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This tiny country, composed of a mainland portion plus five inhabited islands, is one of the smallest on the African continent. President Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO has ruled the country since 1979 when he seized power in a coup. Although nominally a constitutional democracy since 1991, the 1996, 2002, and 2009 presidential elections - as well as the 1999 and 2004 legislative elections - were widely seen as flawed. The president exerts almost total control over the political system and has discouraged political opposition. Equatorial Guinea has experienced rapid economic growth due to the discovery of large offshore oil reserves, and in the last decade has become Sub-Saharan Africa's third largest oil exporter. Despite the country's economic windfall from oil production resulting in a massive increase in government revenue in recent years, there have been few improvements in the population's living standards. Equatorial Guinea History The first inhabitants of the region that is now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Rio Muni. Bantu migrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who immigrated to Bioko from Cameroon and Rio Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. The Annobon population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via Sao Tome. The Portuguese explorer, Fernando Po (Fernao do Poo), seeking a route to India, is credited with having discovered the island of Bioko in 1471. He called it Formosa ("pretty flower"), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer. The Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogoue Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in South America (Treaty of Pardo). From 1827 to 1843, Britain established a base on the island to combat the slave trade. The Treaty of Paris settled conflicting claims to the mainland in 1900, and periodically, the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in what was commonly known as Spanish Guinea during the first half of this century. However, through a paternalistic system, particularly on Bioko Island, Spain developed large cacao plantations for which thousands of Nigerian workers were imported as laborers. At independence in 1968, largely as a result of this system, Equatorial Guinea had one of the highest per capita incomes in Africa. The Spanish also helped Equatorial Guinea achieve one of the continent's highest literacy rates and developed a good network of health care facilities. In 1959, the Spanish territory of the Gulf of Guinea was established with status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. As the Spanish Equatorial Region, a governor general ruled it exercising military and civilian powers. The first local elections were held in 1959, and the first Equatoguinean representatives were seated in the Spanish parliament. Under the Basic Law of December 1963, limited autonomy was authorized under a joint legislative body for the territory's two provinces. The name of the country was changed to Equatorial Guinea. Although Spain's commissioner general had extensive powers, the Equatorial Guinean General Assembly had considerable initiative in formulating laws and regulations. In March 1968, under pressure from Equatoguinean nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea. A constitutional convention produced an electoral law and draft constitution. In the presence of a UN observer team, a referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a General Assembly and a Supreme Court with judges appointed by the president. In September 1968, Francisco Macias Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was granted in October. In July 1970, Macias created a single-party state and by May 1971, key portions of the constitution were abrogated. In 1972 Macias took complete control of the government and assumed the title of President-for-Life. The Macias regime was characterized by abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; this led to the death or exile of up to one-third of the country's population. Due to pilferage, ignorance, and neglect, the country's infrastructure--electrical, water, road, transportation, and health--fell into ruin. Religion was repressed, and education ceased. The private and public sectors of the economy were devastated. Nigerian contract laborers on Bioko, estimated to have been 60,000, left en masse in early 1976. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left. In August 1979, Macias' nephew from Mongomo and former director of the infamous Black Beach prison, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, led a successful coup d'etat; Macias was arrested, tried, and executed. Obiang assumed the Presidency in October 1979. Obiang initially ruled Equatorial Guinea with the assistance of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution, drafted in 1982 with the help of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, came into effect after a popular vote on August 15, 1982; the Council was abolished, and Obiang remained in the presidency for a 7-year term. He was reelected in 1989. In February 1996, he again won reelection with 98% of the vote; several opponents withdrew from the race, however, and international observers criticized the election. Subsequently, Obiang named a new cabinet, which included some opposition figures in minor portfolios. Despite the formal ending of oneparty rule in 1991, President Obiang and a circle of advisors (drawn largely from his own family and ethnic group) maintain real authority. The President names and dismisses cabinet members and judges, ratifies
treaties, leads the armed forces, and has considerable authority in other areas. He appoints the governors of Equatorial Guinea's seven provinces. The opposition had few electoral successes in the 1990s. By early 2000, President Obiang’s PDGE party fully dominated government at all levels. In December 2002, President Obiang won a new seven-year mandate with 97% of the vote. Reportedly, 95% of eligible voters voted in this election, although many observers noted numerous irregularities. GOVERNMENT Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Equatorial Guinea conventional short form: Equatorial Guinea local long form: Republica de Guinea Ecuatorial/Republique de Guinee equatoriale local short form: Guinea Ecuatorial/Guinee equatoriale former: Spanish Guinea Government type: republic Capital: name: Malabo geographic coordinates: 3 45 N, 8 47 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) Constitution: approved by national referendum 17 November 1991; amended January 1995 Legal system: partly based on Spanish civil law and tribal custom; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Brig. Gen. (Ret.) Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979 when he seized power in a military coup) head of government: Prime Minister Ignacio MILAM Tang (since 8 July 2008); cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 29 November 2009 (next to be held in 2016); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president election results: Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO reelected president; percent of vote - Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO 95.8%, Placido Mico ABOGO 3.6%; elections marred by widespread fraud Legislative branch: unicameral House of People's Representatives or Camara de Representantes del Pueblo (100 seats; members directly elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 4 May 2008 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDGE 89, EC 10, CPDS 1 note: Parliament has little power since the constitution vests all executive authority in the president Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal Political parties and leaders: Convergence Party for Social Democracy or CPDS [Placido MICO Abogo]; Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea or PDGE [Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA MBASOGO] (ruling party); Electoral Coalition or EC; Party for Progress of Equatorial Guinea or PPGE [Severo MOTO]; Popular Action of Equatorial Guinea or APGE [Avelino MOCACHE]; Popular Union or UP Political pressure groups and leaders: ASODEGUE (Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform); Global Witness (anti-corruption) International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, BDEAC, CEMAC, CPLP (associate), FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO (observer) Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red, with a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars (representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice); green symbolizes the jungle and natural resources, blue represents the sea that connects the mainland to the islands, white stands for peace, and red recalls the fight for independence International Disputes Disputes international: in 2002, ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but a dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River and imprecisely defined maritime coordinates in the ICJ decision delay final
delimitation; UN urges Equatorial Guinea and Gabon to resolve the sovereignty dispute over Gabonoccupied Mbane and lesser islands and to create a maritime boundary in the hydrocarbon-rich Corisco Bay Trafficking in persons: current situation: Equatorial Guinea is primarily a destination country for children trafficked for the purpose of forced labor and possibly for the purpose of sexual exploitation; children have been trafficked from nearby countries for domestic servitude, market labor, ambulant vending, and possibly sexual exploitation; women may also be trafficked to Equatorial Guinea from Cameroon, Benin, other neighboring countries, and China for sexual exploitation tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List - Equatorial Guinea is on the Tier 2 Watch List for its failure to provide evidence of increasing efforts to eliminate trafficking, particularly in the areas of prosecuting and convicting trafficking offenders and failing to formalize mechanisms to provide assistance to victims; although the government made some effort to enforce laws against child labor exploitation, it failed to report any trafficking prosecutions or convictions in 2007; the government continued to lack shelters or formal procedures for providing care to victims (2008) HISTORY The first inhabitants of the region that is now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Rio Muni. Bantu migrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who immigrated to Bioko from Cameroon and Rio Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. The Annobon population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via Sao Tome. The Portuguese explorer, Fernando Po (Fernao do Poo), seeking a route to India, is credited with having discovered the island of Bioko in 1471. He called it Formosa ("pretty flower"), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer. The Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogoue Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in South America (Treaty of Pardo). From 1827 to 1843, Britain established a base on the island to combat the slave trade. The Treaty of Paris settled conflicting claims to the mainland in 1900, and periodically, the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule. Spain lacked the wealth and the interest to develop an extensive economic infrastructure in what was commonly known as Spanish Guinea during the first half of this century. However, through a paternalistic system, particularly on Bioko Island, Spain developed large cacao plantations for which thousands of Nigerian workers were imported as laborers. At independence in 1968, largely as a result of this system, Equatorial Guinea had one of the highest per capita incomes in Africa. The Spanish also helped Equatorial Guinea achieve one of the continent's highest literacy rates and developed a good network of health care facilities. In 1959, the Spanish territory of the Gulf of Guinea was established with status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. As the Spanish Equatorial Region, a governor general ruled it exercising military and civilian powers. The first local elections were held in 1959, and the first Equatoguinean representatives were seated in the Spanish parliament. Under the Basic Law of December 1963, limited autonomy was authorized under a joint legislative body for the territory's two provinces. The name of the country was changed to Equatorial Guinea. Although Spain's commissioner general had extensive powers, the Equatorial Guinean General Assembly had considerable initiative in formulating laws and regulations. In March 1968, under pressure from Equatoguinean nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea. A constitutional convention produced an electoral law and draft constitution. In the presence of a UN observer team, a referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a General Assembly and a Supreme Court with judges appointed by the president. In September 1968, Francisco Macias Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was granted in October. In July 1970, Macias created a single-party state and by May 1971, key portions of the constitution were abrogated. In 1972 Macias took complete control of the government and assumed the title of President-for-Life. The Macias regime was characterized by abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; this led to the death or exile of up to one-third of the country's population. Due to pilferage, ignorance, and neglect, the country's infrastructure--electrical, water, road, transportation, and health--fell into ruin. Religion was repressed,
and education ceased. The private and public sectors of the economy were devastated. Nigerian contract laborers on Bioko, estimated to have been 60,000, left en masse in early 1976. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left. In August 1979, Macias' nephew from Mongomo and former director of the infamous Black Beach prison, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, led a successful coup d'etat; Macias was arrested, tried, and executed. Obiang assumed the Presidency in October 1979. Obiang initially ruled Equatorial Guinea with the assistance of a Supreme Military Council. A new constitution, drafted in 1982 with the help of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, came into effect after a popular vote on August 15, 1982; the Council was abolished, and Obiang remained in the presidency for a 7-year term. He was reelected in 1989. In February 1996, he again won reelection with 98% of the vote; several opponents withdrew from the race, however, and international observers criticized the election. Subsequently, Obiang named a new cabinet, which included some opposition figures in minor portfolios. Despite the formal ending of one-party rule in 1991, President Obiang and a circle of advisors (drawn largely from his own family and ethnic group) maintain real authority. The President names and dismisses cabinet members and judges, ratifies treaties, leads the armed forces, and has considerable authority in other areas. He appoints the governors of Equatorial Guinea's seven provinces. The opposition had few electoral successes in the 1990s. By early 2000, President Obiang’s PDGE party fully dominated government at all levels. In December 2002, President Obiang won a new seven-year mandate with 97% of the vote. Reportedly, 95% of eligible voters voted in this election, although many observers noted numerous irregularities.
Politics of Equatorial Guinea takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President is both the head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Chamber of People's Representatives HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-1" Political conditions In the period following Spain's grant of local autonomy to Equatorial Guinea in 1963, there was a great deal of political party activity. Bubi and Fernandino parties on the island preferred separation from Río Muni or a loose federation. Ethnically based parties in Río Muni favored independence for a united country comprising Bioko and Río Muni, an approach that ultimately won out. (The Movement for the SelfDetermination of Bioko Island (MAIB) which advocates independence for the island under Bubi control, is one of the offshoots of the era immediately preceding independence). Equatorial Guinea became officially independent from Spain on October 12, 1968. Since then, the country has had two presidents: Francisco Macías Nguema, the former mayor of Mongomo under the Spanish colonial government, and Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (Macías's nephew), who has ruled since 1979 when he staged a military coup d'état and executed Macías. The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives Obiang extensive powers, including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet, making laws by decree, dissolving the Chamber of Representatives, negotiating and ratifying treaties and calling legislative elections. Obiang retains his role as commanderin-chief of the armed forces and minister of defense, and he maintains close supervision of the military activity. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. The Prime Minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs, national defense and security. After the accession of Macías to power, political activity largely ceased in Equatorial Guinea. Opposition figures who lived among the exile communities in Spain and elsewhere agitated for reforms; some of them had been employed in the Macías and Obiang governments. After political activities in Equatorial Guinea were legalized in the early 1990s, some opposition leaders returned to test the waters, but repressive actions have continued sporadically. With the prodding of the United Nations, the United States, Spain, and other donor countries, the government undertook an electoral census in 1995. Freely contested municipal elections, the country's first, were held in September. Most observers agree that the elections themselves were relatively free and transparent and that the opposition parties garnered between two-thirds and three-quarters of the total vote. The government delayed announcement of the results and then claimed a highly dubious 52% victory overall and the capture of 19 of 27 municipal councils. Malabo's council went to the opposition. In early January 1996 Obiang called presidential elections to be held in six weeks. The campaign was marred by allegations of fraud, and most of the other candidates withdrew in the final week. Obiang claimed reelection with 98% of the vote. International observers agreed the election was not free or fair. In an attempt to molify his critics, Obiang announced his new cabinet, giving minor portfolios to some people identified by the government as being opposition figures.
