Real - Li f e Math

everyday use of
mathematical concepts



EVAN M. GLAZER and JOHN W. McCONNELL
An Oryx Book
GREENWOOD PRESS
Westport, Connecticut • London
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Glazer, Evan, 1971– .
Real-life math : everyday use of mathematical concepts / Evan M. Glazer and
John W. McConnell.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-313-31998-7 (alk. paper)
1. Mathematics—Popular works. I. McConnell, John W. II. Title.
QA93 .G45 2002
510—dc21 2001058635
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available.
Copyright © 2002 by Evan M. Glazer and John W. McConnell
All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be
reproduced, by any process or technique, without the
express written consent of the publisher.
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001058635
ISBN: 0-313-31998-7
First published in 2002
Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881
An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
www.greenwood.com
Printed in the United States of America
The paper used in this book complies with the
Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National
Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984).
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
DEDICATED TO
the mathematics teachers at Glenbrook South High School
who were fearless in adapting real-world applications
to their lessons, and who generously shared
their best teaching ideas with us
Introduction, ix
MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS
Angle, 1
Asymptote, 7
Cartesian Coordinates, 10
Circles, 12
Circumference, 16
Complex Numbers, 16
Conic Sections, 18
Counting, 21
Derivative, 23
Equations, 23
Expected Value, 26
Exponential Decay, 28
Exponential Growth, 30
Fibonacci Sequence, 35
Imaginary Numbers, 37
Integration, 37
Inverse (Multiplicative), 43
Inverse Function, 45
Inverse Square Function, 47
Contents



Linear Functions, 49
Logarithms, 55
Logistic Functions, 58
Matrices, 61
Perimeter, 64
Periodic Functions, 67
Plane, 70
Polar Coordinates, 72
Polynomial Functions, 75
Probability, 77
Proportions, 82
Pythagorean Theorem, 87
Quadratic Functions, 89
Quadrilaterals, 93
Rates, 96
Ratio, 102
Reflections, 107
Rotations, 111
Sequences, 114
Series, 117
Similarity, 121
Slope, 124
Square Roots, 124
Standard Deviation, 127
Step Functions, 130
Surface Area, 133
Symbolic Logic, 136
Symmetry, 138
Tangent, 141
Translations, 144
Triangle Trigonometry, 146
Variation, 150
Vectors, 154
Volume, 159
Bibliography, 163
viii CONTENTS
“When are we ever going to use this?”
This plaintive question from frustrated mathematics students is heard in schools
around our country as they wrestle with pages of abstract mathematics and learn
algorithms that appear to go nowhere. They study real numbers, but don’t find
any reason to believe that they are real. Thousands of American students still
work from textbooks that limit applications to age problems and mixtures of
nuts. Despite the call from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in
the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000) for meaningful
learning through study of realistic applications, many students will find that the
only modernization of content over their grandparents’ math books is that jet
planes have replaced the trains that used to travel at different rates between cities.
The twentieth century saw an explosion of applications of mathematics. It is
now hard to find a field of study that does not use mathematical tools. Biologists
use differential equations. Chemists use solid geometry to describe molecules.
Set designers in theaters use trigonometry to determine the best lighting for a
play. Historians determine authorship of obscure documents through statistical
analysis of words. Governments, international corporations, and individual in-
vestors use mathematical rules to determine production, employment, and prices.
Everybody uses computers. Unfortunately, even good students don’t know how
mathematics affects their lives. Few understand the power of compound interest.
Few realize that the compound interest embedded in credit cards can bring adults
to bankruptcy. Few know the mathematical implications of public policies that
will affect their lives. Even fewer know how to make best decisions based on the
probabilities of risk rather than blind gambles.
The secondary-school mathematics curriculum is faced with multiple chal-
lenges. What should students know and be able to do? Proficiency in some algo-
rithms is important. Abstraction in mathematics—stripping concepts of all but
Introduction



their bare structures—is a feature that makes mathematics a powerful intellectual
tool. But these are not sufficient. Much of the mathematics taught in grades 7 to
12 is there because it is important outside the math classroom. Foundation appli-
cations, like paths of projectiles, should not be stripped away, but rather should
be used to motivate the arithmetic, algebraic, or geometric concepts. Further, stu-
dents should have an opportunity to see a broad expanse of math applications so
they can find links between their interests and aspirations and their mathematics
coursework.
This book is an effort to promote real-world connections as they are applied
in people’s daily lives and careers. It is an account of the mathematical applica-
tions that we have learned and shared with people in our teaching careers. We
hope this reference guide helps you enjoy and appreciate the use and application
of mathematics in our culture and environment. We hope you will find some
answers to the question, “When are we ever going to use this?”
audience
This book is intended to be a reference guide for anyone interested in under-
standing how some high school mathematics concepts are applied in nature and
society. We hope that high school students, teachers, and librarians use these
ideas to enhance their learning, teaching, and appreciation for mathematics. The
mathematics described here cover concepts that are found in courses from pre-
algebra through introductory calculus. Each of the concepts is presented so that
the reader can gain different levels of understanding due to the varying levels of
mathematical complexity. A student or parent referencing the term angle will
learn through descriptive text and diagrams that it is used for a variety of pur-
poses in navigation and road construction. A student who has learned trigonom-
etry may gain a deeper understanding as to how an engineer might use the math-
ematics to make predictions by viewing different formulas and calculations. Our
intent is to make the content readable by all levels and ages of students, thereby
hoping that they will recognize value in the applications of mathematics, regard-
less of their backgrounds.
purpose
This reference guide is an effort to provide exposure to mathematical appli-
cations, and should not be regarded as a primary tool for learning and instruction.
Since we do not intend to teach mathematical concepts here, there are occasions
in which mathematics is discussed without reference as to how an equation is
formed or how it was solved. Instead, each concept is informally described so
that primary emphasis can be placed on its applications. We do not intend for
teachers to teach mathematics in the way it is presented here. Instead, the text
should be used as a tool to enhance current instructional practices, or to spark
student interest in math, or to create a classroom activity grounded in a particu-
lar application. Therefore, we feel that a more cohesive learning environment
x INTRODUCTION
with these applications requires that the teacher and the learner examine the
mathematical principles behind why and how a concept is applied.
content
The content in this reference guide is based on over forty mathematical con-
cepts that are studied in different levels of high school mathematics. For exam-
ple, linear functions are typically learned in algebra and are continually used
beyond calculus. Each of the concepts is listed alphabetically and can be read
independently. This format has been selected for pragmatic purposes, so that the
applications can be used efficiently. Consequently, we occasionally synthesize
concepts, such as referring to slope and derivative as rates, or cross-reference
topics because some applications are based on related or multiple concepts.
The ideas presented in this book are not a comprehensive account of high
school mathematics nor do they represent every possible application. We do not
feel that every mathematical principle taught in a high school curriculum has a
realistic application. We do feel there are situations where it is necessary to
explore some mathematics that may not be applied. For example, the study of
angles formed by parallel lines does not have many realistic applications, but the
concepts can be used to introduce similarity, a topic with many useful applica-
tions. In addition, the concepts presented here do not introduce every application
of high school mathematics. Our intent is to promote applications about mathe-
matical concepts that are commonly studied in high school mathematics, even
though there are additional interesting connections to other concepts that may not
have as much emphasis in a school’s curriculum. Furthermore, we simply cannot
be aware of all of the applications that have realistic connections to the concepts
we have listed. If you have any additional ideas, please share them with us by
sending an email to <evanmglazer@yahoo.com>.
The depth of description of an application varies within each concept. Some-
times an application will be described in the form of a story, and other times it
will be described in a few sentences to avoid redundancy with a similar analysis
in another section. Sometimes we will just point in the direction of an important
application. Sometimes we will provide a historical, rather than contemporary,
application to show the genesis of a mathematical concept. The amount of math-
ematics described in each of the sections varies, depending on the context and
complexity of the situation. We would much rather provide a flavor of how
mathematics is used than go into detail for every application. In fact, many appli-
cations discussed in this book are based on simplified conditions, even though
the real world often has unusual limitations, constraints, or peculiarities. For
example, we neglect weather conditions when studying the motion of a baseball.
Furthermore, we approximate the shapes of objects, such as assuming that the
earth is a perfect sphere. Simplified situations are used in this reference guide in
order to provide general principles in a concise manner so that the concepts can
be understood by a high school student. World Wide Web references at the end
INTRODUCTION xi
of each section offer opportunities for further exploration of some of these appli-
cations. We offer such a listing here, giving Web references that provide a huge
number of applications.
online sources for further exploration
The Math Forum
<http://www.mathforum.org/library/topics/applied/>
Contextual Teaching and Learning in Mathematics at the University of Georgia
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/CTL/CTL/>
British Columbia Institute of Technology Mathematics Department Applications
to Technology
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/table.htm>
Micron’s Math in the Workplace
<http://www.micron.com/content.jsp?path=/Education/Math+in+the+Workplace>
xii INTRODUCTION
ANGLE
Position, direction, precision, and optimization are some reasons why people
use angles in their daily life. Street intersections are made at angles as close as
possible to 90°, if not greater, so that visibility is easier when turning. It is ben-
eficial for city planners to create additional turns so that there are larger turning
angles for safer traffic. For example, if a car has to make a sharp 60° turn onto
traffic, it would probably be more likely to get into an accident because the turn
is difficult. If you find a nonperpendicular four-way intersection with a stoplight,
it is likely to have a “No Turn on Red” sign for those drivers who would be at
an obtuse angle. It would be easier for the driver if the road were constructed so
that an additional intersection is added so the car can turn once at 150° and again
at 90°.
The use of angles in the design of parking spaces affects how many cars can
park in a lot. Most parking arrangements involve spaces that are perpendicular or
slightly angled to the curb. An advantage to using obtuse-angled spaces is that it
is easier to turn a car at an obtuse angle than at a right angle, so there may be less
accidents in a lot with angled spaces. An advantage to using right-angled spaces
is the opportunity to fit more cars in the parking lot.
Mathematical Concepts



Restructuring the angles
in an intersection to make
turning a vehicle easier.
initial street design restructured street design
The amount of space, s, saved by using right-angled spaces is s = −l cos α
for each row in the parking lot, where l is the length of the space and α is the
angle of the turn into the space. When the shape of a space is transformed from
a rectangle (right-angled) to a parallelogram (obtuse-angled), the extra horizon-
tal distance needed in a parking-lot row will be the amount of space that the last
car displaced from its previous perpendicular arrangement. In the obtuse-angled
situation, the length of the parking space is the hypotenuse of a right triangle
formed with the curb. The cosine of the angle between the curb and the parking
lines, cos θ, is the ratio of the horizontal curb space, s, to the length of the park-
ing space, l. In an equation, this is written as cos θ =
s
l
.
Multiplying both sides of the equation by l will change it to s = l cos θ. The
angle against the curb and the car’s turning angle are supplementary, because the
curb and car’s path are parallel. The interior angles on the same side of the trans-
versal (the parking lines) are supplementary, so cos θ = −cos α. Substituting
this result into s = l cos θ generates the equation, s = −l cos α.
If the parking lines were at a 60° angle with the curb, the turning angle would
be 120°. Suppose the dimensions of a parking space are 8 feet by 20 feet. If the
lot is transformed from right-angled spaces to oblique-angled spaces, each row
would lose s = −20 cos 120

= 10 feet, which is equivalent to a little more than
one space!
2 ANGLE
Parking-space arrangements in parking lots.
right-angled parking spaces obtuse-angled parking spaces
Variables that affect the extra hori-
zontal space, s, that is needed in a
parking lot with angled spaces.
An overhead view of a car making
an obtuse-angled turn of α degrees
into a parking spot that is angled θ
degrees with the curb.
Airplane pilots, military-orienteering specialists, and ship-navigation crews
are responsible for using angles to move efficiently towards a destination. After
accounting for wind and current speed, navigation teams will determine an angle
to direct their course of movement. For example, suppose a ship is 3 miles from
shore and is docking at a port that is 6 miles away, with minimal current affecting
the path of the boat. The captain will request the boat to be moved 60° West of
North, or 30° North of West. This direction is equivalent to the angle that is
formed between the path of the boat and the northern or westward direction. The
captain can also simply ask to move the boat 60°, because it is assumed that nav-
igation direction is counterclockwise from the North position.
