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CHAPTER 1

HRS
HRS stands for Hot Roll Slitting. In this process hot rolled carbon steel coils are cut down into a number of smaller coils of narrower measure to get customer specified widths. For sheet metal, two cylindrical rolls with matching ribs and grooves are used to cut a large roll into multiple narrower rolls. Slitting is considered a practical alternative to other methods due to its high productivity and the versatility of materials it can manage. This continuous production process is very economical yet precise; usually more precise than most other cutting processes. Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: Hot rolled carbon steel coils Dimensional specification: 2.1. Maximum width: 2000 mm 2.2. Maximum thickness: 7 mm 2.3. Weight: 35 MT Line specification: 3.1. Maximum speed: 100 m/min Line description: 4.1. Coil car: Transfers coils from the coil saddles and places the coils on the pay off reel. There are two coil cars, one at the beginning known as coil loading car and other at end of slitting line known as exit coil car respectively. The Coil Loading Car transfers coils from the crane, to the Uncoiler fast and efficiently. 4.2. Pay off Reel/un-coiler: Pay off Reel is the reel on which the coil to be processed is loaded, once the strap of the roll is cut manually. It feeds the slitting line, de-coiled material under controlled back tension. 4.3. Peeler: The Peeler allows back-bending of the lead edge to remove coil set and threads it into the next line operation without manual handling. 4.4. Hold down roll/pinch roll: A pinch roll is provided for smooth feeding of the strip as it is uncoiled from the pay off reel. 4.5. Leveler: The Leveler or Straightener levels the strip, and corrects shape, at close tolerances. 4.6. Shear: The Crop Shear squares off the leading and tail ends of the coil, and is also used for breaking down coils. 4.7. Slitter: Slitter with Pinch Rolls, threads the strip into the cutters used with a Guide Table to center the strip.

1. 2.

3. 4.

4.8. Clearance specification for cutters. Thickness in mm 1.6 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 0.16 0.18 0.20 0.22 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.60 Crap setting in mm

Table 1. 4.9. Side guide: It guides edges trimmed from the slitter to the scrap winder. 4.10. Scrap winders: The Scrap Winder winds edge trim from the slitter into easily handled scrap bundles. 4.11. Tension station: The Tension Station is a unit that automatically keeps strip tension constant off unwinds as the coil builds down. Unwind tension is adjustable by initial out diameter of coil, thickness of material and coil width input knobs mounted on the operator's control board. 4.12. Recoiler: The Recoiler with Over-arm Separator is the workhorse of the slitting line and sets line speed and coil tension.

5. Working Flow: Entry of hr coil to coil car open out the coil pinching leveler deviationcorrection slitting/ longitudinal cutting Reclaim scrap / reclaim edge Tension device recoiling discharging to exit coil car

6. Defects & Remedies: 6.1. Defects that can arise during metal slitting include poor edge quality: edge burr, edge wave; camber, crossbow, knife marks, and slit width that is out of specification. Some slitting problems can be attributed to poor metal quality; however, it is much more common for the problems to be caused by other variables and factors during the slitting process. 6.1.1. Edge Burrs: Burr is an edge defect that can arise during slitting. The primary cause of burr is a horizontal knife clearance that is too tight or too loose. An incorrect clearance automatically causes a poor-quality edge. In fact, one of the characteristics of a poor-quality edge is burr. 6.1.2. Edge Wave: Although edge wave can be caused by stresses in the metal, most edge wave is "slit-in." Too much vertical clearance, or overlap, causes edge wave. Other contributing factors are poor stripper ring practice. If the rings are too big, the metal will become stretched at the edges. If they are out of parallel, this also will contribute to edge wave. 6.1.3. Camber: The deviation from a straight slitting line is hereby defined as "camber. It can result from stresses in the master coil. If the camber is always in one direction, a good way to check if the camber is caused by material defects is to slit the master coil upside down. If the camber is in the opposite direction, the camber has been caused by stresses in the master coil. If not, the camber is not from the virgin metal; it has been slit in. Slit-in camber happens when narrow strips are slit and the horizontal clearance is different from one edge to the other. The edges of a slit-in cambered strip are different from side to side. For example, one edge might be good but the other too tight. 6.1.4. Crossbow: Crossbow is a shape defect where the strip exhibits a curvature across its width. Like camber, crossbow might be caused by a defect in the master coil or from the slitting process. Usually crossbow is caused by too much overlap (vertical clearance) or by stripper rings that are the wrong size. If the male rings are too big or the female rings are too small, crossbow may result. 6.1.5. Knife Marks: Knife marks on the strip almost always are caused by poor stripper ring practices. Proper stripper ring practices include utilizing male and female rings in different sizes, colors, and hardness. 6.1.6. Slit Width out of specification: Some variables that cause slit width to be out of specification are improper knife clearance, incorrect or worn tooling, a machine that is not maintained, and poor stripper ring practices. If the horizontal clearance is not right, the width will change. If the stripper rings are not being used correctly, the width will

CHAPTER 2

PICKLING
Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale, from ferrous metals, copper, and aluminum alloys. Many hot working processes and other processes that occur at high temperatures leave a discoloring oxide layer or scale on the surface. A solution called pickle liquor, which contains strong acids, is used to remove the surface impurities. It is commonly used to de-scale or clean steel in various steelmaking processes. In order to remove the scale the work piece is dipped into a vat of pickle liquor. The primary acid used is hydrochloric acid, although sulfuric acid was previously more common. Hydrochloric acid is more expensive than sulfuric acid, but it pickles much faster while Sheet steel that undergoes acid pickling will oxidize (rust) when exposed to atmospheric conditions of moderately high humidity. For this reason, a thin film of oil or similar waterproof coating is applied to create a barrier to moisture in the air for minimizing base metal loss.

1.

Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: Hot rolled carbon steel coils

2.

Dimensional specification: 2.1. Maximum width: 2.2. Maximum thickness: 2.3. Weight: 2000 mm 7 mm 35 MT

3.

Line description: 3.1. Coil car: Transfers coils from the coil saddles and places the coils on the pay off reel. 3.2. Pay off Reel/un-coiler: Pay off Reel is the reel on which the coil to be processed is loaded, once the strap of the roll is cut manually. It feeds the slitting line, de-coiled material under controlled back tension. 3.3. Peeler: The Peeler allows back-bending of the lead edge to remove coil set and threads it into the next line operation without manual handling. 3.4. Hold down roll/pinch roll: A pinch roll is provided for smooth feeding of the strip as it is uncoiled from the pay off reel. 3.5. Flattener rolls: The flattener levels the strip, and corrects shape, at close tolerances.

3.6. Shear: The Crop Shear squares off the leading and tail ends of the coil, and is also used for breaking down coils. There are two shears in pickling line. 3.7. Acid tank: It consists of hydrochloric or sulfuric acid. The acid dissolute the oxide scales from the strip surface. 3.8. Squeeze tank: It consists of squeezing rolls which produces improved squeezing effect to remove acid without the use of pressure which would damage the treated strip. 3.9. Rinse tank: In this tank, rinsing and passivation1 of the strip takes place. At this stage the acid residuals are washed for 5 minutes by soft water from the strip. Passivation film is formed on the strip surface providing corrosion protection. 3.10. Dryer: It evapourates moisture content leftover after rinsing. The minimum temperature of dryer is 110o C. 3.11. Tension roll: The Tension roll automatically keeps strip tension constant off unwinds as the coil builds down. 3.12. Recoiler: The re-coiler recoils the steel strip as well as maintains line speed and coil tension.

4.

CHEMICAL REACTION 2Fe2O3 + 8HCl = 4FeCl2 + 4H2O + O2 Fe2O3 + 6HCl = 2FeCl3 + 3H2O FeO + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2O Fe3O4 + 8HCl = FeCl2 + 2FeCl3 + 4H2O

5.

Working flow:

fig.1.
Passivation is the process of making a material "passive" in relation to another material prior to using the materials together.
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6.

Property change: 6.1. Produces uniform light-gray surface 6.2. Dissolves lead oxides adhering to metal surface

7.

Advantages: 7.1. Rinsing is easy 7.2. Lower heating costs during pickling process. 7.3. Provides reduction in speed loss at head end and tail end at 6 Hi Mill.

8.

Disadvantage: 8.1. Very expensive 8.2. Fume control system is necessary 8.3. Increased health hazard

CHAPTER 3

ROLLING MILLS
Rolling mills are machines which are used to process metal. The primary function of a rolling mill is to shape the metal being passed through the mill in some way. A basic rolling mill is designed to produce sheet metal. The metal is passed between two tough cylinders numerous times, with the distance between the cylinders being decreased with each pass so that the metal becomes thinner and thinner. Bhushan Steel Limited has:  HITACHI( Japanese company) 6Hi rolling mill

1. 2.

Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: Dimensional specification: 2.1. Maximum thickness at entry: 2.2. Minimum thickness at exit: 2.3. Maximum width of sheet metal: 2.4. Minimum width of sheet metal:

pickled hot roll/annealed cold roll coil of various grade 6 mm 0.12 mm 1700 mm 700 mm

3.

Hitachi 6Hi Rolling Mill 6-High Cold Rolling Mill uses rolling mill stand for the production of rolled strip or sheet metal includes working rolls which are supported on respective supporting rolls or on intermediate rolls which are supported on back rolls, resulting in high precision and good shape of material. 3.1. Line specification: 3.1.1. Type: 3.1.2. Gauging equipment: 3.1.3. Control: 3.1.4. Mill speed: 3.1.5. Tension:

Universal Crown Mill X- Ray Gauge Level II automation2 1200 m/min 16 T max.

3.2. Line description:

The level II of automation is when the operator manually loads the machine, the machine automatically cycles, and the operator manually removes the part and takes it to the next station.

3.2.1. Work rolls: These are in contact with metal sheet and with each pass the sheet
metal becomes thinner and thinner. 3.2.2. Intermediate rolls: These are intended to provide rigid support required by the working rolls to prevent bending under the rolling load. 3.2.3. Backup rolls: These provide rolling force. 3.2.4. Rolling balance system: The system ensures that the upper work, intermediate and back up rolls are maintain in proper position relative to lower rolls. 3.2.5. Roll changing devices: It uses an overhead crane and a unit designed to attach to the neck of the roll to be removed from or inserted into the mill. 3.2.6. Mill protection devices: It ensures that forces applied to the backup roll chocks are not of such a magnitude to fracture the roll necks or damage the mill housing. 3.2.7. Roll cooling and lubrication systems: 3.2.8. Roll coolant emulsion parameters: Temperature pH value Conductivity Chloride (PPM) ESI Oil concentration (%) Tramp oil (%) Sap value Acid content Fe content DM water 450C-650C 4.0-6.5 600 maximum 150 maximum O.5-0.85 1.2-3.5 Maximum 25% of total oil 160 minimum 21 maximum 2 PPM maximum 100% oil + tramp oil % Table 2.

3.2.9. Pinions: Provides gears to divide power between the two spindles, rotating 3.2.10. 3.2.11. 3.2.12.
motors. them at the same speed but in different directions. Gearing: It establishes desired rolling speed. Drive motors: It provides thousands of horsepower for rolling. Electrical controls: Gives constant and variable voltages applied to the

3.2.13. 3.2.14.

Un-coiler and re-coiler: These unroll and roll up coils of metal. Coil car: It transfers coils from the coil saddles and places the coils on the pay off reel.

Working flow: Entry of hr/annealed coil to coil car open out the coil feeding of coil rolling of sheet in number of passes according to customer requirement recoiling discharging to coil car strapping of coil material storage and transportation Property changes: Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness, ductility and other characteristics known as tempers.

4.

5.

6.

Advantages: 1. In the absence of cooling and oxidation, tighter tolerances and better surface finish can be obtained. 2. The final properties of the work piece can be closely controlled and, if desired, the high strength obtained during cold rolling can be retained or, if high ductility is needed, grain size can be controlled before annealing. 3. Lubrication is, in general, easier. Defects: 7.1. Lap: This type of defect occurs when a flap of is folded over and rolled but not welded into the metal. They appear as seams across the surface of the metal. 7.2. Mill shearing: These defects occur as a feather like lap. 7.3. Rolled-in scale: This occurs when mill scale is rolled into metal. 7.4. Scabs: These are long patches of loose metal that have been rolled into the surface of the metal. 7.5. Seams: They are open, broken lines that run along the length of the metal and caused by the presence of scale. 7.6. Slivers: Prominent surface ruptures.

7.

CHAPTER 4

ECL
ECL stands for Electrolytic Cleaning Line. For material rolled with high percentage of oil while reduction in mills goes for annealing in furnace. Oil free base material in annealing is essential for production of bright and corrosion resistance steel sheet metal. Sodium Ortho Silicate (Na2SiO4) is used as cleaning agent. Tension is given according to thickness based on customer requirement.

1.

Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: Reduced coil from rolling mills having high percentage of oil

2.

Dimensional specification: 2.1. Strip width: 2.2. Maximum coil weight: 1700 mm 30 MT

3.

Line specification: 3.1. Maximum speed: 3.2. Maximum Un-coiler tension: 3.3. Maximum Re-coiler tension: 300 m/min 2400 Kg 4770 Kg

4.

Line description: 4.1. Coil car: Transfers coils from the coil saddles and places the coils on the pay off reel. 4.2. Pay off Reel/un-coiler: Pay off Reel is the reel on which the coil to be processed is loaded, once the strap of the roll is cut manually. It feeds the slitting line, de-coiled material under controlled back tension. 4.3. Strip welder: It seam welds the different coil strips for continuous running of the line. 4.4. Cleaning tank: It consists of electrodes and utilizes alkaline detergent solution i.e. Sodium Ortho Silicate to clean steel strips. 4.5. Rinse tank: In this tank, rinsing of the strip takes place. At this stage the Sodium Ortho Silicate residuals are washed by hot water dip from the strip.

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4.6. Dryer: It evapourates moisture content leftover after rinsing by blowing hot air. 4.7. Pinch roll: A pinch roll is provided for smooth feeding of the strip as it is uncoiled from the pay off reel. 4.8. Wringer roller system: The system is to wring or remove moisture from strips of material. 4.8.1. Tension roll: The Tension roll automatically keeps strip tension constant off unwinds as the coil builds down. 4.9. Recoiler: The re-coiler recoils the steel strip as well as maintains line speed and coil tension.

5.

Working flow:

fig.2.

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CHAPTER 5

ANNEALING
Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment wherein a material is altered, causing changes in its properties such as strength and hardness. It is a process that produces conditions by heating to above the recrystallization temperature and maintaining a suitable temperature, and then cooling. Annealing is used to induce ductility, soften material, relieve internal stresses, refine the structure by making it homogeneous, and improve cold working properties. 1. Stages of annealing: There are three stages in the annealing process, with the first being the recovery3 phase, which results in softening of the metal through removal of crystal defects (the primary type of which is the linear defect called a dislocation) and the internal stresses which they cause. Recovery phase covers all annealing phenomena that occur before the appearance of new strain-free grains. The second phase is recrystallization2, where new strain-free grains nucleate and grow to replace those deformed by internal stresses. If annealing is allowed to continue once recrystallization has been completed, grain growth3 will occur, in which the microstructure starts to coarsen and may cause the metal to have less than satisfactory mechanical properties.

fig.3.

Recovery is a process by which deformed grains can reduce their stored energy by the removal or rearrangement of defects in their crystal structure. 2 Recrystallization is a process by which deformed grains are replaced by a new set of undeformed grains that nucleate and grow until the original grains have been entirely consumed. 3 Grain growth refers to the increase in size of grains (crystallites) in a material at high temperature.

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A study of the microstructure of all steels usually starts with the metastable iron-carbon (Fe-C) binary phase diagram (above figure). It provides an invaluable foundation on which to build knowledge of both carbon steels and alloy steels, as well as a number of various heat treatments they are usually subjected to (hardening, annealing, etc). The process of annealing of cold rolled coil is carried out to obtain the desired properties in the finished coils. For this, the material is heated to predetermined temperature in a protective atmosphere and soaked for a specified time before it is put to room temperature. Optimum condition with annealing atmosphere, annealing cycle, sealing and purging have to be maintained to obtain a finished product with bright surface, desired micro structure and uniform properties throughout the coil. 2. Material specification: 2.1. Raw material: DDQ, silicon T1 to T3 (or/and HSLA steel ferritic stainless and martensitic chrome steel. 3. Dimensional specification: 3.1. Minimum 3.2. Width: 3.3. Thickness: 3.4. Charge weight: 3.5. Charge height: 4. Types: 4.1. Bright Anneal: In this method a protective atmosphere to prevent the steel surface from oxidation is used. 4.2. Process Anneal: This procedure is done at a temperature close to the lower critical line on the iron carbon diagram. It is used when considerable cold working is to follow. 4.3. Recrystallization Anneal: It is used after cold working to produce a specific grain structure. Maximum 700 mm 0.15 mm 90 MT 5450 mm 1710 mm 4.10 mm Low carbon non-alloy steel CQ, DQ, EDDQ, SEDDQ. Medium carbon low and medium steel, tin mill black plate T4 toT5) grade steel

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4.4. Sub-Critical Anneal: This method is used on cold-worked steel coils and is carried out below the lower critical line on the iron carbon equilibrium diagram.

