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A Project report on

**VECTOR CONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINE
**

Submitted for partial fulfillment for the award of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

DEGREE IN

**ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
**

By MAYANK SRIVASTAVA (0702921052) Under the guidance of Prof. ASHISH THOMBRE

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering KRISHNA INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY GHAZIABAD APRIL 2011

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled ³VECTORCONTROL OF INDUCTION MACHINE ´ is a bona fide record of the major project done by MAYANK SRIVASTAVA (Roll No. 0702921052), under my supervision and guidance, in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree of Bachelor of Technology in Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Krishna Institute of Engineering and technology Muradnagar for the year 2011

MR.ASHISH THOMBRE (Guide) Professor Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Prof. GAJENDRA SINGH Professor& Head Dept. of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Date: Place:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It¶s our pleasure to acknowledge assistance of a number of people without their help this project would not have been possible. First and foremost, we would like to express our gratitude to Prof. ASHISH THOMBRE (Project Guide), Prof. of Electrical & Electronics Department, for providing us invaluable encouragement, guidance and support. It is always very difficult to express one¶s gratitude towards the people from whom one gets the invaluable gift of knowledge. However, we are very thankful to those, because of whom, the hard work done on this project, became a pleasure. We acknowledge to Prof. GAJENDRA SINGH Head of department (HOD), of Electrical & Electronics Department, who very eagerly allotted us such a challenging project. After doing this project we confidently say that this experience has not only enriched us with the knowledge but also has unparsed the maturity of thought and vision.

MAYANK SRIVASTAVA Date : EN Deptt. KIET

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ABSTRACT

Scalar control is somewhat simple to implement, but the inherent coupling effect gives sluggish response .Coupling effect means that the both torque and flux are the function of voltage or current and frequency .due to this the system is easily prone to instability of a high order system effect . The foregoing problem can be solve by using vector control. The invention of vector control in the beginning of 1970 s, and the demonstration that an induction motor can be controlled like a separately excited dc motor, brought a new era in high performance control of induction machine. The vector control is also known a decoupling control, orthogonal or transvector control. Vector control is applicable to both induction and synchronous motor drives. Modern sensor less vector control are complex, and the use of powerful microcomputer or DSP is mandatory .Induction motor is used as a variable speed drive in many industrial applications. In this case induction motor is fed by a current controlled inverter system. Pulse width modulation technique is used to derive switching sequence for the inverter system. Closed loop control of induction motor utilizes a proportional integral speed controller. An indirect vector control strategy is employed for current controlled inverter system. The performance analysis of a vector controlled cage induction motor drive is studied. To check the dynamic performance of the drive, the motor is operated in fourquadrant operation. The simulated response of an induction motor will be presented in different modes of operation. The objective of a variable-speed control system for higher productivity is to track the reference speed as fast as possible. Therefore, under the constraints of input voltage and current, a control scheme which yields the maximum, torque over the entire speed range can be usefully applicable to minimum-tim speed control of induction motors. However, most researchers who deal with the speed control of induction motors have not considered the maximum-torque generation scheme.

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4.5 Flux Calculations 4. 4.2 Dynamic model 2.2 2 INTRODUCTION Introduction Advantages of using the DSP techniques in motor control Page no.5 Vector controller 4.1.6 Magnetisation 4.4. CLASSIC AC DRIVES Classic AC drives 2.2 Block diagram of VECTOR CONTROL for induction motor .4.2 Dynamic model in space vector form 2.3. D-Q equivalent circuit 2.1 Flux PI controller 4.2 3.4 Theta Calculations 4.4 VECTOR CONTROL Subsystem 4.1 1.4 4 SIMULATION OF VECTOR CONTROL 4.3 Torque speed curve.1 VECTORCONTROL Vector Control DC Drive Analogy Principles of Vector control Direct or feedback vector control 3 3. 6 5 .1 5.4.CONTENTS Chapter No TITLE List of Abbreviations List of Symbols List of Figures List of Tables 1 1.3 Speed Controller Subsystem 4.2.1 Introduction 2.4.2 Vector control simulation results.3 3.6 Simulink of hystersis controller .2.1 Equivalent circuits of Induction Machine 2.1 High-Level Schematic 4. 2.1.3 Magnetisation vector 4.2. SIMULATION RESULTS 5. Results for variable load torque.4.2 Equivalent circuit analysis 2.1.1 3.2 Calculation of id and iq 4.

CONCLUSION REFERENCES 7 .

List of abbreviation PWM VSI = Pulse Width modulation = Voltage source inverter S/W = Switch IGBT= Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor DSP= Digital Signal Processor 8 .

r.t. stationery frame of refrence Ids =Current of d-axis w. stationery frame of refrence Iqs = Current of q-axis w. = Flux linkage variable Vds= Voltage of d-axis w.r. stationery frame of refrence.List of Symbols Rs = Stator Resistance Lls = Stator Leakage inductance Ls = stator inductance Lr = rotor inductance Io =Output Current in Amp Ic = Core loss Component of No Load current Im = Magnetising current Lm=magnetizing inductance Vr¶=The Rotor ±induced voltage Ir¶ =rotor current sl = slip frequency m = peak value of air gap flux linkage per pole e = Synchronous speed o =Rotor speed Vs s = Stator voltage w.t.t.t.r.t.r. stationery frame of refrence Vqs= Voltage of q-axis w.r. stationery frame of refrence Ia = armature current If = field current 9 .

(a) separately excited dc motor .1 Figure 2.2(b).4 Figure 2. Conventional Per-phase Equivalent Circuit. Electrical angle calculations.3 Figure 2. Simulink model of speed controller subsystem. Torque speed curve.5 Figure 2. Definition of q-axis and d-axis on arbitary refrence frame.6 Figure 2.9 Figure 2.3 Figure 4. 10 .8 Figure 4. (b) Vector controlled induction motor.2 Figure 3.10 Figure 3. Simulink model of VECTOR CONTROL subsystem. Simulink of vector control of induction motor drive. The phasor diagram for the equivalent circuit in Figure 2.5 Figure 4. Vector control implementation principle with machine de-qe model.7 Figure 2.1 Figure 4.7 Figure 4. High-level schematic.11 Mmf distribution in three phase of induction machine. Flux linkage calculations. Dynamic Equivalent circuit on stationery reference frame. Direct vector control block diagram with rotor flux orientation. iqCalculation. Dynamic Equivalent circuit on an Arbitary reference frame rotating at a. id Calculation.10 Figure 4.List of Figures Figure 2.9 Figure 4.8 Figure 2. Approximate per phase equivalent circuit.2 Figure 4.12(a) Working principle of hysteresis current controllers. Per phase equivalent circuit of an induction machine.3 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.2 Figure 2.4 Figure 4.1 Figure 3. The magnetization vector unit. Simulink model of flux PI controller. Figure 4. D-Q Equivalent circuit on Synchronous frame. Magnetisation control unit.

