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RAJIV

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MATTER IN OUR SURROUNDINGS


MATTER:-anything which occupies space and has mass is called Matter. Air and Water; hydrogen and oxygen; classified in many ways. Modern day scientists have classified matter in two ways : 1. On the basis of its physical its physical properties matter can be classified into three ways: i. Solids ii. Liquids iii. Gas 2. On the basis of chemical properties matter can be classified into three parts: i. Element ii. Compound iii. Mixture

MATTER IS MADE OF PARTICLES Every matter around us is made of tiny particles. The number of particle in a matter is very large. The particles of matter are very large even we cannot see them with high power microscope. The particles which make up matter are constantly moving. The particles which make up matter are Atoms or Molecule. Characteristics of particles of matter i. ii. iii. iv. The particles of matter are very small. The particles of matter have spaces between them. The particles of matter are constantly moving. The particles of matter attract each other. CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER AS SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES Matter exists in three physical states : SOLIDS, LIQUIDS AND GASES.

MATTER SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES

1. PROPERTISE OF SOLIDS Solds have fixed shape and volume i. ii. Solids cannot be compressed. Solids have high densities. iii. iv. Solids don t fill their container completely. v. Solids don t flow. vi. Solids are rigid. 2. PROPERTIS OF LIQUIDS
BY VIVEK MISHRA

i. liqui h ix lu ut th th ix sh ii. Liqui s t r ss u h iii. Liqui s r less enser th n s li s Liqui s cannot fill their container completely. iv. v. Liqui s flow easily. Therefore they are called Fluids 3. PROPERTISE OF GASES Gases neither have fixed volume nor have fixed mass. i. ii. Gases can be compressed completely and easily. iii. Gases have very low densities. Gases fill their container completely. iv. v. Gases flow easily, Therefore they are called fluids.

SOLIDS
In solids particles are closely packed. A solid has fixed shape because the particles of the solid are closely packed and their positions are fixed due to the strong force of attraction between them. A solid has fixed volume and can not be compressed because the spaces between its particles is fixed. A solid can not fill the container completely and cannot flow because its particles are closely packed.  A rubber band changes its shape but we still call it a solid because it changes its shape by the action of force and when the force is removed the rubber band rega ins its shape.  If salt and sugar not appear to have fixed shape but we still count them in solids because the shape of the individual crystals is considered to be solid because the shape of individual crystals is fixed.  A sponge can be compressed easily bu t still we count them in solids because they have minute pores in it which are filled with air. When we press the sponge air is expelled from its holes making it highly compressible. A solid cannot be compressed by either applying the pressure or by changing the temperature.

LIQUIDS
In the liquids the particles are close together but they are not as close as solids. Spaces between particles in liquids are slightly more than in solids. There is w eaker force of attraction between the particles of liquids than in solids. They dont have fixed shape because the positions of its particles are not fixed due to comparatively less strong force of attraction between them. a liquid has fixed volume because at the given temperature, the spaces between its particles are fixed. a liquid can not be compressed much because they have less space between the particles of them. A liquid generally flows easily because its particles are able to slide over another due to slightly weaker interparticle forces of attraction.

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A liquid cannot be compressed by applying the pressure it can be compressed by changing the temperature.

GASES
In gases the particles are much farther apart from one another as compared to solids and liquids. The spaces between the particles of gases are very large. The force of attraction between the particles of liquids is negligible. Particles of gas are free to move in any direction. A gas has not fixed shape because the position of its particles is not fixed. A gas can be compressed easily because its particles are far apart from each other, there are large spaces between them. A gas can fill the container completely because due to the h igh kinetic energy and negligible forces of attraction, the particles of gas move with high speed in all direction. A gas can flow easily because its particles are free to move anywhere. Gas can be compressed by applying the pressure.

PROBLEMS FOR PRACTICE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. State characteristic properties of each solids, liquids and gases. Give reasons for saying wood is a solid. Why does a gas exert pressure? Why are gases are highly compressible whereas solids and liquids cannot be compressed? Why does gases have neither affixed shape nor a fixed volume? What is general name of : i. Rigid form of matter? ii. Fluid form of matter Name two gases which are supplied in compressed form in homes and hospitals. Write the full form of CNG and LPG. Give two reasons to justify: Water is a liquid at room temperature? An iron almirah is solid.