5. Annealing furnace: 5.1. Type: 5.2. Control system: 5.3. Operating temperature: 5.4. Average output: Bell Annealing Furnace Electric Control System About 1200 oC Varies from 10 to 15 tons / day

6. Line description: 6.1. Coil car cum tilter: Transfers coils from the coil saddles and tilts it to be lifted by overhead crane using coil lifter. 6.2. Coil lifter: An accessory for lifting coil. 6.3. Base: A base upon which coils lifted are vertically stacked, edge to edge. It has a recirculating fan. 6.4. Convector plates: Convector plates separate coils from each other and forms stack of coils. 6.5. Plate lifter: An accessory for lifting convector plates. 6.6. Load cover: A cylindrical removable steel load cover (Inner cover) dissipates and transfers heat rapidly, confines the controlled atmosphere during heating and preserves the controlled atmosphere during cooling until the temperature of the charge is sufficiently low to prevent scaling when exposed to ambient air. 6.7. Gas burners: These are positioned in two rows and fired tangentially to promote a uniform heating of the inner cover. Each burner has its own custom built recuperate to provide preheated air to improve the thermal efficiency. 6.8. Furnace: Furnace is heating bell (outer cover) is a refractory lined cover which serves as a thermal barrier during heating and permits a controlled cooling cycle. Outer cover has burners for heating. 6.9. Re-circulating fan: The base assembly normally includes a fan (optional) to provide a source of convection heating to enhance the heat transfer to the charge. It draws furnace atmosphere from inner cover into base and pumps furnace atmosphere back into inner cover.

7. Annealing cycle: 7.1. Coil transfer: Loading of coil onto a given furnace base by crane operator.

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7.2. Charging: After loading the coil the convector plates are loaded onto the base. Load cover (Inner cover) encloses the charge, and an outer refractory lined cover is lowered over the assembly. 7.3. Leak test: For proper annealing, a conventional gas atmosphere of nitrogen/hydrogen mixture, or pure hydrogen or the like is supplied. In order to maintain this type of gas atmosphere against the intrusion of the ambient atmosphere, some type of seal means is desirable between the inner cover and the base on which the inner cover rests. In to ensure sealing leak test is conducted. 7.4. Safe purge I (Pre purge): Nitrogen is used for purging out the air at the beginning of the cycle before introducing hydrogen in the furnace. 7.5. Heating: Heating includes a gas fired burner for heating containment wall whereby furnace atmosphere is heated prior to being admitted to inner cover for providing more uniform heating between the top most edge portions of the top coil with the bottom most edge portions of the bottom coil. Heat transfer from the cover to the coils takes place by radiation. Additionally, a gas atmosphere is circulated within the inner cover by a recirculating fan to achieve a more rapid and uniform heat transfer by convection. 7.6. Soaking: At the end of the soak period, the furnace is removed and the bell allowed cool below 400 C (750 F), assisted by a water spray. 7.7. Warm leak test 7.8. Cooling: After annealing, cooling is performed by removing the heating bell but leaving the inner cover in place to maintain the protective atmosphere. If a bright finish is desired, the metal must be cooled to near ambient temperature before opening the workload to air. A gas to water heat exchanger or forced-cooler system is often used to shorten the cooling times, especially at low temperatures. The forced-cooler replaces the heating bell at the end of the heating cycle and circulates air or sprays a fine water mist to accelerate the cooling of the outside of the inner cover. 7.9. Safe purge II (Post purge): When the coil temperature reaches 100 C (212 F), hydrogen is purged out with nitrogen, and the bell was removed to unload the work. 7.10. Unloading: After post purge convector plates and coil stack is unloaded from the base by crane operator. 7.11. Storage and transfer: Coil is then stored for sometime for further cooling to room temperature and is being transferred to other processing lines.

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fig.4.

8. Property change: 8.1. Give improved machining characteristics. 8.2. Ensure a homogenous structure. 8.3. Reduces residual stresses from cold rolled coils. 8.4. Help to give a more even response to the steel when cold working. 8.5. Produce a desired micro structure or to obtain desired mechanical, physical, or other properties.

9. Process difficulties: 9.1. Decarburization: By definition, decarburization is a result of (usually unintentionally) removing carbon from the surface of steel when it is heated and held at temperature or when in contact with certain types of furnace atmosphere. 9.2. Providing a seal in to high temperature environment to which the annealing furnace is exposed is very difficult as such high temperature has a detrimental effect on the seal. Consequently, a cooling means needs to be provided for this seal. Generally, there is also

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a seal means between the heating hood or furnace and the base and this seal means also needs to be cooled. 9.3. When a cooling hood replaces the heating hood, water is sometimes used for cooling purposes. This water needs to be collected and conveyed away from the annealing furnace by a suitable means. 9.4. The base of the annealing furnace is exposed to fairly high temperatures and this has a detrimental effect on a conventional castable insulation mix base, which leads to a shortening of the lifetime of the base. 9.5. Conventional bases soak up moisture and release it during heating causing a decarburization of the metal being annealed. 9.6. Conventional bases are prone to erosion due to the thermal cycles they undergo and the moisture gains and losses they experience as a consequence. This erosion can take the form of pitting or scoring of the base which causes dust to appear in the work space under the inner cover. Such dust is deleterious to the metal being annealed. 9.7. When conventional bases are made, they need to be dried out very slowly, usually for at least 7 days which means the annealing furnace is out of commission for that period of time.

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CHAPTER 6

SKIN PASS MILL


Skin pass rolling is also known as temper rolling. In this process the cold rolled annealed strips are given a desired surface finish. It improves the flatness and suppresses the yield point elongation. It is final cold rolling operation with low thickness reduction conducted in order to impart to the steel required levels of hardness, evenness and surface finish. Anti rust oil is used on strip surface as protection from rust.

1. Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: 2. Dimensional specification: Minimum 2.1.1. Width: 2.1.2. Thickness: 2.1.3. Coil weight: 2.1.4. Coil outer diameter: 2.1.5. Coil inner diameter: 3. Line specification: 3.1. Maximum load: 3.2. Maximum speed: 3.3. Maximum mill tension 3.4. Maximum un-coiler tension: 3.5. Maximum re-coiler tension: 3.6. Maximum elongation: 3.7. Maximum threading speed: 3.8. Work roll and back up roll specification: 100 MT 600 m/min 1000 Kg 3000 Kg 4500 Kg 7.10 mm 50 m/min 800 mm 0.15 mm 30 MT 2000 mm 610 mm Maximum 1705 mm .50 mm Carbon steel strips

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3.8.1. Work roll:

600v1800 barrel length(mmvmm) 400v1800 barrel length(mmvmm) 1000v1800 barrel length(mmvmm)

3.8.2. Back up roll:

4. Property changes: Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness, strength, stiffness, ductility and other characteristics known as tempers. The purposes of cold rolling processing are: 4.1. Further reduction of the strip thickness. 4.2. Improvement of the surface finish: 4.2.1. Mirror: Superior luster mirror finish is produced by rolling between fine polished rolls. Mirror finish strips are used mainly for electroplating. 4.2.2. Bright: Bright finish is produced by rolling between polished rolls. It is the common surface finish condition of cold rolled strip. 4.2.3. Matt: Matt (dull) surface finish is produced by rolling between roughened rolls. Matt surface is suitable for enameling4 and painting. Matt finish strips are also used in deep drawing due to the ability of the rough surface to hold lubricant providing low friction between the strip and the drawing tools (punch, blank holder and die). 4.3. Improvement of the surface flatness; 4.4. Achievement of a required level of work hardening. 4.5. For suppressing the yield point phenomenon which can cause stretch strains on formed component.

Enameling is the fusion of a special powdered glass to metals. The glass can be applied using different techniques, but all methods use heat to melt the powder.

