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Nutrition and Well-Being A to Z
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Ads by Google Seed to Plate - Discuss the environment, organic & Non-GMO issues, cultural issues... www.seedtoplate.com Food Traceability - Do you know where your food comes from? We do! - www.catsquared.com foodproof PCR Kits - AOAC approved rapid methods for pathogens, GMO and beer spoilers! www.bc-diagnostics.com Nutraceutical Events - Full line-up Nutraceutical Markets Tradeshows, Conferences, Webinars. - www.NutraceuticalsWorld.com Food-borne organisms are bacteria , viruses , and parasites that can cause illnesses which are either infectious or toxic in nature. They enter the body through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. Every person is at risk of food-borne illness, although infants, the elderly, the immunocompromised , and the malnourished are particularly at risk. Food-borne illness may be mild, seriously debilitating, or even fatal. Illness is typically characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, or both, but it can also involve other parts of the body, such as the central nervous system . Food-borne illness outbreaks most often result from inadequate cooking, inadequate holding temperatures, cross-contamination, unsafe food sources, and poor personal hygiene .
Magnitude of Food-Borne Illness
Most of the available food-borne illness data is from industrialized nations, but the situation in poorer nations is probably worse. Developing countries may not have the resources needed to identify and document food-borne illness outbreaks, or outbreaks may go unreported in an effort to prevent negative publicity, which could affect a nation's tourism and trade industries. Food-borne illnesses are a widespread and growing public health problem, both in developed and developing countries. The global incidence of food-borne illness is difficult to estimate, but it has been reported that, in 1998 alone, 2.2 million people, including 1.8 million children, died from diarrheal diseases, with a great proportion of these cases attributed to contaminated food
Outbreaks of listeriosis have been reported in many countries. developing countries bear the brunt of the problem due to the presence of a wide range of food-borne illness. Department of Agriculture.9 billion per year. In the United States. In industrialized countries. including those caused by parasites and underlying food-safety problems. the vast majority of which were in people who had lived in the United Kingdom during a BSE epidemic that lasted from 1980 to 1996. In the United States.300 school children and resulted in two deaths. Paula Kepos Food-borne illness outbreaks can take on massive proportions. evolution of microorganisms .and drinking water. In 1996 an outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Japan affected over 6. Switzerland. In 1994 an outbreak of salmonellosis due to contaminated ice cream occurred in the United States.3 million cases. just seven foodborne organisms cause between 3. around 76 million cases of food-borne illness.000 deaths. including Australia.3 million and 12. respectively). These include the globalization of the food supply. or malnourished). fatal brain disorder that is contracted by eating meat from cows infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. resulting in 325.1 billion annually in medical costs and lost productivity. As of . or "mad cow disease"). The disease has an incubation period lasting years or decades and has no known cure. diarrhea is a major cause of malnutrition in infants and young children. The cost of food-borne illness in Australia is estimated at about $487 million to $1. each year. In 1988.000 and 9. Mad Cow and Creutzfeldt-Jakob New variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a rare. Furthermore. are estimated to occur each year.000 persons. increases in the immunocompromised human population (those who are aging. for example. According to the U. In 2003 a cow with BSE was discovered in the United States for the first time. While less well documented. for example. France.000 individuals in China. illness caused by the major pathogens alone are estimated to cost up to $37. 153 cases of vCJD had been reported worldwide. individual or group exposure to unfamiliar food-borne hazards while abroad. the inadvertent introduction of pathogens into new geographic areas.000 deaths. Historical Outbreaks Food-borne illnesses emerge as a result of several factors. HIV positive. an outbreak of hepatitis A resulting from the consumption of contaminated clams affected some 300.S. the percentage of people suffering from food-borne illness each year has been reported to be as high as 30 percent. and the United States (outbreaks in France in 2000 and in the United States in 1999 were caused by contaminated pork tongue and hot dogs. and between 3. and increases in the numbers of people eating away from home. As of December 2003. The re-emergence of cholera in Peru in 1991 resulted in the loss of $700 million in fish and fishery-product exports. Food contamination creates an enormous social and economic burden on communities and their health systems. affecting an estimated 224.000 hospitalizations and 5.
