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The Journal of Architecture
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Modernism in mud: R. M. Schindler, the Taos Pueblo and a ‘Country Home in Adobe Construction’
Albert Narath
a a

Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University, New York, 10027, USA Available online: 26 Aug 2008

To cite this article: Albert Narath (2008): Modernism in mud: R. M. Schindler, the Taos Pueblo and a ‘Country Home in Adobe Construction’, The Journal of Architecture, 13:4, 407-426 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602360802328016

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407
The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4

Modernism in mud: R. M. Schindler, the Taos Pueblo and a ‘Country Home in Adobe Construction’

Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011

Albert Narath
Introduction
As the king of the Scythians was drawn to the rites of Dionysus in a Greek colony on the Black Sea, so here the wanderers come, hoping to tap into a power more effective than their own. Vincent Scully, Pueblo: Mountain, Village, Dance In a letter to Richard Neutra from the winter of 1920– 1921, Rudolf Schindler declares with no uncertainty, ‘When I speak of American architecture I must say at once that there is none. . . The only buildings which testify to the deep feeling for soil on which they stand are the sun-baked adobe buildings of the first immigrants and their successors — Spanish and Mexican — in the south-western part of the country.’1 Schindler wrote this statement in the first months after his move to Los Angeles and it refers back to his experience of the vernacular architecture of the upper Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico, during a break in 1915 from his work in Chicago with the office of Ottenheimer, Stern and Reichert. By focusing on Schindler’s trip to New Mexico and his design for a ‘Country Home in Adobe Construction’, completed after his return to Chicago, this essay seeks to uncover the importance of pueblo architecture for Schindler’s formulation of the modern house. Through a comparison with Neutra’s closely related vision of the pueblo, it will also attempt to establish both architects’ encounters with Taos as prime examples of the complicated and productive interactions between modern architecture and the ‘primitive’.
# 2008 The Journal of Architecture

Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University, New York 10027, USA

Modernism in mud
Only then can you stretch naked on the soil and feel it is your real bed, sky [your] only cover. R. M. Schindler, Notes for the Church School Lectures Schindler was, of course, not alone in his enthusiasm for the pueblo. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the extraordinary confluence in the United States of railway travel in the far regions of the West, the improvement of photographic technology and the rise of the discipline of modern ‘scientific’ anthropology made the pueblo phenomenon a particularly modern one within architectural discourse. Attracted to the formal elegance of iconic views like that of the North House at Taos and the pueblo’s precarious status as, in Aby Warburg’s words, ‘an enclave of primitive pagan humanity’ in the midst of ‘a country that had made technological culture into an admirable precision weapon’, a long list of architects and architectural writers have felt the irresistible pull of the pueblo.2 In the first detailed study of the pueblo to appear in an architectural journal, the archaeologist Cosmos Mindeleff writes in an 1897 issue of The American Architect and Building News, ‘In an outof-the-way corner of the United States there is a peculiar and distinctively American architecture, which, while much written about, is not well known to architects.’3 By stressing the ‘distinctively American’ nature of the pueblo, Mindeleff enters into the historical debate about whether American
1360-2365 DOI: 10.1080/13602360802328016

were sent by Chicago’s Mayor. who had himself visited the Rio Grande Valley in 1914. before his return to Chicago by the end of September. hardly less so in its development. Taos. the pueblo’s forthright masses have ‘no place in Fergusson’s definition of architecture as ornamented and ornamental construction. Higgins and a fellow Club member. 1914 and quickly became an important member of the Taos Society of Artists and an outspoken advocate for the aesthetic pleasures of the area’s natural and cultural setting. Walter Ufer. ‘almost incomprehensible to a people whose lives are so largely artificial as our own. thus. in turn. In his invitation letter to Schindler written from Taos on 30th July. The manners and customs and style of architecture are the same today as they were before Christ was born. to paint scenes at the pueblos of San Juan and Taos. to its apparent timelessness. Harrison. L. as an American acropolis. Higgins concludes that the pueblo is ‘the only naturally American architecture in the nation today’ and that its ‘strong primitive appeal calls out the side of art that is not derivative. Second Mesa emerges. both the cultural traditions of the Puebloans and an autonomous architectural development comparable to that of ancient Greece. you will be delighted. 1915. Carter H. for Higgins. San Gabriel. for Mindeleff. Stephens in the 1840s. The pueblo runs four and five stories high and if the primitive appeals to you. In a comparison that Schindler would draw for modern architecture. the journey included visits to Santa Fe and. Schindler’s time in New Mexico was originally intended as a visit to the painter Victor Higgins.’11 Schindler’s numerous informal sketches of architecture in northern New Mexico emphasise the Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . where seemingly dimensionless terrain and climatic harshness confer on it a feeling of the out-of-date and. authentic. Schindler embarked upon a sixweek Union Pacific railway tour of the Southwest that would give him first-hand experience of this American antiquity. as set forth by Franz Kugler and J.’5 Through the pueblo’s out-of-the-wayness. just as the stone expedients employed in ancient Greek architecture convey a previous history of wood construction. 1915.8 After winning the Club’s Gold Medal for his oneman show in May. In addition to stops in San Francisco.’9 The primitiveness of Taos was tied. the ephemeral ‘Moki’ (Hopi) field shelter illustrated in the article takes on the symbolic resonance of a primitive hut. ‘There is in the mind of every member of the Taos art colony the knowledge that here is the oldest of American civilizations.’6 They constitute an architecture of pure legibility and mark a union between architecture and nature that is. the tectonic clarity of pueblo architecture reveals. He declares in a 1917 report. whom he met during frequent figure-drawing sessions at the Palette and Chisel Club in Chicago.4 For Mindeleff.’7 In August.’10 Transferring the Taos Society’s general mistrust of imported subject matter and technique in painting to architecture. in itself. San Diego and the Grand Canyon. Santa Barbara. 1913. Los Angeles. or whether any portion of it was derived from the Old World. Higgins arrived in Taos on Thanksgiving Day. For Mindeleff. Higgins suggests: ‘Taos is a very fine place — the layout of the pueblos — and one of the most Indian in character.408 Modernism in mud Albert Narath civilisation was original and indigenous. the pueblo is ‘purely aboriginal in origin.