Notice that the distances from the port are represented in a 30°– 60°–90° tri-
angle, which will not always happen. The angle of navigation, β, that will be East
or West of North can be determined by finding arccos(
s
d
), where s is the distance
from shore and d is the distance to the final destination. Notice that the naviga-
tion angle will be negative, or East of North, if the destination is situated to the
East of the ship’s location.
Sailboats cannot steer directly into the wind, because they would be pushed
backwards. In order to sail against the wind, sailors need to tilt their boat at an
angle, ideally 45°, so that the wind catches the sail. If the boat pushes off course,
it will need to change direction again so that it moves perpendicular to its path in
the opposite direction. Sailors call this tacking. This action ensures that the boat
continues to maintain a 45° angle with the wind. This zigzag pattern enables the
boat to reach its finishing point while constantly sailing into the wind.
ANGLE 3
30° North of West 60° West of North
Alternate methods of denoting direction when a boat is 3 miles from
shore and 6 miles from its destination.
The navigation angle, β, of a
boat based on its distance from
shore, s, and the distance from its
final destination, d, is equal to
arccos(
s
d
).
Angles are useful for reflecting light rays or objects off of flat objects. The
angle by which an object, such as a ball, approaches a wall is equal to the angle
by which the object bounces off the wall. This is true because a ball’s reflection
off a wall will be the same distance away from the wall as if it had gone in a
straight line. In essence, reflections preserve congruence. By the transitive prop-
erty, the angle of the ball coming into the wall will equal the angle of the ball
leaving the wall, as shown below. In billiards or miniature golf, a player can use
this principle when aiming for a hole by simply aiming for the hole’s reflection.
Athletes who try to throw or hit balls certain distances, such as baseballs, bas-
ketballs, footballs, and golf balls, use angles strategically. If they want to hit a
ball short and high, they will use an angle close to 90°. In order to hit a low-fly-
ing line drive, they will use an angle close to 0°. The horizontal distance in
meters, x, of an object can be determined by the product of its initial velocity in
meters per second, v
0
, the time in seconds, t, that the ball is in the air, and the
cosine of the angle, α, it is released or hit. Since the earth’s gravitational force
pulls a ball towards the surface, the vertical distance in meters, y, also needs to
be considered in order to determine the ideal angle at which to release or hit a
ball. The two equations describing the path of the ball in both directions are rep-
resented as
x = v
0
t cos α
y = v
0
t sinα − 4.9t
2
.
The ball will be on the ground when y is 0. Solving the second equation for the
time t that will provide this value gives t = 0 or t =
1
4.9
v
0
sinα. The latter solu-
tion gives the time the ball will be in the air. Substituting in the equation for x
4 ANGLE
The path of a boat from its starting
position, S, to its ending position, E,
when it is sailing against a headwind.
The angle of a ball
approaching a wall will
equal the angle of the
ball leaving the wall,
assuming there is no
spin on the ball.
yields
1
4.9
v
2
0
sina cos a. Using trigonometric identities gives x =
v
2
0
sin(2α)
9.8
.
Suppose a golfer hits a tee shot, and that his or her club hits the ball at v
0
= 70
meters/second. The graph of horizontal distances x as a function of the angle α
shows that the angle that will give the golfer the best distance is 45° (π/4 radi-
ans). Frogs know this angle: push-off angle for a frog hop has been measured to
be close to 45°.
When a golfer tees off or a football kicker aims for a long field goal, he or
she should strike the ball at a 45° angle in order to obtain maximum distance. A
baseball player, on the other hand, needs to alter this thinking slightly, because
he hits a ball about 1 meter off of the ground. This makes the horizontal-distance
equation more complicated:
x = v
0
cos α

v
0
sinα

v
2
0
sin
2
α−19.6(y−1)
9.8

.