1 Figure 5.2 Simulink of hystersis controller.3 (b) Torque response showing initial fluctuations Figure.13 Figure 5.3(a) Torque response for the speeds below base value Figure 5.5 Figure 5.Figure 4.12(b) Switching logic of hysteresis current controllers.4 Figure 5.axis component stator current for speed below base value d-axis & q . 11 . Stator currents for below base speed case Speed response for the speeds below base value Fig ure 5.axis component stator voltage for speed below base value Torque response for the variable torque load.5.18 d-axis & q . Figure 4.

efficiency. Ruggedness. These problems can be overcome by the application of a. rotor inertia. the principal reason being that the variable-frequency ac 12 . A dc motor must be regularly taken out of service to check or replace brushes and at less frequent interval to resurface the commutator. efficiency. a dc machine of the same torque capacity is significantly larger than the equivalent induction machine. typically 0. they cannot be used in explosive or corrosive environments. For large dc machines protection of a dc circuit breaker is required which are expensive. reliability. cost e. they required periodic maintenance. Induction motors have comparable and frequently better efficiency than the equivalent dc motor. Protection of an induction motor is simpler than for dc motor. due to the existence of the commutator and the brushes d. Induction motor is essentially maintenance free.1 General Introduction For many years d.c motors were used extensively in areas where variable speed operation was required since their flux and torque could be controlled independently and easily by the field and armature current.95. except for the bearings. but because of its highly non-linear dynamic structure with strong dynamic interaction. Power Factor.t. Particularly.c motors. maximum speed. Induction motor is more robust than the dc machine. which can result in higher speed operations. However. ruggedness. weight. a separately excited d.c machine. because of its simplicity. compactness.Chapter -1 INTRODUCTON 1. and economical and volume manufacturing advantages.9 and increases approximately in proportion to the motor speed. Some of the reasons for dealing with AC induction motor drives rather than DC motor drives are: y Commutator and Brushes do not exist in Induction motors. Hence Induction machine is superior to d. Because of the commutator assembly. but the method and equipment been awkward and its control performance inferior.c machine with respect to size.c motors have certain disadvantage. the separately excited d. it requires more complex control schemes than. However almost all induction motors run at lagging power factor.c. low cost. y y y y y y The induction motor had been considered to be essentially a constant speed motor control of its speed has been possible.Simpler stator thermal protection for induction motors gives comprehensive thermal protection for the entire machine.c motor has been used mainly for applications where there was a requirement of fast response and four-quadrant operation with high performance near zero speed. the power factor of a dc drive operates in the range from 0 to about 0. That is.

in d. in an a. although the induction motor itself has a very high control capability. the torque and flux-producing stator current components are decoupled and transient response characteristics are similar to those of a separately excited d. both the phase angle and the modulus of the current has to be controlled. control of the induction motor was restricted to speed control. stator or rotor flux linkages. Key advantages are the robust nature of the drive. the orientation of the field flux and armature mmf is fixed by the commutator and the brushes.power supply was expensive.c machines. while in a.c machine. the current vector has to be controlled. which was by means of frequency and/or voltage control. and the accurate asynchronous motor model that have resulted in the development of a highly reliable drive with highly accurate and variable speed controls.c drive to be performed by utilizing software instead of expensive hardware. If the frequency and voltage were changed proportionally to each other. torque control in a. It should be pointed out that control of the electrical motor is actually control of the power supply. In the past such control techniques could have not been possible because of the complex hardware and software required to solve the complex control problem. As for d. where the inputs to the stator are voltage and frequency and the outputs can be rotor speed.c power converters is higher for the variable speed induction motor drive than for the converters. the high torque and zero speed. By changing the frequency of the power supply synchronous speed of the induction motor could be changed. which allow the complex control functions of the a. or in other words. the 13 . For the classical period of induction motor control. Controllability of the power supply is more important. whereby better and more powerful semiconductor devices are available and where the power devices and circuits are packaged into the modular form. in contrast to a d.c machines. inspite of the fact that the dc motor itself was so awkward in its structure and capability.c drives employing induction machines can be considered as economical alternatives to adjustable ±speed d. It is the real time-processing properties of silicon. This was only one reason that the dc motor was used predominantly for quick response purposes. The general dynamic model of the induction machine can be represented by a sixth-order state-space equation. Application of the vector control to the a. the cost effectiveness of both the motor and the drive.c induction drive results in the instance control of a high performance drive. such as the TMS320LF2407 DSP controller also called Wintech TDS2407EA. The motor can be controlled only through the power supply. Vector control techniques incorporating fast Ps have made possible the application of induction-motor drives for high performance application where traditionally only d. Until recently the cost of the variable-speed induction motor has been prohibitive and the complexity of control has made its developments in the field power electronics.c machines. and the existence of powerful and inexpensive microprocessors. However. With vector control of a. rotor position. the motor responds properly. electromagnetic torque.c machines the field flux and the angle of the armature mmf require external control.c drives were applied.c machines is achieved by controlling the motor currents. the magnetic flux density could be kept almost constant. If the power supply is controlled properly. By changing the terminal voltage of the induction motor. Furthermore the cost of a. means that a. It is because of the awkward ac power supplies that the induction motor has been limited in its control performance.c machine. controllability of the ac power supply was very inferior to that of the dc power supply. The ability to achieve such control renders the asynchronous drive a high advantageous system for both home appliances and for industrial or automotive applications [15].c drives. magnetizing current or a combination of these.c machine and the system will adapt to any load disturbances and/or reference value variation as fast as a d. because that of the motor is not a limiting factor. Furthermore. its reliability and efficiency. Where first used.c machine.c machines. resulting in better control performance. its speed under load could be changed. which can supply d.

parameters and modifications to functions. operating with other debuggers to provide assembly language and µC¶ high level language debug.c) and testing.speed variation capacity. the module is an excellent platform to develop and run software for the TMS320F2812 processor. Complex.2 Advantages of using the DSP techniques in motor control: y y y Cost reduction in control electronics. a C2000 Tools Code Composer driver is provided. There is the possibility of plug-in memory modules for user programs. Very high accuracy. 1. To simplify code development and shorten debugging time. and the theoretical and practical aspects of the application. Powerful system software for on-line measurements. y y y y y y y The control hardware is the TMS320F2812 evaluation Module. Digital transmission requires a minimal amount of cabling and is very tolerant to noise. In addition.c. Two expansion connectors are provided for any necessary evaluation circuitry not provided on the as shipped configuration. speed control parameter setting e. it eliminates drift and electromagnetic interference problems. high-speed arithmetic and capability of decision making e. Improved reliability due to the reduction of the number of components. Automatic location of hardware faults with the help of system and user software.c Only a few standard modules are required without any special adjustment. an onboard JTAG connector provides interface to emulators. The eZdspTM F2812 allows full speed verification of F2812 code. control parameter setting (example: current control parameter setting. linearity and stability with different setting ranges. Furthermore. This thesis describes simulation. Standard universal hardware is required and the only changes are to the software. excellent repeatability.t. complete integration of the software. e. The eZdspTM F2812 is shipped with a TMS320F2812 DSP. the extended speed range. which is the very flexible and can easily modified.t. 14 . the direct torque and flux control and the excellent dynamic behavior. The eZdspTM F2812 is a stand-alone card--allowing evaluators to examine the TMS320F2812 digital signal processor (DSP) to determine if it meets their application requirements.t.

