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Z Zhang, X Huang, Y Chen and H Hua Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment 2009 223: 503 DOI: 10.1243/14750902JEME157 The online version of this article can be found at: http://pim.sagepub.com/content/223/4/503

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Z Zhang*, X Huang, Y Chen, and H Hua State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Systems and Vibration, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China The manuscript was received on 14 February 2009 and was accepted after revision for publication on 29 June 2009. DOI: 10.1243/14750902JEME157

Abstract: An experimental system, mainly including a rotary machine, four active vibration isolators and a water container, was established to investigate the role of active vibration isolation in suppressing vibration transmission as well as underwater sound radiation. Finite element analysis and experimental modal testing were employed to exhibit and validate vibration modes of the fluid-coupled structure and the radiated sound field in water. Sound field given by this validated finite element model is taken as the substitution for a real measurement. In the experiment, the fundamental frequency of the rotary machine was chosen to be nearly equal to a natural frequency of the coupled system in order to create a sound field in the water container by resonant structural vibration. The rotary machine is supported by the four electromagnetic vibration isolators, which suppress the quasi-periodical local vibration independently according to an adaptive control method. The measured results have demonstrated that low-frequency sound radiation can be reduced by local active vibration isolation. Keywords: active vibration isolation, underwater sound radiation, fluidstructure interaction, adaptive control

INTRODUCTION

Fluidstructure interaction and the pertinent sound radiation have been thoroughly investigated since the 1950s, but the research on active control of sound radiation started very late. Compared with the abundant work in the active control of structureborne sound in the air, there is scant research concerning active control of vibration and/or sound radiation from structures in heavy fluid [13]. However, structures filled with and/or surrounded by heavy fluid are frequently met in applications, for example, in the area of ship transportation. Vibration of ship structures induced by power machinery is harmful to passengers as well as the ocean environment, especially the vibration at low frequencies, usually less than several hundred Hertz, is difficult to

*Corresponding author: State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Systems and Vibration, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China. email: chychang@sjtu.edu.cn

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control by passive means. Active isolation of vibrations of power machinery is an effective means to reduce vibration transmission and hence the sound radiation of structures. There is plenty of research on active vibration isolation, concerning control algorithms as well as implementation [46]. Vibration of structures is strongly influenced by heavy fluid at low frequencies. The added inertia effect of fluid clearly changes the natural vibration frequencies of structures and, accordingly, the radiation of sound. Therefore, fluidstructure interaction should be considered in the control of low-frequency vibration. Currently, the commonly used methods in describing fluidstructure interaction are the finite element method (FEM) and/or the boundary element method (BEM). The FEM/BEM methods are superior in analysing structures coupled with unbounded domain of fluid [79]. For the analysis of steady-state structural vibration and sound radiation, the coupled motion is usually given in the frequency domain with fluid compressibility taken into account. However, it is more flexible to apply a time

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domain model in simulation and to investigate nonlinearity in active vibration control. In order to carry out active vibration isolation in real time, a lower order model that describes the fluidstructure interaction with sufficient accuracy is necessary. The validated numerical model (modal model) and the directly measured model are appropriate to realtime control and the latter is preferable in practice and is adopted in this paper. Adaptive cancellation is one of the adaptive strategies that can cancel periodic disturbances and is used widely in many fields, such as signal processing as well as control engineering. In active vibration isolation, cancellation with tracking filters can suppress tonal vibrations at specified frequencies, but needs online frequency estimation since the centre frequencies of these filters are adjusted according to disturbing forces/moments. Filtered-x least mean squares (FxLMS) and recursive least squares are important adaptive control algorithms and, especially, FxLMS is often used in real applications owing to its fast computation and easy implementation. In noise cancellation, FxLMS is used independently or combined with tracking filters to control harmonic sound [1012]. FxLMS can also be applied in the control of low-frequency vibration of thin plates, where the vibration control involves fluidstructure interaction [3]. In the control of engine-induced mount vibration, the multi-channel active vibration isolation scenario with FxLMS has achieved notable reduction in vibration [4]. In the FxLMS algorithm, controller weights are updated according to error signals and a large disturbance in the error will lead to excessive adaptation of weights, which can cause saturation in the controller output and consequently deteriorate control performance. For active vibration isolation, saturation will cause high-frequency vibrations and even resonance in an isolation system. However, controller saturation in active vibration isolation has been rarely concerned [13]. Non-linearity in vibration isolation is complicated and is usually related to a particular problem. In this paper, active vibration isolation and its influence on the underwater sound field in a plexiglass water container are discussed by an experiment, which is the subsequent work of an early investigation by the authors [9]. The work demonstrates the effectiveness of active isolation in the attenuation of sound radiation as well as the influence of vibration modes to the radiated sound field. Before conducting the experiment, FEM is first employed to analyse the coupled vibration and exhibit underwater sound field corresponding to