When the ball hits the ground (y = 0), the graph of this function shows that a ball
reaching the bat at 85 miles per hour, or 38 meters per second, will attain a max-
imum horizontal distance when the ball leaves the bat at about a 44.8° angle,
very close to the angle if the ball were hit from the ground.
The refraction of light is dependent on the angle in which light enters the
object and the material it passes through. Snell’s law states that n
1
• sinΘ
1
=
n
2
• sinΘ
2
, where n is the index of fraction (the ratio of the speed of light in air
to the speed of light in that material) and Θ is the angle of incidence. As light
passes through an object, such as a glass of water, it will bend, giving it a dis-
torted view if you look through the glass. Higher values of n allow the light to
bend more, since Θ
2
decreases as n
2
increases.
ANGLE 5
Horizontal distance (meters) trav-
eled by a golf ball hit at 70 meters
per second at an angle of α radians.
The angle of light rays will
change after hitting a different
surface, such as water. Snell’s
law can be used to determine
the angle of refraction, or the
angle in which light bends as it
passes through a new surface.
Gems such as diamonds have a high index of refraction, allowing them to
trap light and reflect it internally, which consequently makes them sparkle.
online sources for further exploration
The best angle to view a baseball game:
<http://forum.swarthmore.edu/pow/solutio65.html>
Diamond design:
<http://www.gemology.ru/cut/english/tolkow/_tolk1.htm>
Finding your way with map and compass:
<http://mac.usgs.gov/mac/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs03501.html>
The mathematics of rainbows:
<http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/>
Navigation problems:
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/Bearings/Bearings.html>
Photography angles:
<http://www.a1.nl/phomepag/markerink/shifcalc.htm>
<http://www.a1.nl/phomepag/markerink/tiltcalc.htm>
Projectile motion simulations:
<http://library.thinkquest.org/2779/Balloon.html>
<http://www.explorescience.com/activities/Activity_page.cfm?ActivityID=19>
<http://www.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109N/more_stuff/Applets/ProjectileMotion/
jarapplet.html>
River crossing–swimming angles:
<http://www.emsl.pnl.gov:2080/docs/mathexpl/swimwalk.html>
Robot navigation angle:
<http://www.ezcomm.com/~cyliax/Articles/RobNav/robnav.html>
Sailing strategies:
<http://www.orfe.princeton.edu/~rvdb/sail/sail.html>
Snell’s law:
<http://www.physics.nwu.edu/ugrad/vpl/optics/snell.html>
<http://www.yorku.ca/eye/snell.htm>
<http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/refrn/u14l2a.html>
<http://buphy.bu.edu/py106/notes/Refraction.html>
Throwing a boomerang:
<http://www.concentric.net/~davisks/throwing/>
<http://www.bumerang-sport.de/throwing/throw.htm>



6 ANGLE
ASYMPTOTE
An asymptote is an imaginary line or curve that a function approaches as its
independent variable approaches infinity or an undefined value. A vertical
asymptote of x = c exists on a function f(x) if at a point of discontinuity, x = c,
the limit of f(x) as x approaches c equals positive or negative infinity. Ahorizon-
tal asymptote of y = k exists on a function f(x) if the limit of f(x) as x approaches
positive or negative infinity equals k. For example, the function f(x) =
x−2
x+3
has
a vertical asymptote at x = −3 because
lim
x→−3
x−2
x+3
= ±∞ and a horizontal
asymptote at y = 1 because
lim
x→±∞
x−2
x+3
= 1.
In the real world, horizontal asymptotes typically represent a leveling-off
effect, such as the radioactive decay of a particle diminishing until it is almost
gone. (See Exponential Decay.) If the dependent variable y is the amount of the
particle, then in this case there would be a horizontal asymptote of y = 0 on the
graph, because the amount of the particle approaches zero. Most substances that
have a decaying effect, such as the amount of power supply in a battery, will have
an asymptote of y = 0 on a graph that describes its amount as a function of time.