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CHAPTER 7

FINISHING LINE
Finishing lines such as inspection lines and recoiling lines include key equipment to retain the high strip quality produced upstream. Finishing line is the line where cold rolled coils from skin pass mill are converted to cold rolled coils of customer specified width by CRS (COLD ROLL SLITTING) and cold rolled sheets of customer specified length by CTL (CUT TO LENGTH). 1. Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: 2. CRS 2.1. Line description: 2.1.1. Coil car: Transfers coils from the coil saddles and places the coils on the pay off reel. There are two coil cars, one at the beginning known as coil loading car and other at end of slitting line known as exit coil car respectively. The Coil Loading Car transfers coils from the crane, to the Uncoiler fast and efficiently. 2.1.2. Pay off Reel/un-coiler: Pay off Reel is the reel on which the coil to be processed is loaded, once the strap of the roll is cut manually. It feeds the slitting line, decoiled material under controlled back tension. 2.1.3. Peeler: The Peeler allows back-bending of the lead edge to remove coil set and threads it into the next line operation without manual handling. 2.1.4. Hold down roll/pinch roll: A pinch roll is provided for smooth feeding of the strip as it is uncoiled from the pay off reel. 2.1.5. Leveler: The Leveler or Straightener levels the strip, and corrects shape, at close tolerances. 2.1.6. Shear: The Crop Shear squares off the leading and tail ends of the coil, and is also used for breaking down coils. 2.1.7. Slitter: Slitter with Pinch Rolls, threads the strip into the cutters used with a Guide Table to center the strip. 2.1.8. Side guide: It guides edges trimmed from the slitter to the scrap winder. 2.1.9. Scrap winders: The Scrap Winder winds edge trim from the slitter into easily handled scrap bundles. Skin passed coil

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2.1.10. Tension station: The Tension Station is a unit that automatically keeps strip tension constant off unwinds as the coil builds down. Unwind tension is adjustable by initial out diameter of coil, thickness of material and coil width input knobs mounted on the operator's control board. 2.1.11. Recoiler: The Recoiler with Over-arm Separator is the workhorse of the slitting line and sets line speed and coil tension. 3. CTL 3.1. Line description: 3.1.1. Storage Turnstile: The Storage Turnstile provides extra coil storage at the point of operation and reduces process downtime. 3.1.2. Coil Car: The floor-type Coil Loading Car transfers coils from the Turnstile to the un-coiler fast and efficiently. 3.1.3. Uncoiler: Uncoiler mandrel feeds the slitting line under controlled back tension. 3.1.4. Hold down roll: Hold down roll prevents outer wraps from unwinding, and assists in feed-up to the Leveler. 3.1.5. Peeler: The Peeler allows back-bending of the lead edge of the coil, to remove coil set. 3.1.6. Leveler: The Leveler or Straightener levels the strip, and corrects shape, at close tolerances. 3.1.7. Control station: An Auxiliary Control Station provides the operator with pushbutton control at the entry end for feeding and threading operations. 3.1.8. Looping pit: The looping pit provides for continuous coil strip feed while the strip is stopped and cut to proper length. 3.1.9. Master control station: The master control station gives the operator push-button control of the entire Cut-To-Length line, including speed and tension. 3.1.10. The Stacker accepts cut sheets from the Shear for automatic stacking, incorporating side and end tamping for uniformity. 3.1.11. Automatic Pack Receiving Table receives the individual sheets from the Stacker with drop-arms at a uniform position as the pack builds down. 3.1.12. Stacker Run-Out Conveyor accepts stacked sheets ready for a crane or further conveying to warehousing location.

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4. Process flow: MONITORING & MEASUREMENT


Width, surface & process parameter

PROCESS OUTPUT PROCESS INPUT


y y y y

Slit CR coil Production report Record of process parameters Data for analysis of department objectives

Skin passed roll Production plan Production consumables

PROCESS FLOW
LOADING OF COIL FEEDING OF COIL SLITTING OF COIL RECOILING OF COIL PACKING OF COIL (IF REQ.) STORAGE & TRANPOTATION

y y

(Space, cutter, packing, etc.)


y

Utilities

(Electricity, air)
y y

Man power Work environment & infrastructure Control plan PFMEA Work instruction

y y y

CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT
y

(Operational & safety instruction, process control method, parameters, reaction plan)

Continual improvement projects for integrated management system

CONTROL ROLL GRINDING & ROLL TEXURING y Roles & responsibilities ROLL GRINDING:
y y y y y

Reaction plan & contingency plan Customer specification (if required) Control on product Feedback of customer complaints/return Department objectives

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fig.5. CHAPTER 8

ROLL GRINDING
Rolling is a forming process used to produce strips, plates, or sheets of varying thickness in industries such as the steel, aluminum, copper and paper industries. Rolls are made to varying shapes (profiles) with specific geometric tolerances and surface integrity specifications to meet the needs of the rolling application. Rolls are typically made out of iron, steel, cemented carbide, granite, or composites thereof. In rolling operations, the rolls undergo considerable wear and changes in surface quality and thus require periodic re-shaping by machining or grinding, i.e., roll grinding, to bring the roll back to the required geometric tolerances while leaving the surface free of feed lines, chatter marks and surface irregularities such as scratch marks and/or thermal degradation of the roll surface. The rolls are grounded with a grinding wheel traversing the roll surface back and forth.

1.

Material specification: 1.1. Raw material: Rolls made of iron, steel, cemented carbide, granite, or composites

2.

Roll grinding machine:

The grinding machine is equipped such that the grinding wheel rotational axis is parallel to the work roll rotational axis and the rotating wheel in contact with the rotating roll surface is traversed along the axis of the roll back and forth to produce the desired geometry. The roll grinding machine grinds iron and steel roll materials with grinding wheels comprising conventional abrasives such as aluminum oxide, silicon carbide, or mixtures thereof, along with fillers and secondary abrasives in an organic bonded resin wheel system, e.g., a shellac type resin or a phenolic resin matrix.

3.

Problems during roll grinding: 3.1. The grinding wheels employing conventional abrasives, the wheels undergo rapid wheel wear during the roll grinding process, requiring multiple corrective grinding passes to generate both a roll profile and taper within the desired tolerance. 3.2. The additional grinding passes results in the removal of expensive roll material, leading to a reduction in the useful work roll life. 3.3. The third disadvantage of corrective grinding passes is increased cycle time, thus reducing the productivity of the process. ROLL TEXTURING:

4.

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Electro Discharge Texturing (EDT) is an advanced technique for texturing surfaces, essential for strip formability and paint ability. No waviness - better for high-gloss paint finishes. The consistency and reproducibility of EDT means is a method of producing textures on process rolls for production of high quality strip. The sophisticated automatic machines are capable of operating with either positive or negative electrode polarity, with additional flexibility provided by operating in either Impulse Mode, where energy pulses are controlled by very rapid switching of the power circuitry, or Capacitor Mode, where pulses are provided by controlling the discharge of capacitors. In combination, these advantages permit flexibility and control of the relationship between peak count and roughness within predetermined limits and allows tolerances within4% of specification, regardless of material hardness. EDT uses controlled electrical pulses discharging between an electrode and the roll surface. During the texturing process the roll rotates and reciprocates axially along a row of twenty-five electrodes positioned on each side of the main tank. Each electrode is independently controlled, and only those electrodes required for a given roll length are brought into position. Control of the working gap between each individual electrode and the roll surface is undertaken by high precision servo drives. The electrodes are submerged in a bath of dielectric oil, which also flows through the centre of each electrode, thus ensuring rapid removal of eroded debris from the working gap. EDT uses controlled electrical pulses discharging between an electrode and the roll surface. During the texturing process the roll rotates and reciprocates axially along a row of twenty-five electrodes positioned on each side of the main tank. Each electrode is independently controlled, and only those electrodes required for a given roll length are brought into position. Control of the working gap between each individual electrode and the roll surface is undertaken by high precision servo drives. The electrodes are submerged in a bath of dielectric oil, which also flows through the centre of each electrode, thus ensuring rapid removal of eroded debris from the working gap.

5.

ADVANTAGE:
y y y y

Precise control gives improved consistency - Ra tolerance of just 4% Texture reproducible from roll to roll, due to total process control Higher peak counts possible than with Shot Blasting Peak count can be varied for a specific Ra

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CHAPTER 9

GALVANIZATION
1. The applications of zinc coated products are increasing day by day. The cold rolled steel sheet users are switching over to zinc coated steel sheets for the purpose of aesthetic look as well as overall life of the product particularly in roofing, automobile, and appliances industries. The quality requirements particularly surface finish in all these sectors is similar to CR and electro galvanized sheets. In view of this, the coating industry is also developing new products and processes to meet the specific needs of the end users. The most significant features in the present market demand are the mechanical properties of the base material, formability and drawability of the coated product and the surface finish. The surface finish plays an important role for the characteristics like paintability, weld ability, etc. Coating properties depends on the surface preparation and heat treatment and the parameters like bath temperature, alloying elements (aluminium, antimony, and lead) in the zinc bath, use of spangle minimizer, and skin pass parameters if the material is skin pass. In surface cleaning, the important change is the introduction of a chemical cleaning section before the furnace. The main purpose of this chemical cleaning section is to eliminate iron fines and excess oil from the strip in order to avoid surface defects on coated strip.