7. 8. 9. i. ii.

DIFFUSION
The spreading out and mixing of a substance with another substance due to the motion of its particles is called diffusion. Diffusion goes on until uniform mixing is for med. Diffusion occurs an solids, liquids and in gases. Fastest in gases and slowest in solids and moderate in liquids. Phenomena of diffusion tells us that the particles are constantly moving. DIFFUSION IN GASES The diffusion in gases is fastest than solids and liquids. EXAMPLES  The smell of food being cooked reaches us even from considerable distance because when food is cooked the some of the substances release gases having the smell of food BY VIV

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in them. The particles of gases move very quickly and mix up with the air by diffusion. When the air containing these gases reaches our nose we get the smell of food being cooked.  The fragnance of burning incense stick spreads all around due to the diffusion of its smoke in air. The particle of gas produced by the g ases of incense stick move rapidly in all directions. They collide with the particles of air present in the room, mix with air and reach every part of the room.  The smell of perfumes spread due to diffusion of perfumes vapor into the air. When the bottle of perfume is opened, then the liquid perfume quickly changes into vapors. The perfume vapors move very rapidly in all directions in air and mix with the air particles and hence spread with air particles. Lpg in our homes is detected due to the diffusion of a strong smelling substance(ethyl mercaptan) present in the cooking gas, into air.

CHANGE OF STATE OF MATTER


Matter can exist in three physical states ; solids, liquids and gaseous state. Two factors which decide wheater a given substance would be solid, liquid or gas are; Temperature and Pressure.

EFFECT OF CHANGE OF TEMPERATURE


By increasing the temperature a solid can be converted into liquid state; and a liquid can be converted into gaseous state, and by decreasing the temperature a gas can be converted into liquid state; a liquid can be converted into solid state.

1. SOLID TO LIQUID CHANGE : MELTING


The process in which a solid substance is converted into liquid on heating is called Melting. The temperature at which a solid substance changes into liquid is called melting point. For example the ice melts at the temperature of 0 0C to form liquid hence 00C is the melting point of ice.

2. LIQUID TO GAS : BOILING OR VAPOURISATION


The process in which a liquid changes into a gas on heating, is called boiling or vaporization. The temperature at which a liquid boils and changes into a gas at atmospheric pressure is called boiling point of the liquid. For example the boiling point of water is 100 0C.

3. GAS TO LIQUID : CONDENSATION


The process of changing a gas to a liquid by cooling is called condensation. Condensation Is reverse of boiling. For example when steam changes into water by cooling it is called condensation.

4. LIQUID TO SOLID CHANGE : FRREEZING


The process of changing a liquid into a solid by cooling is called freezing. BY VIV

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The changing up of sollid into vapours on heating and of vapour s into solid on cooling is known as Sublimation. The cooman substances which h undergo sublimation are ammonium chloride, iodine, camphor, naphthalene, and anthracene.

The heat energy which has to be supplied to change the state of a substance. Latent hest does not change the temperature of a substance. It only changes the state of a substance. It is called latent heat because it becomes hidden in the substance undergoing the change of state, and does not show its presence by raising temperature. So latent heat cannot be detected by thermometer.  Why latent heat does not cause a rise in temperature of a substance?  The latent heat which we supply is used up in overcoming the force of attraction between the particles of a substance during the change of state. Latent heat does not increase the kinetic energy of the particles of the substance. And since there is no change in kinetic energy of the particles the temperature of a substance does not ris e during the change in state. LATENT HEAT IS OF TWO TYPES; 1. Latent heat of fusion 2. Latent heat of vaporization.

LATE T HEAT O

The latent heat of fusion(melting) in of a solid is the quantity of heat in joules required to convert 1 kilogram of the solid to liquid without any change in temperature. The latent heat of fusion of ice is 3.3410 5 joules per kilogram.  Why the temperature of melting ice does not rise even though heat is being supplied continuously?  In this process heat energy is used up in changing the state of solid substance by overcoming the force of attraction between its particles. So amount of particles in water at 00 C have more energy as compared to particles in ice at the same

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temperature. Ice at 0 0 C is more effective in cooling a substance than water at the same temperature.

