THE GENbXkL EOIJVJ

United E t a t e s Forces, X w o ~ e m Theat,er A n t i a i r c r a f t A r t i l l e r y Section

Mission:

P r e p a r e Regort and Reconmendntions on A n t i a i r - r e f t m t i l l e r y Techniques.

The G e n e r a l board wzs e s t a b l i s h t d ty Genornl Orders 128, Hrndquarters S European Theator of Oper;:tions, U ilrm,v, d::ted 17 June 19ic5, a5 ancnded by G e n e r d Orders 182, dsted 7 August 1945 ard General Orders 312 d a t e d 20 November lYL9, Hcndquarturs United S t n t e s Forces, Eq-o?ean T h e a t e r , t o p r e p a r e ?. f o c t w l a n a l y s i s of the s t r z t e g y , t a c t i c s , and adlninistrat i o n employed by the. United E t d t e s f n r c e s i n th? European Theater.

File: R 353/1

S t u d y Nuntber 40

SUBJECT

PAC3

part @ne: I n t r a c u c t i o n , , .

I: Background,
2:

Scope

. , . .. . .. .. . .. ... .. and Purpose. . . . . . . . . . , . . .. ..

1
1
1

p a r t ?wo: ChaFter

., ., Seztfon 2 : C m p s r i s o n w i t h llar Dapartment Doctrine . . . . , Section 3 : C o n c l u s i o ~ sand i?econmendat.imns . , . , . .. Chapter 2; C o n m m i c a t i o n s . . .. . .. . ..
:,Ec%~o~, 1:

.. .. ... ., Narrative Report o f Committee btudy, ... ... .. 1: Lloveinent end Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
I

C u r r e n t \jar Departcient Doc trir,e on kihich Char.ges a"e Reconunended. , ,

2
2 2

I;ethois l3xployed i n t h e European Theater,

3 3
5
7 7

,

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

Chapter 2:

Fire Direction.

,

..

. ,

. .. . . .

I

,

.

S e c t i o n 1: LiSr Depertrdent U o c t r i n e on Fire Cirection S e c t i o n 2:

,5ecLion j:
beation

4 :

C l ~ , p t e rl+:

Automstic

... . 8 Ccmparisori v i t h I;ar Doctrine . . . . . 12 , . . ... , . 13 ;;aapons G u r c e r y . . . . . , . . . . . . 14
Fire D i r e c t i n r i in tht; buropean ThsaLer.
Department Conc!.usions
a i d Flecorrtnendatlons
I

.. ...
I

,

,

S a c t i o n 1: Limit.aticns o f F i r e C o n t r o l Cquipment : j x t i o n 2:

. ., .

,

1 4
14
15
iC

. . .. . ... S e c t i o n 3: Off-Carri-ge P i r e Contyol . , . . . , . . . , , , S b c t i o n 4: Barrage Pir*. . . . . . , . . . . . . . .. ., Section 5: S e c o n d a r y Hole. . . . , . . . . . . . . . . , . , S e c t i o n 6: C o n c l u s i o n s and Recommendstisns , . , , , . . . , Chapter 5 : G r G w n e r y . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . , . . u.
On-Carriage S i g h t s .

. ,.. .

,

I

16
16

18

Section 1: D e v i a t i o n s from V:er Uepartlr.ent D o c t r i n e ,
Ee;ction 2: Section Section Section P r s p a r a t i o n of Fire kdju-tment of Fire.
I
~

3: L:

. , . , . . , . , , . . . 19 . . . . . . . . , . , 20
I

. , . . 1C
,

, ,

Fire f o r E f f e c t ,

5 : Conclusions and

... . .. ... , . , ,, ., ftecomendations . , . , . , . . ,

21

21

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 S e c t i o n 1: Auto&itic k a p o t i s and :eli-?ropellcd Units. . . . 2: S e c t i o n 2: Xinety Yilliincter G u i U n i t s . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Chapter 7: hiiaintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Cheptel- 8: k e t e o r o l o g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 S e c t i o n 1: Procedure f o r Obtaining Data. . . . . . . . . . . 25 S e c t i o n 2: Dissemination OZ Meteorological. 1nforma.tion . . . 3 0
Chapter 6:

Drill Procedures.

