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E1 over VSAT communication Application Notes

CTC Union Technologies Co., Ltd.

VSAT applications utilizing CTC Union's pack series DSU/CSUs 1. Typical CSU/DSU application The typical application for DSU/CSU is to provide synchronous data services such as V.35, RS-530, RS449, X.21 over synchronous channel service such as G.703 E1 or T1.

Data Service V.35, X.21, etc.

DSU/CSU

E1 Network

DSU/CSU

Data Service V.35, X.21, etc.

As can be seen in the above application, the E1 signals provide the transport for the data services. 2. Typical VSAT application In a typical VSAT application, the transmissions are serial, via satellite, and terminating at VSAT modems. Typical VSAT modems provide V.36 (RS-449) fully balanced and synchronous interface. The problem encountered for the systems integrator is when the connecting equipments have G.703 E1 interfaces as those found in most BSC and BTS.

SAT

V-modem

V-modem

V.36 ??????

V.36 ??????

E1 BSC

E1 BTS

So, what is the mystery equipment "??????" ? Well, it looks like a DSU/CSU, but it is working backwards. Instead of a data stream being transmitted over E1 signal, we are creating E1 signals from a data stream. In fact, in this application, if the data rate is 2.048Mbps and the E1 is full unframed E1, then any E1 DSU/CSU can work transparently in this application.

2.048M data + unframed E1 = Any E1 DSU/CSU

3. What about Fractional E1? The previous application example will completely breakdown and fail to work, if the E1 is fractional or nx64k.

nx64K data + fractional E1 = Not just any E1 DSU/CSU


Why? First, you must realize that Fractional E1 transmissions use Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) to carry multiple 64Kbps channels of data. Regardless of the number of channels used, the bit rate of the E1 signal is 2048Kbps. ALWAYS!!! Let's refresh our memories of how E1 is formatted. Below is one E1 frame. Each frame is made up of 256bits, divided into 32 x 8bit timeslots. Timeslot zero provides "frame alignment" by carrying a special, identifiable bit pattern "10011011". The frames are running at a rate of 8K/sec which gives a total rate of 2048000bits per second (32 x 8 x 8000). TS0 TS1 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 TS6 TS7 TS8 TS27 TS28 TS29 TS30 TS31

When a DSU/CSU provides fractional E1 service, only the timeslots that are assigned to carry data are used to generate the data port's serial bit stream. The serial bit stream's clock rate is also used to generate the interface's timing signals. If only 8 timeslots are assigned to carry the data payload, the resultant data port stream will be 512Kbps (8 x 64kbps). However, the E1 stream always runs at 2048Kbps. This is the basics of TDM. Therefore, if we use the inverse application with fractional E1, our DSU/CSU will take the received E1, strip away all the unused timeslots, including TS0 and send data stream out the data port (V.36). However, once the data stream arrives at the remote DSU/CSU, we have no way to rebuild the E1 framing because timeslot zero is lost. For the VSAT solution, in order to carry the fractional E1 data over the serial link (satellite) and rebuild the E1 framing on the remote side, we need to include the frame alignment and other information from timeslot zero in the bit stream. 4. VSAT application for fractional E1 using CTC Union's G703FE1-S E1 Inverse Converter models. CTC Union Technologies Co. has developed an inverse DSU/CSU specifically designed to provide E1 transmission over a bit stream infrastructure, such as VSAT, radio or microwave transmissions. Here is an example of how it works for a 640Kbps VSAT modem. Entire E1 frame, TS0~TS31 with TS1-9 carrying data at 576Kbps

Special 64Kbps "header" plus 576Kbps data (640Kbps to transmit on VSAT)

The 640Kbps is transparently transmitted over the bit stream connection. Because we have added our own proprietary framing (64Kbps overhead) into the bit stream, we are able to completely recover the E1 framing and data on the remote side's inverse converter, from the 640Kbps serial bit stream. Entire E1 frame and data are recovered at the remote converter.

5. Timing considerations.

SAT (master) external clock V.36 FE1-S E1 recovery clock (slave) sat. recovery external clock V.36 FE1-S DTE clock

V-modem

V-modem

E1 BSC Internal E1 clock

E1 BTS E1 recovery clock

Typical timing example with BSC as source timing. In the above example, the BSC provides the timing source for all timing. The internal E1 clock is sent to the FE1-S where the received E1 signal is used to recover the clock. The FE1-S uses the received E1 clock to generate the TC and RC timing for the V.36 (RS-530) data channel. The VSAT modem is configured as the master unit (of the VSAT pair) and receives clock from its V.36 data port. The clock is transmitted as signal data to the satellite where it is then relayed to the remote (slave) VSAT modem. The slave modem recovers the clock from the incoming satellite stream and passes the clock via TC and RC out the V.36 data port. The remote FE1-S has its timing mode configured to receive clock at the data port. It uses the received data port clock to generate the transmitted E1 signal. The BTS recovers the clock from the received E1 signal. There can only be one source for timing in any application. If there are two timing sources, there will be "slips" in the timing due to slight differences in the different clock rates caused by tolerances in the individual oscillators used to generate the clock.