They are often generated with a quick. depictions by Wagnerschuler ¨ at the turn of the twentieth century of architecture from the similarly sun-touched landscapes of the Austrian Riviera. the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe. Schindler Collection. almost Secessionist line recalling Schindler’s studies of nudes from the Palette and Chisel Club and. constitute by far the largest section of photographs devoted to a particular stage of the journey. Architecture & Design Collection.409 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 1. University Art Museum. the Ranchos de Taos church. Similarly to Higgins’s paintings of the streetscapes. (Rudolph M.13 The seventyfive images in his albums related to the Taos Pueblo. Schindler also assembled an extensive body of photographs during his 1915 trip. 1).) undecorated surfaces and picturesque outline generated by adobe form (Fig. Sketch of a Taos House. U. courtyards and houses around Taos. 2). The pictures range from individual architectural details to scenes with the pueblo as a whole set against the upward thrust of the Sangre de Cristo range beyond. There are also numerous . Schindler.C. M. 1915. Santa Barbara. together with pictures of Higgins’s studio. even more directly. Sicily and the Gulf of Naples. as well as the intimate material connection between adobe buildings and the earth. the wide expanse of the Rio Grande plain and Schindler himself on horseback (Fig.12 Armed with a Kodak Vest Pocket camera. R. the sketches also convey the visual relationships at Taos between architecture and the surrounding high desert landscape.

dining room. to the earth that gives structure to the nearby mountains and pueblo (Fig. In addition to the characteristics of adobe construction conveyed in his sketches. M. porte-cochere. Schindler insists: ‘The whole building is to be carried out with the most expressive materials Taos can furnish. 1915. 1915.C. 4). In a letter to Martin of 14th December. R. the exterior entrances to the living room and billiard room. the pictures record the dynamic interplay of the pueblo’s masses and the bold patterns of light and shade that arise from them (Fig. pig sty and stables. Organised around a central court inspired by both Wagnerschule planning and local hacienda architecture. The first meeting of the Society took place in the living room of Martin’s house at the Taos plaza on 1st July. 6). Although unexecuted. University Art Museum. almost sculpted earth walls of the area’s Hispanic and Native building traditions. .C. Architecture & Design Collection. Martin’s sister Rose was married to the painter Bert Geer Phillips. U. (Rudolph M.’15 Features like the house’s buttress-defined front porch. to give it the deepest possible rooting in the soil which has to bear it. the Martin House project survives as a detailed plan and a group of finely executed renderings with both exterior and interior views (Fig. for a ‘Country Home in Adobe Construction’ in Taos for Dr Thomas Paul Martin (Fig.410 Modernism in mud Albert Narath Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 2. 1915. just before Schindler’s arrival in New Mexico. R. U. M. Schindler on Horseback. Schindler Collection. .) snapshots of the pueblo’s inhabitants as well as pictures of the entire community covering the North House during the pueblo races on the Festival of San Geronimo (Figs. both physically and symbolically. 5). Schindler Collection. Santa Barbara. 1915 that accompanied the drawings. This extensive documentation provided direct inspiration for Schindler’s own design in Autumn. 7). one of the founding members of the Taos Society of Artists. living room. Santa Barbara. 1915. photograph at the Taos Pueblo.16 In contrast to Frank Lloyd . the deep reveals of the slit windows and what David Gebhard has described as the ‘exterior mud-like glob of the living room fireplace’ would connect the house. quarters for guests ` and servants.14 The Martin House celebrates the thick. University Art Museum. Schindler’s photographic evocation of Taos has every sign of an architectural study. (Rudolph M. Schindler. billiard room.) Figure 3. Martin arrived in Taos in the 1890s as the county’s only doctor and Schindler met him through Higgins. 8). chicken coop. the house includes a formal front pond. 3. Architecture & Design Collection.

has to reach the scale of the landscape. an effect which is accentuated through the building’s softened and distorted reflection in the front pond (Fig. In his letter to Martin. ‘the Navajo Indians carried it all away. Architecture & Design Collection. a terrain that is itself an architecture shaped by the forces of fire and water and the unremitting sculptural touch of wind.) Wright’s depiction. .18 Adobe mediates between the domestic scale of the Martin House and the sublime magnitude of the northern New Mexico landscape. Schindler notes: ‘The house to be built in one of the vast plains of the West.411 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 4. of the Indians who literally carried away his ephemeral Ocatilla Camp in Arizona (‘Yes. University Art Museum.’17). . in his Autobiography. For this reason. Santa Barbara. the house will be a low . . R. 1915. (Rudolph M. In Schindler’s presentation drawing of the front of the house.C. Schindler envisions the sedentary communities and building practices of the Pueblo Indians as a model of almost phenomenological rootedness. Schindler Collection. photograph of San Geronimo Day Foot races. 9). the ripples in the water of the reflecting pool testify to the unrelenting erosional forces of the high desert. . Like the piles of stones and pieces of earth resting next to a Taos house that Schindler recorded in one of his sketches. Schindler. U. dotted lines emphasise the sloping surfaces and hand-hewn irregularity of its adobe forms. M.’ he writes.

M. .) Figure 6. University Art Museum. Univervsity Art Museum. R. 1915. Architecture & Design Collection.C. Schindler sets a side view of the house in the midst of a landscape that. 10). R. 1915. U. Schindler Collection. Schindler: photograph of Dr T. The horizontal stretch of the house. Schindler Collection. well-armed and abstract. (Rudolph M. photograph of the Taos Pueblo.’19 In a context where the physical dimension of the Rio Grande Plain takes on the aesthetic abstractness of a geometric plane. Santa Barbara.P. emerges with an almost geological profile. stretched mass of adobe walls. Architecture & Design Collection. Santa Barbara.412 Modernism in mud Albert Narath Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 5. Schindler conceives of an architecture that is commensurate with the perceptual demands of the high desert. Taos. Like the nearby pueblo. with a rather severe expression for the outside. reminiscent of Wright’s description of the desert as linear. M.). is utterly void of dimension (Fig. U. if not for a stylised juniper bush and white-hued cloud. Schindler. it takes on the natural tectonics of the desert at large. Martin. In another presentation drawing.C. (Rudolph M.