Section

3:

O r q m i x z t i o n of Meteorological ’ections
Corauorison w i t h Ya Depsrtrnent !T
Conclusions and Eecormsndatlonc,
DOCtriflE

.,..,
.....

31
32

S e c t i o n l+: S e c t i o n 5:

. . . . . . . . . 3-r

Chapter $: Pert Threo:

Final C m c l u s i o n s and R e c o i ~ ~ m i ; \ a t i o n s

.......

311.

Bibliography
Appendices :

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 .

1. Sttttnents and Opinions
2.

of Bar,Lalion Commanders Considered i n t h 2 P r e p a r a t i o n o_C Lhepter 1.

A n t i a i r c r a f t A r t i l l e r y Commnicatinns !Cquiprr.ent and h r s o n n e l .
Number

3, O m r a t i o n s Utmorandm

3 , Hsadqi:irtsrs 38th
I

4 i t i a i r c m f t A r t i l l e r y !jrigadu

h . &t,rccts from i Study of American A c t i a i r c r a f t Equipment by 71st A n t i a i r c r a f t A r z i l l e r y Crou?.

ii

P r i n c i p a l Cocyultants I Colonol D. J. h l l e y , 015174, ‘CAC , Colonol C. L P m t i n , 01?631,,CAC . ,

Major J. C. Purlter, O!1,!47:i7l,

CAG.
I

Major J . 11‘. Uunn, 02!~1(8i, ChC a Cali-;cin L X. .want, OlO!!yO51, C X . .

%iptiliii T. S, G i l l i s , 01i.69020, C~LC.

. . . .... .. . .. . .

.. ... . . . . . .
,, , , ,

L Officer, BM C a r p s i Executive Officer,

34.th A.U h i g a d e

Drecutj.ve O f f i c e r , L1.8o.th i U M b. r S i . , lO3d l a Group ,64, 7 t h LLA Group , Chief, Gunnery Instruct i o n Toan, T h i r d U.Y.
iL1-iny

h a t i i i i r c r n f .c* I? . .in.: I' L1:ler.L. :I convuuni c c t i o n s E y s t m s .c srtillurjr opcra. .'ntic i r c r 1 . i n c l u d i n g drYL1. P r o m r a t i o n o f f'ro for guns. elms.y procuduras.l.P t r r. I t r u c o n t r c l t t x h n i q u c f o r nutcmat-ic riuapons and d..

s t h b t . t h e United Kingdom before Normandy D-Dey.rtmen. The accounting i o r %ho l o s s o f P. E f f i c i e n t t a c t i c a l l o c d i n g .e O c z t i n t n ? rt. towed autom t i c wapons. Throe D i f f c r a n t Techniques of Reconnzissaqe S e l e c t i o n a l d Occupation of P o s i t i o n were used by e n t i a i r c r a f t c r t i l l s r y u n i t s i n t h e European T h c i t c r during Viorld 1..dtrs CI r r t i n i r c r a f t a r t i l l e r y units em?ioyad 011 tb. Sone u n i t s t r a i n e d i n t e n s i v e l y a t n s p c i i a l movemmt cnd deqloyment school. i n r. well-directed arid exoGditiou8 movement. w i t h concurrent march order and l o r d i n g .:nti:drcreft O f f i c s r . wiLk o r v. end unretirdcd occupetion o f oositicr. A s~u6. t h a t nost commnndars made no commtnt5 for changing the drill.t 3113 deployment o r o c c d u r e s . and o t h e r s pract i c e d t h e d r i l l w i t n i n th. i n cmhbet.2 Thzse movc-ment ~ n d deployment p r o x d u r e r provided a standird d r i l l which. d i t i o u s dissuainntion of necessary informltioia relative 0. underwcr. The F i r s t lkthod used !\'as a standard d r i l l f o r gun.-lr own u n i t s . v!as compiled and published by t i i c T k s L c r .it!iout modification.yof t h = enswcrs t o quest i o n n a i r e s eubmittid by S c t t d i n n c-mmar.21.i t r e i n i n g i n accordance w i t h t h e s e m0vsmer.. l.vic.. m d s u b s e ~ u c n tmoving n f equinment.nons w i t s .11.W rnan o r v e h i c l e du-ing . insured e.ormai s i t u a t i o n s . ?ublicatior!s.SECTION 1 3. and self-propelled autnmatic hee. 6 Gunc 1944. t o movement. & p ~ . d. 1 A m a j o r i t y of a n t i a i r c r a f t s r t i l l s r y )units assembled ir. novcmeni . c . t h e overvrhelming m e j o r i t y used t h a d r i l l . and i h z t t h e majori t y b a l i e v c d ? h a t t h e movemsnt e n d d e n l o p e n t d r i l l shoiilc! be made sfandard and p u b l i s h e d in IVar Dspz. The dril. E l i r i r x t i o n of d e l a ? by t l l b cccomplishxent of accurct6 r o u t 6 reconnaisssnce snd s e l e c t i o n or' ? o s i t i o n .