Another official branch of the government is the State Council. they are de facto required to accept the leadership of the dominant party Judicial branch The judicial system follows similar administrative levels.provincia).A November 2004 report named Mark Thatcher as a financial backer of a March 2004 attempt to topple Obiang organized by Simon Mann. . is a combination of traditional. At the top are the President and his judicial advisors (the Supreme Court). In descending rank are the appeals courts.Nevertheless. including naming and dismissing members of the cabinet. the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea. politics within the country are currently dominated by tensions between Obiang's son Teodoro (known by the nickname Teodorín. On December 15. The State Council's main function is to serve as caretaker in case of death or physical incapacity of the President. and it operates in an ad hoc manner for lack of established procedures and experienced judicial personnel. is in fact allowed to hold effective power. In March 2001 the President appointed a new Prime Minister. President Obiang's rule. Equatorial Guinea is a One party dominant state. Obiang won an election widely considered fraudulent by members of the western press. Alleged coup attempts in 1981 and 1983 raised little sympathy among the populace. an Amnesty International report on the ensuing trial highlights the government's failure to demonstrate in court that the alleged coup attempt had ever actually taken place. President Obiang has been constrained only by a need to maintain a consensus among his advisers and political supporters. and public utilities and roads restored. Although Equatorial Guinea lacks a well-established democratic tradition comparable to the developed democracies of the West. The tension may be rooted in a power shift arising from the dramatic increase since 1997 in oil production. Bioko Norte. The United Nations Development Programme has proposed a broad governance reform program. 2002. national defense and security. singular . However. during which schools were permitted to reopen and primary education expanded. Extremely serious health and sanitary conditions persist. the President of the National Assembly and the Chairman of the Social and Economic Council. meaning Little Teodoro). Administrative divisions Equatorial Guinea is divided in seven provinces (provincias. It has been criticized for not implementing genuine democratic reforms. Central Intelligence Agency. Annobon. and repressive conditions of the Macias years. It comprises the following ex officio members: the President of the Republic. the Prime Minister. but the Equatorial Guinean Government has not moved rapidly to implement it. effective rule of law does not exist.S. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo seized power in a military coup. The court system. Corruption and a dysfunctional judicial system disrupt the development of Equatorial Guinea's economy and society. elected for a five year term by proportional representation in multi-member constituencies. making laws by decree. Various accounts also name the UK's MI6. In power since 1979. and the educational system remains in desperate condition. the government budget still does not include all revenues and expenditures. the Minister of Defense. He is elected by popular vote to a seven-year term. and other close relatives with powerful positions in the security forces. which often uses customary law. compares favorably with Macías' tyranny and terror. Legislative branch The Chamber of People's Representatives (Cámara de Representantes del Pueblo) has 100 members. and he maintains close supervision of the military activity. Religious freedom is tolerated. the two Presidents (Macías and Obiang) have been the dominant political forces in Equatorial Guinea. civil. chief judges for the divisions. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and operates under powers designated by the President. negotiating and ratifying treaties and calling legislative elections. Although the abuses and atrocities that characterized the Macias years have been eliminated. According to a March 2004 BBC profile. dissolving the Chamber of Representatives. and Spain as having been tacit supporters of the coup attempt. Equatorial Guinea's four main opposition parties withdrew from the country's presidential election. Since 1979. The Nguema family is part of the Esangui subclan of the Fang. the Obiang government has made little progress in stimulating the economy. This means that only one political party. The President retains his role as commander in chief of the armed forces and minister of defense. chaotic. the U.Since independence. and local magistrates. and replaced several ministers perceived to be especially corrupt. most of whom are drawn from the Nguema family in Mongomo. Although minor parties are allowed. Executive branch The 1982 constitution of Equatorial Guinea gives the President extensive powers. and military justice. in the eastern part of Río Muni. Cándido Muatetema Rivas. The Prime Minister coordinates government activities in areas other than foreign affairs. Tribal laws and customs are honored in the formal court system when not in conflict with national law. it has progressed toward developing a participatory political system out of the anarchic.
900 (2010 country comparison to the world: 29 $38. Wele-Nzas. bananas. as the price of oil fell. farming.) GDP $37. Each province is divided administratively into districts and municipalities.) $22. several other ministries are represented at the provincial and district levels. timber Industries: petroleum.66 billion (2010 est.000 bbl/day (2009 est.9% (2009 est. cassava (tapioca).3% (2008 est.18 billion (2009 est.8% exchange real growth est.) $37. manganese.) rate): rate: per est.55 billion (2009 est. sawmilling. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium.) GDP 2% (2010 country comparison to the world: 152 5.) country comparison to the world: [see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ] Inflation rate (consumer 8.200 (2008 note: data are GDP agriculture: industry: services: 3. but dropped in 2009-10. the neglect of the rural economy under successive regimes has diminished potential for agriculture-led growth (the government has stated its intention to reinvest some oil revenue into agriculture). The internal administrative system falls under the Ministry of Territorial Administration.96 billion (2008 est. Centro Sur.200 (2009 est. led by oil.) country comparison to the world: products: production: 35 . GDP $24. A number of aid programs sponsored by the World Bank and the IMF have been cut off since 1993 because of corruption and mismanagement.) capita: in 2010 est.3% (2009 est. natural gas Oil 346.) country comparison to the world: 113 $24.2% (2010 est. cocoa.) US by dollars sector: composition 2. uranium.2% 93. Growth remained strong in 2008.) [see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ] Agriculture coffee. Forestry. yams.1% (2009 est. livestock. fishing. Economy Economy overview: The discovery and exploitation of large oil reserves have contributed to dramatic economic growth but fluctuating oil prices have produced huge swings in GDP growth in recent years. and alluvial gold. rice. Litoral. palm oil nuts. but corruption is rampant. Subsistence farming is the dominate form of livelihood.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP (official $14. iron ore.) country comparison to the world: 191 7. The President appoints the governors of the seven provinces.Bioko Sur. Government officials and their family members own most businesses. and fishing are also major components of GDP.) 11.) rate: 182 prices): Unemployment 30% (1998 est. Although pre-independence Equatorial Guinea counted on cocoa production for hard currency earnings. Kie-Ntem.
) 201 exports: world: est.258 billion Imports petroleum sector equipment.) 35 imports: world: est.) est.imports country ranks ] Exports: $10.) commodities: (2010 (2009 - est.production country ranks ] Oil 1.consumption country ranks ] Oil 362.24 billion country comparison to the world: 85 $8.000 bbl/day country comparison to [see also: Oil .[see also: Oil .743 billion country comparison to the world: 108 $5. cocoa Imports: $5.114 bbl/day country comparison to [see also: Oil . other equipment - consumption: (2009 the (2007 the (2007 the (2010 (2009 world: est.495 billion Exports petroleum. methanol.exports country ranks ] Oil 1.900 bbl/day country comparison to [see also: Oil . timber.) commodities: .) 187 est.) est.
including sections of the Oromo. this ch.. There are also Muslims in other important ethnic categories. The only people (variously estimated at 5 to 15 percent of the population) who have had little if any contact with Orthodox Christianity or Islam live in the far south and the west. Argobba. and to some extent in the south. the ancient Ethiopian monarchy maintained its freedom from colonial rule with the exception of a short-lived Italian occupation from 1936-41. the total Christian population might come to roughly 50 percent of all Ethiopians. the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). The largest ethnic group associated with Islam is the Somali. are unreliable. 16. and Djibouti.Ethiopia Background: Unique among African countries. GeographyEthiopia occupies most of the Horn of Africa. like those on ethnic groups.980 (Sudan). Saho. Included among adherents of indigenous religions are most of those speaking Nilo-Saharan languages and many of those speaking Omotic and Cushitic. The country covers approximately 1. When members of these two groups are combined with others who have accepted Orthodoxy. and settlement patterns. the Sidamo speakers and the Gurage.000 (border war with Eritrea from 1998-2000.Protestant and Roman Catholic--are to be found. such as the pastoral Borana.). Islamic peoples surround Orthodox Christians. Its Red Sea coastline is about 960 kilometers long.g. and massive refugee problems. civil unrest in eastern Sudan has hampered efforts to demarcate the porous boundary with Ethiopia Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 66. natural vegetation. soil composition. the Derg.078 (Eritrea) IDPs: 200.221. the regime was finally toppled in 1991 by a coalition of rebel forces. Kenya. Muslims have been estimated to constitute 40 percent of the population. In the far north and the east. the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money laundering center HISTORY MODERN ETHIOPIA IS THE PRODUCT of many millennia of interaction among peoples in and around the . the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region. wide-scale drought. a military junta. principally to Djibouti and Somalia (legal in all three countries). and most Tigrespeaking groups in northern Eritrea (see Ethiopia's Peoples. Disputes international: Eritrea and Ethiopia agreed to abide by the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission's (EEBC) delimitation decision. Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007. Several other much smaller Islamic groups include the Afar. but final demarcation of the boundary on the ground is currently on hold because of Ethiopian objections to an international commission's finding requiring it to surrender territory considered sensitive to Ethiopia. and Ethiopia's first multiparty elections were held in 1995. e. cultivates qat (khat) for local use and regional export. Demography and geography of religious affiliation Statistical data on religious affiliation. "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera and trade ties to landlocked Ethiopia. Torn by bloody coups. Hareri. Somalia. A border war with Eritrea late in the 1990s ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. as well as cocaine destined for markets in southern Africa. It is among these peoples that the few converts to missionary Christianity-. and ongoing Ethiopian military counterinsurgency in Somali region.576 (Somalia). most IDPs are in Tigray and Gambela Provinces) (2007) Illicit drugs: transit hub for heroin originating in Southwest and Southeast Asia and destined for Europe. the Eritrea-Ethiopia Border Commission remotely demarcated the border by geographical coordinates. two groups that together constitute more than 40 percent of the population. uprisings. ethnic clashes in Gambela. A constitution was adopted in 1994. but neither party responded to the revised line detailed in the November 2006 EEBC Demarcation Statement. Oromo also constitute a large proportion of the total Muslim population. Most Orthodox Christians are Amhara and Tigray. In November 2007. The diversity of the terrain is fundamental to regional variations in climate. The major physiographic features are a massive highland complex of mountains and plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley and surrounded by lowlands along the periphery.900 square kilometers and shares frontiers with Sudan. deposed Emperor Haile SELASSIE (who had ruled since 1930) and established a socialist state. In 1974. 13.
became the dominant institutions among the northern Ethiopians in the post-Aksumite period. led to the isolation of the highlands from European and Middle Eastern centers of Christendom. these groups combined to produce a culture that at any given time differed markedly from that of surrounding peoples. a reinvigorated Ethiopian state slowly reconsolidated its control over the northern highlands and eventually resumed expansion to the south. and religious groups. The establishment of what became the Ethiopian Orthodox Church was critical in molding Ethiopian culture and identity. for with them they brought their religion--Roman Catholicism. fended off local enemies. One of the most significant influences on the formation and evolution of culture in northern Ethiopia consisted of migrants from Southwest Arabia. Jesuit and kindred orders sought to impose Catholicism on Ethiopia. The period of trials that resulted from the Muslim invasions. linguistic. They arrived during the first millennium B. The Zagwe heartland was well south of the old Aksumite domain. and dealt with the . a trading state that prospered in the first centuries of the Christian era and that united the shores of the southern Red Sea commercially and at times politically. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In religious and ethnic conflicts that reached their climax in the midsixteenth century. the Oromo migrations. a dynasty known as the Zagwe ruled from their capital in the northern highlands. They seem to have contributed directly to the rise of the Aksumite kingdom. The appearance of Islam was partly responsible for what became a long-term rivalry between Christians and Muslims--a rivalry that exacerbated older tensions between highlanders and lowlanders and agriculturalists and pastoralists that have persisted to the present day. It was an Aksumite king who accepted Christianity in the mid-fourth century. The evolution of this early "Ethiopian" culture was driven by a variety of ethnic.Ethiopian highlands region. and the Zagwe interlude was but one phase in the long-term southward shift of the locus of political power. In these regions. but only after the northern highlands had been overrun and devastated. the Amhara and Tigray turned back a determined Muslim advance with Portuguese assistance.C. confronted the growing power and confidence of Muslim peoples who lived between the eastern edge of the highlands and the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. The successors of the Zagwe after the mid-thirteenth century--the members of the so-called "Solomonic" dynasty-. and brought Semitic speech. both with their roots in Aksum. however. The spread of Islam to the coastal areas of the Horn of Africa in the eighth century. A profound consequence of the far-flung settlement of the Oromo was the fusion of their culture in some areas with that of the heretofore dominant Amhara and Tigray. By the mid-nineteenth century. writing. however. the Oromo people of southwestern Ethiopia had begun a prolonged series of migrations during which they overwhelmed the Muslim states to the east and began settling in the central highlands. many of them stemming from the expansion of European influence in northeastern Africa. Kingship and Orthodoxy. The advent of the Portuguese in the area marked the end of the long period of isolation from the rest of Christendom that had been near total. During the next twoand-one-half centuries. the Ethiopian state under Emperor Tewodros II (reigned 1855-68) found itself beset by a number of problems." the Amhara of the central highlands and the Tigray of the northern highlands. this time into lands occupied by the Oromo. and the challenge of Roman Catholicism had drawn to a close by the middle of the seventeenth century. The Portuguese. represented a mixed blessing. involving among other things the carving of a large number of rock-hewn churches. an effort that led to civil war and the expulsion of the Catholics from the kingdom. Yohannis IV (reigned 1872-89) and Menelik II (reigned 1889-1913). and a distinctive stone-building tradition to northern Ethiopia.located themselves in the central highlands and involved themselves directly in the affairs of neighboring peoples still farther south and east. Tewodros's successors. The Zagwe era is one of the most artistically creative periods in Ethiopian history. further expanded and consolidated the state. except for contact with the Coptic Church of Egypt. By the mid-sixteenth century. a religion that the Aksumites bequeathed to their successors along with their concept of an empire-state under centralized rulership. During the early seventeenth century. the two dominant peoples of what may be termed the "Christian kingdom of Ethiopia. From the earliest times.
a coalition of rebel forces under the name Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) defeated the government of Mengistu regime. The most salient results of the coup d'état were the eventual emergence of Lieutenant Colonel Mengistu Haile Mariam as head of state and the reorientation of the government and national economy from capitalism to Marxism. The first election for Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. 1993. They are governed under the constitution of 1994. the Eritrean insurgency flared at the same time that an uprising in the neighboring region of Tigray began. Executive power is exercised by the government. mid-twentieth century Ethiopia resembled what could loosely be termed a "feudal" society. and other regions intensified until by the late 1980s they threatened the stability of the regime. A series of crises immediately consumed the revolutionary regime. placed strains on Ethiopian society that contributed in large part to the 1974 military rebellion that ended the Haile Selassie regime and. France.encroachments of European powers. which enabled Ethiopia to repulse the Somali invasion. The disinclination of the world powers. The house of people's representatives are elected by direct election. assumed control of Eritrea and established a provisional government. militarily. initiated a war on Ethiopia's eastern frontier. The insurgencies in Eritrea. which consisted of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution. This insurgency. democratic reform in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union threatened to isolate the revolutionary government politically. economic mismanagement. and Britain. who continued to dominate the country's external affairs after the war ended in 1945. In July 1991. made worse in the north by virtual civil war. who in turn elect the president for a six year term. an ally in the fight against the Mengistu regime. Political developments In May 1991. to counter Italy's attack on Ethiopia in 1935 was in many ways a harbinger of the indecisiveness that would lead to World War II. intent upon wresting control of the Ogaden region from Ethiopia and sensing Addis Ababa's distractions. along with it. turned to the Soviet Union and its allies. the TPLF. In the early years of the war. The house of federation has members chosen by the state asseblies to serve five year terms. Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic. the country's capital Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. Then. including severe famine.000 years of imperial rule. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. in March 1993. Ethiopia was retaken from the Italians by the British. Misery mounted throughout Ethiopia in the 1980s. Italy posed the greatest threat. having begun to colonize part of what would become its future colony of Eritrea in the mid-1880s. and economically from its allies. in need of military assistance. The Judiciary is more or less independent of the executive and the legislature. members of the Southern Ethiopia Peoples' Democratic Coalition left the government. which had been federated with and eventually annexed by the Ethiopian government following World War II.The prime minister is chosen by the parliament. President Meles Zenawi and members of the TGE pledged to oversee the formation of a multi-party democracy. Tigray. the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF). In mid-1977 Somalia. Haile Selassie I (reigned 1930-74). however. The Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF). This . necessitating the infusion of massive amounts of international humanitarian aid. domestic political violence erupted as groups maneuvered to take control of the revolution. Eritrea achieved full independence on May 24. At the same time. Recurrent drought and famine. There are two self governing administrations. Mengistu. was left the task of dealing with resurgent Italian expansionism. For the most part. more than 2. In June 1992 the OLF withdrew from the government. The later years of Haile Selassie's rule saw a growing insurgency in Eritrea.There is a bicameral parliament made of the 108-seat house of federation and the 547-seat House of Peoples Representatives. First. took an enormous human toll. who supplied vast amounts of equipment and thousands of Cuban combat troops. Drought. in particular Italy. whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. especially those in the League of Nations. and the financial burdens of war ravaged the economy. To one of Menelik's successors. along with other internal pressures. A restored Haile Selassie attempted to implement reforms and modernize the state and certain sectors of the economy. and others – with the general exclusion of Amharas – established the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE).