Among all types of machines. No consideration of the phase interactions.1 Classic AC drives AC motor control structures generally apply three 120º spatially displaced sinusoidal voltages to the three stator phases. which are given as ia = Im cos t ib= Im cos ( ic = Im cos ( ) ) (2.1) (2.The three phase sinusoidal current are impressed in the three phase stator windings. Detailed explanations and references to other helpful documents give the reader a good understanding of the control structure and of the immediate benefits of such a solution. Induction machine can be looked as three phase transformer with rotating and short circuited secondary. These damage not only the drive dynamic performance but also the power conversion efficiency. Finally. the control structure must be dedicated according to motor type (asynchronous or synchronous).CHAPTER 2 CLASSIC AC DRIVE 2.3) 15 . and hysteresis controllers introduce high bandwidth noise into the system that is hard to filter out. Additionally. No three phase system imbalance management. The most fundamental principle of induction machine is production of rotating and sinusoidally distributed magnetic field in air gap . the control looks like three separate single phase system controls rather than one control of a three phase system. The following chapters present the Field Orientated Control of AC drives. Some major common drawbacks are presented in this chapter [1]: The machine models and characteristics used are valid only in steady state. This causes the control to allow high peak voltage and current transients. the power components must be oversized to withstand the transient electrical spikes. particularly the cage type. This control solution overcomes each of these drawbacks and thus improves the overall effectiveness of the AC drive. In most of the classic AC drives the generation of the three sine waves is based on motor electromechanical characteristics and on an equivalent model for the motor in its steady state. Great difficulty in controlling the variables with sinusoidal references: PI regulators cannot perform a sinusoidal regulation without damaging the sinusoidal reference.2) (2. the induction machine. Furthermore.these machine are most rugged and economical and available in range of FHP to mega watt capacity. is most commonly used in industry .

t)=Fa+Fb+Fc F( .4) (2. the instantaneous mmf expression can be given as : Fa( )= Nia cos ( ) Fb( )= Nib cos ( -2 /3) Fc( )= Nic cos ( +2 /3) Where N= number of turns in a phase winding.1 MMF DISTRIBUTION INTHREE PHASE WINDINGS OF STATOR At spatial angle .t)=Fa+Fb+Fc Fa Fc Fb b's Y-Axis as as c's bs a's cs Fig: 2.7) 16 .t)=3/2(NImcos( )) Y-Axis X-Axis (2. F( .5) (2.F( .6) (2.

2 shows development of a per phase transformer like equivalent circuit ..1. where Rm = equivalent resistance for core loss and Lm=magnetizing inductance .1 Equivalent circuits of Induction Machine : Fig 2. which is then converted to slip voltage Vr¶ = nSVm in rotor phase. The excitation current Io consist of two component a core loss component Ic= Vm/Rm and a magnetizing component Im=Vm/Lm e .2.where n=rotor to stator turns ratio and S = per unit slip .where Ir is given as 17 . The Rotor ±induced voltage Vr¶ causes rotor current Ir¶ at slip frequency sl.the synchronously rotating air gap flux wave generates a counter emf Vm. Figure 2. which is limited by the rotor resistance Rr¶ and the leakage reactance eLlr¶ .the stator terminal voltage Vs differs from Vm by drops in stator resistance Rs and stator leakage inductance Lls.2 : Per phase equivalent circuit of an induction machine A simple per phase equivalent circuit of an induction machine is a very important tool for analysis and performance prediction at steady state condition. the stator current Is consist of excitation component Io and the rotor reflected current Ir Figure shows the equivalent circuit with respect to the stator .

the rotor current Ir is principally influenced by the Rr/s parameter .0.3. where all the variables are in rms value The torque expression can be given in the form: Te = Where (2. 0<S<1.3 : The phasor diagram for the equivalent circuit in figure 2.Ir = nIr¶= n2SVm»(Rr^'+j = slLlr') (2.at synchronous speed. and therefore .8) And parameters Rr¶ and Llr¶ are referred to the stator .9) = peak value of air gap flux linkage per pole and Ir¶ = peak value of rotor current Fig 2.2(b) 18 .current Ir=0 and the machine takes excitation current Io only.and with a small value of S.2(b) is shown in figure 2.S=1. Figure 2.S=0.2 (b) corresponds to the short ±circuited transformer ±equivalent circuit . At any sub synchronous speed. at standstill . The phasor diagram for the equivalent circuit in figure 2.

4 : Approximate per phase equivalent circuit 19 .1.2 Equivalent circuit analysis: The various power expression can be written from the equivalent circuit of figure as follows: Input power : Pin =3VsIS COS Stator copper loss : PLs=3Is²Rs Core loss: Plc=3VM²/RM Power loss across air gap : Pg =3Ir²Rr/S Rotor copper loss : Plr =3Ir²Rr Output power : Po= Pg-Plr = 3Ir²Rr1-s/s Shaft power : Psh = Po ± Pfw Torque : Te = Fig 2.2.

5 shows the torque speed curve.10) Fig 2.1.5 : Torque speed curve[21] 20 . where the value of slip is extended beyond the region 0<s<1. (2. Figure 2.10.0.2.3 Torque speed curve : The torque Te can be calculated as a function of slip s from equation 2.

dynamic equations of the induction motor is simplified and analogous to a DC motor.12) and [r is called the slip frequency which is the frequency of the actual rotor current. all rotor parameters and variables are not actual quantities but are quantities referred to the stator [1]. Also note that in this equivalent circuit. which is the most widely used motor type in the industry. Vectors on a rotating reference frame are followed by a superscript letter which designates the frame used as in Vs s (Vs in stationary frame). all vectors are denoted as boldface and complex conjugates are denoted by @. simple and rugged structure. It will be shown that when we choose a synchronous reference frame in which rotor flux lies on the d-axis. If the excitation frequency injected into the stator is [e and the actual speed converted into electrical frequency unit is [o. power consumption in the stator is interpreted as Is2Rs. Traditionally in analysis and design of induction motors. Although the per-phase equivalent circuit is useful in analyzing and predicting steady-state performance. while Ir2Rr/s represents both power consumption in the rotor and the mechanical output (torque).7% slip in many cases) less than the synchronous speed. Rs (Rr) is the stator (rotor) resistance and Lm is called the magnetizing inductance of the motor. the dynamic model of the induction motor is necessary. 1. slip s is defined by s = ([e . induction motors are used in many adjustable speed applications which do not require fast dynamic response.13) where P is the number of poles.11) Where Lls (Lrs) is the stator (rotor) leakage inductance.1 Introduction The induction motor. the ³per-phase equivalent circuit´ of induction motors shown in Fig.1. the speed of induction motors are slightly (about 2 .2. it is not applicable to explain dynamic performance of the induction motor. (2. (2. The derivative operator is denoted by p while P is the number of poles For notational convenience. has been favored because of its good self-starting capability. In order to understand and analyze vector control. It is also known that induction motors do not rotate synchronously to the excitation frequency. low cost and reliability. Methods of determining circuit parameters from no-load test and locked rotor test are described in [2]. produced torque (mechanical power divided by the shaft Speed) is given by T = Ir2 Rr (P/2) (1-s) / (s [o) = Ir2 Rr [ P / (2[e )]. current and voltage phasors are used and they are denoted by the underline. By subtracting rotor loss Ir2Rr from Ir2Rr/s. At rated load.2 Dynamic model in space vector form 2. In the steadystate AC circuit. Throughout the article. 1.1 has been widely used. we will develop dynamic model of induction motors in general frame work and introduce several equivalent circuits as special cases. It has been found that the dynamic model equations developed on a rotating reference frame is easier to describe the characteristics of induction motors.2. The concept of vector control has opened up a new possibility that induction motors can be controlled to achieve dynamic performance as good as that of DC or brushless DC motors. In Fig. In the circuit. Note that stator (rotor) inductance Ls (Lr) is defined by Ls = Lls + Lm. Lr = Llr + Lm (2. etc. It is the objective of the article to derive and explain induction motor model in relatively simple terms by using the concept of space vectors and d-q variables. In the next section. Along with variable frequency AC inverters.[o ) / [e = [r / [e. let Y (scalar) or Y (vector) be the representative notation of any 21 .