/+. Inciudid a l s o i n t h e u n i t s in t h i s c. June 1945. I n kcnzrel. Lar 3 a p e r t n e n t d o c t r l n e provided only a brnad g c n e r s l guide upon w h i c h t h e d c t n i l o d t e c h n i q u e employod was founded.d i n R p r e c i s e c3rryir.d usad i n accompl.t t o l i t t l e . However.:ssignod t o units of lcss t h a n platoon s:ringth. of t h e sovcnont . a n i occcpation o f positior.urn?d?.th~f.. Crmc1. w t i c h l i s t s t h e reconnaissance methods f o r t h e b e t t a l i o n crmundar a the b.izsance for a u t o m z i c weapons ur:its.tiCn. Tha mctsnds of recnnnaisanncc. a r Vtpcrtment d o c t r i m wert follor.utomAtlc weapons units attached t o divisions found m o d i S i c l .g n r i . covcrs rcconn$.w D c p w t m e n t p u b l i c a 5 .d i r . V o r i a t i c n s i n mcthods b e t w e n thcst. E!.ed. < i o n s 1ii~ci-55.n Thw. i n s u r e d t h ? t t h e g e c e r a l Ti-ocedure :!nd basic p r i n c i p l u s o u t i i n t ? I n l . iiovrcvcr. 2nd doployincnt procedures p i i b l i s i t d by ~1 P 3 7 i)ibliogrephg Pars 5 end 5 .~lions. buch assignmoats p r e v w t e d t h e ixa c t p r a c t i c e of c p r e c i s e movement and deployman: d r i l l .. missions i'lere . although i n x w t c3scs t h e D r x e d u r e i nert sctisf?ctorg.anti: i r c r a f ' t w i t s is covared i n F i e l d 3lanual 444.in nrccidurcs on tnc s u b i e c t . but t n a d e t a i l t d ttckniquc f o r the f o l l r m i n g of t h o b e s i c p r i n c i p l c s i s 1nckir.ac. F i d d Ysnial 44-2. :lecenber :yl...IS p u b l i s h e d i n Y..g. wits rmgac f n m gri2.:ry ~n a c c o u l t of t k ~ ex t u r c of the mLssirins a s s i g n t d F.i n c i p l e s of r i movement and deploy!nent p r o c ? d i r e iA? connalsaence.ishing t h e n . 3rd c c c u p a t i o n of i:osi?.bow. 6 . sclcciion. f i c a t i o n s foilnd nscessmy due t p t h t situ?. . ?. r .issance and movements Y!erc made concurrent r:ith t h c f i e l c ::tillcry.t. (movmant rnc: d t p l n y e n t ) . Reconnciss. used by m t i r i r c r a f t c r i i l l c r u u n i t s i n t h e Lu. p r w e n t e d tl!E u5e o f t h k d r i l l .?ttcry c o n d o u t l i n e g e n e r a l procedure Fnd b s s i c y i n c i p l e s i n s u r e t h o advantzp. o n s hsd d r v i s c d t k . :. Hzre . :ibove and c t r t a i n modi! .nd t h e r. paI'Sg:?:Jb.' l i s t s s c v i r t l methods f o r i d k i n g reconnaissance.znd deployment procediires d i x u s s r . irhrrse 1 .nh 1. 1 ' SECT136 3 9. 7. d a r Ijr3artment Eoctrini. p x x x i l proctdiire and b c s i c princ i p l e s a r e outlir. ~ f n t r m s p o r t n t i o r . n c i t h L r method d e s c r i b o s i n d e t e i l R m r k n b l c orocsdurt f n r fnllqwing b a s i c o r i n c i p l e s . Comnarison w i t h hGthc<s Used.r:in.g o'ii t h e p . : & t i a i r c r * i t wi-s wnich h m r e v o r bcen t. I n some d i v i s i o n s a u t o a a t i c almost cermancntly attach cr! t o f i c l d o r t i l l i r y b. ?nd rcconn:-. The Second i i e t n o d used 'was 2 ccarbir. The " h i r d Method rrig!lt bc-tter b 3 r e f e r r s t t3 7s t h e 11rcnair. Frcq u e n t l y .tegory were many serii-mcbile I q l t s . s e l e c t i o n . l'ho mcvarrmt. i r r.es l i s t o d i n Dar?gr.5 .Jsions: a.?ncc f o r hetvg.tar. e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e Ermored d i v i s i o n s .ian .ing methods".r:ior.