In June 2005. Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. alleging fraud in 299 constituencies. UK Prime Minister Blair. which confirmed that the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front retained its control of the government. While the European Union election observer team of Ana Maria Gomes deemed the elections to have fallen short of international standards for fair and free elections. The Coalition for Unity and Democracy won all the seats in Addis Ababa. The Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi has promoted a policy of ethnic federalism. By February 2006. Street protests broke out again when the opposition called for a general strike and boycotted the new Parliament. and were taken to various detention centers across the country. including freedom of the press. The first President was Negasso Gidada. from 12 to 176. and this time. The opposition complained that the ruling EPRDF engaged in widespread vote rigging and intimidation. According to the US Department of State 2009 human rights report there are hundreds of political prisoners in Ethiopia. proposing that these resettlements would reduce food shortages. seemingly devolving significant powers to regional. the National Elections Board of Ethiopia released the final election results. with 90% of the electorate turning out to cast their vote. including seven policemen. On 14 November. circumscribed. said he wanted to see Ethiopia resolve its internal problems and continue on a democratic path. The incumbent President is Girma Wolde-Giorgis. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995. The African Union report on September 14 commended "the Ethiopian people's display of genuine commitment to democratic ideals". Ethiopians have little political participation. with 90% of the electorate turning out to cast their vote. are. a process which delayed the release of the final results. six hundred remained in custody. despite a ban on protests imposed by the government. The African Union report on September 14 commended "the Ethiopian people's display of genuine commitment to democratic ideals  and on September 15 the US Carter Center concluded that "the majority of the constituency results based on the May 15 polling and tabulation are credible and reflect competitive conditions". ethnically-based authorities but centrally controlled by TPLF cadres. Thousands were arrested. "these elections stand out as a milestone in creating a new. All allegations were investigated by the National Electoral Board of Ethiopia in cooperation with election monitors. 26 people were killed in Addis Ababa as a result of rioting. Among them is the leader of the largest opposition party Birtukan Midekssa. On June 8. the government began a drive to move more than two million people away from the arid highlands of the east. Fundamental freedoms. acknowledging that the EPRDF has won the election. Ethiopia held another general election in May 2005. and very good in 24%". proposing that these resettlements would reduce food shortages. and on September 15 the US Carter Center concluded that "the majority of the constituency results based on the May 15 polling and tabulation are credible and reflect competitive conditions".. Ethiopia has established warm relations with the United States and western Europe and has sought substantial economic aid from Western countries and the World Bank In 2004. refusing to accept the results of the election. 2005. and another of whom later died because of fatal injuries caused by a hand grenade detonation. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. both for the Parliament and the City Council. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). 42 people were killed in Addis Ababa. The overall assessment of the process has been rated as good in 64% of the cases. the government began a resettlement initiative to move more than two million people away from the arid highlands of the east.. International and nongovernmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so. the Ethiopian Parliament passed a resolution to establish a neutral commission to investigate the incidents of June 8 and November 1 and 2.the polling processes were generally positive. In 2004. other teams drew different conclusions. Under the present government. more competitive multi-party political system in one of Africa's largest and most important countries. Current politics Since 1991." Even the EU preliminary statement of 2005 also said ". a group of university students protested these alleged discrepancies. encouraged by supporters of the Coalition for Unity opposition party. other teams drew totally different conclusions. which led to the arrest of hundreds of protesters. In February 2006. . with the results of the election still unclear. which drew a record number of voters. The US Department of State said on September 16. Ethiopia has established warm relations with the United States and western Europe and has sought substantial economic aid from Western countries and World Bank. Zenawi's government was re-elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first multi-party elections. Since 1991. On September 5. Ethiopia held another general election in May 2005. While the election was deemed by the European Union election observer team to fall short of international standards for fair and free elections. which drew a record number of voters.assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. in practice. The police forces once again attempted to contain the protests. but showed that opposition parties had increased their share of parliamentary seats. facing trial in March.
is comprised by the Prime Minister. and the Ministry of the Environment. Executive branch Main office holders President Girma Wolde-Giyorgis Lucha --Independent 8 --October 2001 Prime Minister Meles Zenawi EPRDF August 1995 The president is elected by the House of People's Representatives for a six-year term. which may elect them themselves or through popular elections.the polling processes were generally positive. On 14 November. the US Department of State said on September 16. with the results of the election still unclear.000 prisoners have already been freed. and one additional representative for each one million of its population. various Ministers and other members as determined and approved by the House of People's Representatives. At the current time. Gambela People's Democratic Movement. d Summary of the 15 May 2005 Ethiopian House of People's Representatives election results . Political parties and elections For other political parties see List of political parties in Ethiopia. Even worse. The government said that if there are no protests for one month.. but showed that opposition parties had increased their share of parliamentary seats.However. Concerns about the implications of these trials for the freedom of the press have also been raised. Human rights organisations have raised concerns over the well-being of some of these prisoners. Now half of CUD.] About 119 people are currently facing trial. Somali People's Democratic Party. the Ethiopian Parliament passed a resolution to establish a neutral commission to investigate the incidents of June 8 and November 1 and 2. one for each nationality. and the Council of the Federation (Yefedereshn Mekir Bet) with 110 members. However 8. including seven policemen. the National Elections Board of Ethiopia released the final election results in which confirmed that the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front retained its control of the government. from 12 to 176. The prime minister is designated by the party in power following legislative elections. All Ethiopian Unity Party. the Deputy Prime Minister. both for the Parliament and the City Council. and were taken to various detention centers across the country. The overall assessment of the process has been rated as good in 64% of the cases. An overview on elections and election results is included in Elections in Ethiopia. Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement. it was noted that foreign election observers (including Gomes) were not given the authority and/or documentations in order to travel and monitor rural areas of the country. Oromo People's Congress. a group of opposition supporters protested these alleged discrepancies despite a one month ban on protests imposed by the government.Street protests broke out again later in the year when the CUD opposition called for a general strike and boycotted the new Parliament. hundreds remained in custody. refusing to accept the results of the election. United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party. but couldn't provide substantial proof for their accusationsStill. alleging fraud in 299 constituenciesThe ruling party complained that the main opposition party CUD's AEUP sub party had engaged in intimidationAll allegations were investigated by the National Electoral Board of Ethiopia in cooperation with election monitors.. In June 2005. and very good in 24%. The Coalition for Unity and Democracy won all but one of the seats in Addis Ababa. the Ministry of Health. the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.hold many positions in the parliament. designated by the regional councils. and another of whom later died because of fatal injuries caused by a hand grenade detonation. Various opposition parties— including the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces. these Ministers include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. "these elections stand out as a milestone in creating a new. in correlation with the population order of the corresponding states. Many opposition parties are represented in the Ethiopia Parliament where representatives from Oromia state hold the most positions and representatives from the Amhara State hold the second most position. according to the 1995 constitution. 2005. including journalists for defamation and opposition party leaders for treason. EDL. facing trial in March."The opposition complained that the ruling EPRDF engaged in widespread vote rigging and intimidation. Legislative branch The Federal Parliamentary Assembly has two chambers: the Council of People's Representatives (Yehizbtewekayoch Mekir Bet) with 547 members. more competitive multiparty political system in one of Africa's largest and most important countriesEven the EU preliminary statement of 2005 said that ". By February 2006. The Council of Ministers. it would ease the high political tension in Ethiopia. Thousands were arrested. including Medhin have joined the parliament. a process which delayed the release of the final results. On September 5. The police forces once again attempted to contain the protests and this time forty-two people were killed in Addis Ababa. the Ministry of Water Resources. elected for five-year terms in single-seat constituencies. and the Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front -. these delays occurred a couple of days before the election day and some have indicated the governments role in these delays.
Gambela. Despite growing claims of "harassment" and "undemocratic actions" perpetrated by the ruling party. OAU.During the awarding ceremony held here. Amhara. Tigray International organization participation ACP.Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front Tigrayan People's Liberation Front Oromo Peoples' Democratic Organization Amhara National Democratic Movement Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement Coalition for Unity and Democracy Ethiopian Democratic League All Ethiopian Unity Party United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party Rainbow Ethiopia: Movement for Democracy and Social Justice United Ethiopian Democratic Forces Oromo National Congress Ethiopian Social Democratic Federal Party Some other political pressure groups include the Council of Alternative Forces for Peace and Democracy in Ethiopia (CAFPDE) Beyene Petros and the Southern Ethiopia People's Democratic Coalition (SEPDC) [Beyene Petros]. the free access of international observers. the supremacy of law. The global economic downturn led to balance of payments pressures. ECA. the Arena Tigray (organized by former members of the ruling party TPLF). Coffee is critical to the Ethiopian economy with exports of some $350 million in 2006. IGAD. While GDP growth . the Forum for Democratic Dialogue (FDD). Administrative divisionsEthiopia is divided into 9 ethnically-based administrative regions (astedader akababiwach. ITU. WIPO. ILO. accounting for almost 45% of GDP. Oromia. The courts received the awards for their provision of efficient service for the public through the use of modern Information Communication Technologies (ICT). WMO. published a 65-page manifesto in Addis Ababa on October 10. G-24. a former ally of PM Meles Zenawi. but he added that the government was reluctant. ICAO. Southern Nations. ICRM. Harar. whose leader was imprisoned). the Ethiopian Federal courts received “Technology in Government in Africa” (TIGA) Awards that is provided by Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Canadian e-Policy Resource Center (CePRC). AfDB. WFTU. among which the issues of access to the media for campaigning. In May 2007. Ethiopia qualified for debt relief from the Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) initiative. said that his party’s primary efforts were "to engage in negotiation with the government on key election issues" ahead of the election. Afar. IOC. Intelsat. singular — astedader akabibi) and 2 chartered cities*: Addis Ababa*. Under Ethiopia's constitution. OPCW. UN. The agricultural sector suffers from frequent drought and poor cultivation practices. but historically low prices have seen many farmers switching to qat to supplement income. the prime minister submits candidates selected by the Federal Judicial Administrative Council to the House of People's Representatives for appointment. 2009. UNCTAD. Dire Dawa*. Meles Zenawi’s party that has been in power since 1991. the state owns all land and provides long-term leases to the tenants. UNU. WToO Economy overview: Ethiopia's poverty-stricken economy is based on agriculture. IFC. FAO. Ethiopia’s biggest alliance of opposition political parties declared in October 2009 that it will contest in the scheduled election. TIGA Executive Director Eric Davis said ICT plays a major role in achieving the development goals Africa has set to accomplish. and Peoples Region. NAM. WHO. the system continues to hamper growth in the industrial sector as entrepreneurs are unable to use land as collateral for loans. IAEA. accusing the government of stepping up harassment against them. With Ethiopia’s national election in May 2010 approaching. Benishangul/Gumaz. . and 85% of total employment. Somali. for other federal judges. and the Coalition of Somali Democratic Forces. Nationalities. IBRD. IFAD. UNHCR. ISO. Interpol. UNESCO. and in December 2005 the IMF forgave Ethiopia's debt. partially alleviated by recent emergency funding from the IMF. Gebru Asrat. Some of the eight member parties of this Ethiopian Forum for Democratic Dialogue (FDD or Medrek in Amharic) include the Oromo Federalist Congress (organized by the Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement and the Oromo People’s Congress). G-77. some opposition groups begun to hint a boycott. The award is given in four categories and the Addis Ababa Revenue Agency and the Ethiopian Federal courts were given special awards for their activities on integrated revenue collection and courts reform program respectively. the establishment of an independent electoral board and a stop to harassment and pressure on opposition members. FDD insists to engage in a pre-election negotiation on 10 key subjects. the Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ. Judicial branch The president and vice president of the Federal Supreme Court are recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the House of People's Representatives. In November 2001. IMO. UPU. IFRCS. The coalition of opposition parties and some individuals that was established in 2009 to oust at the general election in 2010 the regime of the TPLF. WCO. IDA. IOM (observer). UNIDO. IMF.
real growth rate country ranks ] GDP per capita: $1.composition by sector .7% [see also: GDP composition by sector industry country ranks ] services: 43.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars [see also: GDP .) country comparison to the world: 41 [see also: Investment (gross fixed) country ranks ] Budget: revenues: $4.7% (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 215 $900 (2009 est.9% [see also: GDP composition by sector agriculture country ranks ] industry: 13.Gini index country ranks ] Investment (gross fixed): 25.) country comparison to the world: 20 8.098 billion (2009 est.7% (FY05/06 est.) [see also: Population below poverty line country ranks ] Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.36 billion [see also: Budget revenues country ranks ] expenditures: $5.) [see also: GDP .6% (2008 est.000 (2010 est.2% of GDP (2009 est.24 billion (2008 note: data are in 2010 US parity): est.) $900 (2008 est.) [see also: Labor force .6% (2005) [see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share .9 million (2007) country comparison to the world: 17 [see also: Labor force country ranks ] Labor force by occupation: agriculture: 85% [see also: Labor force by occupation agriculture country ranks ] industry: 5% [see also: Labor force by occupation industry country ranks ] services: 10% (2009 est.per capita country ranks ] GDP composition by sector: agriculture: 42.services country ranks ] Unemployment rate: NA% [see also: Unemployment rate country ranks ] Population below poverty line: 38.) GDP real growth rate: 7% (2010 est.1% [see also: Household income or consumption by percentage share .02 billion (2010 country comparison to the world: 77 $78.) .services country ranks ] Labor force: 37.) est.94 billion (2009 est. per capita inome is among the lowest in the world.lowest 10% country ranks ] highest 10%: 25.52 billion (2009 est.) dollars GDP (official exchange rate): $30.) $72.) 11. GDP (purchasing power $84.highest 10% country ranks ] Distribution of family income Gini index: 30 (2000) country comparison to the world: 112 40 (1995) [see also: Distribution of family income .by occupation .has remained high.4% (2009 est.) [see also: GDP .