2. Material specification: 2.1. Input material: Annealed-Cold rolled carbon steel coils free from edge cut and saw edges

2.2. Output material: 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4. Hardness: Thickness: Width: Weight: 45 HRB to 100 HRB 0.20 mm to 2.2 mm (GP size) 500 mm to 1280 mm 0.2 MT (min.) & 18 MT (max.)

2.3. Entry section: 2.3.1. 2.3.2. Hardness: Thickness: 45 to 100 HRB 0.17 mm to 2.20 mm

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2.3.3.

Width:

500 mm to 1280 mm 0.5 MT (min.) to 22 MT

2.3.4. Weight: (max.) 2.3.5. Inner diameter of coil:

500 mm, 600 mm

2.4. Centre section: 2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.4.3. Hardness: Thickness: Width: 45 to 100 HRB 0.17 mm to 2.20 mm 500 mm to 1280 mm 0.5 MT (min.) to 22 MT

2.4.4. Weight: (max.) 2.4.5. Inner diameter of coil:

500 mm, 600 mm

3. Line specification: 3.1. Entry section: 3.1.1. 3.1.2. Speed: Tension: 3.1.2.1. 3.1.2.2. 3.1.3. Pay off reel: Accumulator pressure: 56 Kg to 560 Kg 105 Kg/cm2 to 1050 Kg/cm2 15 m/min to 120 m/min

Position: 3.1.3.1. 3.1.3.2. Accumulator: Pay off reel initial diameter: 1% to 90% filled 500 mm to 600 mm

3.2. Center section: 3.2.1. 3.2.2. Speed: Tension: 3.2.2.1. 3.2.2.2. 3.2.2.3. Process: Pay off reel: Re-coiler: 120 Kg to 1000 Kg 56 Kg to 560 Kg 2225 Kg to 2280 Kg 12 m/min to 108 m/min

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3.3. Exit section: 3.3.1. 3.3.2. Speed: Tension: 3.3.2.1. 3.3.2.2. 3.3.3. Recoiler: Accumulator pressure: 225 Kg to 2280 Kg 25 Kg/cm2 to 100 Kg/cm2 15 m/min to 120 m/min

Position: 3.3.3.1. 3.3.3.2. Accumulator: 9% to 90% filled

Pay off reel initial diameter: 500 mm

4. Line description: 4.1. Its a continuous Hot Dip Galvanizing Line, consisting of following main components: 4.1.1. Non-Oxidizing zone furnace: Its a pre-heater to recrystallization annealing in a non-oxidizing atmosphere or in a reducing atmosphere, thereby obtaining a substrate steel sheet for plating. The strip entering into the furnace is directly exposed to a set of burners. The burners are preset on a fixed air ratio to enable an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone and slightly reducing in the second and third zones. The burners are preset and the composition of flue gases are maintained very precisely and remain stable in all conditions, excluding any traces of oxygen and maintain a substantial quantity of un-burnt combustibles in the form of Hydrogen + Carbon-di-oxide. The combustion product provides a reducing atmosphere in the second half zone and prepares the strip fully cleaned. 4.1.2. RTF zone furnace: The non-ox zone is followed by a radiant tubes furnace where the strip annealing takes place in the presence of protective atmosphere of nitrogen and hydrogen. The furnace having atmospheres containing combustible gases within a sealed furnace chamber. The furnace is provided with a radiant tube which burns the combustible gas atmosphere within the chamber of the furnace; radiant tube comprises an exhaust means through which the products of combustion within the tube are exhausted outside of the furnace and an inlet through which the combustible atmospheric gas from within the chamber is drawn into the tube. RTF zone has three zones: 4.1.2.1. Temperature rising zone

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4.1.2.2. 4.1.3.

Temperature holding zone

Temperature falling zone

4.1.4. Soaking zone furnace: The radiant tube furnace is followed by an electrically heated soaking zone to achieve desired properties in annealed material. The time of soaking is changed by changing the line speed. The maximum temperature (ambient) in soaking zone goes up to 8000C for deep drawing qualities. Soaking zone has a horizontal furnace, installed in line to achieve the desired properties in the material so as to be suitable for bending, forming and drawing operations. 4.1.5. Jet cooling section: It has controlled jet cooling zone in which the substrate steel sheet is cooled to a temperature suitable for the plating. 4.1.6. Hot bridle: Hot bridle contains rolls, positioned between the last cooling section and the molten zinc bath, which are independently driven by motor. It is the speed of the rolls which determines the tension of the strip in the galvanizing line. Hot bridle is adapted to keep the strip from drifting to one side or the other of the bridle rolls. This is an important control, since excessive drifting could result in contact between the strip edges and the stationary furnace structure of the line, which could result in serious damage to the strip. 4.1.7. Snout: Snout for metallic coating line extends from the strip preparation furnace to the coating metal bath, having a gas impermeable flexible joint permitting movement of the snout from a position with one end immersed in the coating bath to a position there above, permitting a change in coating metal bath or coating metal bath and container without degassing the strip preparation furnace. 4.1.8. Zinc pot: Its a molten zinc tank which holds molten zinc and which conducts on coreless induction heating means for heating the molten zinc. It has a sink roll which is immersed in the molten zinc and around which a steel strip is wound. Hot-dip galvanizing is performed on a continuously fed sheet metal in the molten zinc tank. It comprises a cover which substantially covers the lower surface of the steel strip being immersed in the molten zinc in the molten zinc tank until the steel strip reaches the vessel. It vessel has a curved face at joints of the side plates and the bottom plate. It has a discharge opening at the bottom thereof to discharge the molten zinc, through which discharge opening the molten zinc is forcefully discharged into the molten zinc tank.

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4. Process: 4.1. Uncoiling

4.2. Cleaning: This operation commonly combines alkaline cleaning (degreasing) and mechanical cleaning by rotating cylindrical brushes. Oil and other contaminants are removed from the steel surface. 4.3. Pickling: Degreased and rinsed strip enters a pickling bath where oxides and rust are dissolved by hydrochloric acid and removed according to the reactions: 4.3.1. Iron oxide reaction: Fe2O3 + 6HCl = 2FeCl3 + 3H2O 4.3.2. Rust reaction: Fe2O3*nH2O + 6HCl = 2FeCl3 + (n+3)H2O 4.4. Cooling: The coated strip is cooled by air and water. 4.5. Zinc coating (hot galvanizing): Clean strip passes through a bath with molten zinc (Zn). 4.6. Wiping excessive zinc by air knives. 4.7. Leveling: Leveler produces smooth and flat strip surface. 4.8. Recoiling 5. General working flow:

5.1. Working flow in: 5.1.1. GP 1 & GP 3


01.) Pay-off reel 02.) Leveler 03.) Cropping shear 04.) Welding machine 05.) Entry loop accumulator 06.) Pre-heater 07.) Radiation tube furnace 08.) Annealing temperature measurement 09.) Jet cooling zone 10.) Steering rolls 11.) Hot Bridle 12.) Zinc pot with transfer boilers 13.) Zinc coating thickness control 14.) Micro spangle pattern unit 15.) Cooling tower 16.) Water cooler 17.) Zinc coating thickness gauge 18.) Skin pass mill (four-high) 19.) Tension leveler 20.) Roughness measurement 21.) Non-destructive testing (technical properties) 22.) Chromating unit 23.) Strip dryer 24.) Surface inspection system 25.) Exit loop accumulator 26.) Strip width measurement 27.) Surface inspection 28.) Strip gauge measurement 29.) Electrostatic oiler 30.) Shear 31.) Oiling gauge 32.) Tension reel

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5.1.2. GP 2 01.) Pay-off reel 1 and 2 02.) Strip gauge measurement 03.) Welding machine 04.) Alkaline/electrolytic cleaning section 05.) Entry loop accumulator 06.) Pickling section 07.) Redundant annealing temperature measurement 08.) Annealing furnace 09.) Induction furnace 10.) Zinc pot 11.) Air-knives 12.) Zinc coating thickness control 13.) Coil cooling 14.) Coating gauge measurement 15.) Intermediate looper 16.) Skin pass mill stand 17.) Roughness measurement 18.) Tension leveler 19.) Non-destructive testing (technical properties) 20.) Surface inspection system 21.) Chemical after treatment 22.) Exit loop accumulator 23.) Double head side-trimmer 24.) Strip width measurement 25.) Surface inspection both sides (vertical/horizontal) 26.) Electrostatic oiler 27.) Oiling gauge 28.) Rotary shear 29.) Tension reel

6. Skin Pass in Galvanizing line: The skin pass material looks like silver with uniform roughness and is best for painting purpose i.e. in continuous painting line as well as powder coating. It gives excellent paint adherence. 6.1. Material specification: 6.1.1. Galvanized strip processing on galvanized line. 6.2. Mill specification: 6.2.1. Speed: 12 m/min to 108 m/min 6.2.2. Maximum load: 180 MT 6.2.3. Maximum reduction: 2% 6.2.4. Maximum elongation: 2% 7. ADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS SHEET GALVANIZING: Continuous sheet galvanizing offers a number of advantages to both the producer and user. To the producer it makes possible higher production speeds in which cleaning, annealing and zinc coating are combined in one operation. Cleaning is an integral part of the annealing process ad no chemical fluxing is required prior to galvanizing. This has the advantage that control of the amount of aluminium in the zinc bath which in turn controls brittle alloy formation is simple and zinc coatings with only thin intermetallic layers can easily be produced. Coatings produced on strip lines are therefore adherent and flexible and such sheets can be pressed, drawn, lock seamed and bent without flaking of the coating, Strip line operation also simplified coating control and more uniform coatings are possible.