the natural vibration modes. The numerical model and results are used to explain the controlled sound field. In the implementation of active vibration isolation, the adaptive controller is embedded with tracking filters. The role of tracking filters is to track vibration signals of oscillating frequencies. Moreover, saturation in controller output is alleviated by compressing the updating of weights of the adaptive controller and accordingly a good performance of active isolation in the presence of abnormal disturbances can be expected [14]. Detailed discussion is given in five sections. Finite element analysis and model validation are given in section 2; section 3 gives a short discussion on the adaptive control algorithm; Experimental results are presented in section 4, and conclusions are presented in section 5.

For the analysis of interaction between structures and fluid within a finite space, the finite element method is usually an appropriate choice since the vibration displacements and sound pressure can be described by a discrete model of finite degrees of freedom. The natural vibration modes of the coupled system are then obtained by solving matrix eigenvalue problems [15]. The purpose of numerical analysis is to exhibit sound field in the water, which is usually easy to simulate but difficult to measure. One part of the experimental model is the plexiglass water container with a plexiglass plate installed on its top, as shown in Fig. 1. The wall thickness of the container is 50 mm and its dimensions are 60067006800 mm (height). The plate is 20 mm thick and the dimensions of the surface in contact with water are 3006600 mm. In the finite element model, the container is modelled with 8512 solid elements, the plate with 296 shell elements and the water with 23 013 fluid elements. Mechanical properties of the materials are listed in Table 1. The coupling between the container and water is on the five interfaces where the container contacts the water. The top surface of the water is partly coupled with the plate and there are two separate free water surfaces. In the computation, the pressure on the free surfaces is set to zero (The effect of air is neglected and the coupled system is assumed to vibrate in vacuo). The model without water is first analysed, and the first four natural frequencies of the dry plate are listed in Table 2, in which the computed results and the measured results obtained

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Fig. 1

The water container, plate and water: (a) top view; (b) without water (unmeshed); (c) with water (meshed)

by modal testing are very close. Then, the model with water is analysed and the first four natural frequencies of the wet plate are also listed in Table 2. As can be seen, the computed frequencies are again close to the measured ones. In Table 2, all the frequencies of the plate clearly decrease after it is coupled with the water, which implies a strong interaction between the plate and the water. Figure 2 gives the first four mode shapes of the plate coupled with water. In these mode shapes, the first and the third are bending modes and the second and the fourth are torsional modes. Pressure distributions corresponding to the four natural modes are shown in Fig. 3. As can be seen, the distribution is closely related to a vibration mode and the maximum pressure corresponds almost to the largest amplitude of the mode shape. The finite element model was validated by modal testing. Apart from the natural frequencies, mode shapes of the plate in the coupled system were also measured. Figure 4 gives the measurement points as well as the measured mode shapes. The location of these points is determined on the basis of computed mode shapes in order fully to exhibit the node lines as well as the peak lines. Compared with the shapes in Fig. 2, the measured shapes have almost the same peak and node lines. As the model is validated, one can obtain a reasonable pressure field in the water container by analysis. Figures 5(a) and 6(a) are slices of pressure distribution corresponding respectively to the first and second natural vibration modes of the plate. The two slices are at the same location, 150 mm away from the inside wall surface of the container. In the slice, 12 observation points are selected, among which the first three points are near the free surface and the rest are located 100500 mm below the free surface with even distance of 50 mm. By dividing the pressure at every point by the maximum pressure, one can give normalized values to each point. Figures 5(b) and 6(b) show the variation of the normalized values of the 12 points with respect to the depth. It can be seen from the two figures that sound fields to the first two vibration modes are distinct. The sound pressure induced by the first mode is distributed globally while that by the second mode is distributed locally. This difference is attributed to the different radiation directivity of vibration modes. For the first mode, every point on the plate vibrates in phase, but for the second mode, any two points located symmetrically about the node line vibrates out of phase, resulting in strong directivity in the field.