*ill s e r v e g m e r a l l y s s snu-. b.d technique of reconne. i c n 2nd protu.sd . The h t i c i r c r e f t / . and c c c u b n t i o n of pnsition. .d euidc-c i n P n y s i t ~ . i ~ ~ ~ i c n .d v i i t h o u t m c d i f i c c .cE.Iieadqaarters. were used b q t n w i t h ?n . Ewopean Thsrter of O p a r n t i o n s .sxidlli:nt r e s u l t s . r t i l l e r g n e e d s p u h l i s h s d d o c t r i n a on t n e d e t r i l . Recommcndntion: It i s r e c o m e n d e d t h a t p u b l i s h c c Kar Departm i n t d o c t r i n e be cxxpanded t o i n c l x d e d a t a i l e d procedures f o r movemcnt ?nd deployment of e n t i a i r c r a f t r r t i l l e r y u n i t s of l i k o typb wk.isser. s e l e c t i o n . 10.ich can be follnived by u n i t s i n normal s i t u e t i m s and which .

.

k d d i t i o n a l r a d i o 3 of s u f f i c i a n t p o n e r were d r a m fra. Radios provided ir. n i c a t ions w e d c 01:iplet B rc v i s i or.usions and FlecsrricnCa$&n~. e r . t a b l e s or' cquipnent lacked u n i f o r m i t v as t o type.lnnunls. Ttc tcohnio_lws enplcyed t o e s t a b l i s h priria-iry c . rrd o t h e r u c i t s :!ere frequt.! t h a t ~ o n . 9 . The ~ 1 t i l i ~ s t : oof l f o u r ?:. T h e :ask C l a y i n g and n a i i l t a i n i n g 6 8 s far beyond t h e c q m b i l i t y of cor f t i o n s y orsonnol ~ 1o::ed 1 .: t h o Sigilcl ~.Atchi:lg c e n t e r s of d i v i s i o n s . 1. It i s r e c o n x n d o d thn: b G staxlardized.s of coimunica<icn be developed t o f i t fut c r e o p e r a t i a r s and be pllb1i. and :. &id range. lacked ndequate rencto-conm-ol f c c i l i t l e s .ere genera l l y inadequate i n s u i b e r .d i n f i e l d r. ance of '<!ire. 5. 33 cnvincgcd.:c--e used.itl: used by a n t i a i r c r a f t a r t i l l e r j b a t t o l i o n s and h i g h e r echelons. d s l t c r i o t c n e t a . 3.lit a u n i v o r s a l l y c f f i c i e n : s g s t c of c o n t i n u c c s c o m u n i c a t i o n s .ic3tloris (2) Adequate equipment be designed and p r o v i d e d .crps t o su>pl--:. I (1) Cor:i~!ul. Nire c a m u n i c a t i o c s technique d i f r e r c d fro!.t i l l e r y >. f r e q u e n c y .ib. l i n e s ):ore i ' r o q u c n z l y l a i d t o . Adequate persoixel b e p r c v i d e d ..ado profitable d!scussio:: i n t h i s 3 t u d y . orid '. (3) (4. t o o x p s i i t e t h e l a y i n g 3ild i i Q 3 : e P .i>cs.as n e c e s s a r y . 1 Conc.c. Teck1iRue. c o r p s . Fiecormenda_t. L n i t by n lo:cr c c l i o ~ o n . I n ozder.) . C. Conclusions (1) Tables of o r g a n i z a t i o n and equignont d i d a c t pcr:. .b.cnt t h c s e issued. l i a d n e t 8 of u i l i t s o t h e r t h w a n t i a i r c r a f t a . ~ p l a t e 6 i n field r . i a ~ u d s . f'vc t I n c 3 ~ the a1lo:icnce of n i x e f r e q u e n t l y o c c u r r c i . a s ::ell cs Liniacii l i n e s t o u n i t s of otl:er b r c n c t c s . by ! k r kpmtnect doc t r i n e . a r e 5 3 iiili:iorous as t o prcc1.