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Some important advantages are as under: 7.1. Competitive costs 7.2. Low life time cost 7.3. Long life to first maintenance 7.4. Reliability 7.5. Speed of application 7.6. Complete coating coverage 7.7. Dual protection 7.8. Ease of inspection 8. Objectives of GP line: 8.1. To provide a hot- dip galvanized steel sheet that has excellent plating adhesion and sliding property to sufficiently endure as the steel sheet for automobile that requests specifically severe plating characteristics even with a substrate steel sheet containing a large quantity of Si, and to provide a method for manufacturing the hot- dip galvanized steel sheet. 8.2. To provide an alloyed hot- dip galvanized steel sheet also having excellent antipowdering property.

9.

Defects & Remedies: 9.1. Dents and scratches: Dents and scratches come when the rolls in the annealing furnace pick up iron powder etc from the steel strip. To avoid these defects the iron fines on the cold rolled strips needs to be controlled at rolling mill and the hearth rolls of galvanizing annealing furnace should be made correct material with proper cooling arrangements. Use of vertical type furnace which facilitates the speed matching between the strip and the hearth roll, can also eliminate this defect. 9.2. Aggregated iron particles: These are loosely connected aggregate or iron particles embedded in the coating. These particles do not indent the steel substrate. Possible root cause is the iron fines pick-up by the rolls in the annealing furnace eventually breaks loose after attaining a certain thickness and adheres to the strip bottom causing the pick up. This can be eliminated by controlling the iron fines on the strip from cold rolling. 9.3. Bare spots: This is a coating defect which appears as an uncoated spot on the galvanized sheet. This appears essentially due to poor surface preparation i.e. improper reduction of the oxide scale on the sheet surface and poor wet ability of the steel surface by molten zinc. This defect can be controlled by maintaining proper oxidizing reducing conditions in the annealing furnace, strip entry temperature into the zinc bath and bath composition. 9.4. Adhesion Failure: Adhesion failure of hot dip galvanized coatings during forming often occurs when operating conditions in galvanizing facilities are not stable. Coating adhesion is affected by surface contaminants on the steel strip, strip temperature, atmospheric gas composition in the furnace, bath composition especially with respect to coating thickness and formation of the alloy layer during steel and molten zinc reaction. The cause of adhesion failure can also be carbon deposition and oxide film formation due to leakage in furnace or disturbance in furnace atmosphere. Carbon

31

deposition on the strip takes place due to insufficient removal of rolling oil, caused by increasing line speed and lower strip temperature or by excessive CO+H2 content in the direct fired furnace i.e. low air-fuel ratio. This failure can be reduced either by sufficient alkaline cleaning before entry into the annealing furnace or by increasing air-fuel ratio in the furnace or by maintaining the strip temperature. The oil can be controlled at the time of cold rolling also for best results. 9.5. Dross pimples: Dross is an intermetallic compound such as FeZn 7 generated from the reaction between iron and zinc which is eluted from the steel strip in a plating tank holding a zinc-base molten metal, and the dross has spherical equivalent diameters of from 5 to 300 microns. In a stagnant state of the molten metal in the plating tank, the dross deposits on the bottom of the plating tank. Galvanizing lines adopt a specific method to minimize top dross formation on the galvanizing bath surface by covering the bath with a seal box so as to reduce oxygen concentration in the box or by nitrogen wiping also. However, the dross pick-up does not appear to be a major source of surface defects, provided skimming operations are performed frequently during galvanizing. 9.6. Edge Buildup: Other important defect is edge buildup which finally results into edge waviness. The main reason of this is the dross pick-up which mostly takes place from the top dross just after galvanizing. The dross pick-up is more near the coated strip edge where dross pick-up is generally not wiped off efficiently. When such dross particles are picked up by the coating, they can not be seen visually and will not be noticeable after skin rolling. There are many methods to prevent iron build up in the zinc bath. Some of the important methods are, strict control of bath temperature, cleaning of non-adherent iron and dust from the strip, continuous filtering of zinc bath, molten zinc circulation/filtering using a bath/strip cooler and using a ceramic pot which eliminates the source of iron and sufficiently stirs zinc for a dross less galvanizing pot. 9.7. Black Stain: Aluminium (Al) added in amounts of 0.15-0.25% forms a very thin, dense and adherent layer of Fe2Al5, which inhibits the growth of zinc ferrites at the steel surface. However, when the Al content in the bath exceeds 0.30%, the rate of attack by Al on steel also increases proportionately. Prior oxidation and reduction of the strip also results in finely divided, unattached particles of iron on the surface of the sheet as it enters the bath, these are quickly converted to FeAl3 particles by Al in concentration over 0.25%. They form films which may accumulate in the bath as clumps to be brought out irregularly in the coating or rise to the surface as floating dross and brought out as a black stain on the surface of the work, perhaps partly embedded in the coating. Control of iron impurities and Al content in the bath is very important for avoiding this defect.

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CHAPTER 10

CORRUGATION 1.
Corrugated galvanized iron commonly abbreviated (CGI) is a building material composed of sheets of hot-dip galvanized mild steel, cold-rolled to produce a linear corrugated pattern in them. The corrugations increase the bending strength of the sheet in the direction perpendicular to the corrugations, but not across them. Normally each sheet is manufactured longest in its strong direction. The corrugations are described in terms of pitch (the distance between two crests) and depth (the height from the top of a crest to the bottom of a trough). It is important for the pitch and depth to be quite uniform, in order for the sheets to be easily stackable for transport, and to overlap neatly when making a join. Material specification: 2.1. Raw material: 2.1.1. Galvanized sheets 2.1.1.1. Galvalume5 sheets

2.

3.

Corrugation machine: A second reel mounted for rotation about a second axis parallel to first has a pair of ganged sections axially aligned. Each pair of ganged sections has a common center support wheel with spoke-like projections extending radially wherefrom each spoke-like projections of a section supports a different roller bar with respect to the other roller bars of the section. Each roller A corrugating machine has a top reel and a bottom reel, each with roller bars that intermesh with each other so that sheet metal that is passed there between can be corrugated in a uniform manner. The roller bars deform the sheet stock into the corrugations, but prevent marring of the pre-coated finish on the sheet metal. A corrugating machine comprises: 3.1. A first reel mounted for rotation about a first axis has a pair of ganged sections axially aligned. Each pair of ganged sections having a common center support wheel with spoke-like projections extending radially wherefrom each spoke-like projections of a section supports a different roller bar for independent rotation with respect to the other roller bars of the section. Each roller bar extending axially substantially across a respective ganged section and each spoke-like projection both are being shaped at an

Galvalume is Zinc 55% Aluminium 1.5% Silicon alloy coating on steel. It gives excellent corrosion resistance in many environments and suitable for heat resistant applications. Its use in roofing and cladding is increasing day by day in the country due to its unique appearance and enhanced corrosion free life.

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outer radial end thereof so as not to protrude in a path of sheet stock to be corrugated. bar of second reel extends axially substantially across a respective ganged section and each spoke-like projection both are being shaped at an outer radial end thereof so as not to protrude in a path of sheet stock to be corrugated. 3.2. A frame for rotatable mounting of first reel with respect to second reel so that the roller bars of first reel intermesh with respective roller bars of said second reel. An engagement between the roller bars is the only driving force exerted on first reel with respect to second reel. 3.3. A drive mechanism attached to second reel for rotatable driving of second reel which thereby drives first reel.