Cristy’s 1905– 1906 designs for the .21 In projects like A. B. Dr T. directly influenced by Mindeleff’s articles. the striking formal interplay of the pueblo’s masses became integral to the foundation of a kind of modern regional pueblo style.’20 Well before Schindler’s visit to New Mexico. He insists in the letter to Dr.) Figure 8. M. Martin House. plan for Dr T. Schindler’s reverie in mud stops short of revival.C. University Art Museum. P. P. California. Schweinfurth’s 1894 design for a hotel near Montalvo. E. Schindler Collection. Martin House. Martin: ‘The building has to show that it is conceived by a head of the twentieth century and that it has to serve a man which is not dressed in an old Spanish uniform.413 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 7. C. Schindler Collection. (Rudolph M. a phenomenon that Wright would later characterise with disparagement as ‘the Yankee-Hopi house’. Santa Barbara. Architecture & Design Collection. R.C.) Importantly. U. University Art Museum. Architecture & Design Collection. (Rudolph M. Schindler. 1915. M. Schindler. Mary Colter’s 1905 Grand Canyon Hopi House and. U. courtyard. his grand 1895– 1896 Hacienda for William Randolph and Phoebe Apperson Hearst. Santa Barbara. R. 1915.

M.414 Modernism in mud Albert Narath Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 9. Neutra’s vision of Taos. Neutra was well aware of the derivative compulsion by architects to dress up university buildings or a steel-built home so that they ‘appear like so much piled-up adobe’. The dormitory is accompanied by illustrations of the Taos Pueblo (taken by Schindler on his trip. but not credited in the book). from the quotation of recognised historical styles.23 Rather than Romantic reaction. R. Schindler Collection. however. Lloyd Wright’s 1923 Oasis Hotel in Palm Springs and. source and end point of them all. the aesthetic clarity of pueblo form satisfied an urge. 1915. Architecture & Design Collection. Dr T. Schindler. P. Schindler. growing out of Arts and Crafts values and the Mission revival. Schindler Collection. University Art Museum. the Siwa Oasis in Egypt. Martin House. Santa Barbara. (Rudolph M. from the gothicised towers of Charles Klauder’s 1926 ‘Cathedral of Learning’ in Pittsburgh. Architecture & Design Collection. interest in adobe form-making ‘reaches back to original conditions’ and stems from a ‘bucolic reaction to the ornatenesses of eclecticism and of urban existence.’22 Like Schindler. exterior view. the ‘primitive desert landscape’ of the West.) Figure 10. University Art Museum. Santa Barbara. Martin House. U.) Boiler Plant and two dormitories at the University of New Mexico. Cristy’s Kwataka Hall appears in the final section of Richard Neutra’s 1927 book Wie Baut Amerika?. Differing. For Neutra. U. . P. R.C. for Neutra. finished while Neutra was living at Schindler’s house in Los Angeles. 1915. (Rudolph M. exterior. M. this constellation of references illustrates one side of a ubiquitous ‘Romanticism’ that coincides with the development of modern construction in the United States. Dr T. for regional sensitivity and an ‘honest’ architectural idiom.C. which arise.

Although Neutra could still admit in 1912 that he ‘knew nothing of the then-current Cubists. preclude any associations with the categories of transparency.28 For the critic Adolf Behne.27 Even though the heavy. their generally planar surfaces and seemingly Platonic geometry were easily assimilated into mantras about ‘purity’ and ‘universal form’ deployed in architectural analyses of cubist form-making during these years. earth-born masses of the pueblo.24 The photographs of Bandelier. the ‘Kubenformen’ of the cliff-dwelling and the ‘Lehmkubus’ of Las Trampas were not only connected to the vernacular architecture of other primitive cultures.J. Neutra’s 1930 book Amerika begins with a series of ‘Bestimmungsstucke’ that anchor his subsequent ¨ description of architecture in the United States.P. perhaps the most influential interpreter of Cubism and Futurism from within architecture during the 1910s.415 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 formulated from Schindler’s accounts and his own 1925 and 1939 trips through New Mexico. cubic forms that would soon haunt Neutra during his visit to the Southwest are derived from a spatial conception indebted to Berlage and Wright. For the Dutch architect J. his positioning of primitive architecture as an unconscious aesthetic ‘source’ of Cubism. but also to the ‘play of building masses in Manhattan’ and the formal language of the modern movement in Europe. Oud. on a facing page.25 In the caption to the picture of Betatakin. dematerialisation and simultaneity popularised by Sigfried Giedion. While Oud’s introduction to Wright signalled a possible synthesis Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . almost commonplace by the publication of Amerika. in most cases more clear than in Europe.29 In projects like Oud’s 1917–1919 staircase for the De Vonk Holiday Hostel and his 1917 design for the ‘Strandboulevard’ at Scheveningen. ‘Original [Ursprunglicher] “Cubism” in North ¨ America. a ´ view of the side-elevation of the San Jose de Gracia Church at Las Trampas. In his 1919 book Die Wiederkehr der Kunst. Betatakin and Las Trampas were taken by Willard D. the basis for what he called a ‘new — a-historical — classicism’. more accurately described as cubic than Cubist. Neutra writes. a critic. this classicism was directly related to Cubism’s primitiveness. ultimately emphasised the Pueblo’s ‘modernness’. the cliff-dwelling at Betatakin in north-eastern Arizona and. Morgan. is closely linked to the complex debates concerning the transposition of Cubism from painting into architecture that took place in Europe before his move to the United States in 1923. a Hopi village. and along with it the right angle and a tendency towards three-dimensionality. who concluded his 1922 publication Hollandische Baukunst in der ¨ Gegenwart with a celebration of Oud’s architecture. the section contains pictures of the ruins of El Rito de los Frijoles at Bandelier.’26 As accentuated through Morgan’s own modernist eye. Behne compares the ‘fundamental’ and ‘absolute’ qualities of Cubism to non-European architecture and to the art of children and ‘primitives’. the ‘intellectual affinity’ between architecture and Neo-Plasticism in painting made the plane. Bracketed by Edward Weston’s photographs of a ´ pulquerıa and a circus tent. photographer and early member of the Museum of Modern Art photography department. and had only a slight inkling later of the Futurists in Milan’.