bil?. ~.qi+h th: a c c o ~ q l i s h m e n to f 'he d e s i r e d 6 i m . . b . m p ~ n d c c t r i n e m r s s p o n s i b i l it.r ?.tion o r d i s t r i b u t i q n n f flre t h z r e n o . t t e r. "e ~ x r r c l s co f t h e t e c t i c a l cm?"nd ovcr one n r mere i r e wits 1:i t h e o e l c c t i o n of t n r g i < t s . c d i n ell p e r t i n m i l i z l d r.tizl c h .. 5 . r c i t e r p t . by means o f r h i c h e i t h c r h i s t a r c e t s c u d d be nssigrlei. number 0 : a n t i c . b u i no c o t e i l c d r i l e s f o r restrict i o n "ere eiven.nris.ed iird h i g h l y organized defenses ( c x c c p ~ o r ? u t o r & t i c 'n"won5 f bnttnlions) No :ubstar.:S r6sponsible f o r f i r e d i r e c t i o n .SECTIOli 1 WiR DEP hTKE1dT DCCTXINE OH F E E DIRK= qf F i r e D i r e c t i o n .. d i r e c t i o n by echa.S t o p r e c l u d e prnctic:.l fire r i i r e c t i c i s 5ePinecl :. e x e r c i s e d by uchelms pbove t x f i r 6 u n i t -In at. i r c r a f t ? r t i l l c r y urliza c n n s i s t e n t '.andars.ons ~ b o v ot h t f i r e u n i t . 2nd c.c 17L3. h f e r . 2nd in tlic r c s t . m d . hh% f i r e units were so v i d e l y sepc-.ccordicg 50 which thc firc mt c could oporatc evm when com. b u t ." 15. or "RXEI. .anunls i s s u c d since t h z t d. F i r 2 R a s t r i c t i o n . I ' Enphos:s v12s plnced nn t n e n e c e s s i t y f o r freedoill of f i r e . r 2s Jwie 1913. By l$Ll..e. r i s t i o n n r relt?so of firc.-sus m d 2. means of r a c 3 f o r engagement .:rid r u l e s f o r t w g e t 16. 7. q n t i n i r c r c f t : : r t i l l e r y o p c r c t i o n s 1'ooms riera ?f6 univcrsel1. by o e r " .SE" 2nd "IICLC F R 1 o r d e r s could S B i s s u e d f r n n i 3n operztions r o c " I61 Fire d i x c t i o n .. s sta:sd i n P i a l d Lanun1 I+-100. i n t h e a 3 p r r p r i z t e l y t i m e d ccncu.y occur-i red < .mdur r e s t r i c t i o n s . the i i r t unit c m m n d v r iV. ii. i:henever it npocarcd t o 'JC t h e h i s mcthnd. b u t t h e ros o n s i b i l i t y ?or t h e p m u i p t i n n t h e r e o f wes p l a c e d on t h e a t e r comr. tained i n .x:'s t o DE. 17. One w 2 3 i n d i r e c t .jt:!blishmant of a s u i t a b l e ccn- mand n e t .?t.dop:id f o r r!arrLng purp.unic:tinns f a i l e d .tr:. m i n i t i o n 28 Jw. rvhm t h e cnmp::ign o n t h o Continent t e e e n t h t r c v!ere two nathnds o f ~ v e r c i s i n gf i r e d i r e c t i o n i n use by echalons above t P x f i r e u n i t . ? ? u s .ccnrding t o thc Zoctrine conc h >-:s ti16 basic J n c t r i n e under which a n t i a i r c r e f t nrtillirj: u n i t s 'v!ert t r d n t d .eed for scch r d e s was r e a l i z e d .5 v c h i c i e s f o r t n e 3-mc i s e of firi. one w a s d i r e c t .rated T.s: "..enimurr.l d i r e c t J i m bx B h i g h e r echelnn. C n c t r i n e o f 14L? s t z t e s : V ? m t r i c t i o n s will be imposed on t k u .ien :ine d i d n c t p e r n l t i. p r i c r i t i e s imimstd 3y s t a n d i n g cpsrztinr: -orocei.