) 98 reserves: consumption: 107 exports: bbl/day comparison (2009 the est.) country comparison to the world: 178 8.4% of GDP (2009 est.) 74 balance: .661 billion (31 December 2010 est. sugarcane. coffee. cotton.) country comparison to the world: 97 $9. leather.) [see also: Stock of broad money country ranks ] Stock of domestic credit: $8.[see also: Budget .) country comparison to the world: 18 Oil 38. potatoes.92 billion cu m (1 January 2010 country comparison to the world: [see also: Natural gas .exports country ranks ] Natural gas proved 24. fish Industries: food processing. beverages.292 billion (31 December 2009 est.972 billion (31 December 2009 est) [see also: Stock of narrow money country ranks ] Stock of broad money: $8.590 bbl/day (2007 est.) [see also: Stock of domestic credit country ranks ] Agriculture products: cereals.proved reserves country ranks ] Current account -$2. pulses.232 billion (2010 est.641 billion (31 December 2009 est.expenditures country ranks ] Public debt: 39.) [see also: Public debt country ranks ] Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7% (2010 est.) $8. cattle. chemicals.5% (2009 est.248 billion (31 December 2010 est.5% (2009 est.000 bbl (1 January 2010 country comparison to the world: [see also: Oil .764 billion (31 December 2010 est) $4.) [see also: Inflation rate (consumer prices) country ranks ] Central bank discount rate: NA% [see also: Central bank discount rate country ranks ] Commercial bank prime lending rate: 8% (31 December 2008) country comparison to the world: 130 7% (31 December 2006) [see also: Commercial bank prime lending rate country ranks ] Stock of narrow money: $4. hides. qat.) reserves: est.) 198 imports: 97 est.imports country ranks ] Oil proved 430. cement Industrial production growth rate: 9.000 country Oil 0 country to bbl/day comparison to (2007 the world: est.proved reserves country ranks ] [see also: Natural gas . textiles. sheep.) country comparison to the world: [see also: Oil .) country comparison to the world: 75 35. cut flowers.3% of GDP (2010 est.) world: Oil 33. metals processing. oilseed. goats.
chemicals. India 7. leather products.88 billion (31 December 2010 country comparison to the world: 101 $1.3% (2009) Reserves of foreign exchange and $1.729 billion (2010 est. live animals.) est.636 billion (2009 est. machinery.) gold: . gold. oilseeds Imports: $7.) est. petroleum and petroleum products.65%.621 billion (31 December 2009 [see also: Debt .external country ranks ] commodities: commodities: vehicles.41%.73%.country comparison to the world: 158 -$1. cereals.) [see also: Current account balance country ranks ] Exports: $1.) country comparison to the world: 102 $6. qat.781 billion (31 December 2009 [see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ] Debt $4.517 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 135 $1. motor textiles Imports China 14.) external: est. Saudi Arabia 8.996 billion (2009 est.946 billion (2009 est.289 billion (31 December 2010 country comparison to the world: 113 $3. partners: est.) [see also: Exports country ranks ] Exports coffee.) [see also: Imports country ranks ] Imports food and live animals. US 4.
1.KENYA Background: Founding president and liberation struggle icon Jomo KENYATTA led Kenya from independence in 1963 until his death in 1978.58 cu km/yr (30%/6%/64%) [see also: Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) . but were viewed as having generally reflected the will of the Kenyan people. defeated KANU candidate Uhuru KENYATTA and assumed the presidency following a campaign centered on an anticorruption platform. KIBAKI's NARC coalition splintered in 2005 over the constitutional review process. soil erosion. gemstones. which were marred by violence and fraud. between Somalia and Tanzania Area comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada Land boundaries: total: 3. Mwai KIBAKI. Desertification.385 ft) last erupted in 1921. Ozone Layer Protection. The ethnically fractured opposition failed to dislodge KANU from power in elections in 1992 and 1997. the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC). salt.6 million years ago.500 people died. President MOI stepped down in December 2002 following fair and peaceful elections. Climate Change.477 km [see also: Land boundaries total country ranks ] border countries: Ethiopia 861 km. Tanzania 769 km. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol. when President Daniel Toroitich arap MOI took power in a constitutional succession. hydropower Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 1. unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife of scientific and economic value HISTORY Fossils found in East Africa suggest that protohumans roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. and Arab and Persian settlements . fluorspar. the Barrier (elev. glaciers are found on Mount Kenya. Africa's second highest peak. soda ash. water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria. MOI acceded to internal and external pressure for political liberalization in late 1991. KIBAKI's reelection in December 2007 brought charges of vote rigging from ODM candidate Raila ODINGA and unleashed two months of violence in which as many as 1. bordering the Indian Ocean. Marine Life Conservation.032 m. united opposition group.total country ranks ] per capita: 46 cu m/yr (2000) [see also: Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) . Endangered Species. the Orange Democratic Movement. South Island is the only other historically active volcano Environment current issues: water pollution from urban and industrial wastes. Recent finds near Kenya's Lake Turkana indicate that hominids lived in the area 2. Geography Location: Eastern Africa. degradation of water quality from increased use of pesticides and fertilizers. Marine Dumping. Wetlands. Kenya's proximity to the Arabian Peninsula invited colonization. UN-sponsored talks in late February produced a powersharing accord bringing ODINGA into the government in the restored position of prime minister. which defeated the government's draft constitution in a popular referendum in November 2005. Sudan 232 km. Cushitic-speaking people from what is now Sudan and Ethiopia moved into the area that is now Kenya beginning around 2000 BC. Ship Pollution. 3. diatomite. The country was a de facto one-party state from 1969 until 1982 when the ruling Kenya African National Union (KANU) made itself the sole legal party in Kenya. Government defectors joined with KANU to form a new opposition coalition. wildlife. flooding during rainy seasons volcanism: Kenya experiences limited volcanic activity. Somalia 682 km. running as the candidate of the multiethnic. deforestation. poaching Environment international agreements: party to: Biodiversity.per capita country ranks ] Natural hazards: recurring drought. Arab traders began frequenting the Kenya coast around the first century AD. desertification. but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography note: the Kenyan Highlands comprise one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. Hazardous Wastes. Whaling signed. zinc. gypsum. Law of the Sea. Uganda 933 km ] Natural resources: limestone.
British losses were about 650. making Kenya officially a one-party state. an ethnic Kikuyu and head of the Kenya African National Union (KANU). Kenya became independent on December 12. the Kenya People's Union (KPU). pro-government supporters formed the NARC-Kenya party to rival the ODM-K. and its leader detained. a Kikuyu from Central province. the British presence was slight. Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU). Following the 1997 election Kenya experienced its first coalition government as KANU was forced to cobble together a majority by bringing into government a few minor parties. Vice President Daniel arap Moi. developed as a trade language for the region. KANU became Kenya's sole political party. especially in the arid northern half of the country. At Kenyatta's death in August 1978. a former Vice President and Luo elder. was formed in 1966. President Kibaki received 62% of the vote. the National Assembly amended the constitution. internal conflicts disrupted the NARC government. including Vice President and Finance Minister. a Kalenjin from Rift Valley province. Mwai Kibaki. POLITICS . This rebellion took place almost exclusively in the highlands of central Kenya among the Kikuyu people. Jomo Kenyatta. British exploration of East Africa in the mid-1800s eventually led to the establishment of Britain's East African Protectorate in 1895. A small but significant leftist opposition party. young military officers in league with some opposition elements attempted to overthrow the government in a violent but ultimately unsuccessful coup. dispossessing the Kikuyu and others of their land. had served as a Member of Parliament since Kenya's independence in 1963. He served in senior posts in both the Kenyatta and Moi governments. was elected the country's third President. became interim President. The Protectorate promoted settlement of the fertile central highlands by Europeans. For other Kenyan communities. Parliament repealed the one-party section of the constitution in December 1991. From 1952 to 1959. The settlers were allowed a voice in government even before Kenya was officially made a British colony in 1920. independent Kenya's first multiparty elections were held. In response to street protests and donor pressure. representing a coalition of small ethnic groups that had feared dominance by larger ones. The minority party. In early 2006. but Africans were prohibited from direct political participation until 1944 when a few appointed (but not elected) African representatives were permitted to sit in the legislature. African participation in the political process increased rapidly. and the next year joined the Commonwealth. By October of that year. Some fertile and well watered parts of the Rift Valley inhabited by the Maasai and the western highlands inhabited by the Kalenjin were also handed over to European settlers. and the latter now comprise two thirds of Kenya's population. In June 1982. In December 2002. Kenya was under a state of emergency arising from the "Mau Mau" insurgency against British colonial rule in general and its land policies in particular. led by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga. the NARC candidate. Two months later. a coalition of opposition parties joined forces with a faction which broke away from KANU to form the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC). Kibaki. In 1992.sprouted along the coast by the eighth century. The new opposition became the Orange Democratic Movement of Kenya (ODM-K)--an alliance of former NARC members and KANU. The KPU was banned shortly thereafter. Nilotic and Bantu peoples moved into the region. The Swahili language. became Kenya's first President. Arab dominance on the coast was interrupted for about 150 years following the arrival of the Portuguese in 1498. Moi became President formally after he was elected head of KANU and designated its sole nominee for the presidential election. culminating in its defeat in 2005 in a referendum over government's draft constitution. dissolved itself in 1964 and joined KANU. In 2003. and NARC also won 59% of the parliamentary seats. a Bantu language with significant Arabic vocabulary. In October 2002. During this period. Divisions in the opposition contributed to Moi's retention of the presidency in 1992 and again in the 1997 election. however. 1963. among others. The first direct elections for Africans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. Tens of thousands of Kikuyu died in the fighting or in the detention camps and restricted villages. During the first millennium AD.
A constitutional referendum was held in Kenya on August 4. Rift Valley. Coast.The Politics of Kenya take place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic. On that day the new constitution. came into force. Kenyans . The administrative divisions are 8 provinces: Central. Executive power is exercised by the government. 12 members nominated by political parties in proportion to their share of seats won in the single-member constituencies and 2 ex officio members: the attorney general and the speaker. Western. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Nyanza. 2010. Administrative divisions Local administration is divided among 69 rural districts. Under the power sharing agreement signed by President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga of the Orange Democratic Movement. and of a multi-party system. North Eastern. heralding the Second Republic. 210 members elected for a five year term in single-seat constituencies. who coordinates and supervises the cabinet. the Orange Democratic Movement is currently the largest party in Kenya's parliament. The government supervises administration of districts and provinces. Kenya has maintained remarkable stability despite changes in its political system and crises in neighboring countries. The constitution of Kenya has three requirements for any candidate to be declared winner: • • • to get the largest number of votes among all contestants nationwide in absolute terms to win at least 25% of the vote in at least five of Kenya's eight provinces to be elected member of parliament in a constituency. The court of laws also fall under this arm/branch of government. It was promulgated on 27 August 2010 at a euphoric ceremony in Nairobi's Uhuru Park. If none of the candidates fulfills all three requirements there is to be a runoff between the two contenders with the highest number of votes. Nairobi. whereby the President of Kenya is both head of state and head of government. all appointed by the president. Political conditions Since independence. Recent constitutional amendments have enabled sharing of executive powers between the President and a Prime Minister. The Raila Odinga led party. each headed by a presidentially appointed commissioner. Under the power-sharing agreement. Kenyan Parliament Building Judicial branch The judiciary is headed by a High Court. The event was graced by a number of African leaders and praised by the international community. The president appoints the vice president and cabinet members from among those elected to the National Assembly. 2010 on whether to adopt the new proposed constitution passed by parliament on April 1. consisting of a chief justice and High Court judges and judges of Kenya's Court of Appeal (no associate judges). each of the two major parties also nominated a deputy prime minister. Eastern. the post of prime minister was constitutionally created and ministers appointed to reflect political parties' relative strength in the National Assembly. with powers shared between the President and a Prime Minister. Executive branch Main office holders President----Mwai KibakiPNU29 December 2007 Prime Minister----Raila OdingaODM17 April 2008 Vice President ---Kalonzo MusyokaODM-K18 January 2008 The president is elected for a five year term by the people. accompanied by a 21-gun salute. The districts are joined to form seven rural provinces. Legislative branch The unicameral National Assembly or Bunge has 224 members. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. Particularly since the re-emergence of multiparty democracy.
while the LDP faction .3% margin of error. which provided for the new role of a strong Prime Minister while weakening the role of President. combating corruption. There has been a major scandal (AngloLeasing). and implementing a new constitution.2007–2008 Kenyan crisis .000 and some researchers note it allowed the violent settlement of land disputes between ethnic groups over controversial concepts of 'ancestral homelands'. maintains aspirations to become Prime Minister. Though a multiparty democracy since 1992 and holding elections since 1962. entrenched in the constitution. who controls a weaker Prime Minister. which were judged free and fair by local and international observers. Most observers suggest that the tallying process for the presidential results were rigged to the advantage of the incumbent president Mwai Kibaki.have enjoyed an increased degree of freedom. This has led to a split between NAK and LDP. led by former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. There was significant and widespread violence in the country . well outside of the poll's 1. A diplomatic solution was achieved. In December 2002. the constitutional process has become mired (see below) and the fight against corruption has been a disaster. despite overwhelming indications that his rival and current Prime Minister of Kenya. parliamentary system.following the unprecedented announcement of Kibaki as the winner of the 2007 presidential elections. constitutional reform has proceeded slower than anticipated.One of these reforms is the famous Agenda 4 that deals with reforms in various sectors. A new constitution has been identified as a key area in fulfilling Agenda 4.demands a federal. Several steps were recommended to ensure stability and peace for the Nation during the negotiations that led to the formation of the Coalition government. revealing that Odinga had won the election by a comfortable margin of 6%. The MoU agreed that a new constitution would be established shortly after the election. Prior to the 2002 election. The elections. It is possible that the political alignment over the referendum could signal a wider re-alignment before the 2007 elections. as the two rivals were later united in a grand coalition government following international mediation. Kenya held democratic and open elections and elected Mwai Kibaki as their new president.the president . which the government has failed to investigate. This improved public freedoms and contributed to generally credible national elections in December 1997. the leader of LDP. 2010 for or against the proposed constitution Elections in Kenya Elections in Kenya in recent years have been cause for violence and fragmentation. A cross-party parliamentary reform initiative in the fall of 1997 revised some oppressive laws inherited from the colonial era that had been used to limit freedom of speech and assembly. Raila Odinga.which has fewer parliamentary seats in the coalition than NAK . Structure Kenya elects on national level a head of state . won the election. marked an important turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution. with the former campaigning for a 'Yes' vote in the forthcoming referendum on the constitution and the latter a 'No'. which laid the basis for the two groups to fight the election under the NARC (Rainbow Alliance) banner. The 2007 presidential elections were largely believed to have been flawed with international observers stating that they did not meet regional or international standards. The National Assembly or Bunge has 224 members. 12 members appointed and 2 ex officio . President Kibaki campaigned on a policy of generating economic growth. The NAK faction (allied to president Kibaki) favours a centralized presidential system. The violence leading to the deaths of almost 1000 and the displacement of almost 600. such as during the presidential elections of 2007. Raila Odinga. Following the agreement. improving education. power was shared between President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister. exit polls commissioned by the US government were released. in particular the British. Following disagreements between the partners in the current government coalition. the proposed new constitution has been modified by the government from what was written by Professor Ghai and amended by the Bomas committee. However. the draft of which was produced by Professor Ghai under the Moi regime. Raila Odinga. under a power-sharing National Accord on Reconciliation Act. have made public criticisms of the lack of progress. notably the planned large-scale privatization of government-owned enterprises. 210 members elected for a five-year term in single-seat constituencies. Also supporting a 'No' vote is the majority of Uhuru Kenyatta's KANU party. the country has serious institutional problems which make it hard for elections to be completed smoothly. John Githongo the Anti-Corruption head has resigned in protest and donor nations. a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU)was agreed between NAK and LDP. A draft constitution has been published and Kenyans will vote on August 4. Considerable success has been achieved in the first two policy areas. the sole party of government from independence to 2002. Internal wrangling within the governing coalition has also negatively affected other crucial areas of governance. The president is elected for a five-year term by the people. In July 2008.and a legislature. This maintains a strong President.
