA TEA VANILLA EXTRACT 10 . Place the dried fruit of vanilla in the box that it has been coated newsprint paper / thin plastic bag and store at room temperature. roasted and aerated to reduce the water content up to 25-30% 9. Perform drying by drying in the sun. Milk shake. the utili ation must be abbreviated. Since vanilla extract is twice stronger than the powder. for a distinctively unique tea break. succulent flavour. sweet.Wit C ¡   i i ili t ill ¾ it t t t Perform curi i a special box complete wit li and sack as its base. Waffles. blended with milk processed sugar. Cereals and Milk. Yoghurt. Fruit Juices. French Toasts. This refreshing tea has a rich. MAJOR PRODUCTS OF VANILLA INDUSTRY PRODUCT LIST DESCRIPTION Natural Vanilla Sugar is a flux of highly flavoured Natural Indian Black vanilla beans. Natural Vanilla E tracts acts as a enhancer to flavourless and odourless seasonal fruits. Milk. Only half quantity than regular tea is advised. ready to be delivered and sold. Cheesecake. Vanilla extracts is largely used in industry for the preparation of Ice Creams. Natural Vanilla Tea is a blend of natural Indian Black vanilla and organic Assam CTC Premium tea for a creamy. Vanilla Sugar is absolutely exquisite! One Tea spoon Vanilla Sugar can flavour 2 to 3 glasses of Coffee. rich and satisfying cup. utuk aroma formation during 48 hours + 8. Pancakes.

cooking. This has necessitated more allocation of family labour although women's involvement is much more. 11 . paste form that adds a gourmet appearance to any recipe.VANILLA POWDER Natural Vanilla Powder is finely ground natural Indian black vanilla beans. Vanilla is a labour intensive crop because it involves many activities before it is harvested. etc. convenient. Bakery confectionery. Natural Vanilla Paste is a non-alcoholic solvent which contains vanilla seeds. nitrogen fixing. beverage. Vanilla Paste are directly added as a flavoring component in Ice-cream. These trees are particularly vital in terms of enriching the soil through litter. The fact that vanilla is grown with trees and other crops implies that it has positive natural resource management practices and also expands economic conditions of farmers. Vanilla is a crop that suits best the existing land conditions of small holder agricultural production. Vanilla powder is used in baking. highly fragrant and aromatic. ice cream it can be added to warm liquids and the vanilla flavour will not evaporate as it does with alcoholic extracts. VANILLA VINEGAR CONCLUSION Vanilla is a crop that is grown under shade condition normally grown with tree crops and other crops. Vanilla Powder is of the highest quality. sweets and other dairy product applications. Vanilla vinegar is made by using apple cider vinegar and crushed vanilla beans and aged for time. It s pure vanilla with natural vanilla bean seeds in a unique.

htm. Reviewed on 30 July 2011 12 .com/html/spices_spfarm_vanilla.html.necofa.com/products.html. Reviewed on 30 July 2011 ORGANIC INDONESIAN VANILLA .ug/publications/technical-manuals/vanilla-production-manual/.htm.org/194. http://www.com/2008/04/berita-vanilla-di-malaysia.REFERENCES NECOFA . Reviewed on 30 July 2011 ORCHIDS ASIA . http://organicindonesianvanilla. Reviewed on 30 July 2011 NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL ADVISORY SERVICES .indianspices. http://www.naads.orchidsasia.com/vanillaplants.0.blogspot. http://www. Reviewed on 30 July 2011 http://www.sscvanilla. http://www. Reviewed on 30 July 2011 SPICES BOARD INDIA .html.or.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful