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The problem of Survival/ Existence of Spirits SPIRITUALISM AND MEDIUMSHIP

-In almost part of the world there are persons who claim to be mediums through whom dead are supposed to communicate with the living/ -it enters a trance-like state and spirits talk through the medium -Sometimes, medium uses an OUJA board which contains all the alphabet and a planchette -Senses held usually at right in dim light. -Mediums who produce physical or mediumistic phenomena. These include transportation of physical objects. Levitation of the medium or surrounding objects, raps, and various noises playing musical instruments. -The strangest occurrence is the supposed appearance of a filmy substance called ECTOPLASM -it is believed that the spirits are able to materialize at a sense using ectoplasm coming from the medium -materializations may take the shape of a hand face or body or any other shape. This supposed objectivisation of form is known as TELEPLASTY.

PARAPSYCHOLOGY
-IS THE BRANCH OF Psychology which studies behavior transcending known modes of sensory cognition and motor activity. - The field of psychology which investigates all psychological phenomena that apparently cannot be explained in terms of natural scientific laws or principle.

CLASSIFICATION OF PSI PHENOMENA

- Investigates the claimed abilities of some individuals to interact with the environment in ways not yet explained by science. - In popular culture the study of parapsychology is perceived as the study of the existence and causes and conditions of psychic abilities near death experiences out of the body experiences, crisis apparitions, retro-cognitions, reincarnation, memories, regression memories, prophecy, ghost and life after death.

Acceleration is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an


object changes its velocity. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity.

Sports announcers will occasionally say that a person is accelerating if he/she is moving fast. Yet acceleration has nothing to do with going fast. A person can be moving very fast and still not be accelerating. Acceleration has to do with changing how fast an object is moving. If an object is not changing its velocity, then the object is not accelerating. The data at the right are representative of a northward-moving accelerating object. The velocity is changing over the course of time. In fact, the velocity is changing by a constant amount - 10 m/s - in each second of time. Anytime an object's velocity is changing, the object is said to be accelerating; it has an acceleration.

Calculating the Average Acceleration The average acceleration (a) of any object over a given interval of time (t) can be calculated using the equation

This equation can be used to calculate the acceleration of the object whose motion is depicted by the velocity-time data table above. The velocity-time data in the table shows that the object has an acceleration of 10 m/s/s. The calculation is shown below.

Acceleration values are expressed in units of velocity/time. Typical acceleration units include the following: m/s/s mi/hr/s km/hr/s m/s2 These units may seem a little awkward to a beginning physics student. Yet they are very reasonable units when you begin to consider the definition and equation for acceleration. The reason for the units becomes obvious upon examination of the acceleration equation.

Since acceleration is a velocity change over a time, the units on acceleration are velocity units divided by time units - thus (m/s)/s or (mi/hr)/s. The (m/s)/s unit can be mathematically simplified to m/s2.

Gravity
Gravity is one of the universal forces of nature. It is an attractive force between all matter, and is very weak as compared to the other forces of nature. The gravitational force between two objects is dependent on their masses, which is why we can only see gravity in action when at least one of the objects is very large (like the Earth). Isaac Newton was the first scientist to define gravity mathematically when he formulated his law of universal gravitation. The law of gravitation says that gravity is strongest between two very massive objects, and gets much weaker as these objects get further apart. One of the applications of this law is the concept of escape velocity, which is the velocity an object needs to achieve to escape the gravitational pull of another object (like the Earth). Escape velocity can be calculated from Newtons gravitational law, and if we plug in the measurements we have for the planet Earth,

we see that Earths escape velocity is about 11 km/s. This means that if you could throw a baseball at 11 km/s, it would never come down! The concept of escape velocity is especially interesting when you consider black holes. These objects are extremely dense and very small. When we calculate the escape velocity for these objects, we find that the number is actually the speed of light, so not even light can get out of a black hole!