he argues that architects must return to ‘the source of all architectural strength — the straight line. Dodge House. Gill’s precociously unadorned houses maintained an uncanny resonance. a ‘simple. It is. useful house’ that has ‘a Made-in-America look about it. J.’35 In its clear organisation.33 This becomes clear in Schindler’s appreciation of Irving Gill. In a 1915 Sunset article. based in part on material he gathered while working in Chicago.31 In Amerika. his own vision of architecture at Taos emphasised its connection to local conditions. Schindler too had planned a book on American building by 1920. planar walls. This affinity. Neutra’s European formation governed his encounter with Wright.’36 These ‘great men of old’ surely included the Puebloans. He imagined ‘the Pampas of Argentina.’32 While Schindler recognised the pueblo’s superficial aesthetic affinities with European modernism. was not lost on American authors. at least on the exterior. for Neutra. however vaguely defined. the Puebloans were the people ‘who influenced the modern Californian building activity’. his introduction to the pueblo and his understanding of architectural development in the United States. with the aesthetic formation of modern architecture in Europe. Bertha Smith describes the 1911– 1913 Banning House as ‘California’s first cubist house’. Louis Sullivan.’30 As with Schindler before him. Root. pueblos. etc. Soon after his arrival in New York. starting with its local foundation apparent in home made barns. the cube and the circle — and drink from these fountains of Art that gave life to the great men of old. but still inhabited by red Indians. Neutra’s first exposure to the Wasmuth Portfolio reminded him of the ancient culture of Native America.W. Schindler suggests: ‘Why not make a study of the modern movement in this country.W. Simmons House. beautiful. Adolf Loos. In a 1916 article. 1912– 1914 La Jolla Woman’s Club and. with tepees as a backdrop. Wright. icehouses.416 Modernism in mud Albert Narath with Cubism. he wrote in a letter to his wife Dione that in their construction of an ‘agglomeration of building cubes’. Neutra himself. Schindler saw during his trip. especially in the contemporaneous work of Schindler and Neutra’s teacher. at the same time. Schindler’s approach to the subject remained consistent over the course of his career. Inspired by the experience. and fellow American traveller. Although the project never came to fruition. Gill himself articulated this vision in the pages of The Craftsman. . Schindler and. ‘just like seeing pictures of houses for people in another world’. the arch. the Banning House signalled the vitality of an indigenous American modernism. It was. no doubt owing in part to Neutra’s more ambitious inclination in publishing Wie Baut Amerika?. and in the distance a thundering herd of bison.34 Both Schindler and Neutra considered Gill a pioneer of American modernism comparable in significance to Wright. whose 1909 G. Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . while it was under construction. whose works Gill had carefully studied. In a 1940 letter to Janet Henrich at the Museum of Modern Art. Neutra viewed the Southwestern dioramas at the Museum of Natural History. Gill. flat roof and crisp. white. the pueblo and cliff dwelling preface an historical narrative of architecture that includes Daniel Burnham. . culminating around Morgan’s construction photographs of the Lovell Health House.

The technique of architect and sculptor were similar. M. . a hand-written 1912 or 1913 manuscript entitled ‘Modern Architecture: A Program’. the very beginnings of architecture as such. ‘The technique was Irving Gill’s in that part of the world.’38 Reminding Schindler later of his own experience in 1911 in ‘one of the earthbound peasant cottages on top of a mountain pass in Syria’. written on the wave of Venturi’s Complexity and Contradiction. A hollow adobe pile was the first permanent house. as eventually formulated in his Raumplan. Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . More. In its intimate relationship with the ancient landscape of Taos. In his most detailed discussion of architecture before his 1915 trip.42 The somewhat incongruous interplay of elements at the Martin House suggests a catalogue of influences that would come to mark Schindler’s particular conception of the modern house. . In a 1968 article entitled ‘Ambiguity in the Work of R. spreading house. Schindler begins: ‘The cave was the original dwelling. To build meant to gather and mass material. the materiality.39 Schindler makes clear. the first house emerges as an outgrowth of the archetype of the cave. With reference to the Syrian cottage. ultimately. as illustrated in several Wasmuth Portfolio projects and his ‘Home in a Prairie Town’ for the Ladies’ Home Journal in 1901. Here I saw the real medium of architecture — Space.’40 The contrast between massive adobe walls and overarching New Mexico sky depicted in Schindler’s plans for the Martin House suggests an analogous scene. for Schindler. Schindler’. dining room and billiard room is indebted both to Loos.417 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 Gill’s Dodge House would become a central ingredient in Schindler’s design for his own house in King’s Road. As Reyner Banham noted. however. its sculptural mass derived mimetically from the earth-shaping produced in the cave by natural forces. dominating architectural creation until the twentieth century.41 Despite the Martin House’s expression of loadbearing. was antithetical to the future development of what he called ‘space architecture’. massiveness and close connection to ground essential to both systems reinforced Schindler’s interest in basic forms. whose walls were ‘plastered over by groping hands’. however. but the inspiration was the adobe houses that Schindler had seen in New Mexico. than a question of formal affinity alone. contextual sensitivity and. and to Wright. the Martin House suggested. I looked up into the sunny sky. the primitive idea of shelter. Schindler recollects ‘Stooping through the doorway of the bulky. mud-piled weight.’37 Although Schindler’s tilt-slab technique differs in important ways from the principles of adobe construction employed for generations at Taos. This has led authors to dismiss the project as either a romantic pilgrimage back in architectural time or the product of Schindler’s deliberate exploration of the limits imposed on architectural expression by the adobe model. The finely modulated relationship between the house’s living room. Schindler’s plan for the project grew directly out of his emerging conception of modern architectural space. Gebhard describes the Martin House as a tension between New Mexico folk-like irregularity and picturesqueness. built from 1921– 1922 and located just across the street. connections to Gill and the pueblo at Kings Road are revealed in the house’s robust concrete tilt-slabs. that the model of the ‘plastically shaped material mass’.