The General P l m f o r F i r e D i r e c 5 i o n in t h e 5lsn-Jc.WES 18.m T h a r t d f n r n u l a t c d by Thti Supreme Ccnnandc? i n ccrryicF: nut t i s r e s p n n ? i - .

f'. . P37 Bibliography Psr 8 .

1. 2. P 37 Bib1iof.rapLg Par 9. P 3'1 Eibliograohy'Par 10. . 3. P 37 Z i b l i o g r a o h y Par 11.

t t k 4 e I'ire Unit.ir 1 4 . P 57 Biblingraphy FZP 13. P 37 ' d i b l i o p a a h g Fi_r 12.. .ircction i n t h o buropann Tkeacer. i g n ~ dw i m n r y or. 2. . The l i c k of enemy mnss-formntion a t t a c k s s i n : p l i f i & d t h a oroblcm of fire C. 3 .28. In gun b a t t a l i o n s . P 37 B i b l i o g r a p h y P. i i r c u n i t s were n s . F i r e D i r e c t i o r .d con- 1.

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'.enonce methods e m d o y e d i c t h e L11ropear1 Yhea-ter vlere adequatc and F r a c y i c d i a t.000 jxi 6. 72.ai.g. ~n g e n s r a l .uLor?. ani revie. h x t i l l e r : ? i i g z i e n a n c e i'let.en:irlce o e r s o n n e l :rere a d e q ~ i a t e . NO c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t e d between units i n t e c h r i i c u e of m a i n t e n a n c e .s i1:s.:Ltk : ~ e i ~i a f iia.ice fnr 31. x e t h e adeqluie and proucr a a i n z e n a n c e of e a c h v o h i c l c ..cpear T h e a t e r r e v e a l s t h z t battalion naii?.00L? l l c ir-snec'ions x were made d e s s i t e severe..e of s p a r e p a r t s n e c e s s l t a ? .eqiidte ina!-nten?..~ irr. aril n i g h e r .. One such 5:is'.L'. wcapons and carrinFeP. v e h i c l t s a t the ~ I ' o ? F -t.notoy Lransporxo.x!!iic. comprehensive. !:I: t o i n s u r e c l n s ~ u x r v i s i o n a: -Lns? s n: t i o n .i~ t1:13 pk 1i c n l i o n s is i n d 1c a L c.and t h a t shortage of 5 pzre > a r t s k e p t v e h i c 1 . t ' o f t h e g e n e r d s h o r t a g e of s ' > a r i :EPTIS. t h e : meL?od provided a m a n s for c o n t i n u e d an:! aLj..i d c.tment l i t e r a t u r e 3. at.!I e . e iiicLinLmr. i t s a t t a c h e d c n i t s . i : n e r e v a r i a t i o n occ u r r e d . was rhs g r w t t . :..or V c h i c l c i+iintena:ic? P. t h e r a j c r i t y o f units d q e n d a d upo!1 t h e A i m i c a n : r . :. a:]< t h e cr!sck L i s t s ~ .s t sf all r n b i n t e .i f n f l u e n c e d ?h .ener.in.ar.. helon maint-er. )!ai L)ei~ar. e ~ d e x l l i r i e d lonee.he field.. .