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Table 1

Youngs modulus/bulk modulus (N/m2) Plexiglass Water 3.95610 2.256109

9

Mechanical properties

Density (kg/m3) 1200 1000 Poissons ratio 0.35 Sound speed (m/s) 1500

Table 2

Computed (Hz) Measured (Hz)

134.8 137.5 0.5 213.5 209.2 0.5 318.3 314.0 0.5

No water in the container, active isolators not installed 70.3 71.4 0.5

Container filled with water, active isolators not installed Computed (Hz) Measured (Hz) 28.3 29.0 0.5 79.0 78.4 0.5 85.6 89.2 0.5 190.6 186.2 0.5

Container filled with water, active isolators installed Measured (Hz) 39.4 0.5 81.3 0.5 97.0 0.5 209.5 0.5

Fig. 2

The overall experimental system is shown in Fig. 7. As can be seen, the container is almost full of water, which contacts the lower surface of the plexiglass plate. Four active isolators are installed between the plexiglass plate and an aluminium plate with dimensions 300618068 mm. The fan, having an eccentric mass, is used as a rotary machine and

supported on the aluminium plate. Its nominal speed is 2400 r/min and the nominal fundamental frequency is therefore 40 Hz. The first natural frequency of the aluminium plate is about 466 Hz, much higher than this fundamental frequency as well as the first natural frequency of the plexiglass plate. The active isolators are electromagnetic

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active isolators, which are also measured and listed in Table 2. The table shows that each natural frequency becomes larger the first rises to 39.4 Hz, but the second has only a small variation. Since the first natural frequency is very close to the fundamental frequency of the fan, the radiated sound exhibits a strong resonance at this frequency, as can be observed in the experiment. Theoretically, not only the natural frequencies but also mode shapes of the plate will change with the installation of active isolators, so will the induced sound field. However, the sound field to the first natural frequency is similar to that in Fig. 5 because the plexiglass plate in Fig. 7 can be regarded as a stiffened one by the actuators and the aluminium plate. In the experiment, four accelerometers are installed beside the active isolators to measure the responses of the plexiglass plate and one accelerometer on the aluminium plate to measure the vibration of the fan. Moreover, one sound pressure transducer is immersed in water to measure the underwater sound pressure induced by the resonant vibration of the plexiglass plate. The controller is a PC with one NI-PCI6259 board inside, which has 32 input channels and 4 output channels.

Fig. 3

actuators. Diameter and height of each actuator are 50 and 40 mm respectively and the first natural frequency is 66 Hz. Natural frequencies of the plexiglass plate are altered after the installation of

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The vibration induced by the rotating eccentric mass is composed of harmonics. For periodical responses, the control method adaptive cancellation is an effective way to counteract the influence of disturbance. The adopted adaptive control system is shown in Fig. 8, where Hs(z) and Hc(z) are the transfer functions respectively from Fd and Fc to the vibration acceleration at point S. Fd and Fc represent respectively the disturbance force and the control force. In Fig. 8(b), the control force Fc is applied to cancel the vibration of S induced by the disturbance force Fd. The reduction of vibration at point S will result in a decrease of sound radiation from the plate structure. Adaptation of Fc is realized according to the vibration of point S, i.e. the error signal. The adaptive controller is constructed on the FxLMS algorithm. In the figure, F(z) represents tracking filters, Hc(z) is the estimate of Hc(z), W(z) the controller, d(k) the disturbance, e(k) the error signal, r(k) the reference signal, y(k) the response induced by u(k). The discrete transfer function of F(z) shown in Fig. 8(a) can be described by

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Fig. 4

The first four mode shapes of the plate (left measurement points; right mode shapes)

Fig. 5

Sound field to the first vibration mode: (a) a slice of the sound field (normalized pressure); (b) normalized pressure versus depth

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Fig. 6

Sound field to the second vibration mode: (a) a slice of the sound field (normalized pressure); (b) normalized pressure versus depth

{2

w i kz1~w i k z 1

i

mei k

czkri k k2 P T uk ~ w i k r i k

ri k

, i~1*n 2

p where ai1 ~{2 exp{fvi =fs cos 1{f2 vi =fs , ai2 ~ exp{2fvi =fs , bi0 ~1=21{ exp{2fvi =fs , bi2 5 2bi0, fs is the sampling frequency. In the adaptive isolation, the centre frequencies vi of F(z) are estimated by online frequency estimators. For each adaptive controller Wi(z), the adaptation of its coefficients can be given by equation (2) according to the LMS algorithm

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where ri(k) is the output of Hc(z) under the input ri(k), r(k) 5 (r1(k),r2(k),...,rn(k))T, ei(k) the output of Fi(z) under the input e(k), m is an adjusting parameter, c . 0. However, in this paper, equation (2) is replaced by a modified formula. Since the control signal u(k) is the output of W(z) under the input r(k), and one step update of coefficients of W(z) given in equation (2) is proportional