45 In addition to their other practical and symbolic functions. Ceramics relates to the moral element of architecture. The art of the wall fitter. In The Four Elements of Architecture. it was this schizoid ‘impurity’. The surviving lecture notes make multiple references to Gottfried Semper’s idea of architectural space as developed in The Four Elements of Architecture and the first volume of Style. but also the only art works that can claim to be as ancient and as continuously integral to architecture as weaving. detectable also in projects like the 1922– 1926 Lovell Beach House. all linked to an alternative model of architectural beginnings. the primitive motive of spatial enclosure. for Schindler. was the primitive technique whose product. the beginning of building coincides with the beginning of textiles. Schindler insists in his letter to Dr Martin that he does not believe ‘in the architect who decorates elevations. in a formulation that Schindler would arrive at later. but also in the creative potential of the spatial motive itself. Schindler gave an ambitious series of twelve lectures on architecture at the Church School of Design in Chicago.’49 For Semper. laid up in handfuls by the women and patted and smoothed as in the shaping of a pot.44 As Schindler would have observed during his visit to New Mexico and as Neutra later recollects in Survival Through Design. For Semper. For Gebhard. they determine.43 Schindler’s disparate sources are. the Martin House’s adobe walls signify. and Loosian Raumplan. where. originating in the weaving of mats and carpets but later achieved through substitute materials. that adobe is an example of such a ‘facing’. embo- Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 .48 Schindler also links the adobe of the Martin House to the ancient art of pottery. room its formed product’. out of ‘wet clay. the earth walls of pueblos like Taos are continually resurfaced with new coats of mud by village women in an act of ritual maintenance. with geometric forms that are more abstract than folk. Schindler suggests in a note to a section devoted to ‘Form Creation’ dealing with polychromy in ancient Greek architecture. the Martin House shows Schindler’s growing interest not only in specific architectural models. supported by the scaffold of the wall. which set Schindler apart from his fellow pioneers and famously earned Hitchcock and Johnson’s wrath. Less than a year after his return from Taos. ‘a simple weave of a few materials articulates space into rooms. Corresponding to his statement in the Church School lectures that ‘Space is the material of arch[itecture]. as Vincent Scully observed. In a particularly creative reading.’46 The Martin House stages an investigation into primitive space forms. however. by extension. but in the one who conceives rooms. the creation of the room. pots are not only the ‘oldest and most eloquent of historical documents’. Through the texture of adobe. The walls of the Taos Pueblo are hand-shaped. formally represents and makes visible enclosed space.’47 Rather than the more literal connection drawn by Lionel March between Schindler’s 1918 plan for a log house and Semper’s Urhutte (based on the anthropological model of the ‘Caraib hut’ from Trinidad that Semper saw at the 1851 Great Exhibition in London).418 Modernism in mud Albert Narath Wagnerian and Wrightian symmetry. Semper argues that the oldest ornaments were derived either from entwining and knotting materials or with the finger on soft clay. as he calls the textile motive.

part of the house. these archaic events.51 Although Schindler did not provide images of the fireplace. sitting on top of a low shelf beside a builtin seating alcove (Fig. arose from the plains as the last “mud-creation [Schlamm-schop¨ fung]”. inspired perhaps by the designs of the San Idelfonso potter Maria Martinez (one of whose works appears in Schindler’s photograph of Dr Martin in Figure 6 above).52 As opposed to a ‘savage’ or ‘deviant’ relation’ship based. as Clifford describes. ‘man. Schindler Collection. Martin House. It is around the hearth that the three other elements of architecture — enclosure. Dr T. the first alliances formed and the customs of a cult developed for the first time.’ At the Martin House.C. University Art Museum. The house ensures what James Clifford has called a ‘proper’ relationship with its primitive objects and influences. in idolatry. would give Dr Martin ‘ample opportunity to display tastefully’ his ‘Indian collection’. 11). In addition. R. take their place around the hearth in the form of a collection. coloured bright red and black. interior perspective. Architecture & Design Collection. at a more general level. perched three steps above the living room and measuring 24 feet in length and 8 feet in depth.50 As with Frank Mead and Richard Reque’s 1914 La Jolla. According to Schindler’s letter. leading up the stepped rise from the living room towards the hearth area (see Figure 6 above). for the ancient techniques of ceramics and weaving. Santa Barbara. the proximity in Taos of the ‘distance’ of Pueblo culture. an impressive array of artworks and artefacts acquired over the course of twenty-five years living in Taos.) outline of another pot sits on top of it. (Rudolph M. California ‘Hopi House’ project for Wheeler Bailey. Semper notes. 1915. these objects stand. P. M. the house’s grand fireplace. The objects also situate the project within a cultural tension that constitutes the active realm of the collector and. like the Martin House hearth itself. mound and roof — are organised and around it that the first groups assembled. erotic fixation or fetishism — fantasies of . In addition to their decorative roles. even architectural.419 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 died in the hearth. the house’s plan includes what appears to be a three-stripe Navajo rug. the notion of collecting becomes a central. symbols for the primitive origins of modern architectural space. one of the project’s interior renderings depicts a large pot. U. Schindler. not as an individual but certainly as a social being. The circular Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Figure 11. rehearsed still in calendrical rituals like the San Geronimo festivities and the Corn Dance.

more than one hundred Apache. It included a scale model of the Grand Canyon viewed from Pullman railroad cars carrying visitors along the ‘rim’. As Banham noted about Schindler. The Grand Canyon exhibit was sponsored by the Santa Fe Railway and the Fred Harvey Company as part of their promotion campaign for tourism in the Southwest. but also recognising Martin’s and his own place within the complex and historically charged cultural dynamics of Taos.420 Modernism in mud Albert Narath a merging with alterity — the collection is displayed. The Painted Desert Exhibit. this heterogeneous array of people and structures was meant to represent conditions in the provinces of New Mexico and Arizona from before the arrival of Spaniards in the sixteenth century and continuing to the present day. Hopi. Schindler incorporates them into a polemic that has less to do with romantic flight than with the conditions of modernity. Schindler envisions the house. Like the carpets and trinkets that filled Loos’ 1907 apartment tours and the advertisements of Das Andere. The Taos Pueblo in particular was celebrated as ‘one of the best preserved examples of antiquity so far as architecture is concerned. Navajo silversmiths. was even larger and more ambitious. ‘tastefully’.’54 Rather than a frame for the re-enactment or preservation of native tradition. This might help to explain Schindler’s remarkable uninterest in the simulacra of the Taos Pueblo constructed at the Grand Canyon exhibit at the San Francisco PanPacific Exposition and at the Painted Desert Exhibit at the San Diego Panama-California Exposition. stemming once again from Wright. conceived by the same sponsors. Navajo and Pueblo Indians were hired to construct and inhabit the Pueblo. hornos (beehive-shaped outdoor ovens). sell artwork and perform dances for the visiting public. Rapp and Hendrickson’s New Mexico State Building. As visitors were taken past the Canyon and a pueblo village filled with Acoma potters. At the same time that he utilises native architectural forms and artistic objects to anchor the Martin House in its unique surroundings. Starting with Maria Martinez and her extended family. a ‘weaver’s grotto’ and dance performances. women dressed in Navajo costume provided narration. It included ceremonial kivas. When Schindler suggests in his letter to Dr Martin that the house ‘has to serve a man which is not dressed in an old Spanish uniform’. the Martin House and its system of objects constitute a meditation on modern capitalistic culture that is grounded in the bourgeois interior. As the exhibit’s brochure suggests. he is not only critiquing the masquerading facade-architecture of ¸ the pueblo and Spanish revivals. however. which in its direct reference to the church at the Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . Schindler intends the house to provide a stage for Martin’s culture. a balloon-frame and plaster-constructed cliff-dwelling and copies of the Acoma and Taos pueblos designed by the Fred Harvey Company architect Mary Colter.’53 In the letter to Dr Martin. Navajo Hogans. Apache tipis. ‘There is very little sign that he ever felt any strong need to kick the bourgeoisie up the crotch. . . both of which he undoubtedly saw directly before his arrival in New Mexico. as a ‘frame for a man in which to enjoy life through his culture.’55 Unlike the Santa Fe architects Rapp. in Schindler’s word. It is organised and observed according to its aesthetic structure.