LATENT HEAT OF VAPOURISATION (LIQUID TO GAS CHANGE)


The latent heat of vaporization is the quantity of heat in joules required to convert 1 kilogram of liquid to vapor or gas without an y change in temperature. The latent heat of vaporization of water is 22.5 10 5 joules per kilogram.  Why the temperature of boilin water does not rise even thou h heatin is given continuously?  The heat energy supplied to a boiling liquid is used up in cha nging the state of the liquid substance by overcoming the force of attraction between its particles.

 Why the burns caused by steam are much more severe than those caused by boiling water though both of them are at the same temperature?  This is due to the fact that steam contains more heat in the form of latent heat than boiling water.

EFFECT OF CHANGE OF PRESSURE


The physical state of mater can also be changed by changing the pressure. Gas can be changed into liquids by increasing the pressure accompanied by lowering the temperature. And some solids like solid carbon dioxide can change into gases on decreasing the pressure. There is a lot of space in between the particles of gas. We can reduce the spaces between the particles of a gas by enclosing it in a cylinder and compressing it by pushing in the piston. If enough force is applied by the piston the gas is highly compressed. The particles of the gas get so close together that they start attracting each other to form li quid. Ammonia gas can be liquefied by applying the pressure and lowering temperature.  Solid carbon dioxide is stored under high pressure?  This is because decreasing the pressure on solid co 2 it gets converted directly into gas CO2. Solid CO2 is extremely cold substance. It is used to deep freeze food and to keep ice creams co2.

EVAPORATION The process of changing up a liquid into vapor or gas even below its boiling point is called Evaporation. Whatever be the temperature at which evaporation takes place the latent heat of vaporization must be supplied whenever a liquid changes into a vapor or gas. CAUSE OF EVAPORATION BY VIV

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Some particles in liquid always have more kinetic energy than others. So even when a liquid is below its boiling point, some of its particles have enough energy to break the force of attraction between the particles and escape from the surface of the liquid in the form of vapor. FACTORS AFFECTING EVAPORATION 1. TEMPERATURE The rate of evaporation increases on increasing the temperature of the liquid. an increase of temperature: With the increase of temperature, more number of particles get enough kinetic energy to go into the vapor state. 2. SURFACE AREA OF LIQUID an increase of surface area: We know that evaporation is a surface phenomenon. If the surface area is increased, the rate of evaporation increases. For example, while putting clothes for drying up we spread them out. 3. HUMIDITY OF AIR Humidity is the amount of water vapour present i n air. The air around us cannot hold more than a definite amount of water vapour at a given temperature. If the amount of water in air is already high, the rate of evaporation decreases. 4. WIND SPEED an increase in wind speed: It is a common observation th at clothes dry faster on a windy day. With the increase in wind speed, the particles of water vapour move away with the wind, decreasing the amount of water vapour in the surrounding. What is the cause of cooling caused by evaporation? When a liquid evaporates it draws the latent heat of vaporization from anything which it touches. By losing heat the substance gets cooled.

1. If we put A little of spirit or patrol at the back of our hand and wave it around the spirit evaporates rapidly and our hands feels very cold. This is due to the fact that to \change from liquid to gas state spirit requires latent heat of vaporization which spirit takes by our hand. Our hand looses heat and gets cooled. 2. During hot summer days water is usually kept in earthen pots to keep it cool. The earthen pot has a large number of pores in its walls. Some of water continuously seeps out through these pores. This water evaporate and continuously and takes the latent heat of vaporization from the surface of the pot a nd remaining water. In this way remaining water looses heat and becomes cool. 3. Respiration or sweating is our bodys method of maintain constant temperature. On a hot day or after doing some physical exercise. When our body temperature tends to rise too much our sweat glands give out moisture on our skin. When the sweat evaporates it takes the latent heat of vaporization from our body. This keeps our body cool.

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