) $1. as KANU peacably transferred power to the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC). In 1997.) country comparison to the world: 82 $63. KANU bowed to public pressure and began reviewing the electoral system. However.) US dollars rate): rate: GDP (official exchange $32. returning Kenya to multi-party elections. This consolidated single-party system would last even after Kenyatta died in 1978. In 1992 the amendment that had mainted a single party system was revoked. despite little action on the government's part to deal with corruption. electing Jomo Kenyatta as the first president of Kenya in 1964.) Labor 17.) country comparison to the world: 81 2. where an estimated 1000 people were killed and 600. The constitutional shift did not immediately manifest itself in well run multiparty elections.real growth rate country ranks ] GDP per $1. but the economy rebounded in 2009-10. Post-election violence in early 2008.600 (2010 est. the IMF suspended Kenya's Enhanced Structural Adjustment Program due to the government's failure to maintain reforms and curb corruption.) 1. under his leadership. coupled with the effects of the global financial crisis on remittance and exports. and a new opposition government took on the formidable economic problems facing the nation.) composition 22% 16% (2009 the 75% by capita: dollars sector: est. After some early progress in rooting out corruption and encouraging donor support.7% (2008 est. GDP (purchasing power parity): $65. In 2006.) note: data are in 2010 US GDP agriculture: industry: services: 62% (2009 est. eventually reaffirmed in an amendment to the constitution in 1982 which made Kenya a one party system. However. In the key December 2002 elections. by 2002 the international community thought the electoral system generally free.78 billion (2008 note: data are in 2010 [see also: GDP (purchasing power parity) country ranks ] est. Kenya has been hampered by corruption and by reliance upon several primary goods whose prices have remained low. one vote" elections in 1963.  The first elections went smootly.) $61.) [see also: GDP (official exchange rate) country ranks ] GDP real growth 4% (2010 est. The international financial institutions and donors have since resumed lending.6% (2009 est.600 (2009 est.Violence has been known to trouble elections.42 billion (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 201 $1. the British allowed "one person.members. The IMF.42 billion (2009 est. competitive elections slowly disappeared as various political parties either joined or were suppressed by the Kenya African National Union (KANU).After major political demonstrations in 1990. reduced GDP growth to 1. History After negotiation with the British since 1957. which had resumed loans in 2000 to help Kenya through a drought.) world: by force: 33 occupation: to - .95 billion (2010 est. again halted lending in 2001 when the government failed to institute several anticorruption measures.000 displaced.) [see also: GDP .94 million country comparison Labor force agriculture: industry and services: 25% (2007 est. Economy overview: Although the regional hub for trade and finance in East Africa. the KIBAKI government was rocked by high-level graft scandals in 2005 and 2006.600 (2008 est. Daniel Arap MOI's 24-year-old reign ended. the World Bank and IMF delayed loans pending action by the government on corruption. most recently in the December 2007 presidential elections.7 in 2008.
commercial ship repair. oil refining. eggs Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic.) country comparison to the world: 166 [see also: Oil .) country comparison to the world: 161 [see also: Oil .3% of GDP est. furniture. beef. pork. horticultural products.) country comparison to the world: 88 $9.) Budget: revenues: $7. fish. coffee.) debt: Agriculture products: tea.9% of GDP country comparison to the world: 49 46.) est. petroleum products. textiles. iron and steel.935 billion (31 December 2010 est. vegetables.045 Public 50. aluminum.530 bbl/day (2007 est.production country ranks ] Oil consumption: 76. coffee.consumption country ranks ] Oil exports: 7. wheat.exports country ranks ] Oil imports: 80. resins and plastics Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4. cement Imports: $10.) est.) [see also: Imports country ranks ] Imports commodities: machinery and transportation equipment. motor vehicles. fruit.) country comparison to the world: 68 $3.459 billion (2009 est. flour).715 billion (2009 est.Unemployment 40% (2008 country comparison to the world: 188 40% (2001 est.4 billion (2010 est. agricultural products. tourism Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2009 est. soap.000 bbl/day (2009 est.141 billion (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 92 .) country comparison to the world: 88 [see also: Oil .585 billion (31 December 2010 est. steel.imports country ranks ] Oil proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 84 [see also: Industrial production growth rate country ranks ] Oil production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.) country comparison to the world: 108 $4.) [see also: Reserves of foreign exchange and gold country ranks ] Debt external: $7.) country comparison to the world: 99 [see also: Oil . horticulture. cigarettes. poultry. clothing. cement. dairy products.85 billion (31 December 2009 est.017 expenditures: $9.) country comparison to the world: 73 [see also: Oil .) rate: billion billion (2009 (2010 (2009 est.) [see also: Exports country ranks ] Exports commodities: tea.270 bbl/day (2007 est. petroleum products. corn. sugarcane. batteries.proved reserves country ranks ] Exports: $5. lead.
$7.) home: .external country ranks ] Stock of direct foreign investment $2.129 billion (31 December [see also: Stock of direct foreign investment .795 billion (31 December [see also: Debt .) at est.) est.at home country ranks ] 2009 2010 2009 - est.337 billion (31 December country comparison to the world: 85 $2.
highest point country ranks ] Natural resources: water.other country ranks ] Irrigated land: 30 sq km (2003) [see also: Irrigated land country ranks ] Total renewable water resources: 5. The Basuto National Party ruled for the first two decades. diamonds. Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule.87% [see also: Land use arable land country ranks ] permanent crops: 0. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability. 28 30 E Map references: Africa Area: total: 30. Geography Location: Southern Africa. wet summers Terrain: mostly highland with plateaus.482 m [see also: Elevation extremes . hot. hills. agricultural and grazing land. cool to cold. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002. sand. and mountains Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Orange and Makhaleng Rivers 1.2 cu km (1987) [see also: Total renewable water resources country ranks ] .water country ranks ] Area comparative: slightly smaller than Maryland Land boundaries: total: 909 km [see also: Land boundaries total country ranks ] border countries: South Africa 909 km Coastline: 0 km (landlocked) [see also: Coastline country ranks ] Maritime claims: none (landlocked) Climate: temperate. In 1998.13% [see also: Land use permanent crops country ranks ] other: 89% (2005) [see also: Land use . clay. violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Botswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community.LESOTHO Background: Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966.355 sq km country comparison to the world: 141 [see also: Area total country ranks ] land: 30. but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990. building stone Land use: arable land: 10.355 sq km [see also: Area land country ranks ] water: 0 sq km [see also: Area . dry winters.400 m [see also: Elevation extremes lowest point country ranks ] highest point: Thabana Ntlenyana 3. but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties continue to dispute how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. an enclave of South Africa Geographic coordinates: 29 30 S.
The LCD won the general elections in 1998 under the leadership of Pakalitha Mosisili. Major General Metsing Lekhanya. and was followed by a majority of Members of Parliament. more than 80% of the country is 1. Prime Minister Ntsu Mokhehle formed a new party. He refused to cede power to the Basotho Congress Party (BCP) and imprisoned its leadership. After the return to democratic government.Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): total: 0. Marine Life Conservation. the BCP government was reinstated and the King abdicated in favor of his father in 1995. which enabled him to form a new government. Subsequent constitutional reforms restored relative political stability.total country ranks ] per capita: 28 cu m/yr (2000) [see also: Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) . Desertification. Hazardous Wastes. King MOSHOESHOE was exiled in 1990. the Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD). Constitutional government was restored in 1993 after seven years of military rule. Wetlands signed. Moshoeshoe II returned from exile in 1992 as an ordinary citizen. who was until then a ceremonial monarch. was ousted in 1991 and then replaced by Major General Phisoane Ramaema. In 1990. violent protests and a military mutiny following a contentious election prompted a brief but bloody intervention by South African and Botswana military forces under the aegis of the Southern African Development Community.800 m above sea level LESOTHO Background: Basutoland was renamed the Kingdom of Lesotho upon independence from the UK in 1966. Peaceful parliamentary elections were held in 2002. The Military Council that came into power granted executive powers to King Moshoeshoe II. His son was installed as King Letsie III. After protracted negotiations. Ozone Layer Protection.per capita country ranks ] Natural hazards: periodic droughts Environment current issues: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas results in overgrazing. The BNP ruled by decree until January 1986 when a military coup forced them out of office. In 1998. however. King Letsie III tried unsuccessfully to persuade the BCP government to reinstate his father (Moshoeshoe II) as head of state. Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol. but returned to Lesotho in 1992 and was reinstated in 1995. 1966. Highlands Water Project controls. severe soil erosion. but Moshoeshoe II died in a car accident in 1996 and was again succeeded by his son. Member states of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) engaged in negotiations aimed at the reinstatement of the BCP government. and soil exhaustion. The chairman of the military junta. Letsie III staged a coup which was backed by the military and deposed the BCP government. One of the conditions put forward by the King for the return of the BCP government was that his father should be re-installed as head of state. The Basuto National Party ruled for the first two decades. Law of the Sea. who handed over power to a democratically elected government of the BCP in 1993.05 cu km/yr (40%/40%/20%) [see also: Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural) . Despite the elections being pronounced free and fair by local and international observers and a subsequent special commission appointed by SADC. The ruling BCP split over leadership disputes in 1997. but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography note: landlocked. completely surrounded by South Africa. stores. Endangered Species. Climate Change. In August 1994. HISTORY Lesotho gained independence from Britain on October 4. In January 1970 the ruling Basotho National Party (BNP) appeared set to lose the first post-independence general elections when Prime Minister Leabua Jonathan annulled the election. the opposition political parties rejected the . Letsie III. and redirects water to South Africa Environment international agreements: party to: Biodiversity. mountainous. but the National Assembly elections of February 2007 were hotly contested and aggrieved parties continue to dispute how the electoral law was applied to award proportional seats in the Assembly. The new government did not receive full international recognition. who had succeeded Mokhehle as party leader. desertification. the King was forced into exile after a falling out with the army.
casualties. When junior members of the armed services mutinied in September. An Interim Political Authority (IPA). Elections were held under this new system in May 2002. NIP 21. other 4 Judicial branch: High Court (chief justice appointed by the monarch acting on the advice of the prime minister). opposition political parties won significant numbers of seats. The new system retained the existing 80 elected Assembly seats. the monarchy is hereditary. Lesotho Workers Party or LWP [Macaefa BILLY]. and All Basotho Congress (ABC) holds 17. the leader of the majority party in the Assembly automatically becomes prime minister. ABC 17. with the National Independent Party (NIP) having the largest share (21). Basotho Batho Democratic Party or BBDP. and withdrew in May 1999. and a faction of the Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Ntsukunyane MPHANYA]). Nine opposition parties hold all 40 of the proportional seats. Looting.King LETSIE III formerly occupied the throne from November 1990 to February 1995 while his father was in exile head of government: Prime Minister Pakalitha MOSISILI (since 23 May 1998) cabinet: Cabinet (For more information visit the ) elections: according to the constitution. Magistrate Courts. charged with reviewing the electoral structure in the country. the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers. A military group of South African and Botswana troops entered the country in September. For the first time. culminating in a violent demonstration outside the royal palace in August 1998. customary or traditional court Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Congress Parties or ACP (including the Lesotho People's Congress or LCP [Kelebone MAOPE]. was created in December 1998. Gen. seats by party . determine who is next in the line of succession. Basotho National Party or BNP [Maj. members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 17 February 2007 (next to be held in 2012) election results: percent of vote by party . and widespread destruction of property followed. but. The IPA devised a proportional electoral system to ensure that there would be opposition in the National Assembly. 80 by popular vote and 40 by proportional vote. note . Christian Democratic Party or CDP [Enerst RAMOKOENA]. due to the inclusion of proportional seats.NA. BNP 3. Basotho Democratic National Party or BDNP [Thabang NYEOE].LCD 61. the government requested a SADC task force to intervene to prevent a coup and restore stability. Lesotho chapter [Thabang MATJAMA] (pushes for media freedom) International organization participation: . LWP 10. under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to depose the monarch. Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Pakalitha MOSISILI] (the governing party). National Independent Party or NIP [Anthony MANYELI] Political pressure groups and leaders: Media Institute of Southern Africa. but added 40 seats to be filled on a proportional basis. or who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (33 members . Opposition protests in the country intensified. Justin Metsing LEKHANYA]. Elections were held again in February 2007. Court of Appeal. and the LCD won again. The LCD has 61 of the 80 constituency-based seats. Basotholand African National Congress or BANC. put down the mutiny. under the terms of the constitution that came into effect after the March 1993 election. POLITICS Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy Capital: name: Maseru Executive branch: chief of state: King LETSIE III (since 7 February 1996). ACP 4. Basotho Congress Party or BCP.results.22 principal chiefs and 11 other members appointed by the ruling party) and the Assembly (120 seats. All Basotho Convention or ABC [Thomas THABANE]. the Basotholand African Congress or BAC [Khauhelo RALITAPOLE].