14) = exp(j 2 /3).6 Conventional Per-phase Equivalent Circuit 2. the corresponding space vector is a constantmagnitude vector rotating at the frequency of the sinusoid with respect to the fixed (stationary) reference frame. With space vector notation. The above transform is reversible and each phase quantities can be calculated from the space vector Ya = Re (Ys s). the notation in terms of the space vector[3] is very useful. the 3-phase stator windings are designed to produce sinusoidal distributed mmf in space along the air gap periphery.16) 22 . (2. current or flux linkage variable. distribution of magnetic flux will also be sinusoidal. Ib = Re ( 2 Ys s). LlS=LS-LM LlR = L R-LM ir Rr/s A1 1 RS 1 A1 1 A1 1 A1 A1 is 1 A1 Vs Lm 1 1 Fig. respectively. For such machines. currents and flux linkages are always balanced and there is no zero phase sequence component in the system. Real and Imaginary values of a space vector Y is denoted by Re(Y) and Im(Y). Zero vectors are denoted by 0 regardless of the reference frame used.2. Ic = Re ( Ys s).2 Dynamic model in space vector form: In an induction motor.voltage. Note that the space vector is at vector angle 0 when A-phase signal (Ya) is at its sinusoidal peak value in steady-state. Assuming uniform air gap and neglecting the effects of slot harmonics. For 3 phase induction motors. voltage equations on the stator and rotor circuits of induction motors are. current and flux linkage is defined from its phase quantities by 1 A1 A1 Ys s = (2/3) ( Ya + Where Yb + ² Yc ). It is also assumed that the neutral connection of the machine is open so that phase voltages. the space vector Ys s of the stator voltage. Vs s = Rs Is s + p s s (2. 2. (2.15) For a sinusoidal 3-phase quantity of constant rms value.

24.19 . 2.17) It is very convenient to transform actual rotor variables (Vr¶..23-2.23-2.24) From Eqs. Let the stator to rotor winding turn ratio be n and the angular position of the rotor be .j o) r s where o = p o. 2. p in Eq.20) s s = Ls Is s + Lm Ir s r s = Lm Is s + Lr Ir s (2.23) (2. is the speed of the motor in electrical frequency unit and (2. These model equations may be simplified by eliminating flux linkages as Vs s = (Rs + Ls p) Is s + Lm p Ir s 0 = (Rr + Lr (p . r s = n exp(j ) r¶ (2.22) constitute a dynamic model of the induction motor on a stationary (stator) reference frame in space vector form. by defining referred rotor impedances as Rr = n² Rr¶.18) Also. For steady-state operation with excitation frequency e. r s) on a stator reference frame as in the derivation of conventional steady-state equivalent circuit. r¶) from Eq.j o) Is s. 2.25) (2.19) (2. Ir¶. (2. Ir s.2.22) The above 4 equations (Eq.24 may be replaced by j e and after some algebraic manipulation. The dynamic equivalent circuit model on a stationary reference frame can be drawn as in Fig.2. etc. (2.21) (2. and define Ir s = (1/n) exp(j ) Ir¶ .17 on a rotor reference frame into a new variables ( Vr s.j o)) Irs + Lm (p . 2.7.Vr¶ = Rr¶ Ir¶ + p r¶ =0 (2.26) 23 . we have Vs s = Rs Is s + p s s 0 = Rr Ir s + (p . we get Vs s = (Rs + j e Ls ) Is s + Lm p Ir s 0 = (Rr/ s + j e Lr) Ir s + j e Lm Is s.

2.30-2. In the arbitrary reference frame. we have Vsa = (Rs + Ls (p + j a)) Is a + Lm (p + j a ) Ir a 0 = (Rr + Lr (p + j a . 2. where Eq.o) r a.which exactly describes the conventional steady-state equivalent circuit of Fig. the previous procedure can be generalized so that the dynamic model is described on an arbitrary reference frame rotating at a speed a.28) (2.j o) Is a (2. Now. Eqs. 2.j a ) Y s (2.19.31 into Eqs. define the new space vector on the arbitrary frame as Y a = exp(.29.26 is a special case with a. 2. 1. by substituting Eqs.= 0.2.32) (2. with new flux linkage equations defined by.j o)) Ir a + Lm (p + j a . To do that.30) (2.28-2.20 are modified to Vs a = (Rs + Ls p) Is a + Lm p Ir a + j 0 = (Rr + Lr p) Ir a + Lm p Is a + j ( a a sa (2.1.29) .33) where eliminated flux linkage variables are eliminated.31) As before.27) and reconstruct all the model equations in terms of the new space vectors. 24 . s a = Ls Is a + Lm Ir a r a = Lm Is a + Lr Ir a (2.19 -2.

Now. space vector is not rotating. in fact.7 Dynamic Equivalent circuit on stationery reference frame LlS =L S-LM ir 1 RS 1 A1 1 A1 1 A1 A1 is j( a.2.33 is shown in Fig.18 with n =1. depending on a specific choice of a. the reverse step of Eq.2. D-Q EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT: In many cases. This form is very useful in describing the concept of vector control of induction motors as well as of PM synchronous motors because at this rotating frame. analysis of induction motors with space vector model is complicated due to the the fact that we have to deal with variables of complex numbers. define two real quantities Sq and Sd as. but fixed and have a constant magnitude in steady-state. the synchronous frame form can be obtained by choosing a = e.32-2. they are denoted without any superscript indicating the type of frame.o) ra Vs Lm Fig:2. Since space vectors in the synchronous frame will frequently be used. many forms of dynamic equivalent circuit can be established. 2. Among them.3.LlS=LS-LM LlR = L R-LM Rr irs A1 RS 1 A1 1 A1 1 A1 iss -j o r Vss Lm 1 1 1 A1 1 A1 A1 Fig:2. ¡ Rr 1 A1 j a sa ¡ LlR = L R-LM 1 A1 1 A1 25 .8 Dynamic Equivalent circuit on an Arbitrary reference frame rotating at a The generalized equivalent circuit on a arbitrarily rotating frame based on Eq. 2. 2. 2. Another possible reference frame used in vector control is the rotor reference frame by choosing c = o which is . For any space vector Y.