~sLy :tressed arid s v o e r v i s e d t o i n s u r e i. . a i n t e n a n c e cnnCEPT of lirst e c h c l o n ( o r d r i v e r ) m a i n t o n n r c s .ne. based on rhtl C r i t i s h i d b a c f teslts.a ry. .iritenanc? o a r s a r a e l ncre :he tvro m i n f ' a c t c r s . T1-k p r o c e d u r s p r o v i d e d t h a t cbrtciin tasks ivov3-d h i done e v e r y day ar. t h e y were f o l l o w e d by witz in t h e f i a l d .then woi:ld ' h a v e been n e c e s s a r y had s u i " 5 c i e n t mr:s t e o n a v n j l a h 1 e . i t c ? n s i s t e d u s u a l l y of t h e cnploynient of a ir:ocifisd ci?cck-sheEl. stu.1:: of Lns'2e:'s t n q. cf m2ntEnai:se meihocie.d s u f f i c i e n t . l r i n t e n a u . Ila r e c d f o r ch?. ward t a s k systems ir. Unsatisfactory !i. hed t.ed 3. c m " n c . i o c s . bnckcd b r 7 ~ b l i s h a c ld o c t r i n e or second.ot.ts b e i n g c a r r i e d u u t . d a v t l o 3 d by a b r i g a d e . ar.io. ! c e d u r c s prsscr:bad -In t h c s o x t l i c a t i o n s a r e a c ! c q w t e an(? sourld. 71.nr-v:h i c l e iiiair.y caused by shortages 0. Contro' .ai.e 3 e c e s to s e r y 311 a c c o m t of v i g o r n u s f i e l d c c n d i t i o n r .tern . t i z d . p r o v d s r c c c s s f i i l and trJtstandi. .ltic 'wanor :e i:i i l ~ c ~ I ~ l'.ar IIepcr~tm p u b l i c a t i o c s ewer service of t h z n i c x r: % i l l e r : .x:tioiis 'inere conductec!.e!itioii t o r i o t o r i t t ~ ~ f l L e ~ ~ ~ ! ~ c T h e r e f o r e .d t ! ? a t G 1LI-2a.' s m r e r a r i s a i d n o t hy ineriec.^Esiilts qf i n i i n t c n a n c e hiorli.an ?rdiiaii?e ) maintenanco company.:- of F j r c .1 :. 1 t n . k n s i n i r c r a f t almost u r i & s i i l y used t h e s2ne a r t i l l e r y liiainttrinnce 11 b a t t e r i s s aid l n d i v i c u a l .o~c~.y c y c l e rroulc i n s . even though irnorovisatior. n a r t s and t h e s t a i e of t r a i n i t .d r nt .41. l T h e shnrt...i. t s %olnyo-i i .terienca v.aij.enance of fire .ce.nZes t n c u r ? cnt. c i i n c r e a s e d at-. e r s e: t l n l l a i r c r a f t arzillc:.Lur.\ . .':aint. i%air. G e n e r a l . arxi 1.rie3 on kJ9.vitateci tot? o r o v i d e a t c q u a . ?tain'.re: s t b i d t t e d b y h t t a problen:..ed. : a n y m i t s t::-s.mt. !kwe v e r . c o n d i t .69. mainteran-e by driver:: vas v~.c pro-. n d .esorted t o frsquent1:r o n The s u p p l y of s7al-o 2 c c o w .u-e t was Exerci szc! and f r e q u e n t ir.he s ~ b j t c t .em.nce. T h i s method w2s e n d o y E d by t h e b r i g a d e and b. i.eck--$hecC.r OCp a r t m e n t d o c t r i n e which i s sound.tion f i c e r .ae i n v a r i . t o i n c l u d e a d d i t i o n a l i t e m s o f maintenance found c r b c l i e v ~ ~ $ .6.i s a d e q e and s o c n d .+ 3f m. They V'ere fwr.o Se i.!isc t asxs were perf0r. u n i .r!ac:.