SADC. a weak currency and poor travel documents restricting their movement. ICRM. Pakalitha Bethuel Mosisili. seats out of 80 Constituency seats. the monarch is a "living symbol of national unity" with no executive or legislative powers. with two other judges as observers. rather. "It is a sovereign country like South Africa. The BNP is the opposition party with the biggest loss in the February 2007 election with its representation reduced from 21 to 3 seats. acting on the advice of the prime minister. All but one of the Justices on the Court of Appeal are South African jurists. in the case of criminal trials. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. ICCt. freedom of the press. WIPO. The constitution provides for an independent judicial system. Executive branch Main office holders Office Name Party Since King Letsie III 7 February 1996 Prime Minister Pakalitha Mosisili LCD 29 May 1998 The Lesotho Government is a modified form of constitutional monarchy. WHO. The upper house of parliament. ICAO. WCO. is the main opposition. The Lesotho Workers Party has the next highest number of proportional seats with 10. he no longer possesses any executive authority and is proscribed from actively participating in political initiatives. judges make rulings alone. The country faces high unemployment. . UN. Lesotho was ranked 12th out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries in the 2008 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Interpol. NAM. and traditional courts that exist predominantly in rural areas. MIGA. UNCTAD. but. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of Parliament. he no longer possesses any executive authority and is prohibited from actively participating in political initiatives. IBRD. the People's Charter Movement. ISO (subscriber). UNHCR. WMO. the Court of Appeal. because of its having won 17. freedom of peaceful assembly and freedom of religion. Swaziland and Lesotho – before we enforced the passport rule. Zimbabwe. The ABC has brought a dramatic change in the Lesotho's politics. the Senate and the National Assembly. WTO The Lesotho Government is a parliamentary or constitutional monarchy. When you travel from Britain to South Africa. IAEA. IFAD. economic collapse. In May 2010 the Charter Movement delivered a petition to the South African High Commission requesting integration. Executive power is exercised by the government. The King serves a largely ceremonial function. UNIDO. including freedom of speech. mainly urban. the National Independent Party (NIP). Pakalitha Mosisili. The Prime Minister. C. who shall serve as regent in the event that the successor is not of mature age. IOC. don't you expect to use a passp Politics of Lesotho takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. is head of government and has executive authority. AfDB. the monarch is hereditary. The constitution also protects basic civil liberties. calling for the practical annexation of the country by South Africa due to the AIDS epidemic which infects a third of the population. The Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD) controls a majority in the National Assembly (the lower house of parliament) with 62 seats. and eleven appointees of the king. has the highest number of seats at 21. IMF. The Basotho National Party (BNP). IPU. The Prime Minister. However there is a growing movement. ITU. UNWTO. UNESCO. only a few months after it was formed in September 2006. An African Union report called for economic integration of Lesotho with South Africa but stopped short of suggesting annexation.ACP. We sent envoys to our neighbours – Botswana. UPU. a party formed shortly before the poll under the leadership of former foreign minister Tom Thabane. and may even depose the monarch. or. made up of the High Court. South Africa's home affairs spokesman Ronnie Mamoepa rejected the idea that Lesotho should be treated as a special case. There is no trial by jury. Of the 40 Proportional Representation (PR) seats. IFC. G-77. freedom of association. is head of government and has executive authority. and of a multi-party system. whereby the Prime Minister of Lesotho is the head of government. Magistrate's Courts. AU. under traditional law the college of chiefs has the power to determine who is next in the line of succession. A total of 12 political parties are represented in the 120-member parliament. is composed of twenty-two principal chiefs whose membership is hereditary. The king serves a largely ceremonial function. ILO. WFTU. According to the constitution. The All Basotho Convention (ABC). under the terms of the constitution which came into effect after the March 1993 election. a parliamentary ally of the ruling party. FAO. SACU. OPCW. called the Senate. the Alliance of Congress Parties (ACP) and the newly formed Basotho Batho Democratic Party (BBDP) and the Basotho Democratic National Party (BDNP) Lesotho are among the other five opposition parties represented. IDA. IFRCS. Quoting. the leader of the majority party in the assembly automatically becomes prime minister.
Despite Lesotho's market-based economy being heavily tied to its neighbor South Africa. especially livestock. 40 compensatory seats under the Proportional Representation were shared among nine opposition parties.) $3.6% (2009 est. Lesotho has signed an Interim Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF. elected for a five year term. The judiciary is made up of the High Court of Lesotho.overview: Small. and the press. winning all but one of the 80 constituency-based seats. magistrate's courts. Nevertheless. Exports have grown significantly because of the trade benefits contained in the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act. the US is an important trade partner because of the export sector's heavy dependence on apparel exports.148 billion (2008 est. GDP (purchasing power parity): $3. In the 25 May 2002 general elections. Lesotho produces about 90% of its own electrical power needs. Completion of a major hydropower facility in January 1998 permitted the sale of water to South Africa and generated royalties for Lesotho. The LCD. judges make rulings alone.198 billion (2009 est. Lesotho signed a Millennium Challenge Account Compact with the US worth $362. The economy is still primarily based on subsistence agriculture. freedom of peaceful assembly. after political riots following the disputed 1998. and jute industries. BNP. rather. It proposed the restructuring of the Independent Electoral Commission. Economic growth dropped in 2009.6% services: 58. an all-party forum called the Interim Political Authority was formed to level ground for the next poll. association. The National Assembly has 120 members.) GDP .) . Lesotho relies on remittances from miners employed in South Africa. landlocked. The extreme inequality in the distribution of income remains a major drawback. as well as an apparel-assembly sector.) note: data are in 2010 US dollars GDP . but growth returned to 3.2% (2009 est. a small manufacturing base has developed based on farm products that support the milling.5% in 2010. Distinctions and differences in political orientation between the major parties have blurred in recent years. The 1998 elections were the third multiparty elections in Lesotho's history.composition by sector: agriculture: 7. which happened and the change of the model from pure First-Pastthe-Post System to Mixed Member Proportional Representation.Legislative branch Parliament has two chambers. although drought has decreased agricultural activity. with two other judges as observers. the government has recently strengthened its tax system to reduce dependency on customs duties. Judicial branch The constitution provides for an independent judicial system. and freedom of religion. leaving the once-dominant Basotho National Party (BNP) and Basotholand Congress Party (BCP) far behind in total votes. There is no trial by jury. canning. and mountainous. and traditional courts that exist predominantly in rural areas.) 3.1% industry: 34. The Lesotho Congress for Democracy (LCD) won the majority in parliament in the 23 May 1998 general elections.5 million. including freedom of speech. and BCP remain the principal rival political organizations in Lesotho. Economy . due mainly to the effects of the global economic crisis as demand for the country's exports declined and SACU revenue fell precipitously when South Africa . The constitution also protects basic civil liberties. leather. many members of the opposition have accused the LCD of electoral fraud.31 billion (2010 est. 80 in single-seat constituencies and 40 by proportional representation.the primary contributor to the SACU revenue pool . customs duties from the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU). In July 2007. and export revenue for the majority of government revenue.went into recession.5% (2010 est.real growth rate: 3. Although international observers as well as a regional commission declared the elections to have reflected the will of the people. the Court of Appeal. However.) country comparison to the world: 97 1. in the case of criminal trials. or. the ruling Lesotho Congress for Democracy was re-elected by majority.9% (2008 est. The Senate has 33 nominated members. As the number of mineworkers has declined steadily over the past several years.) country comparison to the world: 174 $3.
) country comparison to the world: 160 [see also: Oil .production: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.2% (2008) Imports: $1.) country comparison to the world: 153 $821 million (2009 est. apparel assembly.partners: US 58.766 billion (2010 est. building materials.exports: 0 bbl/day (2007 est.consumption: 2. road vehicles).) country comparison to the world: 188 [see also: Oil . Belgium 37%.commodities: food.proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est. construction. beverages.products: corn.553 bbl/day (2007 est. Madagascar 1.Labor force: 854.) country comparison to the world: 186 [see also: Oil . petroleum products . pulses.600 (2007 est.) country comparison to the world: 156 $1.000 bbl/day (2009 est. wool and mohair.exports country ranks ] Oil . vehicles. textiles. sorghum.proved reserves country ranks ] Exports: $985 million (2010 est.1% (2010 est. handicrafts. footwear.production country ranks ] Oil .commodities: manufactures 75% (clothing. food and live animals Exports . machinery.) country comparison to the world: 155 [see also: Oil .imports country ranks ] Oil .) Imports .imports: 1.) country comparison to the world: 145 Unemployment rate: 45% (2002) country comparison to the world: 190 Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.9%.) Exports . livestock Industries: food. medicines.consumption country ranks ] Oil . tourism Oil . wheat. barley.) country comparison to the world: 164 Agriculture .) country comparison to the world: 181 [see also: Oil .572 billion (2009 est.
around the same time that Captain Misson and his pirate crew allegedly founded the famous pirate utopia of Libertalia on the small island of Nosy Boraha off Madagascar's northeastern coast. Kingdom of Madagascar Upon its emergence in the early 17th century. protests over increasing restrictions on opposition press and activities resulted in RAVALOMANANA stepping down and the presidency was conferred to the mayor of Antananarivo. the leader during the 1970s and 1980s. particularly those involved in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The French established trading posts along the east coast in the late 17th century. Merina oral histories tell of migration from the southeast coast to the central highlands where the Merina encountered an established population called the Vazimba. Madagascar was a favorite haunt for pirates. From his capital at . Later. In early 2009. following a century of warring and famine. Andry RAJOELINA. the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. Following negotiations in July and August of 2009. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA. elephant birds. Didier RATSIRAKA. The wealth generated by this trade spurred the rise of organized kingdoms. located in the central highlands with its capital at the royal palace of Antananarivo. when the Portuguese sea captain Diogo Dias sighted the island. In 1997. The rising intensity of land cultivation and the ever-increasing demand for zebu pasturage in the central highlands had largely transformed the region from a forest ecosystem to barren grassland by the 17th century. Madagascar was an important transoceanic trading hub connecting ports of the Indian Ocean in the early centuries following human settlement. In the popular imagination today. During 1992-93. giant fossa and the Malagasy hippopotamus. Imerina was reunited in 1793 by King Andrianampoinimerina (1787–1810). some of which had grown quite powerful by the 17th century. The first settlers encountered Madagascar's wealth of megafauna. early settlers practiced tavy (swidden. History Early history Most archaeologists estimate that the earliest settlers arrived in outrigger canoes from southern Borneo between 200 BCE and 500 CE. European contact began in 1500. who may have been the descendants of an earlier and less technologically advanced Austronesian settlement wave. Merina legends relate that the Vazimba were largely driven from the Highlands or absorbed into the local population through intermarriage. Madagascar became a French colony in 1896 but regained independence in 1960. Irrigated rice paddies emerged in highland Betsileo country by 1600 and were complemented with terraced paddies throughout Imerina a century later. Among these were the Betsimisaraka alliance of the eastern coast and the Sakalava chiefdoms of Menabe and Boina on the west coast. The Kingdom of Imerina. Zebu were introduced around 1000 CE by Bantuspeaking East African migrants who maintained large herds. free presidential and National Assembly elections were held ending 17 years of single-party rule. the Arabic script (used to transcribe the Malagasy language in a form of writing known as sorabe). which have since become extinct due to hunting and habitat destruction. Arab astrology and other cultural elements. nearly causing secession of half of the country. it gained prominence among pirates and European traders. The Vazimba were vanquished by 16th and early 17th-century Merina kings Andriamanelo. likewise emerged at around the same time under the leadership of King Andriamanelo. making Madagascar one of the last major landmasses on Earth to be settled by people. including giant lemurs. In April 2002. was returned to the presidency. a power-sharing agreement with a 15-month transitional period was established. RAVALOMANANA achieved a second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006.MADAGASCAR Background: Formerly an independent kingdom. The written history of Madagascar begins in the 7th century when Arabs established trading posts along the northwest coast and introduced Islam. the highland kingdom of Imerina was initially a minor power relative to the larger coastal kingdoms  and grew even weaker in the early 18th century when King Andriamasinavalona divided it among his four sons. Upon arrival. However. slash-and-burn agriculture) to clear the virgin coastal rainforests for the cultivation of their crops. but has not yet been implemented. By 600 CE groups of these early settlers had moved inland and began clearing the forests of the central Highlands. who founded Antananarivo around 1625 upon the site of a captured Vazimba capital on the hilltop of Analamanga. From about 1774 to 1824. Ralambo and particularly Andrianjaka. in the second presidential race. the Vazimba are frequently characterized as powerful and even monstrous spirits (sometimes with pygmy-like features) that must be appeased because of their status as tompon-tany or ancestral masters of the land.
 The Merina royal tradition of corvee . King Radama I (1810–1828). Madagascar is usually a semi-presidential representative democratic multi-party republic. Ultimately. James Cameron and others established schools. Some leaders in Nazi Germany proposed deporting all of Europe's Jews to Madagascar (the Madagascar Plan). Slavery was abolished in 1896. as an autonomous state within the French Community.000 to over 80. and introduced a variety of new technologies to the island. The French later established reformed institutions in 1956 under the Loi Cadre (Overseas Reform Act). Queen Ranavalona I (1828–1861). causing heavy casualties and leading Queen Ranavalona III to surrender. 1958. Under colonial rule. the word government refers collectively to the President.HYPERLINK "http://en. British troops occupied the island in 1942 to preclude its seizure by the Japanese. responded to increasing political and cultural encroachment on the part of Britain and France by issuing a royal edict prohibiting the practice of Christianity in Madagascar and eventually expelling all foreigners from the territory. particularly in rural and coastal areas where the schools of the Merina had not reached. Radama concluded a treaty with the British governor of Mauritius to abolish the lucrative slave trade in return for British military and financial assistance. attempted to relax his mother's stringent policies but two years later Prime Minister Rainivoninahitriniony (1852–1865) and other courtiers orchestrated an assassination that brought Radama's reign to an end.was continued under the French and used to construct a railway and roads linking the coastal cities to Antananarivo. the latter being selected by the Prime Minister but serving at the pleasure of the President. the column bombarded the Rova palace with heavy artillery.000. According to the constitution. Radama II (1861–1863). in 1896 France annexed Madagascar. and Syria.000 liberated slaves remained in their former masters' homes as servants. It was suppressed after over a year of bitter fighting. education became mandatory between the ages of 6 to 13 and focused primarily on French language and practical skills. Morocco. Upon reaching the city in September 1895.000 francs to the heirs of Joseph-François Lambert. 1960. The flying column proceeded to march toward Antananarivo but lost many to malaria and other diseases. and Madagascar moved peacefully towards independence. who would go on to marry Queen Ranavalona II(1868–1883) and Queen Ranavalona III) (1883–1897) in succession. France invaded Madagascar in 1883 in what became known as the first Franco-Hova War on the pretext of the non-respect of the Lambert Charter .Ambohimanga (a UNESCO World Heritage Site). plantations were established for the production of a variety of export crops.wikipedia. 46. With French prestige at low ebb after the end of World War II. first to Reunion Island and then to Algeria the following year.org/wiki/Madagascar" \l "cite_note-40"  The courtiers. After the conclusion of hostilities. after which the Free French took over. Artisan missionary envoys from the London Missionary Society began arriving in 1818. both signed by former king Radama II.000 Malagasy troops fought in France. transcribed the Malagasy language using the Roman alphabet. and Mahajanga on the west coast in December 1894 and January 1895 respectively. The Malagasy Republic was proclaimed on October 14. translated the Bible. The 103-year-old Merina monarchy ended with the royal family being sent into exile. A period of provisional government ended with the adoption of a constitution in 1959 and full independence on June 26.a document granting lucrative concessions to French citizens and a letter entreating the assistance of the French in ending the rule of Ranavalona I. offered Radama's widow Rasoherina (1863–1868) the opportunity to rule if she would accept a power sharing arrangement with the Prime Minister . then later deposing him and wedding his brother. with death toll estimates ranging from 10. executive power is exercised by the government while legislative power is vested in both the government and the Senate and the National Assembly. the British accepted the full formal imposition of a French protectorate. necessitating reinforcements drawn from Algeria and SubSaharan Africa.taxes paid in the form of labor . The constitution declares the judiciary to be independent of the executive and the legislature. Her son and successor. Schools were built. In 1890. During World War I. Queen Rasoherina accepted. seeking to end the absolute power of the monarch. the Vichy government administered Madagascar. the French bombarded and occupied the harbor of Toamasina on the east coast. After France fell to Germany. although in reality these two latter bodies have very little power or legislative role. In the Malagasy system. however. first wedding Rainivoninahitriniony. Madagascar ceded Antsiranana (Diego Suarez) on the northern coast to France and paid 560. wherein the popularly elected President is the head of state and selects a Prime Minister to form a government. Politics Although the head of state since March 2009 is self-proclaimed. the Prime Minister and all the heads of government ministries (Ministers). At the war's end. has been disputed both in historic sources and some 20th-century historical research. Prime Minister Rainilaiarivony (1864–1895). this Merina king rapidly expand his rule over neighboring principalities with the intent to bring the entire island under his control. Radama's successor. Wide paved boulevards and gathering spaces were constructed in the capital city of Antananarivo and the Rova palace compound was turned into a museum. Radama's supposed death. but nothing came of this. but constitutional provisions empowering the Minister of Justice to interfere in operations of the judiciary branch effectively undermine intended separation of . but many of the 500. During the Battle of Madagascar. the Malagasy Uprising of 1947 broke out.  an ambition largely achieved by his son and successor.a new social contract to be sealed by a political marriage between them.