Taos was. the crowd and the big mud houses of the Indians. but the occasion was quickly institutionalised by the Spanish as a celebration of the Taos Pueblo’s patron saint.’57 In a particularly symptomatic scene. waves of outside influence at Taos included French traders. by Martin’s arrival. the performance of a sun dance and a procession under the image of Saint Jerome. each other. the Painted Desert was. therefore. only a little better and more typical. a hybrid space where the territory between one culture and another and between modernity and pre-modern tradition was continually negotiated.’56 Despite Schindler’s fascination with the purity. Taos played a central role in the historically close and often uneasy relationship in the area between Puebloans and the Spanish. San Geronimo Day started as an Autumn trading festival where neighbouring tribes gathered. the festival included morning foot races in which one side of the Pueblo competed against the other and an afternoon of clowns and pole climbing in the centre of the Pueblo grounds. For Nusbaum. but just such a pueblo as Indians build themselves. .’58 Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . The dances and races that contributed to the festival were far from pure cultural artefacts rooted in the deep past. eventually. San Geronimo Day had become a popular tourist spectacle with thousands of onlookers crowding the streets and rooftops of the Pueblo in order to watch the native dances and. This was nowhere more clearly displayed than at the Pueblo’s San Geronimo Day festival. rootedness and apparent historical constancy of adobe architecture. an accomplishment celebrated and sometimes exaggerated by travellers to the area. Despite the Pueblo’s remarkable ability to retain a large degree of cultural autonomy in the face of these external pressures. his vision of the Taos Pueblo’s cultural context was one of hybridity rather than the fantasy of a singular timeless essence or type. ˜ Starting with Juan de Onate’s efforts to colonise the upper Rio Grande at the end of the sixteenth century and punctuated by conflicts like the Pueblo Revolts of 1680 and 1696. Martin himself arrived in the middle of the 1900 San Geronimo Day celebrations seated on top of his car. Following an evening mass. ‘It was the automobile’s first appearance at a San Geronimo feast.’ By the turn of the twentieth century. and the splendid little machine was the wonder and admiration of the moment. the painter and Taos Society co-founder Ernest Blumenschein labelled the event ‘a strange mixture of barbarism and Christianity. Anglo settlers and artists. .421 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 Acoma Pueblo recreated the constructions of Pueblo Indians under the direction of Franciscan missionaries. Almost immediately scores of kodak fiends were on the alert to catch a snap shot at the auto. the San Diego version of the Taos Pueblo evoked an architecture untainted by foreign influence. In an 1898 issue of Harper’s magazine. not ‘an Exposition pueblo. with similar wonder. and Don Diego de Vargas’s military reconquest of New Mexico in 1693. Plains Indians and. As reported in the Santa Fe New Mexican. This phenomenon led one author to describe the festival in 1903 as ‘a good place to witness the passing of the old and the coming of the new. His vehicle glided in and out of the crowd and halted directly in front of the Pueblo’s North House. In more recent years.

With its connotations of. In its investigation of space forms and the architect’s relationship to the cultural and economic forces of modernity. Schindler writes. By submitting. alongside a horse-drawn carriage. to the pull of the pueblo.422 Modernism in mud Albert Narath Schindler was sure to include Martin’s famous car. ‘foreign’ and ‘exotic’. mass culture and industrial production of an almost ubiquitous Amerikanismus. American ‘modern’ architecture. and modernity and tradition. also reflecting Martin’s own position within the complex cultural dynamics of Taos. or locally defined. after all. to the forces of production that govern the unchecked development of technological society and the buildings that issue from it.’60 Taos was. and even inseparability from. but also indicates his perception of the space between his culture and theirs. The Martin House played a central role in Schindler’s personal and architectural development. Schindler’s interest in the pueblo.’59 Whereas. of Civilization and Kultur. Schindler began to lay the groundwork for a vision of architecture that would set him apart from many of his fellow pioneers. intensified through Taos’s close proximity to. They have the unmistakable look of a picture postcard. M. in the tradition ¨ of Ferdinand Tonnies. in the midst of America. lining the terraces and rooftops of the North House in order to witness the action (see Figure 4 above). like outsider and insider. The architect’s source ‘is the life character of a group nationally. On the back of one photograph. just such a kodak fiend. at once.’61 Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Acknowledgements This essay would not have been possible without the help of Kurt Helfrich at the R. and thus metaphysically privileged. a source emitting a subtle unconscious influence to which he is forced to submit. This is confirmed in his portraits of individual members of the Taos Pueblo. provided Schindler with a framework within which the continual negotiation at the pueblo between familiar dichotomies. conceived in part as the fantasy of a first. in his plan for the Martin House garage (see Figure 6 above). the product of the engineer is ‘entirely civilisatory’. Schindler argues. In a series of photographs in his album. the subject matter and particular framing of these images are far from unique. Schindler depicts scenes of the San Geronimo Day foot races with throngs of spectators. Reflecting his letter to Dr Martin. After all. self and other. architectural. He was. Schindler approached the pueblo and its people with a gaze that was touristic just as much as it was. emerges as a response. narrowly speaking. ‘fremde Indianer’ (see Figure 3 above). could be extended to a more general meditation on the position of modern architecture within the contrasting dimensions. The hybrid character of the Martin House. ‘Christ and Buddha did not go to see the Grand Canyon to find himself [sic] — he went into the desert. for Schindler. Schindler archive and the pioneering work on Schindler in New . the consumerism. clothed mostly in dresses and suits. ‘Mere instruments of production can never serve as a frame of life. racially. the architect is ‘both the child and creator of a culture’. just such a source. however ‘tastefully’. Schindler’s label not only expresses a romanticised notion of the remoteness of the Puebloans. Departing from Schindler’s architectural studies of Taos. ‘strange’. for Schindler. as Schindler noted after his return from Taos.