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CHAPTER 11

R&D CENTRE
1. Research and Development (also R and D or, more often, R&D) refers to creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase stock of knowledge, including knowledge of work man, various departments, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications and methodology. R&D CENTRE carries various researches for continuous improvement and bench marking and field investigations so as to carry out long - life cycle tests on the products to achieve the international quality requirements in the market. 2. R&D CENTRE lays down emphasis on following points for the fulfillment of increasing plant productivity: 2.1. Who is the customer? 2.2. What do they want? 2.3. Are we maintaining the equipment? 2.4. What is the risk? 2.5. Is there another sale? 2.6. Who are we and what is our mission? 2.7. To understand alignment and balance of plant. 2.8. To avoid poor base, foundation designs and structures. 3. Measurement, analysis and improvement 3.1. General 3.2. Planning 3.3. Monitoring and measurement 3.4. Control of non-conforming product 3.5. Analysis of data 3.6. Improvement Due to the latest and advanced testing facilities installed at the companys R&D centre, the detailed testing of the various imported steel samples brought from different Automobile Industries is possible for analyzing & the auto grade specifications required for the outer body panels has been very well established.

35

4. The R&D CENTRE has a testing lab consisting of following testing machines: 4.1. Emission Spectrometer (four alloy base). 4.2. Fully computerized Universal Testing Machine. for measurement of 4.2.1. Yield strength. 4.2.2. Ultimate tensile strength 4.2.3. Percentage elongation 4.2.4. Yield point elongation r value, n value. 5. Fully computerized surface roughness tester for roughness profiles and waviness component 6. Metallurgical microscope having magnification up to 500X. 7. Rapid drawability tester, R module. 8. Fully computerized micro hardness tester. 9. The R&D CENTRE has fully fledged chemical laboratory equipped with: 9.1.1. 9.1.2. Digital pH conductivity meters Drop point testers

9.1.3. Cleveland flash & fire point testers 9.1.4. Viscosity bath for carrying out incoming online of oils, greases, RP oils, mill coolants and other chemicals used in the processing centers. 10. Achievements: 10.1. Rolling up-to 1700 mm width has been achieved.

10.2. Non Scalloping material with equi-axed grain structure for the bearing case industry has been established. 10.3. New grades required for the automotive sector other than the EDD quality sheet have been produced, supplied and performing well at the various automobile manufacturers. 10.4. Indignation of the car body sheet panel has been achieved up-to 95% at the major car industry. Ultra low carbon steel (ULC-IF steel) and Dent resistant high tensile material has been well developed and established for the outer body panels.

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CHAPTER

12

QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

1. A quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. A QMS enables an organization to achieve the goals and objectives set out in its policy and strategy. It provides consistency and satisfaction in terms of methods, materials, equipment, etc, and interacts with all activities of the organization, beginning with the identification of customer requirements and ending with their satisfaction, at every transaction interface. 2. The functions performed by QMS are: 2.1. Set direction and meet customers expectations 2.2. Improve process control 2.3. Reduce wastage 2.4. Lower costs 2.5. Increase market share 2.6. Facilitate training 2.7. Involve staff 2.8. Raise morale 2.9. The customers requirements confidence in the ability of the organization to deliver the desired product and service consistently meeting their needs and expectations. 2.10. The organizations requirements both internally and externally, and at an optimum cost with efficient use of the available resources materials, human, technology and information. 2.11. 2.12. 2.13. To conduct online quality inspection up to dispatch. Considering the factors of equipment Maintaining reliability because of following importance:

2.13.1. Customer Satisfaction 2.13.2. Lower cost of maintenance

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2.13.3. Longer equipment life cycles 2.13.4. Less risk of collateral damage 2.13.5. Less risk of customer downtime 2.13.6. Less maintenance related labor costs 2.13.7. Less risk of E,H,&S exposure 2.13.8. Future sales success stories 2.13.9. It has a payback!!!!

R&D

Operations

Sales & Marketing

HR

Finance Administration

Plan the Business Strategy New Product/Service Generation Order Generation Order Fulfillment People Management Servicing Products/Customers fig.7.
Customer Satisfaction

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CHAPTER 13

UTILITY
1. Utility is a facility composed of one or more pieces of equipment connected to or part of a structure and designed to provide a service such as water, compressed air, steam, air conditioning, heat or electricity or sewage disposal. Because of these integrated facilities, a continuous un-interrupted supply of material to the customer in order to meet their tight schedule and production targets has been made possible. 2. Utility maintenance department ensures functioning of following: 2.1. RO plant: RO refers to Reverse Osmosis having cleaning membranes such as used in sea and brackish water desalination technology, for municipal and industrial water production, in particular to cleaning by direct osmosis. Raw water is used as a source for desalination by reverse osmosis, besides dissolved solids (salts), includes suspended particles, organic and mineral, collectively called as suspended solids. Standard desalination technology includes a filtration system called pretreatment system which is designated to remove the suspended solids. Pretreatment systems remove a significant part of the suspended solids, but are not able to remove them absolutely. Some of the suspended solids pass the pretreatment system, reach the RO membrane and stick to its feed surface as foulants. 2.2. The process of reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of raw water includes basically the following: 2.2.1. Providing a semi-permeable membrane (RO membrane) which allows passing of the solvent (water) molecules and rejects dissolved salts, and disposing the RO membrane in a suitable vessel; 2.2.2. Feeding the raw water to one side of the RO membrane (feed side) under gauge pressure higher than the osmotic pressure of the raw water; 2.2.3. Collecting permeated desalinated water from the other side of the membrane (permeate side); and 2.2.4. Removing concentrated saline water (brine) from the feed side (also called feed-brine side).

3. Compressor: An air compressor is a device that converts electrical power or gas into kinetic energy by pressurizing and compressing air, which is then released in quick bursts.

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3.1. An air compressor consists: 3.1.1. A compressor unit. 3.1.2. A drive unit for driving the compressor unit. 3.1.3. A sound insulating box having an air inlet and an outlet and encasing the compressor and drive units. 3.1.4. A fan which is eccentrically mounted in a cylindrical sound insulating box with the duct located in a position where the outer periphery of the fan most approaches the inner peripheral wall of the sound insulating box, thereby causing the air currents gushing from the fan to form vortex of cooling air within the sound insulating box and taking in the cooling air with a duct at a point where the velocity of cooling air becomes highest for supply to a part or parts to be cooled. 3.1.5. A duct mounted in the sound insulating box. The duct has at one end opened toward the discharge side of the fan and the other end opened into at least one of the compressor and drive units where cooling is needed. 3.2. OBJECTIVES: 3.2.1. Arranged air compressor of low noise should have provision for effectively cooling the component parts of the compressor. 3.2.2. To provide a duct for conducting cooling air currents from a fan directly into at least either a compressor unit or a drive unit for effectively cooling the interior of same. 3.2.3. To provide to take in large quantity of air from a fan and to supply cooling air currents in high velocity to a place in need of the cooling air without causing pressure drops or temperature increases to the air on the way. 3.2.4. To provide cooling air currents directly to a rotor and a coil portion of a stator of the drive unit, or a bearing and cylinder portion of the compressor unit which generate high heat, preventing early exudation of grease in the bearing and deterioration of the seal ring to prolong the service lives of the drive unit and the compressor unit.

4. Boiler: A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. The utility plant has LPG fired boilers that are available with all-welded

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construction, of 3 pass, wet back type, with plain cylindrical furnace / furnaces, attached to a fully immersed radiation chamber in the 1st pass and the 2nd & 3rd pass consisting of tube nests. 4.1. Boiler specification: 4.1.1. Shell and tube type constructed 4.1.2. Gas fired 4.1.3. Generous heating surface to ensure long life of the boiler 4.1.4. Low exit gas temperature 4.1.5. The fuel to steam ratio is proportionate to give high efficiency, which means economy in fuel consumption. 4.1.6. Burner matched with boiler for high efficiency and low operational costs. 4.1.7. Shell insulated with fibre glass wool mattresses reducing loss by radiation. 4.1.8. Compact and easy installation. 4.1.9. Boiler is made cost-effective and the shell and tube design gives you, your investment's worth in terms of an efficient and sturdy design. 5. Features: 5.1. It attains maximum heat transfer and minimal frictional losses through tubes. 5.2. Large heating surfaces and low heat flux to ensure longevity of heating surface area. 5.3. Boilers' wet back design is best suited for oil firing, resulting in eliminating refractory construction. 5.4. The front end of boiler is designed to eliminate refractoriness totally. 5.5. The automatic firing equipment of boiler is designed to match the boiler resulting in low flue gas temperature and high efficiency.