32-2. Fig : 2.aLs pLm aLs Rs+pLs ( a.o)Lr For future reference. the above matrix equation simplified for popular reference frames in analysis and design of vector control will be introduced. 2.o) Lr Rr+pLr Iqs a Ids a Iqr a Idr a -( a. Note that d.9 Definition of q-axis and d-axis on arbitary refrence frame With the above definition. Eq. 3.and q-axes are defined on a rotating reference frame at the speed of a = p Ua with respect to fixed a-b-c frame. Sq = Re (S) and Sd = .35) pLm .34) In other words.1 illustrates the relationship between d-q axis and complex plane on a rotating frame with respect to stationary a-b-c frame.j Sd (2.33 can be translated into the following 4 equations of real variables expressed in a matrix form.aLm Rr+pLr aLm pLm ( a. by substituting a = 0.S = Sq . Vqs a Vds a 0 0 Rs+pLs = .o) Lm pLm (2. For stationary reference frame.( a.Im (S). Fig. the above equation is reduced to 26 .o) Lm Eqn: .

37) L lS =L S-L M L lR = L R -L M iqr Rr A1 1 RS 1 A1 1 A1 1 A1 A1 iqs 1 A1 Vqs Lm 1 1 (A) Q- 1 A1 A1 is 27 . In this case. we can substitute all a in Eq. Moreover. we have Vqs Vqs 0 0 Rs + Ls p .35 by o. 2.o Lr LmP (2. for synchronous frame.36) o Lr Rr+LrP Some implementation of vector drive includes calculation in rotor reference frame (frame is attached to the rotor rotating at o ).o Lm Rr+LrP .[e Ls Lm p -[e Lm [e Ls Rs + Ls p [r Lm Lm p Lm p -[e Lm Rr + Lr p -[r Lr [e Lm Lm p [r Lr Rr + Lr p Iqs Ids Iqr Idr (2. which makes simplified rotor voltage equations.V qss V dss 0 0 Rs+LsP 0 LmP o Lm Eqn: 0 Rs+LsP LmP 0 0 LmP Iqss Idss Iqrs Idrs .

38) For Eq. matrix quantities on the above equation are as follows.39) -RrLm -[oLmLr RrLs [oLmLr -RrLm [eLsLr-[r Lm2 RrLs (2. Eq. 2. current or flux linkage) in the synchronous frame is stationary and fixed to a constant magnitude in steady-state. each variable (voltage.10 D-Q Equivalent circuit on Synchronous frame As mentioned before. In this case. For dynamic simulation of induction motors.4. 2.L lS =L S -L M L lR = L R -L M idr Rr 1 RS 1 A1 1 A1 1 A1 A1 ids [e ds Vds Lm [e dr (B) D- 1 A1 1 A1 1 A1 is . Iqs X Ids Iqs Ids RsLr A= 1/( U= Iqs Iqs 0 0 [eLsLr-[r Lm2 RsLr -[oLmLs -RsLm B= 1/( Lr 0 -Lm 0 0 Lr 0 -Lm -Lm 0 Ls 0 0 -Lm 0 Ls (2. Fig : 2.36 or Eq. (2. 2.40) [rLm2-[eLsLr -RsLm [oLmLs -[rLsLr+[e Lm2 28 .3.37 may be used. one may prefer to use the standard form of differential equation as p X = A X + B U.

2. (= Ls Lr ± Lm².2. Both stator and rotor voltage equations are. Yq Yd 0 = (2/3) cos sin 0.5 cos ( + 2 /3) sin ( + 2 /3) 0.5 Ya Yb Yc (2.2 /3) sin ( .2 /3) 0. Vqs = Rs Iqs + p qs + s ds Vds = Rs Ids + p ds .In the above equation. Eq.47.(2/3) Im{ exp(-j a) (Sa + Sb + 2 Sc)} Or in a simpler form.50) and its inverse transform is given by 29 . 2. Although both Eq. (2. 2. we have Sqs = (2/3) Re{exp(-j a) (Sa + Sb + 2 Sc)} Sds = .43) (2.2.2.34. frame transform should be executed in the control.45) (2. By translating Eq.47) (2. When induction motors are controlled by a vector drive.28 . Combining Eq. control computation is often done in the synchronous frame. The most popular transform is between stationary a-b-c frame quantities to synchronously rotating d-q quantities.38 are frequently used to describe the induction motor on a synchronous frame. and Eq. we have the following 8 equations.49) (2.5 cos ( .37 and Eq.42) (2.48) It will be shown in the next section that the above equations are very useful in explaining the dynamic structure of the motor and the concept of vector control. where flux linkage variables are defined by (2.s qs 0 = Rr Iqr + p qr + r dr 0 = Rr Idr + p dr .41) (2. we need another set of equations that include flux linkage variables to explain the concept of vector control.51) (2. 2. 2. 2.46) (2.44) qs = Ls Iqs + Lm Iqr ds = Ls Ids + Lm Idr qr = Lm Iqs + Lr Iqr dr = Lm Ids + Lr Idr.r qr.34.31 in d-q coordinate on a synchronous frame. Since actual stator variables either to be generated or to be measured are all in stationary a-b-c frame.

in terms of space vectors. Eq. Now. 2. 2. 2. Many other forms of torque equations are possible[4].2 /3) sin ( .55) or in terms of d-q variables as Qi = (3/2) [ Vqs Ids . (2.22 into Eq. 2.51 is frequently used to convert measured currents and voltages to d-q quantities while Eq.56) This reactive power can be used in some parameter adaptation methods which automatically corrects the rotor time constant parameter (Tr) during steady-state operation.53) or in terms of d-q variables as Pi = (3/2) [ Vds Ids + Vqs Iqs ].Vds Iqs ]. In many modern drives.1 as Po = (3/2) o Im ( r Ir@ ). instantaneous input power can be expressed. (2. Regardless of reference frame.dr Iqr} (2.52) cos ( .58. it is true for any other reference frames.52 can be accomplished in a slightly different mechanism such as the space vector modulation.Ya Yb Yc = cos sin 1 1 1 Yq Yd 0 (2.57) Since torque is the above power divided by the rotor speed. by Pi = (3/2) Re(Vs Is @ ) . 2. (2. (2.58) where P is the number of poles. Eq. by substituting flux linkage relation of Eq. we have 30 . Eq.2 /3) cos( + 2 /3) sin ( + 2 /3) In vector control drives.52 may be used to feed command signals to the amplifier. For example. one simple way of obtaining the output torque is to consider the power associated with speed voltage term on Fig.59) Although the torque expression on the above is derived from stationary reference frame. To = (3/4) P Im ( r Ir @ ). 2. 2. In terms of d-q variables. (2. (2.54) The reactive power Qi can also be defined as Qi = (3/2) Im(Vs Is @ ) .58 is To = (3/4) P { qr Idr .