L. 1915: R. Vienna to Los Angeles: Two Journeys (Santa Monica. M. 16. In addition to its listing in the exhibition catalogue. 1920 or January. 11. M. 1979). J. 6. D. The American Architect and Building News. Ebner & Seubert. 14. Porter. 3. 1995). An Autobiography (New York. the Martin House was illustrated with a view of the court in a section of the April. 1914– 1918’. M. Sloan and Pearce. Special thanks also to Michelangelo Sabatino for his efforts in bringing these papers together. New Mexico Architecture (January – February. pp. ArtsþArchitecture Press. Notes and references 1. A. M. Ibid. 1991). Letter from Victor Higgins to Schindler. 18. Schindler’s time with Higgins is documented in photographs of the painter’s studio and of models from the Taos Pueblo posing for a painting. 14th December. Warburg. University Art Museum. Schindler and his Photography. Images from the Region of the Pueblo Indians of North America (Ithaca and London. Kugler. 2005). Santa Barbara. 1842) and J. P. Schindler Archive. F. M. ‘Pueblo Architecture – I’. 4. p. Wright. p. 19. Schindler Archive. Santa Barbara. ‘Real American Art — At Last!’. 2 (1938– 1939). 12. 9. 7. Journal of the Warburg Institute. 277– 292. University of California. University of California. p. McCoy. 129. 1917. 5. Gebhard. Schindler’s photograph albums are held at the R. Schindler addressed Fergusson’s theory of architectural decoration in his 1916 Church School Lectures. Gibbs Smith. 56 (17th April. C. a succession of Wagnerschuler forwent ¨ customary atelier arrangements in Rome during their prize tenures in order to explore. Letter from Schindler to Dr T. 305 –328 and The Architect’s Eye: R. held at the Art Institute of Chicago from 5–29th April. Chicago. Visual Resources. p. For a detailed discussion of Schindler’s photography. University Art Museum. Schindler and the Photography of the American Scene. December. 1897). A. Ibid. Schindler would have learned about the indigenous domestic architecture of southern Italy and the Austrian Riviera during his student years in Vienna under Otto Wagner from 1910– 1913. C. Letter from Schindler to Richard Neutra. 311. Incidents of Travel in Central America (New York. Santa Barbara. Victor Higgins: An American Master (Salt Lake City. doctoral dissertation. 19. Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte (Stuttgart. 1915: R. 19. 1915’. p. J. See F. cit. . 19. Duell. See also ‘A Lecture on the Serpent Ritual’. Taos. 49. ‘R. Keely. 8. Mindeleff. 1943). 2004. 49. Architecture and Design Collection. Harper & Brothers. Martin. p. 30th July. p. Cornell University Press. 1917): quoted in D. University of California. see E. p. ibid.. like Karl Friedrich Schinkel and a host of others before them. ‘Pueblo Architecture – I’. New Mexico. Keely. 13. Schindler in New Mexico. 10.423 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 Mexico by David Gebhard. the formal sincerity and idiomatic simplicity of Mediterranean buildings.. Schindler Archive. 2. ‘R. Mindeleff. p. 1841). Stephens. Lutz. L. Emil Hoppe from 1901– 1902 and Wunibald Deininger from 1902– 1903. Architecture and Design Collection. 21 (December.. California. pp. 1965). Starting with Joseph Maria Olbrich in 1894 and including Josef Hoffmann from 1895 –1896. 2. M. M. p. Illinois. 1921: quoted in E. 1917 issue of Western Architect devoted to the exhibition. op. 15. Los Angeles.. Chicago Sunday Herald (25th April. Schindler exhibited a floor plan and renderings of the house’s front porch and interior court at the thirteenth annual architecture exhibit for the Chicago Architectural Club. 17.

to an expression of the present with all its interesting short-comings. E. like a painting or a piece of music. Oud. the universality of adobe form-making.P. 219 –251. Wright. 2001).. Together with his wife Barbara. ‘Space Architecture’. R. XII. J. See also C.’ R. K. Letter from Schindler to Janet Henrich at the Museum of Modern Art.’. to the unified artistic culture. 37:20 (1916). Mertins. Oud. 79:20 (12th November. Wagenaar.’: R. cit. 1923: quoted in. A. Troy. and Neutra.424 Modernism in mud Albert Narath 18. Morgan attended Neutra’s lecture course at the Academy of Modern Art in 1929 and conducted extensive photographic studies of California projects by Gill. p. J. Amerika. Appleton-Century Crofts. cubism. California and the other for an American consul in the Mexican province of Upper California. pp. 32. See D. Scientific American. Schindler. 30. Sheine. Architecture and Cubism. F. ‘Over Cubisme. pp. p. NAi Publishers. Neutra. Oud. pp. 1962). Martin. 1930). For Schindler. 2001). 14–15. 1954). Below the picture of Las Trampas. the simplicity and regularity of these houses are undoubtedly connected. Phaidon Press. Promise and Fulfillment. p. 309. 1919). 1986). A. 1898).J. D. for Neutra. Neutra. moderne bouwkunst. famous for her photographs of the Martha Graham Company and other innovators in modern dance. J. Quoted in T. R. eds. Schindler. for Neutra. R. cit. An Autobiography. R. 65. represented by the phrase ‘um 1800’ and celebrated by modern architects like Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Alongside the architecture of the pueblo. after all. 313. op. November. 1919 –1932: Selections from the Letters and Diaries of Richard and Dione Neutra (Carbondale and Edwardsville. 50. E. pp. He worked collaboratively with Neutra on the illustrations for Amerika. 101. 19. ‘Der Einfluss von Frank Lloyd Wright auf die Architektur Europas’. ‘Native Architecture in Africa and New Mexico’. ‘That is why people go and see the old towns of Europe and the pueblos and mission churches of the West. p. This play of elements is. 28. op. 25. 26. in Hollandische Architektur ¨ (Mainz. Survival Through Design (New York. J. Neutra includes illustrations of two neo-classical houses built around 1800 — one in Monterey.. Letter from Neutra to Dione Neutra. Oxford University Press. 1890– 1963: The Complete Works (Rotterdam. Southern Illinois University Press. Wright. . p. M. Schroll. enz. Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . Schindler (London and New York. They limit themselves. cit. Letter from Schindler to Dr T. L. 23. Florian Kupferberg. grounded in burgerlich classicism and ¨ the Biedermeier. Church School Lecture. Wie Baut Amerika? (Stuttgart. p. eds. futurisme.P. op. C. 20. in. Bouwkundig Weekblad. Oxford University Press. Hoffman. etc. Schindler recalled the effect of a ‘wall mutilated by the rain’ and concluded. Die Wiederkehr der Kunst (Leipzig. 1940: quoted in J. Blau and N. Wolff. 156– 157: translated in. cit. 169 –170. such as futurism. M. de Vletter. R. Poetic Functionalist: J. 6th April. ‘Anything but Literal: Sigfried Giedion and the Reception of Cubism in Germany’. 173. Schindler Archive. Neutra. die stilbildung des neuen bauens in den Vereinigten Staaten (Vienna. M. 1927). Ibid. 77. J. Mindeleff. The affinity between pueblo architecture and native building traditions from similarly arid regions of the world highlights. 29. . Richard Neutra. p. Behne. Hines. Neutra. 31. J. M. 257. 21. P. M. Life and Shape (New York. Richard Neutra and the Search for Modern Architecture (Oxford. 27. p. 1976). 2: R. J. 33. Neutra.J.. New York. ed.. S. ‘In the main work which is generally called “modernistic” is an architectural backwash of the several movements of modern art in Europe. Taverne. 22. 1982). P. op. one of the things that drew Schindler to New Mexico. 24. After his return to Chicago.