Bacteria are responsible for more cases of food-borne illness than any other organisms. bacterial spores germinate and reproduce rapidly and produce toxins . which result in illness. Food can be contaminated with vegetative bacteria as well as spores. such as hepatitis A virus and Norwalk virus. even though other foodborne illnesses present a far greater danger to U. Types of Food-Borne Pathogens Bacteria causing food-borne illness include Escherichia coli O157:H7. Most of those cases were in Great Britain. 119 people had developed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (the human variant of mad cow disease) secondary to exposure to infected animal products. consumers. However. Viruses. a susceptible individual . Reproduced by permission. Campylobacter jejuni. but five cases were reported in France. Staphylococcus aureus.410 pounds of beef that may have been exposed to the tissues of an animal that suffered from bovine spongiform encephalopathy. Listeria monocytogenes. the USDA announced a recall of 10.In December 2003.S. or socalled "mad cow disease. they do not multiply in foods. Salmonella. Vibrio vulnificus. [AP/Wide World Photos. Clostridium perfringens. When conditions become ideal for growth. and Shigella. Vibrio parahaemolyticus. can also cause food-borne illness.] January 2002. Vegetative bacteria can be reduced in food by proper sanitation and cooking techniques." The recall generated a sensational response. Viruses require a living host (human or animal) to grow and reproduce.
MICROORGANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR COMMON FOOD–BORNE ILLNESS Microorganism Food–borne Symptoms Common food sources Incubation illness Bacillus cereus Intoxication Watery diarrhea and Cooked product that is left 0. meat products. difficulty sausages. rice. and starchy foods Campylobacter Infection Diarrhea. molona. 8–24 hours . vision. unpasteurized pain. possible death Clostridium Infection Intense abdominal Meats. double home-canned foods. vomiting vegetables. weakness. or nausea and uncovered _milk. fish. chopped bottled garlic. other foods 2–5 days jejuni accompanied by contaminated by raw fever. and muscle pain Clostridium Intoxication Lethargy. and/or kapchunka. speaking. nausea. Inadequately processed. seafood products. milk. swallowing. untreated water headache. 18–36 hours botulinum dizziness. meats.5–15 hours cramps. paralysis. honey breathing. abdominal chicken. perhaps Raw chicken.
raw milk. vomiting. Monocytogenes diarrhea. Contaminated water. raw milk. diarrhea Common food sources Incubation gravy. intermittent prepared by infected nausea. Shigella Infection Fever. Ready-to-eat foods Unknown.Microorganism Food–borne Symptoms illness perfringens cramps. abdominal Fecally contaminated foods 12–48 hours pain and cramps. alfalfa sprouts. loss of ice cream. from a few confusion. Tex-Mex type foods. may range progress to headache. 12–72 hours species diarrhea. protein-based salads. Foods contaminated by 1–12 hours aureus abdominal cramping improper handling and holding temperatures— meats and meat products. and raw and abortion smoked fish Salmonella Infection Abdominal cramps. molluscan shellfish or foods anorexia. low-grade fever. abdominal Water and foods that have 1–2 weeks cramps. diarrhea handlers Norwalk-type Infection Nausea. other foods contaminated headache through contact with feces. weeks convulsions. or infected food handlers. Shellfish grown in fecally 12–48 hours viruses diarrhea. Foods of animal origin. 12–72 hours group abdominal cramps. may contaminated with bacteria. nausea come into contact with . days to 3 balance and fermented raw sausages. malaise and cider. cut melons Listeria Infection Nausea. creambased bakery products Hepatitis A Infection Jaundice. poultry and egg products. undercooked ground beef. meats are frequently contaminated. fever. other protein-rich foods Escherichia coli Infection Watery diarrhea. abdominal contaminated water. raw animal products. including raw milk. may raw and cooked poultry. Raw or undercooked 15–50 days abdominal pain. vomiting. fatigue. raw vegetables. diarrhea Staphylococcus Intoxication Nausea. eggs. cheeses. cause spontaneous raw meats. unpasteurized apple juice nausea. Poultry. water cramps and foods that have come into contact with contaminated water Giardia lamblia Infection Diarrhea. sandwich fillings. vomiting.