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Fig. 8 Active isolation and the adaptive control scheme with tracking filters

to the filtered error signal ei(k), excessive adaptation will occur when there is a large shock in the error signal, which can result in saturation in controller output. Output saturation can produce high-frequency excitation and even instability, which will deteriorate vibration isolation. Therefore, the adaptation formula in equation (2) should be modified to consider this circumstance. For an ideal saturation 8 > d, < sat uk ~ uk , > : {d,

Fig. 7 Experimental system for active vibration isolation and underwater sound radiation control: (a) photograph; (b) front view; (c) top view

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! ri k 4

in Figs 5 and 6) is also shown for comparison. The following conclusions can be drawn from these measured curves. 1. FRFs of the four active isolators are almost the same except at the natural frequencies. 2. In the pressure/voltage curve, all peaks correspond to the natural frequencies of the plate as well as the active isolators, and at the observation point, sound pressure induced by the second mode (at 81 Hz) is stronger than the other three modes of the plate. 3. When excited by white noise, natural vibration of the active isolators will create higher sound pressure than the first four modes of the plate, which implies that the natural vibration should be damped in the implementation of active isolation. With the measured FRFs of active isolators and the adaptive control structure shown in Fig. 8, active control is implemented and each active isolator generates cancelling forces according to the local vibration accelerations to counteract vibration caused by the rotating fan and the corresponding radiated sound. Since the excitation of the fan is mainly composed of vibration at the fundamental frequency and forces the plate to vibrate resonantly at its first natural frequency, the spectrum of radiated sound from the plate at the fundamental frequency is dominant when no control is implemented. After active control, the radiation at the fundamental frequency is suppressed substantially, as shown in Fig. 11, where the spectrum at the first natural frequency of the isolator (about 66 Hz) is raised to some extent. In the resonant condition, the pressure at those points shown in Fig. 5 was measured and the results are given in Table 3, from which one can see that the trend implied by the pressure-depth data is similar to that shown in Fig. 5. Figure 12 gives the acceleration responses at the foot of the second active isolator before and after

where fu w T k r i k is the derivative of a sigmoid i function f(u) with respect to the variable u. According to the definition of sigmoid functions, as u(k) approaches saturation, fu w T k r i k decreases fast i to zero and consequently reduce the adaptation step of wi(k). This property guarantees that fu w T k r i k is able to weaken any excessive i updating of wi(k) and alleviate output saturation. Moreover, equation (4) can degrade to equation (2) as long as no output saturation occurs.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Figure 9 is the measured fundamental frequency of the fan, which indicates that the rotation speed is not constant but oscillates between 40.5 and 41.1 Hz. In the figure, there are 4800 samples in total, corresponding to a 12 s record under the sampling frequency 400 Hz. Therefore, the oscillation frequency of the speed is very small as compared with the fundamental frequency. The given adaptive algorithm with real-time tracking filters is not sensitive to the variation of speed, which can guarantee a large attenuation of quasi-periodical vibrations even under unsteady excitation. Transfer functions from the control voltage to the local acceleration responses at the four active isolators are measured for further implementation of active isolation. Figure 10 gives the measured frequency response functions (FRFs), and the FRF from the control voltage of the second active isolator to the measured sound pressure at point 4 (marked

Fig. 9

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Fig. 10

Measured FRFs of the control channels: (a) acceleration versus voltage; (b) pressure versus voltage

active isolation respectively, from which it can be seen that vibration at the fundamental frequency (around 40.8 Hz) is suppressed by 90 per cent, but increases at the second and the fifth harmonic frequencies (near 81, 205 Hz), and clearly rises at the first natural frequency of the isolator (about 66 Hz). Comparing Fig. 12 with Fig. 11, it can be seen

that the spectra of sound pressure at the second and fifth harmonic frequencies keep almost the same except at around 66 Hz, which increases by almost 20 dB. Nevertheless, the total vibration and sound are attenuated by a large percentage. The reason for this phenomenon is that the radiated sound field at about 81 or 205 Hz has strong directivity and the

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Fig. 11

Sound pressure before and after control (Ref 5 161026 Pa and depth 5 500 mm): (a) time domain responses: (b) spectra Sound pressure at different locations (Hanning window and linear average)

1 5 3.4 2 10 10.2 3 25 29.8 4 100 97.9 5 150 103.3 6 200 102.1 7 250 102.9 8 300 103.9 9 350 101.6 A 400 101.2 B 450 99.6 C 500 99.0

Table 3

No. Depth (mm) Sound pressure (Pa)

measurement point is not in the radiation direction, which renders the measured sound pressure insensitive to the variation of vibration of the plate. The directivity is closely related to forced vibration modes of the plate, and the two vibration modes at 81 and 205 Hz are actually similar to those given in Fig. 5. 5 CONCLUSION