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j . The developrr. had '~se:i conrlucted n t h e 1:uropean Theztntiaircraft units o b s o l e t e methnds.h.:1e IssponsLbilit. The oxpcrimcnts r e s u l t e d in t h e stanlardi?.incls. a.? v.r>:it). Thi.enl. l l e y y b2. 2 The m e ~ o i ~ a n d uwas %!i. . i n g e n e .. was c a l l e d the iiiwin method. x 77. T h i s p r o c z d w e i n z l u i s u . b a t t a l i o n s vroilld arrange o i t h e r t o al:<rnox b a i l o o n i l s .e n t s o r t o p o o l their metoor3logica.ainirig mer::orcnd. i X .. P 38 t i i b l i o g r z p h y Par 21..&terc i u r i r g 4 p r i l 191. o r . D & c r A n i n a t i o n of b : i l l i s t i c w i n d s f c r t h e use of . r t . I n tile f a l l o f 1943 i u i z i a i r c r a f t a r t i l l e r y and v:eat. .rj m t e o r o .nit. i o n o f i..a:ion of a t e c h n i q u e f a r deteriiiinir.76.!.:iique adorited here.l d a h f o r t h e u s e o f a i r f o r c e an6 a r ! t i a i r c r a f t i r t i l l e r y 1. bat'Jal>. b.he ant. Tn6 usufil ? r a c t i c s vias f o r '. nade f o u r Limes daily. 1 Rawin and radiosonde a r e d i s c u s s e d i n 'fit 20-%!_0.. c e equipflien. 'wzs n u b l i s h c d 1 1 a ti.u.l p z r s o n r d . and L t e d e t e r m i a a t .e.-i. hLle consirl. o g i c a l d a t a .etcorologic.S f C r i pt'rioC: cf z'2out OLE rT.as t h e rzs?ansih.s<i orla tei'.J a t l o n s $ 0 tWo gar.i t s in t r a i n i n g .. arriving in t n t E u r o i i s of p o r v i s i b i l No s y c t a ! f c r d l t i ' t y had been t a c g h t t. no s52rld.r.eck. D r t e r m i n e t . The t e c t i n i q u t d e:vi.S e c t i o n o f t h e .:r. c r y a d t r u e . of a s u i t a b l e t e c h n i q u e i n t h e Gui-opean Thhsatcr c v e r c a m e t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s . O b s c r v 6 t i o n s i n accordance v .t.a l . i t h t h e r. 2.tl-~du s e o f cur.ir. i n tiis I.hodS for d e s e r n i n i n g r. ileuelopcent of I'echnique.j of a n t i a i r c r a f t a r t i l l e r y gun >mits.o u .cpean I'lir.r~g tnc s e o b s e r . o :lelcgatt 1.d 3 c .zin A i r i .j gads t .l~qi?C. t h o war.ip.ecl a s z g l i d e by all i i n i t s throughour.ircraft a r i .:l:.:y i x i i t s . .m 1 bg t h s A n t i a i r c r a f ..l'. 'trhich.her s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l i n t h e Ewopeari Theater c o n d u c t e d a s e r i e s of t e s x t o d e v i s e s u i t a b l e laet. i a n of dens i t i e s by radioaoficiel had n o t bezn s l a n d a r d i z a d . I. nia:<i. n r i m l s f o r 'Lye of sir force. a.its. so f a r a 5 i t a e r t a l n e d t o a n t i a i r c r h f : hrtiiler.

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i n s u r o d r e l i a b l e :om!unicaiior.ior. b c t x e n ghn b s t t d i o n s 2nd t h e army a n t i a i r c r a f t o?era.d t h e i r x r t s of t. T h e b ? l t a l i o n dcttrmining b n l l i s t i c winds 2r.ss=qos. T!zc f i x 1 .hc u s i n g b a t .he message t o t h 6 o p e r e t i o n s room. . ? 37 Bibliogrephy Par 12. non-ctandard rariio cquipaent VJZS obt a i n e d whiri. ---1.l)' af LEI. :#ere combined :no t h e ccng l e t e ncfsage b r o a d c a s t t o t.d t h e w e a t h e r d e t a c h x r i t b o t h r t o o r t c . wherk t h i det!. e l i n n s .involved toc. m c h r e l n j r i n g o f m.ne m s workable ~ s o l u t i o n '#as rea-hed 0r..s rooti.

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