IOM (observer). Movement for the Progress of Madagascar or MFM [Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA]. IBRD.Didier RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 50. Intelsat. Fihaonana Rally or Fihaonana [Guy RAZANAMASY]. which was pro-Ravalomanana. IAEA.last held 17 May 1998 (next to be held NA 2002) election results: National Assembly . After Madagascar gained independence from France in 1960. Ravalomanana assigned his powers to a military council loyal to himself headed by Vice-Admiral Hyppolite Ramaroson. Congress Party for Malagasy Independence or AKFM/Fanavaozana. backed by Andry Rajoelina. Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [leader vacant]. members are directly elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms). RPSD 11. Rajoelina mobilized his supporters to take to the streets of Antananarivo to demand Ravalomanana's ousting on the grounds of his autocratic style of government. ICFTU. election last held 29 December 1996 (next to be held NA November 2001). the remaining one-third of the seats will be appointed by the president. FAO. Rajoelina announced that elections would be held in two years and that the constitution would be amended. Ravalomanana and his party Tiako I Madagasikara (TIM) dominated political life. Ratsiraka's supporters tried to blockade the capital. with more than 170 people killed.3% Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats. 2009. two-thirds of the seats of this Senate will be filled by regional assemblies whose members will be elected by popular vote. Didier Ratsiraka took power in a military coup in 1975 and ruled until 2001. National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM International organization participation: ACCT. IFRCS. Albert ZAFY (AFFA) 49. ILO. Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]. the total number of seats will be determined by the National Assembly. which proceeded to suspend Madagascar's membership on March 20. The European Union. ACP. and Harmony or AFFA [Professor Albert ZAFY]. IMO. Tranobe (Big House) [Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO] Political pressure groups and leaders: Federalist Movement. a recount in April 2002 led the High Constitutional Court to pronounce Ravalomanana president. Truth. Between 2002 and 2009. amongst other international entities. MFM 3. Development. Group of Reflection and Action for the Development of Madagascar or GRAD/Iloafo. A series of protests against then-President Marc Ravalomanana in 2009. percent of vote . AKFM/Fanavaozana 3. despite an ongoing government drive to eradicate poverty. Executive branch: chief of state: President Didier RATSIRAKA (since 10 February 1997) head of government: Prime Minister Tantely Rene Gabriot ANDRIANARIVO (since NA 1998) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term. former mayor of Antananarivo. The political situation in Madagascar has been marked by struggle for control. LEADER/Fanilo 16. independents 32 Judicial branch: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme. The military called the move by Ravalomanana a "ploy" and said that it would support Rajoelina as leader. political transitions have been marked by numerous popular protests. but it was not until July that Ratsiraka fled to France and Ravalomanana gained control of the country. and the Southern Africa Development Community both criticized the forced resignation of Ravalomanana. When Marc Ravalomanana and Ratsiraka both claimed victory after presidential elections in December 2001. ECA. AVI 14. several disputed elections. with a short break when he was ousted in the early 1990s.NA%. President Ravalomanana resigned on March 17. refused to recognize the new government.the legislature is scheduled to become a bicameral Parliament with the establishment of a Senate. AFFA 6. High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle Political parties and leaders: Action. Fihaonana 1. seats by party .  Rajoelina had already declared himself the new leader a month earlier and assumed the role of acting President. Antananarivo. . IMF.7%. ICRM. After eight months of sporadic violence with considerable economic disruption. The African Union.powers. ICC. consolidating the strength of the executive branch. Judged by Your Work or AVI [Norbert RATSIRAHONANA]. appointing Monja Roindefo as Prime Minister. IDA. IFC. two military coups and one assassination. prime minister appointed by the president from a list of candidates nominated by the National Assembly election results: Didier RATSIRAKA elected president. AfDB. After losing support of the military and under intense pressure from Rajoelina. Interpol. Ravalomanana's reelection in December 2006 was met with some protests over worsening standards of living. IOC. due to it being installed by force. all members will serve four-year terms elections: National Assembly . GRAD/Iloafo 1. IFAD. G-77. InOC.percent of vote by party . CCC. ICAO.AREMA 63. became violent. note . Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON].
1998) Exports . and foreign investment will be key determinants of future growth.) GDP . For 2001. WHO. 1998) Imports . Europa Island. WIPO. Glorioso Islands. a roughly 3% annual population growth rate. petroleum products Imports: $693 million (f. capital goods..o. WMO. cotton cloth. ITU. is the mainstay of the economy.overview: Madagascar faces problems of chronic malnutrition. NAM.commodities: coffee. WToO. and severe loss of forest cover.composition by sector: agriculture: 30% industry: 14% services: 56% (1999 est. Growth has been held back by antigovernment strikes and demonstrations.) GDP .. accompanied by erosion. a decline in world coffee prices. and Tromelin Island (all administered by France) Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption. cassava (tapioca). Industry features textile manufacturing and the processing of agricultural products. Growth in output in 1992-97 averaged less than the growth rate of the population.) Labor force: 7 million (1999) Industries: meat processing.per capita: purchasing power parity . UNHCR. sugar. underfunded health and education facilities.8% (2000 est. UNCTAD. breweries. transshipment point for heroin . tanneries. textiles. sugarcane.3 billion (2000 est. UN.$800 (2000 est.international: claims Bassas da India. outside financial aid. glassware. UNIDO. cloves. WTrO Economy . livestock products Exports: $538 million (f. vanilla.b. WFTU. WCL. vanilla. Agriculture. The extent of government reforms. shellfish. bananas.products: coffee. tourism Agriculture . automobile assembly plant. petroleum. sugar. accounting for 30% of GDP and contributing more than 70% to export earnings.) Population below poverty line: 70% (1994 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1. Juan de Nova Island. food Disputes . OAU. chromite.ISO (correspondent). peanuts. UPU.7% (1993) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1999 est. rice. growth should again be about 5%. petroleum. cocoa.real growth rate: 4. GDP: purchasing power parity . including fishing and forestry. UNESCO.) GDP . cement.commodities: intermediate manufactures. beans. consumer goods.9% highest 10%: 36.o.b.$12. and the erratic commitment of the government to economic reform. paper. soap. OPCW.
Malawi Congress Party or MCP [Gwanda CHAKUAMBA. one does not exist in practice. The Government of Malawi has been a multi-party democracy since 1994. Executive branch: chief of state: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994). C. UNMIK.UDF 48%. magistrate's courts Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy or AFORD [Chakufwa CHIHANA. ITU. WIPO. ICFTU. IFAD. The members of the cabinet are appointed by the president and can be from either inside or outside of the legislature. puisne judges appointed on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission). currently under the leadership of President Bingu wa Mutharika. AFORD 15%. High Court (chief justice appointed by the president. UNCTAD. 1995. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly. Interpol. MCP 66. note .MALAWI Background: Established in 1891. IBRD. UNESCO. Executive power is exercised by the government. the country held multiparty elections in 1994 under a provisional constitution. Social Democratic Party or SDP [Eston KAKHOME. NAM.the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: 36-member Cabinet named by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term. others 4 Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Appeal. president]. John TEMBO. note . CCC. WTrO Government type: multiparty democracy Capital: Lilongwe Politics Politics of Malawi takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic. percent of vote . a High . IFC. seats by party UDF 94. The branches of the government consist of executive. which took full effect the following year. UN. vice president].the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Bakili MULUZI (since 21 May 1994). If created. president. Intelsat. The executive includes a president who is both chief of state and head of government. others 3%. the British protectorate of Nyasaland became the independent nation of Malawi in 1964. AFORD 29. The legislative branch consists of a unicameral National Assembly of 193 members who are elected every five years. G-77. ICAO. president]. SADC. and although the Malawian constitution provides for a Senate of 80 seats. youth and women. National Independence Party. and of a multi-party system. first and second vice presidents and a cabinet. president]. ICRM. WToO. ISO (correspondent). Gwandaguluwe CHAKUAMBA (MCP-AFORD) 44.3% Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (193 seats. FAO. National multiparty elections were held again in 1999. The current constitution was put into place on May 18. AfDB. IFRCS. ILO.governing party Political pressure groups and leaders: NA International organization participation: ACP. A second vice president may be appointed by the president if he so chooses. IOC. WMO. WFTU. election last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: Bakili MULUZI reelected president. members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 15 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: percent of vote by party . ECA. The president is elected every five years. IMO.Bakili MULUZI (UDF) 51. UPU. and the vice president is elected with the president. Malawi is a democratic. The independent judicial branch is based upon the English model and consists of a constitutional court. although they must be from a different party. United Democratic Front or UDF [Bakili MULUZI] . legislative and judicial. After three decades of one-party rule. as well as special interest groups including the disabled. IMF. Malawi Democratic Party or MDP [Kampelo KALUA. OPCW. IDA. WHO. multi-party government. whereby the President of Malawi is both head of state and head of government.4%. the Senate would provide representation for traditional leaders and a variety of geographic districts. OAU. UNIDO. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. MCP 34%.
500 paramilitary police and 80 aircraft. with a clause granting Africans the majority in the colony's Legislative Counsel. Central and Southern regions). and Bakili Muluzi became president. Soon after 1600. In late 1993 a presidential council was formed. Between the three forces there are approximately 5. and further into approximately 250 traditional authorities and 110 administrative wards. Under pressure for increased political freedom. In February 2005. By 1500 AD. none of which are combat aircraft. native tribesmen began encountering.000 per year. a European-trained doctor working in Ghana who was persuaded to return to Nyasaland in 1958 to assist the nationalist cause. By 1700. mineral-poor country could achieve progress in both agriculture and industrial development. There are currently nine political parties. 2000. For the first time in the multi-party era.500 military personnel. and using his control of the country. These few employees were then expected to administer and police a territory of around 94. an index that measures several variables to provide a comprehensive view of the governance of African countries.Court. There was scheduled to be a second round of constitutionally mandated local elections in May 2005. While in office. In 1961. The linking provoked opposition from African nationalists. In 1994 the first multi-party elections were held in Malawi. some remained permanently and founded tribes based on common ancestry. for mainly political reasons. when Malawi was originally known as Nyasaland under the rule of the British. effectively ending the MCP's rule. however. the empire had broken up into areas controlled by many individual tribes. Malawi's economy while Banda was president was often cited as an example of how a poor. Malawi is composed of three regions (the Northern. two military officers. Under a new constitution. In 2008. with the UDF party winning 70% of the available seats. a Supreme Court of Appeal and subordinate Magistrate Courts. He was released in 1960 and asked to help draft a new constitution for Nyasaland. seventy Punjab Sikhs. Britain linked Nyasaland with Northern and Southern Rhodesia in what was known as the Central African Federation (CAF). and on 6 July 1964. and eighty-five Zanzibar porters. but these were canceled by the government. which was enough to employ ten European civilians. President Mutharika has implemented reforms to address the country's major corruption problem.000 square kilometers with between one and two million people. Nyasaland became independent from British rule and renamed itself Malawi. Bingu wa Mutharika was elected. Muluzi remained president until 2004. a navy and an air wing. An influential opponent of the CAF was Dr. the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) was formed by the Africans of Nyasaland to promote local interests to the British government. Malawi was ranked 11th of all countries in sub-Saharan Africa in the 2008 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. In 1944. which has attracted reform-minded officials from other parties and is winning elections across the country as of 2006. landlocked. The navy division is based out of Monkey Bay on Lake Malawi. History The area of Africa now known as Malawi had a very small population of hunter gatherers before waves of Bantus began emigrating from the north around the 10th century.7 billion. In a prime example of what is sometimes called the "Thin White Line" of colonial authority in Africa. with the area mostly united under one native ruler. the colonial government of Nyasaland was formed in 1891. Malawi became a single-party state under MCP rule in 1966. the Democratic Progressive Party. which was noted by the Portuguese in their information gathering. The Federation was dissolved in 1963. Although most of the Bantus continued south. however. David Livingstone reached Lake Malawi (then Lake Nyasa) in 1859. when Dr. 1. trading with and making alliances with Portuguese traders and members of the military. President Mutharika split with the United Democratic Front and began his own party. Banda's Malawi Congress Party (MCP) gained the majority in the Legislative Council elections and Banda became Prime Minister in 1963. suppressing opposition to his party and ensuring that he had no personal opposition. Local government is administered by central government-appointed regional administrators and district commissioners. which are divided into 28 districts. The military of Malawi consists of an army. the life presidency was abolished and a new constitution was put into place. the tribes had established a kingdom that reached from north of what is now Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River and from Lake Malawi to the Luangwa River in what is now Zambia. local elections took place on November 21. with at least five senior UDF party members facing criminal charges. For almost 30 years. The administrators were given a budget of £10. Suffrage is universal at 18 years of age. Although the political . In 1953. and the central government budget for 2009/2010 is $1. where the populace voted for a multi-party democracy. As of 2008. with the Democratic Progressive Party acting as the ruling party and the Malawi Congress Party and the United Democratic Front acting as the main opposition parties in the National Assembly. Banda was elected president of the NAC and worked to mobilize nationalist sentiment before being jailed by colonial authorities in 1959. heavily populated. Banda constructed a business empire that eventually produced one-third of the country's GDP and employed 10% of the wage-earning workforce. and the NAC gained popular support. and in 1970 Banda declared himself president-for-life. all considered to form different sections of the Malawian Army. Despite his political severity. Hastings Kamuzu Banda. Banda ruled firmly. Banda agreed to a referendum in 1993.