Ids Iqr} (2.63) 31 . (2.61) Again.Ids qr} (2.22.To = (3/4) P Lm Im( Is Ir @ ).60 to get To = (3/4) P (Lm/Lr) Im( Is r @ ). 2.62) To = (3/4) P (Lm/Lr) {Iqs dr . 2.60) To = (3/4) P Lm {Iqs Idr . we can eliminate Ir on Eq. by using Eq. (2.

where sinusoidal variables appear as dc quantity in steady state.e. respectively of the stator current. Therefore the torque can be expressed as Te = Ktiaif = Kt¶iqsids (3.coupling effect means that the both torque and flux are the function of voltage or current and frequency . and the use of powerful microcomputer or DSP is mandatory 3. but the inherent coupling effect gives sluggish response .due to this the system is easily prone to instability of a high order system effect . Note that the flux variation is always very sluggish. The vector control is also known a decoupling control. The flux decrease is then compensated by the sluggish flux control loop feeding in additional voltage. where ids is analogous to the field current if and iqs is analogous to the armature current Ia of a DC machine. Vector control is applicable to both induction and synchronous motor drives.the induction machine with the inverter and vector control in the front end is shown with two control current inputs . The torque is controlled by controlling Ia. Ia = armature current If = field current The field flux is perpendicular to the armature flux. orthogonal or transvector control. the torque sensitivity remains maximum in both transient and steady state operations.2 DC Drive Analogy: The developed torque equation is given by Te = Kt¶Ia If Where. and the demonstration that an induction motor can be controlled like a separately excited dc motor.for example if torque is increased by increasing the slip i.1) . The currents ids and iqs are the direct axis component and quadrature axis component.2) Dc machine like performance can also be extended to an induction motor if the machine control is considered in a synchronously rotating reference frame (de-qe)..1 Vector or VECTORcontrol Scalar control is somewhat simple to implement. the field flux is not affected resulting in fast transient response. The foregoing problem can be solve by using vector control. the flux tend to decrease. frequency. Since the current If or the corresponding field flux is decoupled from the armature current Ia. In figure.These currents are the direct axis 32 (3. Modern sensor less vector control are complex. The invention of vector control in the beginning of 1970 s. brought a new era in high performance control of induction machine. This mode of control can be extended to an induction motor also if the machine is considered in a synchronously rotating reference frame where the sinusoidal variable appear as DC quantities. This temporary dipping of flux reduces the torque sensitivity with slip and lengthens the response time. In the below figure the induction motor with inverter and control is shown with two control inputs ids and iqs.CHAPTER 3 VECTORCONTROL 3.ids* and iqs*.

this dc machine like performance is possible only if the two currents are aligned to perpendicular to each other.therefore the torque equation can be expressed as Te = Kt Or Te = Kt¶ idsiqs (3.4) riqs (3.with vector control ids is analogous to field current If and iqs is analogous to armature current Ia of a dc machine .this condition is essential for vector control of ac machine.respectively . And ids is aligned in direction of flux vector .in a synchronously rotating reference frame .this means that the controlling of one current will not affect the other current . Ia Ia If If a f Decoupled (a) iqs we ids 33 .3) Where r is absolute peak value of sinusoidal space vector .component and quadrature axis component of stator current .

the current from the controller are ia*.One called the direct or feedback method and the other known as indirect control or feed forward method . ic .These variables are then converted to synchronously rotating reference frame by unit vector components cos e and sin e before apply them to de-qe model . (b) Vector controlled induction motor fi ld compon nt 3.while the current generates from the inverter are ia. The machine terminal phase current are converted to idss and iqss components by the parks transformation equation . There is generally two method s of vector control .1 (a) separately excited dc motor .ids* VECTOR CONTROL INVERTER IM iqs* T =Ktiqsids torqu compon nt (b) Fig 3. The machine model is represented in a synchronously rotating reference frame .inverter is not shown in the figure considering its gain as unity .3 Principles of Vector control: The fundamental of vector control implementation can be explained with the help of following figure. 34 . ib*. ib. ic*.The method are different essentially by how the unit vector is generated for the control.

which are dc values in synchronously rotating frame .8) ¥ ¢ ¤£ ¢ ¤£ ¢ 35 .5) (3.7) (3. ids* and iqs*.-c ids ids s ¢ .with the help of stationery frame rotor flux vectors drs and qrs is achieved .the de-qe frame is rotating at synchronous speed e with the respect to stationery frame ds-qs .-c t ds-qs ds-qs t de-q e machi e de-qe model iqs* iqss* iqs* iqs iqs cos sin 1 A1 cos sin ids machine terminal Fig 3. Cos e = sin e = drs/ qrs/ r r (3. from the figure we can write the following equation : drs = r cos e (3.are converted to stationary frame with the help of a unit vector generated from flux vector signals drs and qrs . The correct alignment of current ids in the direction of flux and the current iqs perpendicular to it are crucial in vector control.Control Machine ids* de-q e t ds-q s idss* ds-qs t . the principal vector control parameters .3. The alignment.4 Direct or feedback vector control : The basic block diagram of the direct vector control method for a PWM voltage fed inverter drive is shown in figure 3.In this figure .6) qrs = r sin e In other words .the flux signals drs and qrs are generated from the machine terminal voltages and currents with the help of voltage model estimator .and at any instant . the resulting stationary frame signals are then converted to phase current commands for the inverter .the angular position of the de axis with the respect to the ds axis is e.2 : Vector control implementation principle with machine de-qe model 3.

3 : Direct vector control block diagram with rotor flix orientation ¦ § d -q to ds-qs 2p as to 3p as ¦ § ¨ ¦ ¦ G2 ids* idss* ia* ib* VFI ic* [r MOTOR 36 .Vd r* + VR [r* + - G1 iqs* iqs * s r VOLTAGE MO EL ESTIMATOR Fig 3.

1 High-level schematic The high-level schematic shown above is built from six main blocks. The VECTOR CONTROL subsystem generates gate pulses to drive 3phase inverter.1 High-Level Schematic: Fig 4.Chapter 4 SIMULATION OF VECTORCONTROL 4. The DC input to the inverter is given by the DC link formed by 3. 4. The induction motor. The reference speed & actual speed is given to speed regulator subsystem which computes reference torque T* and reference flux *. 37 . Load torque is applied to IM and actual speed information is taken from the motor shaft. and the three-phase diode rectifier models are from blocks provided in the SimPowerSystems library.phase diode rectifier & voltage regulator is already presented . It is possible to use a simplified version of the drive containing an average-value model of the inverter and allowing faster simulation. The speed controller. and the VECTOR CONTROL models are from blocks provided in the Electric Drives library.2 Block diagram of VECTOR CONTROL of induction drive: The INDUCTION MACHINE is fed by 3-phase inverter.phase diode rectifier & voltage regulator. the braking chopper. Simulink model description for 3phase inverter. the threephase inverter. 3.

Fig 4.4.3 Simulink model of speed controller subsystem 38 . |u| F lu x ta b le N* 2 3 MagC 1 N num(z) den(z) Low pas s filter [0] K Ts (z+1) 2(z-1) Integral gain kp Proportional gain F lux ref erenc e (W b) 1 Flux* ki -C - Ctrl s at. 2 Torque* Torque ref erenc e (N m ) -C 0 E rror 3 Ctrl -C - R ef erenc e Fig.3 Speed Controller Subsystem : Reference speed with zero initial conditions is compared with the actual speed. The reference speed is passed through speed limiter to simulate actual conditions of drive.2 Simulink of VECTORcontrol of induction motor drive 4. Both N & N* are discretised.