Note: If the satellite accepts 2.048Mbps, then any DSU/CSU may be used in unframed mode to provide the reverse, transparent transmission from BSC to BTS. However, in nx64 applications, the FE1-S must be applied. G703FE1-S DIP switch clock settings E1 clock recovery SW6 1/2 ON/OFF DTE clock SW6 1/2 OFF/ON

Timing Considerations Continued

SAT (master) internal clock V.36 FE1-S DTE clock (slave) sat. recovery external clock V.36 FE1-S DTE clock

V-modem

V-modem

E1 BSC E1 recovery clock

E1 BTS E1 recovery clock

Typical timing example with VSAT modem as source timing. In the above example, the VSAT modem provides the timing source for all timing. The VSAT's TC and RC timing are sent out the V.36 and the FE1-S uses the received data port timing to generate the transmitted E1 signal to the BSC, where the received E1 signal is used to recover the clock. The VSAT modem is configured as the master unit (of the VSAT pair). The internal clock is transmitted as signal data to the satellite where it is then relayed to the remote (slave) VSAT modem. The slave modem recovers the clock from the incoming satellite stream and passes the clock via TC and RC out the V.36 data port. The remote FE1-S has its timing mode configured to receive clock at the data port. It uses the received data port clock to generate the transmitted E1 signal. The BTS recovers the clock from the received E1 signal. Note: If the satellite accepts 2.048Mbps, then any DSU/CSU may be used in unframed mode to provide the reverse, transparent transmission from BSC to BTS. However, in nx64 applications, the FE1-S must be applied.

G703FE1-S DIP switch clock settings DTE clock SW6 1/2 OFF/ON DTE clock SW6 1/2 OFF/ON

Timing Considerations Continued

SAT (master) external clock V.36 FE1-S Internal Osc. clock (slave) sat. recovery external clock V.36 FE1-S DTE clock

V-modem

V-modem

E1 BSC E1 recovery clock

E1 BTS E1 recovery clock

Typical timing example with FE1-S as source timing. In the above example, the FE1-S provides the timing source for all timing. The FE1-S's E1 signal is received at the BSC where it recovers the clock from the received E1 data. The FE1-S sends TC and RC clock out its V.36 data port to the VSAT modem. The VSAT modem is configured as the master unit (of the VSAT pair) and receives clock from its V.36 data port. The clock is transmitted as signal data to the satellite where it is then relayed to the remote (slave) VSAT modem. The slave modem recovers the clock from the incoming satellite stream and passes the clock via TC and RC out the V.36 data port. The remote FE1-S has its timing mode configured to receive clock at the data port. It uses the received data port clock to generate the transmitted E1 signal. The BTS recovers the clock from the received E1 signal. Note: If the satellite accepts 2.048Mbps, then any DSU/CSU may be used in unframed mode to provide the reverse, transparent transmission from BSC to BTS. However, in nx64 applications, the FE1-S must be applied.

G703FE1-S DIP switch clock settings Internal Oscillator SW6 1/2 ON/ON DTE clock SW6 1/2 OFF/ON

Timing Considerations Continued Internal clock SAT (slave) sat. recovery external clock V-modem V.36 FE1-S DTE clock (slave) sat. recovery external clock V.36 FE1-S DTE clock

V-modem

E1 BSC E1 recovery clock

E1 BTS E1 recovery clock

Typical timing example with Satellite as source timing. In the above example, the Satellite provides the timing source for all timing. The VSAT modems are both configured as slave units, depending on their timing from the received satellite signal. Both modems recover the clock from the incoming satellite streams and pass the clock via TC and RC out their V.36 data ports. Both of the FE1-S have their timing modes configured to receive clock at the data port. They use the received data port clock to generate the transmitted E1 signals. The BSC and BTS both recover the clock from their received E1 signals. Note: If the satellite's clock is 2.048Mbps, then any DSU/CSU may be used in unframed mode to provide the reverse, transparent transmission to BSC and to BTS. However, in nx64 applications, the FE1-S must be applied.

G703FE1-S DIP switch clock settings DTE clock SW6 1/2 OFF/ON DTE clock SW6 1/2 OFF/ON

CTC Union Technologies Co., Ltd.


Far Eastern Vienna Building (Neihu Technology Park) 8F, No. 60 ZhouZi St. Neihu, Taipei, Taiwan Phone:(886) 2.2659.1021 Fax:(886) 2.2799.1355

E-mail: info@ctcu.com http://www.ctcu.com