to improve educational facilities.commodities: food. The economy is predominately agricultural.environment is described as "challenging".international: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) . cement.) Household income lowest highest 10%: NA% or 10%: consumption by percentage NA% share: Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29. to face up to environmental problems.4 billion (2000 est.products: tobacco. tea..g.o. The protests left 18 people dead and at least 44 others suffering from gun shot wounds.Netherlands 7%. Germany 16%.per capita: purchasing power parity . goats Exports: $416 million (f. Japan (1999) Imports: $435 million (f. to fully develop a market economy.) Industries: tobacco. President Mutharika is seen by some as increasingly autocratic and dismissive of human rights. wood products Exports .$9. and President Mutharika was successfully re-elected. sugarcane. tea. tea. sugar. The economy depends on substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF. semimanufactures. poor governance and a lack of foreign exchange reserves erupted. corn. US 15%. and to deal with the rapidly growing problem of HIV/AIDS.overview: Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries.. despite charges of election fraud from his rival.b. as of 2009. pulses..partners: South Africa 16%. 2000) Imports . Malawi was approved for relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) program.) GDP . coffee. and in July 2011 protests over high costs of living.  Multiparty parliamentary and presidential elections were held for the fourth time in Malawi in May 2009. including capital expenditures of $NA (FY99/00 est. GDP: purchasing power parity . In late 2000.5 million Labor force . potatoes. cotton. devolving foreign relations. sorghum. The government faces strong challenges.by occupation: agriculture 86% (1997 est. the multi-party system still exists in Malawi. transportation equipment Disputes . the World Bank.) GDP agriculture: industry: services: 34% (1998 est. sugar. Agriculture accounts for 37% of GDP and 85% of export revenues.) GDP . and individual donor nations.$900 (2000 est.5% (2000) Labor force: 3. cotton. with about 90% of the population living in rural areas.) Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues: $490 million expenditures: $523 million.commodities: tobacco. cattle. sawmill products. e. petroleum products.. consumer goods.) composition 37% 29% by sector: Population below poverty line: 54% (FY90/91 est.b. 2000) Exports . consumer goods Industrial production growth rate: NA% Agriculture . Economy . peanuts.o.real growth rate: 3% (2000 est. cassava (tapioca).
History The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert. like most of Sub-Saharan Africa. principally from Germany and Sweden. by immigrating Bantu who came with the Bantu expansion from central Africa. when finally released from detention. forced labor.NAMIBIA Background: South Africa occupied the German colony of Sud-West Afrika during World War I and administered it as a mandate until after World War II when it annexed the territory. and Okahandja which were less accommodating. Following the League's supersession by the United Nations in 1946. In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that was soon named Namibia. hostilities ebbed only when Imperial Germany deployed troops to the contested places and cementing the status quo between Nama. The Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880.org/wiki/Namibia" \l "cite_note-11"  The survivors. but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Gobabis. when traders and settlers arrived. still the region was not claimed by the Portuguese crown. reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans (technically on behalf of the British crown reflecting South Africa's dominion status within the British Empire). who were children at the time . as well as electing their own local administration the SWA Legislative Assembly. The Herero Chief's Council submitted a number of petitions to the UN calling for it to grant Namibia independence . The missionaries accompanying the Orlams were well–received by them. Orlams. German rule Namibia became a German colony in 1884 to forestall British encroachment and was known as German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). Although the South African government desired to incorporate 'South-West Africa' into its territory. Pre-colonial period The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by Bushmen. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486. even more returned to South-West African territory after the Portuguese tried to convert them to Catholicism and forbade their language at schools.wikipedia. the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against the Germans and in the subsequent Herero and Namaqua genocide. considered to be the oldest desert in the world. Independence came in 1990. it never officially did so. South African rule and the struggle for independence South Africa occupied the colony in 1915 after defeating the German force during World War I and administered it as a League of Nations mandate territory from 1919. however. the Orlams encountered clans of the Herero tribe at Windhoek. In the late 19th century Dorsland trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola. who had extensive powers. but most scholars say that episode was not especially influential for the Nazis. Before its independence in 1990. On their way further northwards. deportation. the area was known first as German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). South Africa refused to surrender its earlier mandate to be replaced by a United Nations Trusteeship agreement. some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia was a model used by Nazis in the Holocaust.HYPERLINK "http://en.000 Nama (half the population) and approximately 65. 10. Whale in English) was worth occupying – and this was annexed to the Cape province of British South Africa. were subjected to a policy of dispossession. requiring closer international monitoring of the territory's administration (along with a definite independence schedule). From the late 18th century onwards. racial segregation and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated apartheid. However. Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. Nama. Indeed. then as South-West Africa.000 Hereros (about 80% of the population) were killed. The memory of genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia and to relations with Germany. Walvis in Afrikaans. with the white minority having representation in the whites-only Parliament of South Africa. However.  Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were largely peaceful. The South African government also appointed the SWA administrator. Orlam clans from the Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia. Some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey. Damara. However. which later under South African rule post-1949 were turned into "homelands" (Bantustans). although it was administered as the de facto 'fifth province'. the Palgrave mission by the British governor in Cape Town had determined that only the natural deep-water harbour of Walvis Bay (Walfisch in German. Most Africans were confined to so-called native territories. the right to use waterholes and grazing was granted against an annual payment. and Herero. and since about the 14th century AD. From 1904 to 1907. the father of Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring was a one-time German colonial governor of Namibia and has a street named after him in Swakopmund.
regional and national elections held regularly. After many unsuccessful attempts by the UN to persuade South Africa to agree to the implementation of UN Resolution 435. most of whom came as settlers from South Africa and represented 0. return of SWAPO exiles and the holding of Namibia's first-ever oneperson one-vote election for a constituent assembly in October 1989. Executive branch: chief of state: President Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990). including 20 heads of state. Namibia Defence Force (NDF) troops were sent to the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of a Southern African Development Community (SADC) contingent. but the U. a secessionist attempt in the northeastern Caprivi region was successfully quashed. although only a few were actually established due to non-cooperation by most indigenous Namibians.Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA 77% --The Namibian head of state is the president. compensation for state expropriations of private property. elected by popular vote every five years. After independence Since independence Namibia has successfully completed the transition from white minority apartheid rule to parliamentary democracy.  The transition from the 15-year rule of President Sam Nujoma to his successor. the South African-backed Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA) became the official opposition. mines and best arable land). In response to the 1966 ruling by the International Court of Justice. who. During the South African occupation of Namibia. pressure mounted on South Africa to do so in Namibia. Several registered political parties are active and represented in the National Assembly.2% of the national population. is still the country's largest party Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of the National Council (26 seats. white commercial farmers. but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its occupation of Namibia. with local. This was won by SWAPO although it did not gain the two-thirds majority it had hoped for.N. note . South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) military wing. Following the adoption of the Namibian Constitution. while in 1971 the International Court of Justice issued an "advisory opinion" declaring South Africa's continued administration to be illegal. General Assembly subsequently revoked South Africa's mandate.the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA (since 21 March 1990). including entrenched protection for human rights. note . percent of vote . the country officially became independent on 21 March 1990. under which South Africa agreed to withdraw and demobilise its forces in Namibia and Cuba agreed to pull back its troops in southern Angola sent to support the MPLA in its war for control of Angola with UNITA. which had been adopted by the UN Security Council in 1978 as the internationallyagreed decolonisation plan for Namibia. with the USSR and the USA as observers. The government is headed by the prime minister. an independent judiciary and an executive presidency (the constituent assembly became the national assembly). two members are . a guerrilla group began their armed struggle for independence. when European powers granted independence to their colonies and trust territories in Africa. In August 1999. Multiparty democracy was introduced and has been maintained. People's Liberation Army of Namibia. industries. Namibian government has promoted a policy of national reconciliation and issued an amnesty for those who had fought on either side during the liberation war. election last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004) election results: Sam Shafishuna NUJOMA elected president.during the 1950s.the president is both the chief of state and head of government cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term. SWAPO. the country was divided into "homelands". transition to independence finally started in 1988 under the tripartite diplomatic agreement between South Africa. The civil war in Angola had a limited impact on Namibians living in the north of the country. Walvis Bay was ceded to Namibia in 1994 upon the end of Apartheid in South Africa. together with his cabinet. Sam Nujoma was sworn in as the first President of Namibia watched by Nelson Mandela (who had been released from prison shortly beforehand) and representatives from 147 countries. in accordance with a UN peace plan for the entire region. Hifikepunye Pohamba in 2005 went smoothly. Outside the centralsouthern area of Namibia (known as the "Police Zone" since the German era and which contained the main towns. the version of South African bantustan applied to Namibia. In 1998. During the 1960s. owned 74% of arable land. Angola and Cuba. A combined UN civilian and peace-keeping force under Finnish diplomat Martti Ahtisaari supervised the military withdrawals. In 1966 the International Court of Justice dismissed a complaint brought by Ethiopia and Liberia against South Africa's continued presence in the territory. the primary force behind independence. although Swapo Party has won every election since independence. is appointed by the president.
and tungsten. United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus GAROEB] Political pressure groups and leaders: NA International organization participation: AfDB. UNIDO. Opposition parties are allowed. Although per capita GDP is four times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorer countries. Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [Katuutire KAURA. and the large amount of wealth going to foreigners. held 30 November-1 December 1998 (next to be held by December 2004). with the Council playing more of an advisory role. In 1919. G-77. GDP growth in 2000 was led by gains in the diamond and fish sectors. silver. CCC.elections for regional councils. Executive power is exercised by the government. UNCTAD. DTA 4. other 1%. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the bicameral Parliament. to determine members of the National Council. elected for a six-year term in double-seat constituencies (regions). UDF 2. WIPO. which should stimulate long-run foreign investment. Half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood. SACU. 72 members elected by proportional representation and six members appointed by the president. The Namibian economy has close links to South Africa. note: the National Council is primarily an advisory body --Parliament has two chambers. National Assembly . Intelsat. FAO. ICRM. seats by party . ITU.real growth rate: 4% (2000 est. UN. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. IOC. South West Africa People's Organization or SWAPO [Sam NUJOMA].NA%. UDF 3%. COD 7. MAG 1%. whereby the president of Namibia is elected to a five-year term and is both the head of state and the head of government. The 1990 constitution is noted for being one of the first to incorporate protection of the environment into its text. C.percent of vote by party . WMO. whose judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission. ISO (correspondent). OPCW. WToO.) . IFRCS. IFAD. UNMEE. zinc. seats by party . WCL. National Assembly . ILO. but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Interpol.percent of vote by party . GDP: purchasing power parity . ECA. Monitor Action Group or MAG [Kosie PRETORIUS]. NAM. ICAO.overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Namibia is a democratic but one party dominant state with the South-West Africa People's Organisation in power. UNESCO. and of a multi-party system.$7. president].SWAPO 55. IMO. members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: National Council . Mining accounts for 20% of GDP. DTA 7. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. MAG 1. The judicial structure in Namibia parallels that of South Africa. The National Council has 26 members. UPU.) GDP .SWAPO 21. the great inequality of income distribution.SWAPO 76%. Namibia must import some of its food. IMF. UNHCR. Roman-Dutch law was declared the common law of the territory and remains so to the present. Growth in 2001 could be 5. the National Assembly and the National Council. UDF 1. OAU. The management of the rule of law and the observance of basic human rights in Namibia are constantly scrutinized. IOM (observer). The Assembly is the primary legislative body. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. IFC.last held 30 November-1 December 1999 (next to be held by December 2004) election results: National Council .6 billion (2000 est. UNTAET. IAEA. The National Assembly has 78 members. DTA 9%.chosen from each regional council to serve six-year terms) and the National Assembly (72 seats. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead. COD 10%. tin. The Electoral Commission of Namibia published a "Handbook for Election Observers in Namibia" to enable observers (and party agents) to professionally observe the Presidential and National Assembly Elections 2009. the Regional Councils and Local Authorities Elections 2010 and subsequent By-Elections Economy . elected for a five-year term. the majority of Namibia's people live in pronounced poverty because of large-scale unemployment. Political parties and leaders: Congress of Democrats or COD [Ben ULENGA]. WTrO Politics and government The politics of Namibia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic. Agreement has been reached on the privatization of several more enterprises in coming years. IBRD.5% provided the world economy remains stable. Namibia held Presidential and the National Assembly elections on 27 and 28 November 2009. Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission) The highest judicial body is the Supreme Court. SADC. WHO.
and Zimbabwe boundaries converge • Angolan rebels and refugees still reside in Namibia.recipient: $127 million (1998) International disputes Namibia is involved in several minor international disputes. with strong affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle. Spain 14%. fish processing. processed fish. 2000 est.partners: South Africa 81%. cattle. copper. including the Situngu marshlands along the Linyanti River • Botswana residents protest Namibia's planned construction of the Okavango hydroelectric dam on Popa Falls • Managed dispute with South Africa over the location of the boundary in the Orange River • Dormant dispute remains where Botswana. copper) Industrial production growth rate: NA Agriculture .o. uranium.o.external: $217 million (2000 est.) Exports .) Debt . including Libya and Cuba. Namibia. petroleum products and fuel. sorghum. chemicals Imports . dairy products.partners: UK 43%. uranium.. mining (diamond.) Economic aid .commodities: foodstuffs. lead. peanuts.b.) Imports: $1. tin.b. fish Exports: $1. gold.4 billion (f. silver.) composition 12% 25% by sector: Unemployment rate: 30% to 40%.GDP . Germany 2% (1997 est. including capital expenditures of $NA (1998) Industries: meatpacking. Namibia follows a largely independent foreign policy. Namibia has been involved in conflicts in neighbouring Angola as well as the Democratic Republic of Congo .) GDP agriculture: industry: services: 63% (1999 est. tungsten..) Budget: revenues: $883 million expenditures: $950 million.6 billion (f. including underemployment (1997 est.products: millet.) Imports .commodities: diamonds. In Africa. Japan (1998 est. France 8%. karakul skins Exports . lead. Zambia. machinery and equipment.$4. livestock.300 (2000 est. US 4%. • Commission established with Botswana to resolve small residual disputes along the Caprivi Strip. zinc. 2000 est. zinc.per capita: purchasing power parity . South Africa 26%.
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