pp. ‘On Collecting Art and Culture’. op. 48. op. D. 1935 and March. 1. ‘Furniture and the Modern House: A Theory of Interior Design’. V. 579. pp. Academy Editions. see N. 43. in The Predicament of Culture: Twentieth-Century Ethnography. cit. Schindler. covered by Goodhue with Rococo ornamentation. See L. 120.. ‘Rudolph Schindler: Pioneering without Tears’. R. 2. 41. ‘All classic arch¼decoratif facings (struct. The San Diego World’s Fairs and Southwestern Memory. ‘The center part of the room lays on a lower level than the entry. 1988). M. Princeton University Press. Letter from Schindler to Dr T. op. 1887– 1953. eds. ‘Rudolph Schindler: Pioneering without Tears’. The Craftsman: An Anthology (Santa Barbara and Salt Lake City. brochure (1915. and Art (Cambridge. 45. Modern Architecture: A Program. Schindler also saw Gill’s Administration Building. 42: Schindler also discusses adobe and ancient architecture in his notes for the 1916 Church School Lectures. 185 – 189. 1915). 1978). 1880 –1940. op. Lotus. 51. F. Schindler’s note reads. Literature. Columbia University). 67–68. The Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright (Princeton. 1989). 1993) and J. P. p. Architect. Urhutte and Temple’. pp. Bokovoy.dematierialized) facing applied (influence of use of textiles?) adobe. 5 (1968). Schindler. Schindler. 37. op. ‘The Home of the Future: The New Architecture of the West: Small Homes for a Great Country’. p. 37 (December. op. ‘California’s First Cubist House’. and the fireplace (3 steps). 36. Emphasis added: R. Schindler. in. Gebhard. ed.. (see Semper). 47. Urhutte and Temple’. Architect and Engineer. Banham. p. March and J. Sunset (August. Smith. cit. 309.579. (third sketch). P. ‘Log House. op. 40. Indeed. Peregrine Smith. in. M. L. X.. 44. M. The complete sentence reads. p. Avery Library. cit. Schindler. 42. Ibid. 123 and 124 (December. op. p. Schindler. Levine. Sheine. p. 1936). RM Schindler: Composition and Construction (London.. 52. Dune Forum (February.’: R. Harvard University Press. R. R. Village. 1934). 46. Martin. 1996). 55. 39. March. Letter from Schindler to Dr T. ‘Space Architecture’. March. pp. Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 . R. etc. I. Schindler’. 50. Schindler also refers to Semper in a discussion of facings in X. cit. cit. 48. Scully. p. R. Gill. ‘Ambiguity in the Work of R. J. an impressive feature which will also give you ample opportunity to display tastefully your Indian collection. 49. R. republished in A. Material disappears . pp. M. cit. 106–121. Sheine. during his visit to the San Diego Exposition. and London. Clifford. 53. 35. March. cit. See L. Banham. Mass. 56. Sarnitz. 44. San Diego Exposition. Architectural Design. Survival Through Design. 38. Sanders. R. Schindler helped to introduce Wright to pueblo architecture after starting work in his office in 1918. Church School Lecture. ‘Log House. upon receiving the Portfolio shortly after its publication in 1910 from a librarian in Vienna. op. op. M. Martin. cit.. 22– 25 and 24– 28. 1967).. 102 –113. 219. cit. 368. p. Mead and Reque’s design was commissioned by Wheeler Bailey for a pueblo-style guest house to display his extensive collection of Hopi art and Navajo rugs. Painted Desert Exhibit. p. The fireplace dimensions are taken from L. op.. 54. B. cit. ‘Log House. Urhutte and Temple’. Dance (Chicago and London. For the importance of Native American traditions for Wright. P. B. M. Neutra. Quoted in M. The University of Chicago Press.425 The Journal of Architecture Volume 13 Number 4 34. M. op. Schindler even declared Wright ‘the first architect’. Pueblo: Mountain. cit.’: letter from Schindler to Dr T. cit.. Martin.

R. ‘Space Architecture’. 37:196 (6th October. M. 1900).. 22– 25 and pp. Santa Fe New Mexican. Schindler. A. Thousands of People Thronged Taos to Witness the Unique Celebration a Week Ago’. R. ‘The Feast of San Geronimo. p. Architect. 3. pp. Outing.. . Schindler. 1903). cit. cit. 283. op.426 Modernism in mud Albert Narath Downloaded by [UNSW Library] at 19:45 09 August 2011 57. ‘Furniture and the Modern House: A Theory of Interior Design’.Schindler. op. LeRoy. R. cit. R. Sarnitz. 53. 61. 60. M. 1. II. 43:3 (December. an Illustrated Monthly Magazine of Recreation. J. M. 58. M. p. 1887 –1953. ‘The Indian Festival at Taos’. 24–28: republished in A. op. Schindler. p. Notes for Church School Lectures. 59.