6. Cooling tower: Cooling towers is the place in which tubular heat exchangers are arranged whereby fluid flowing through the tubes is indirectly cooled by air flow through the tower. Each heat exchanger includes a tubular heat transfer surface with the heat exchangers being inwardly spaced from the tower wall and circumferentially positioned to form at least one heat exchanger ring, with the heat transfer surfaces thereof forming ring walls. The heat

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exchangers are preferably arranged to provide at least two radially spaced rings. The heat exchangers of each ring are preferably arranged whereby the heat transfer surfaces thereof form concentric cylindrical heat transfer walls. The spacing between the rings and/or the height of the exchangers are coordinated to provide the required ratio of heat transfer surface to air flow area and sufficient area for airflow to the heat transfer surface. 7. PUMP HOUSE: A pump housing, in particular a vane cell pump housing, having a suction connection point, from which a suction channel emerges which opens with a suction-channel opening into a receiving chamber in the pump housing, and having a pressure connection point, from which a pressure channel emerges which opens at a pressure-channel opening into the receiving chamber. A pump house is distinguished by the fact that the suction connection point, the pressure connection point, the suction-channel opening and/or the pressure-channel opening are/is arranged in such a way that a minimum level of a conveying fluid which is present in the receiving chamber is not undershot in different installation situations. 8. A pump housing, comprising: 8.1. A suction connection point. 8.2. A suction channel arranged proceeding from the suction connection point. 8.3. A suction channel opening arranged in the suction channel. 8.4. A receiving chamber arranged in the pump housing, the receiving chamber coupled to the suction channel by the suction channel opening. 8.5. A pressure channel opening. 8.6. A pressure channel leading from the receiving chamber, the pressure channel coupled to the receiving via the pressure channel opening. 9. A pressure connection point from which the pressure channel proceeds; wherein at least one of the suction connection point, the pressure connection point, the suction channel opening, and the pressure channel opening is arranged so that an amount of pumped fluid present in the receiving chamber is maintained at a minimum level, regardless of the installation orientation. 10. AC PLANT: An air conditioning plant for an industrial plant site basically contains one conduit for admitting air to the building and a further conduit for evacuating air there from. 11. ETP: ETP stands for Effluent Treatment Plant is a process for the treatment of waste water produced in a plant. The process includes the steps of admixing partially-treated waste water containing precipitated impurities with a flocculating agent in a flocculation basin, directing the admixed waste water to an elongated sedimentation basin, allowing flocculated solids in

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the waste water to settle to the bottom of the sedimentation basin, removing the settled solids from the bottom of the sedimentation basin and directing the treated water from the sedimentation basin. The treatment of industrial water according to the present processes allows removal of impurities such that the water is suitable for internal re-use in an operating phosphoric acid facility or release. Additionally, the process is able to treat acidic industrial waste water by the removal of impurities as a preliminary treatment stage leading to discharge of the final treated water to natural water bodies; treated water may be processed by reverse osmosis to remove residual impurities. 12. LPG YARD: Liquefied gases, such as methane, are stored either in freestanding tanks that are cylindrical, spherical, or prismatic, being made out of sheets of special steel or of thick aluminum, or else in tanks constituted by a thin membrane that provides leak proof confinement associated with a thermal insulation system constituted by blocks of foam, with the insulation system resting continuously on a support structure. 13. CHALENGES FACED BY UTILITY DEPARTMENT: 13.1. The utility department in todays scenario is at centre stage in efforts to address climate change and minimize harmful environmental impacts. Like a broader front, utility department faces significant environmental protection, remediation and health and safety responsibilities. 13.2. To identify opportunities for process automation and synergies, encourage consistency of data and identify areas for control enhancements. 13.3. Ensuring the continuous supply of energy throughout the plant is a key challenge for utility department.

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CHAPTER 14

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT
1. Mechanical department is the real backbone of any steel product based company. Extremely reliable plants can be operated by understanding how the equipment fails and engineering, fabrication, installation, operation, heavily depends on maintenance performed by mechanical department. 2. Following maintenances are conduct by mechanical department: 2.1. Preventative Maintenance: Actions performed on a time- or machine-run-based schedule that detect, preclude, or mitigate degradation of a component or system with the aim of sustaining or extending its useful life and reduce the need for major repairs. 2.2. Preventive Maintenance fix it even if it isn't broken 2.3. Predictive Maintenance: Attempts to evaluate the condition of equipment by performing periodic or continuous (online) equipment condition monitoring. Basically, predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance by basing maintenance need on the actual condition of the machine rather than on some preset schedule. Sometimes called reliability centered maintenance, predictive maintenance goes considerably beyond the generally accepted rules for preventive maintenance, performing service only when necessary as dictated by the condition of the equipment. Predictive maintenance has been proved in the process industries as a great way to improve maintenance effectiveness while reducing costs for repairs and unexpected downtime. 2.4. Proactive Maintenance: Concentrates on the monitoring and correction of root causes to equipment failures. 2.5. Reactive Maintenance known as run-to-failure. 2.6. Break down maintenance: this maintenance is done when machine parts get wear and tear. 2.7. Lubrication: the maintenance involves: 2.7.1. Lubricant Selection 2.7.2. Proper lubricant for application 2.7.3. Avoid putting dirty lube in the equipment 2.7.4. Avoid using wrong grease in motors 2.8. Routine: it involves a scheduled checking for better line efficiency.

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2.9. Opportunity: When ever a production scheduling plan or a equipment is not in use then maintenance performed by mechanical department is said to be opportunity. 3. Objectives of the department: 3.1. Maintain Efficiency and Reduce Energy Use 3.2. Enable Failure Analysis When it fails 3.3. Dont just replace it, Ask why it failed! 3.4. Maintenance & repairs can be scheduled in advance of failure 3.5. Reducing down time, overtime, shipping cost 3.6. Reducing the chance of failure of equipment by eliminating failure modes of the components. 3.7. Equipment components can last many times longer than manufactured life expectancy by understanding these failure modes. 3.8. Equipment reliability insures that equipment will last many life cycles longer and this in turn reduces the cost of ownership and the life cycle costs of maintenance.

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CHAPTER 15

ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT
Like mechanical maintenance department, electrical maintenance is also a backbone of steel plant. Following are the function conducted by electrical department: 1. Preventive maintenance: It includes scheduled inspection, testing and maintenance of critical electrical components. This is very important maintenance as it serves as a precautionary measure. It requires a good plan and a tendency of being proactive rather than having a reactive approach. 2. Operational maintenance: It includes maintenance of the following: 2.1. Power Transmission & Distribution 2.2. Electrical HT / LT Substation 2.3. Monitoring Electrical Transmission & Distribution 2.4. Consumption of Power Factor 2.5. Internal Wiring, Switchgear & Lighting Installation Cable Laying 2.6. Making of Earth pits as per INDIAN ELECTRIC BOARD rules. 2.7. Maintenance & Servicing L & T Air Circuit Breaker. 2.8. Electrical equipment needed to be changed out and tested. 2.9. Electrical Engineering, Power Stations & High Tension Distribution 2.10. Low Tension Electrical Works & L.T. Panels

2.11. Installation of D.G. Sets and removal of all suspended particles such as dust, rust, scales, colloidal carbon oxidation sludge, etc, degassing and dehydration of transformer oil under vacuum, circulation of heated oil and filling of treated oil in transformer tank, de-acidification by evaporation and absorption method for ensuring prolonged service life a transformer. 2.12. Insulated systems were stripped and replaced

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CHAPTER 16

SAFETY
Function of safety department is to ensure smooth running of the plant without suffering any human injuries, casualties etc. 1. Work practices. 1.1. Hazards are identified 1.2. Necessary safeguards are determined 1.3. The assigning of responsible individuals 2. Following are the instructions late laid by this department are as under: 2.1. Employers should develop and implement a procedure for the stable storage of steel coils. 2.2. Employers should ensure that aisle widths meet applicable INDIAN INDUSTERIAL standards. 2.3. Employers should become familiar with available resources on safety standards and safe 2.4. The attached information sheet, Safety Guidelines for the Stacking and Storage of Steel Coils gives basic instructions for safely storing and chocking coils. These recommendations include: 2.4.1. Chocking each coil individually with wedge-shaped blocks.

2.4.2. Arranging the bottom coils so there is no space between them. 2.4.3. Never stacking larger, heavier coils on top of smaller coils.

2.5. Following are the instructions given by the safety department to the crane operators: 2.5.1. Instruction for crane operator is that not to carry coil over the pavement. 2.5.2. To use bell for better communication with the floor workers. 2.6. Following are the instructions given by the safety department to the other departments: 2.6.1. To replace machine parts only in switch off mode. 2.6.2. Direct handling of coil should be done by wearing gloves. 2.6.3. Electrical panels should be repaired by specialized electrician and this implies to other department also that risky components should be handled by specialist.

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