Prevention of Food-Borne Illness at Home and in Institutions The World Health Organization has issued ten guidelines for developing culture-specific foodsafety education: 1. Avoid contact between raw foods and cooked foods—contact surfaces include cutting boards. Cyclospora cayetanensis. like viruses. such as aflatoxin and ochratoxin A. and poultry to 180°F. Eat cooked foods immediately—food-borne organisms reproduce rapidly as food cools to room temperature. Other food-borne organisms include naturally occurring toxins such as mycotoxins. fever. Choose foods processed for safety. Parasitic infection is far less common than bacterial or viral food-borne illness. marine biotoxins . diarrhea. 6. Washing hands with warm water and soap before handing foods. Although not considered food-borne organisms. Parasites are small or microscopic creatures that.Microorganism Food–borne Symptoms illness Trichinella spiralis Infection Nausea. 7. ground beef to 160°F. or dirty spot is a potential reservoir for organisms. and hands. and the health implications of long-term exposure to such toxins are poorly understood. Mycotoxins. require a living host to survive. . Reheat cooked foods thoroughly—reheat all cooked foods to 165°F. some food additives . pesticides. utensils. Cook eggs until yolks and whites are firm. 4. vomiting. fatigue. crumb. Keep all kitchen surfaces meticulously clean—every food scrap. Cook food thoroughly—cook roasts to 145°F. Wash hands repeatedly. 5. cleaning solutions. These can all cause severe illnesses. cyanogenic glycosides (compounds that can form cyanide when ingested). Use a meat thermometer. or meat and poultry treated with ionizing radiation. and toxins occurring in poisonous mushrooms. after every interruption. Parasites such as Giardia lamblia. 3. are found at measurable levels in many staple foods. 8. and heavy metals may also cause illness associated with ingestion of contaminated food. and Cryptosporidium parvum are another origin of food-borne illness. abdominal cramps products Common food sources Incubation contaminated water Raw and undercooked pork 1–2 days and wild game products only needs to ingest a few viral particles to become ill. and between handling raw and cooked foods is the most effective way to prevent food-borne illness. such as pasteurized dairy products and juices. Store cooked foods carefully—cooked foods should be held below 40°F or above 140°F. 2. Frequent and proper handwashing is the most effective way to control the spread of food-borne viruses. herbicides.
M. Protect foods from pests. I LLNESSES . Gaithersburg. Elizabeth. or making ice. McSwane. Principles of Food Sanitation. rodents. Elizabeth (2002). Chicago: American Dietetic Association. 2nd edition. F OOD S AFETY . and other animals frequently carry organisms that can cause food-borne illness. How to Prevent Food Poisoning: A Practical Guide to Safe Cooking. and Linton. boil water before drinking it. 4th edition. P ESTICIDES . (1999). HACCP recipes provide detailed guidelines to food-service workers. David. Eating. Mildred. M. Geneva: Author. MD: Aspen.9. Insects. F OOD -B ORNE . World Health Organization (2002). Richard (1998). Rue. and records assist health department personnel as they perform routine inspections of a facility. using it in food preparation. and Kunkel. Upper Saddle River. If there is any doubt of the safety of the water supply. HACCP flowcharts allow food managers to identify the critical control points. New York: John Wiley. Essentials of Food Safety and Sanitation. and Food Handling. Elizabeth Kunkel Barbara H. Use safe water. Luccia Bibliography Cody. and to make corrections as needed to prevent or eliminate hazards. User Contributions: Comment about this article or add new information about this topic: Top of Form add /nutrition/Ome-Po Name: Publish E-mail: Security Code: ? . NJ: Prentice Hall. Norma G. Nancy. which are operations (practice. Paul (1998). Marriott. 10. Scott.! . The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is used by institutions to anticipate and prevent food safety violations before they occur. preparation step. Emerging Foodborne Diseases. and Sockett. or reduce them to acceptable levels. D. Food Safety for Professionals. or procedure) in the production of a food. SEE ALSO A DDITIVES AND P RESERVATIVES .
Types of Food-Borne Pathogens http://www. protein.Comment: Send (50-4000 characters) Bottom of Form « Organic Foods Osteomalacia » Copyright © 2010 Advameg. Read more: Organisms. water. Inc. health.nutrition. eating. body.html#ixzz0gkQouTA2 .faqs.org/nutrition/Ome-Pop/Organisms-Food-Borne. Historical Outbreaks. Food-Borne . Magnitude of Food-Borne Illness. needs.
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