4. to obtain reference torque. The difference (error) generated by comparison of estimated flux & actual flux is processed through this flux PI controller. This reference torque is checked for its saturation limits. Reference torque obtained by speed controller block along with estimated value of flux. This reference rotor flux is obtained from PI controller.a hysteresis current controller. Two subsystems. is used to calculate reference q-axis component of current iq* (rotor frame of reference). D-axis component of stator current id* is calculated using reference rotor flux. one PI controller . and flux. Low pass filter is used to filter out very low speeds. magnetization and M_vector are used to satisfy actual machine conditions. using Park¶s transformation ..The error between actual speed & reference speed is processed through the PI controller.id*.4. Phir Id a gnetis ati n Th ta Cal I l ati Phir Th ta wm -K- Iabc I wm - C Hys teres is current controller Iabc* P ls es Iabc P l i /z * Cal l ati Id* I * Teta * I * i * Cal m_Flux Phir* l ati 2 Flux* Flux* vec t r _ vect r 4 I_ C Fig. using maximum and minimum values.4 Simulink model of VECTOR CONTROL subsystem 4 /z & 0 Phir* I * w it h © w it h i g & ! " Flux_PI tr l $ $ # % $ $ # Tor ue* Iabc* # Phir 4 21 3 a d2Rpm Teta 21 4 C- Id FP l /z Flux Calculation a gC Es t_Fl ) (# tart /z 3 © ' 5 3 2 Gat 39 . Actual stator currents taken from input of IM are converted into rotor frame of reference. Id & Iq so obtained are used for flux estimation & rotor position calculation respectively. four different equations to calculate iq*.4 VECTOR CONTROL Subsystem: VECTOR CONTROL subsystem uses two transformations Parks Transformation ABC-DQ and inverse Parks transformation DQ-ABC.

.6 id Calculation Iq calculation is done using equation Iq* = (2/3) (1/p) Lr. 4.The reference values of d-axis & q.7iqCalculation Fig. HCC produces pulses for the operation of inverter.xp(-(2*pi*fc)*Tv ct) kp Kp 1/ K Ts ( +1) 2( -1) Ki ki 1 P ir* Fig4. are then transformed into stator frame of reference.Ib and Ic.7 mH Fig. 4. 4. These reference currents Ia*.Te*/(Lm ) The iqs*calculation block uses the calculated rotor flux and the torque reference to compute the stator current quadrature component required to produce the electromagnetic torque on 40 .2 Calculation of id and iq id Calculation is done using equation Id* = reference flux/d-axis inductance 1 1 P ir* 1/ m KF 1 Id* T* 2 P ir Mux (2/ )*(1/p)*( r/ m)*u[1]/(u[2]+1 .1 Flux PI controller 2 Flux* 1 m Flux 1.Ib* and Ic* are given to hysteresis current controller(HCC) along with actual currents Ia . Simulink model of flux PI controller The calculated flux and the reference flux are used to obtain reference rotor flux using PI controller.4.xp(-(2*pi*fc)*Tv ct) z.5.axis current components id* & iq*.4.4.*0) 1 Iq* Id* P ir*/ m m 4. using inverse park¶s transformation. The flux controller is used to control the flux dynamics and to reduce the steady-state flux error.

1 11 ] 1 [1 1 1 ] ctor Fig 4.3 Magnetisation vector The magnetization vector unit contains the vector used to create the motor initial flux.4.4 Theta Calculations 1 z Mux Lm*u 1 /(u 2]*(Lr/R r)+1 -3* ) 1 K Ts(z+1) Mux T ta= El ctrical angl = int g ( w + w r m) w = R fr qu ncy (rad/s) = Lm *Iq / ( Tr * P ir) r otor w R m c anical sp d (rad/s) m= otor 3 w m p 2(z-1) 1 T ta 1 Iq 2 P ir Fig.9 Electrical angle calculation. The ids*calculation block uses the rotor flux reference to compute the stator current direct component required to produce the rotor flux in the machine.4.the motor's shaft. 41 . 4.4.8: The magnetization vector unit 4 .

4. is done in the three phases separately. Vector controller Vector controller mainly gives pulses to the inverter.6 Magnetisation 1 C C st t Fig. 4. also known as bang bang control.The hysteresis PWM current control. reference currents are calculated from he reference torque value in Torque -current block. Fig. Hysteresis current control is a PWM technique. very simple to implement and taking care directly for the current control.4. one for each phase.5 Flux Calculations -exp(-(Rr/( r))*T vect) Phir z-exp(-(Rr/( r))*T vect) m m Id Phir m *Id / ( +T r . 4. The switching logic is realized by three hysteresis controllers. These three inputs are required by inverse Park trasformation block.s) Fig 4.10 Flux linkage calculations The r calculation block is used to estimate the motor's air gap flux.4. The hysteresis current controllers compares the actual stator current values to the reference stator currents.5. 4. Each controller determines the switching-state of one inverter half bridge in such a way that the corresponding current is maintained within a hysteresis band 42 87 -C- vert R !Q 6 9 86 87 C @ Est BA x >= S Q 1 St rt . which generates reference stator currents.15. This calculation is based on motor equation synthesis.11 Magnetisation control unit The magnetization control unit contains the logic used to switch between the magnetization and normal operation mode. Also value of position is converted into electrical rad/sec. Taking direct axis current to be zero.

where the signal is adjusted as per the requirement of the inverter.12 (a) working principle of hysteresis current controllers Fig:4.12(b) switching logic of hysteresis current controllers The pulses so generated are processed through switching control.Fig:4. 43 .12(b).This block is shown in figure 4.

6 Simulink of hystersis controller UG H T S E R QQ HP EI H HGF E D i t .13 Simulink of hystersis controller V ba v w w w w w w f df g eg g d g e dc q ir qp ih ef ut s ts DC Volt e Source Sin W u Tm _ b `VXW V YVXW V Iabc* Pulses Iabc VXW V Hysteresis Current Controller x y 44 .4. = p w ui DC Volt Sin W Sin W + A Source1 B C A m B C S p b t tb t Asynchronous Machine S Units Universal Bridge Demux Con ert NOT Con ert abc Mux Con ert 1 Iabc* Demux Con ert NOT Con ert NOT Con ert 1 Pulses Scope Scope1 Fig : 4.

With some initial current spike.1 Stator currents for below base speed case Figure 5.5 3 Fig 5.5 1 1. < S tato c u e nt is _a A > 2000 1000 0 1 000 0 0.5 1 1.5 1 1.5 3 2 2.5 < S tato c u e nt is _c A > 2 2.CHAPTER-5 SIMULATION RESULTS 5. current settles at the value as per the requirement of the load conditions.5 3 45 . The actual speed settles at the reference value with the delay of 0.1 VECTOR CONTROL SIMULATION RESULTS VECTOR CONTROL simulation is carried out for situations for the speed below base speed.5 im e 2 2.5 seconds.1 shows stator currents when the speed is kept below base speed. 0 0. Figure 5. for speeds below base value.2 shows the reference speed generated by the speed controller and the speed response of machine.5 < S tato c u e nt is _b A > 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 0 2000 1000 0 1 000 0.