Active vibration isolation and sound radiation of an experimental system with fluidstructure interaction are discussed. The vibration characteristics of the plate coupled with water in a plexiglass container are analysed by the FEM and validated by modal testing,

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which forms a base for the explanation of controlled sound radiation in the water container. Active vibration isolation is realized on the basis of an adaptive algorithm with embedded tracking filters that are used to ensure the control process insensitive to the fluctuation of vibration frequencies. Four actuators operate independently to cancel local vibrations at each active isolator. The vibration and radiated sound at the fundamental frequency are suppressed substantially after active isolation. At certain high-order harmonic frequencies, vibration of the plate increases but results in indiscernible change in sound pressure. The radiated sound field is closely related to vibration modes, those modes of strong directivity in radiation induce only local

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Fig. 12

Acceleration responses with and without control: (a) time domain responses; (b) spectra tion of a fluid-loaded laminated plate. J. Sound Vibr., 2004, 272, 109124. Carra, S., Amabili, M., Ohayon, R., and Hutin, P. M. Active vibration control of a thin rectangular plate in air or in contact with water in presence of tonal primary disturbance. Aerospace Sci. Technol., 2008, 12(1), 5461. Winberg, M., Hansen, C., Claesson, I., and Li, X. Active control of engine vibrations in a collins class submarine. Blekinge Institute of Technology Research, Report No. 2003:11. Daley, S., Johnson, F. A., Pearson, J. B., and Dixon, R. Active vibration control for marine applications. Control Engng Practice, 2004, 12(4), 465 474. Daley, S., Hatonen, J., and Owens, D. H. Active vibration isolation in a smart spring mount using a repetitive control approach. Control Engng Practice, 2006, 14(9), 991997. Everstine, C. G. and Henderson, F. M. Coupled finite element/boundary element approach for fluid-structure interaction. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1990, 87(5), 19381946.

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radiation, having weak influence on the sound pressure at locations away from the radiation direction, which usually cause a discrepancy in the attenuation of vibration and sound at certain harmonic frequencies after active isolation. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was fully supported by the NSF of China (Grant No. 10672099).

1 Lee, H. K. and Park, Y. S. A near-field approach to active control of sound radiation from a fluidloaded rectangular plate. J. Sound Vibr., 1996, 196(5), 579593. 2 Li, S. and Zhao, D. Numerical simulation of active control of structural vibration and acoustic radia6

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8 Yu, G. Y. Symmetric collocation BEM/FEM coupling procedure for 2-D dynamic structural-acoustic interaction problems. Comput. Mechanics, 2002, 29, 191198. 9 Zhang, Z., Chen, Y., Yin, X., and Hua, H. Active vibration isolation and underwater sound radiation control. J. Sound Vibr., 2008, 318(4-5), 725736. 10 Elliott, S. J., Stothers, I. M., and Nelson, P. A. A multiple error LMS algorithm and its application to the active control of sound and vibration. IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 1987, 35(10), 14231434. 11 Kim, S. and Park, Y. Active control of multi-tonal noise with reference generator based on on-line frequency estimation. J. Sound Vibr., 1999, 227(3), 647666. 12 Mazeaud, B. and Galland, M. A. A multi-channel feedback algorithm for the development of active liners to reduce noise in flow duct applications. Mech. SystemsSignal Process., 2007, 21(7), 2880 2899. 13 Teel, A. R., Zaccarian, L., and Marcinkowski, J. J. An anti-windup strategy for active vibration isolation systems. Control Engngg Practice, 2006, 14(1), 1727. 14 Wang, J. Theoretical and experimental study of active vibration isolation with an adaptive algorithm, Masters Thesis, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 2008. 15 Fahy, F. and Gardonio, P. Sound and structural vibration, 2nd edition, 2007 (Academic Press, Boston).

APPENDIX Notation ai1, ai2, bi0, bi0, bi2 d(k) e(k) fs f(u) Fd, Fc F(z) 5 (F1(z), F2(z),...,Fn(z))T Hc(z), Hs(z) Hc(z) r(k) 5 (r1(k), r2(k),...,rn(k))T u(k) wi(k) W(z) 5 (w1(z), w2(z),...,wn(z))T y(k) ei(k) m, c . 0, d . 0 ri(k) vi coefficients of the ith tracking filter disturbance error signal sampling frequency sigmoid function disturbance force, control force tracking filters transfer functions estimate of Hc(z) reference signals control signal weight vector of the ith controller controller response signal induced by u(k) output of Fi(z) scalar variables output of Hc(z) centre frequency

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Proc. IMechE Vol. 223 Part M: J. Engineering for the Maritime Environment

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