INTRODUCTION Weaving is a textile craft in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced to form a fabric or cloth

. It is not known when or where the weaving process began but as far back as there are relics bof civilized life, it is thought that weaving was part of the civilization. Ancient humans instinctively used weaving as an aid in their quest for basic need of food, shelter and clothing. Interlacing of twigs or vines to form nettings definitely helped man in the catching of fish and trapped games. Primitive people also used twining and braiding to make mats to cover floors as well as exterior coverings for shelters. According to archaeologists, basket making and weaving are probably the first crafts developed by weaving. From there onwards, primitive people learned ways of creating a woven structure and used combinations of sizes and colours to create different patterns. Before the industrial revolution, weaving remained a manual craft. However as industrial demands for faster production accelerated, mechanization of the process became necessary. In the 1800¶s invention of the power looms replaced the activities of many of the skilled workers and progressively, many innovations took place. By 1930, 95% of all looms were automatically controlled and today garments made of hand loomed fabrics are a true luxury made by skilled crafts persons who still carry on the best tradition of the past. Different types of weaves exist and the assignment below will give an outline of the different weaves.

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2 . The common fabrics used in plain weaves are : cotton calicos. It can be identified by its checkerboard like appearance. tablecloths.PLAIN WEAVE Plain weave also known as tabby weave or taffeta weave and is the most basic of three fundamental types of textile weaves. Household uses of plain weaves include : draperies. A type of plain weave known as the balanced plain weave is one in which the warp and the weft are made of threads of the same weight and the same number of ends per inch as picks per inch. It is strong. upholstery. Each weft thread crosses the warp thread by going over one then under the next. percale. In plain weave. gingham. durable and hard wearing. voile. cheesecloth. the warp and weft are aligned so that they form a simple criss cross pattern.

Common fabrics made from the basket weave include : monks cloth. In this type of weave two or more than two warps yarns cross alternately side by side with two or more than two filling yarns.BASKET WEAVE This is a variation of the plain weave. The weave is more pliable and has a pleasant texture surface. Oxford Household uses include : Wall hangings and pillows. This type of weave resembles a plaited basket. However it is less stable and plain in appearance. 3 . They are inexpensive and less stronger than a plain weave.

Twill weaves require 2 or more harnesses. Fewer interlacings in twills allow the yarns to move freely and thus they are softer and more pliable. Common fabrics made of twill include : Denim. 4 . forming distinct diagonal lines. The minimum number of harnesses needed to produce a twill is determined by summing up the numbers in the fraction. They are designated as a fraction in which the numerator indicates the number of harnesses that are raised and the dominator the number of harnesses that are lowered when a filling yard is inserted. In the structure of the twill. Characteristics of twill include a front and back side. It is the more durable and attractive side of the fabric and is the side used for fashion. In twills. The method of construction involves passing the weft thread over one or more warp threads and then under two or more warp threads with a step between rows to create the diagonal pattern. Household uses include : upholstery and pillow. Gabardine. each weft or filling yarn floats across the warp yarns in a progression of interlacings to the right or left. serger and tweed.TWILL This is a type of fabric woven with a pattern of diagonal parallel ribs. the higher the counts the more durable is the fabric and the more air and water resistant it is. The technical face of the twill fabric has the more pronounced wale.

SATIN Satin is a glossy fabric made from silk polyester or other fiber. soft luster andfloats snag easily. They have excellent drapability. The surface is typically glossy and the back is dull. Satin fabric is commonly used in apparels such sportswear. Satin fabrics have high luster due to the number of floats on the fabric. women¶s lingerie. The method of construction involves floats one warp yarn over four or more weft yarns. They are smooth . 5 . blouses and shirts etc. Some definitions of the fabric is made from silk. Household uses include drapery and quilts. then it is tied down with one thread resulting in a smooth surface with wales.

The durability usually depends on the fiber used. It has luster contrasts. Characteristics of the Jacquard weave are : 1. Jacquard weaves are used to produce intricate patterned fabrics. the warp yarns is individually controlled which allows for the creation of more complex designs.JACQUARD WEAVE Jacquard weaves are usually produced on the jacquard loom invented by oseph Marie Jacquard. 3. Common fabrics include : Brocade. Damask. It is more stable and resilient than basic weaves. It has snagging potential 4. The method of construction involves the warp being individually controlled with each pick passage creating intricate designs. Tapestery. Matelasse 6 . In the loom. Jacquard weaves are expensive but the designs do not fade.The fabrics have a tendency to have floats 2.

Grenadine Household uses : Thermal blankets. 4. It has an open weave effect It has low yarn count It has good dimensional stability It has lesser yarn spillage Common fabrics with Leno weave are : Gauze. Net.LENO This is a mesh like fabric that has two or more warp threads crossing over each other and interlacing with one or more than one filling threads. 3. Leno weave fabric is sheer and durable with no yarn slippage. 2. Curtains 7 . The method of construction is a pair of warp threads is passed over and under the filling yarns in a figure of eight or an hour glass twist creating a geometric pattern. It is stronger and and firmer and permits the passage of both light and air. Characteristics of Leno weave 1.

loops are formed by weft or machine as yarn is added in crosswise direction. In weft knitting. The method of construction involves interloping yarns. In warp knittin loops are formed vertically by machine one row at a time. 8 . depending on the pattern of holes on a punch card. Common fabrics include the raschel warp knits.KNIT Knit results in a soft and stretchy fabric where the weaving yarn passes either over or under a needle. It is not used extensively in design with the exception of the raschel warp knit used in draperies and curtains.

Felt fabric can be soft while some are tough enough to form construction materials. condensing and pressing woollen fibres. The method of construction of felt consists of heat. moisture agitation and pressure applied to wool fibers causing them to interlock permanently. They can be of any colour and made in any shapes and sizes. 9 . They can also be made of synthetic fibres. Felt can be pulled apart and they are generally not washable.FELT Felt is a non woven fabric that is produced by matting. insulation. It is also used in wall hangings and other decorative items. Common fabrics : felt Household uses : padding. filtering and polishing.

is a finish of the fabric without cutting the yarns. The method of construction of uncut pile includes plain or twill weave with a third dimension has additional warp yarn or filing introduced into the basic structure and forms a loop at regular intervals. Fabrics with uncut is very strong as the loops of the yarn run continuously from face of the carpet through its back. Towel. also known as loop pile or rounded pile. Uncut piles are soft and absorbent and they are relatively inexpensive. They can snag if the loops are caught. the height and texture of the yarn is determined by the surface and texture of the uncut pile. The regularity or irregularity of the loops. Moquette Household uses include :Upholstery. Carpets 10 .UNCUT PILE Uncut pile. Terry velour. Fabrics with uncut pile : Terry cloth.

resilient and absorbent. density of tufts and the twist in the yarn. In this type of fabric. The method of construction is similar to uncut pile but the loops have been cut. The tops of the loops are cut in length. They are expensive and they need professional cleaning. velveteen 11 . the face is composed of cut end of pile yarn. the less bulky is the carpet. Its durability depends on the type of fibre. Common fabrics with cut pile is : corduroy. velvet. Looser twisting creates a luxurious look and feel.CUT PILE Cut pile is a carpet fabric. This fabric is soft and warm. The tighter the twist is.

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