6 1 .2 0 .5 2 2.4 1 .2 1 .5 1 1.8 1 T im e 1 .5 1 1.6 0 .6 1 .5 3 < R eferenc e s peed> 1200 1000 800 rpm 600 400 200 0 0 0.5 Tim e 2 2.2 Speed response for the speeds below base value < E le c t ro m a g n e t ic t o rq u e T e (N * m )> 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0 .2 1 .4 0 .8 1 1 .3(a) Torque response for the speeds below base value 46 .5 3 Fig 5.6 0 .4 0 .8 2 Fig 5.A c tual s peed 1200 1000 800 rpm 600 400 200 0 -200 0 0.2 0 .8 2 < T o rq u e re fe re n c e (N m )> 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 0 .4 1 .

axis component stator currents for speed below base value.Figure 5. 0 0 01 x = 0 0017 y = 1200 N 0 02 0 03 0 04 0 05 e o q u e e e e n c e (N ) 0 06 0 07 0 08 0 09 0 1 0 0 01 0 02 0 03 0 04 0 05 0 06 x = 0 04155 y = 796 3 N 0 07 o que 1311 p p le s o 1067N 0 08 0 09 0 1 E le c o agne c o que e (N * ) 47 . whereas electromagnetic torque generated by the machine has torque ripples as shown in figure 5.3 (b) Torque response showing initial fluctuations Figure 5.This is shown in the figures 5.4 shows d-axis & q .5.3(a) shows Electromagnetic torque developed and reference torque generated by PI controller. The reference torque generated reaches the desired level with minute delay. Same conclusion can be drawn for the d-axis & q .3(b). 2000 1500 1000 500 0 x = 0 0396 s ec y = 1783 N 1500 1000 500 0 Fig 5. These waveforms do not show any effect of change in the speed command.axis component stator voltages .

5 d-axis & q .axis component stator voltage for speed below base value 48 .5 2 2 .5 2 2.5.5 1 1.5 Tim e 2 2.5 1 1 .5 3 Fig 5.< S ta to r c u rre n t is _ q (A )> 3000 2000 1000 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 .5 Tim e 2 2 .5 1 1 .5 1 1.axis component stator current for speed below base value < S tator voltage vs _q (V )> 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 0 0.5 3 < S ta to r c u rre n t is _ d (A )> 2000 1500 1000 500 0 -5 0 0 -1 0 0 0 0 0 .5 3 Fig.5 3 < S tator voltage vs _d (V )> 1000 500 0 -500 -1000 0 0.4 d-axis & q .

6 The generated electromagnetic torque contains ripples as shown in the figure. 1500 1000 500 0 500 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 0 5 1 1 5 Fig 5.18 Torque response for the variable torque load. VECTOR CONTROL operation can be evaluated from the graphs in the figure 5.5.2Results for variable load torque For the variable torque loads. 2 2 5 me 3 f o q u e e e e n c e (N m ) 3 5 4 4 5 g d d 0 0 5 1 1 5 2 2 5 3 f e 3 5 4 4 5 5 5 d E le c o m a g n e c o q u e e (N * ) 49 .

CONCLUSION The proposed vector control method is carried out on a model of the vector control built in simulink tool box.in a synchronously rotating reference frame .3(a) shows Electromagnetic torque developed and reference torque generated by PI controller.respectively . The actual speed settles at the reference value with the delay of 0. Figure 5.These currents are the direct axis component and quadrature axis component of stator current .1 shows stator currents when the speed is kept below base speed. In figure. 50 . Figure 5.with vector control ids is analogous to field current If and iqs is analogous to armature current Ia of a dc machine.ids* and iqs*.5 seconds. the induction machine with the inverter and vector control in the front end is shown with two control current inputs . Dc machine like performance can also be extended to an induction motor if the machine control is considered in a synchronously rotating reference frame (de-qe). Therefore this method is also called as decoupled control . The reference torque generated reaches the desired level with minute delay.3(b). current settles at the value as per the requirement of the load conditions. With some initial current spike.as it decouples the torque component and flux component from each other.VECTOR CONTROL simulation is carried out for situations for the speed below base speed. for speeds below base value. where sinusoidal variables appear as dc quantity in steady state.2 shows the reference speed generated by the speed controller and the speed response of machine. whereas electromagnetic torque generated by the machine has torque ripples as shown in figure 5. Figure 5.

Aug.Da Silva. W. Novotney. 1986. IEEE. "Electric Machinery. G. . ³The Field Orientation Principle in Control of Induction Motors." IEEE IASTutorial Course. 1994. 30.M. 1994.1. [8] µVector control of AC Drives¶ Arpad Kelemen & Maria Imecs.8. No.IEEE Trans. AUG. S." IEEE Trans. 1126-1131. Inc. Vol.82.´ IEEE Trans. by D.ind. µVector control and dynamics of ac drives¶ Oxford Science Publication. 1990."Modelling Induction Machines for Electric Drives. Vaez-Zadeh. Novotney.R. Holtz.Jacobina. 6. ³The Universal VECTORController.Jacobina.Correa. IndustryApplications.92-100.B.51. E. pp.R.harooni. et al. [4] D. vol. [2] IEEE Standard 112-1991.1194-1214. [3] G." 5th Ed. Pfisterer*.B. M. pp.C. McGraw-Hill..Lima.1335-1340. Ed.Da Silva." Proceedings of IEEE. O.pp 832-841. 1996 [11] A 2D-Hysteresis Current Control for a Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter H. E. [15]. 51 . Slemon. DeDonker and D.Correa. M.Ohm..1987 [9] µDynamic model of induction motor for vector control applications¶ by Dal Y. pp.Electr. Fitzgerald. Retter.C."Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Nov. W. Jan.N. Vector control Strategies for single phase inductiojn machine.REFERENCES [1] A.R. No.Decoupling vector control of single phase induction motors 35th Annual IEEE PESC¶ 2004.Rotor Flux oriented control of a single phase induction machine . "IEEE Standard Test Procedure for Polyphase Induction Motors and Generators. "Pulse Width Modulation for Electronic Power Conversion. Vol.pp 1073-1080.1st edition. [13]. [5] A.W.N. 2000. A.-J.A Lipo. No. "Introduction to Field Orientation and High Performance AC Drives. Trzynadlowski. [7] R. [14]. Simon** [12].Lima.(Editor). ind. 1994. vol. pp.J.R.47 . 1989. Electr.25. [6] J. on Industry Applications. et al.M. E. µWintech TDS2407EA µ from wintech digital instruments.October.IEEE Trans . Vol. R.Sh. C. Member. 2004 [10].. Novotny and T.R. C.2004. A.´ Kluwer AcademicPublishers.

. Brazil. Aware.MacDonald.Mulay. 1-12.Krause. and M. 1995. 1965. and P. 52 . pp. International Journal of Innovation in Energy Systems and Power. P. µµSteady and Transient States Thermal Analysis of a 7. and C. [18]. Thomas.5KW Squirrel-cage Induction Machine at Rated-Load Operation¶. [19].C. 3(1):27-31 [20]. [17]. IEEE Trans.[16]. µµControl Loop Study of Induction Motor Drive Using D-Q Model¶¶. W. IEEE Transaction on Industrial Electronics and Control Instrumentation. Sen. 1979. 2005. O.L. CETTI 95.I.Leonhard.H.Okoro.V. µµV/F Control of an Induction Machine Predicting Inverter Machine Interaction¶¶. 26(4):237-241.P. M. S.C. PAS-84. 20(4):730-736. 11:1038-1053. µµSimulation of Symmetrical Induction Machinery¶¶. A Successful Transfer from Ideas to Industrial Practice¶¶. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. 2008. µµControlled AC Drives.

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