The cooling of hot liquids in a mug, such as coffee, illustrates asymptotic
behavior because the liquid gradually approaches room temperature after sitting
awhile in the cup. The warming of liquids, such as ice sitting in a cup, demon-
strates a similar phenomenon, except that the temperature graph rises towards the
ASYMPTOTE 7
Graph of f(x) =
x−2
x+3
with asymptotes at x = −3
and y = 1.
A graph of the temperature,
in degrees Fahrenheit, of coffee
as a function of the number of
minutes it sits in a closed cup.
The temperature of the coffee
levels off near room temperature
after an hour and a half.
asymptote. In both cases, the asymptote would represent the room temperature,
because the liquid either warms or cools to that temperature after it is left out for
awhile.
Scientific barriers based on speed are asymptotic until technological ad-
vances overcome a barrier. For example, airplanes could not pass the sound bar-
rier, called Mach 1, until 1947. (See Ratio.) Before that time, airplanes progres-
sively became faster and faster, approaching the speed of sound but unable to
surpass it, because they were not built to handle the shock waves produced at
such speeds. However, once the barrier was broken, scientists and engineers were
given data that helped them develop airplanes that could maintain their structural
integrity under the stressful conditions associated with travel at those speeds.
Today, particle physicists are challenging the speed of light by accelerating par-
ticles in large circular chambers. As testing and experimentation progresses over
time, the detected speeds of particles have been gradually approaching the bar-
rier of 3 × 10
8
meters per second. Scientists argue whether it will be possible to
move at speeds faster than light, and if so, what type of consequence will occur.
Many science-fiction stories portray ships disappearing when they travel faster
than the speed of light, because light is not fast enough to show an image of the
ship to an observer.
Terminal velocity is the limiting speed of an object due to wind resistance
when it is in free-fall. For example, a skydiver will jump out of an airplane and
be pulled towards the earth at an acceleration of 9.8 meters per second squared.
This means that the velocity of the person falling will gradually increase until it
reaches terminal velocity. The equation v = 9.8t describes the velocity, v, in
meters per second of a person falling out of the plane after t seconds. After 1 sec-
ond, the skydiver is falling at a rate of 9.8 meters per second, and after 2 seconds,
the person’s velocity has increased to 19.6 meters per second. However, if the
skydiver lies flat during free-fall, the wind resistance will inhibit the falling rate
so that the body does not exceed 50 meters per second. Consequently, y = 50
becomes the horizontal asymptote on the velocity versus time graph. This infor-
mation is helpful for the skydiver to determine how much time can be spent in
the air for skydiving acrobatics and at what point the parachute should be opened
for safe landing.
Vertical asymptotes typically appear in applications that deal with improba-
ble events, costs, or quantities. For example, the cost to extract petroleum from
the Earth is dependent on its depth. Oil that is deeper underground will typically
be more expensive to remove, because it is more difficult to create deeper tun-
8 ASYMPTOTE
A person jumping from an airplane will
reach a terminal velocity at which he can-
not fall any faster due to wind resistance.
nels. In such situations, workers take an increased risk of the tunnel caving in, as
well as having to deal with the added distance covered by equipment to extract
dirt and rocks. This means that tunneling down 11 to 20 feet may be twice as dif-
ficult than tunneling the first 10 feet; and tunneling down 21 to 30 feet may be
three times as difficult than tunneling down 11 to 20 feet, and so on. Con-
sequently, a vertical asymptote will exist near the deepest level on a graph, indi-
cating that it would be nearly impossible to dig at certain depths. Geologists
would find this information useful, thus being able to recommend the appropri-
ate digging depths that would be safe and economically beneficial to the gov-
ernment and local business.
Vertical asymptotes also sometimes symbolize quantities that are nonexist-
ent. For instance, if a preschool wants to build an enclosed playground for its stu-
dents, it would need to build a fence. The builders would consider the best way
to lay out their available fencing so that the students have a large amount of play
space. A function to describe the dimensions of a rectangular play space are
w =
200
l
, where w is the unknown width of the field, l is the unknown length of
the field, and 200 square feet is the desired area of the play space. In this case,
l = 0 is a vertical asymptote, because not only is it impossible to divide by zero,
but it is impossible to have a rectangular play space that does not have any
length!
online sources for additional exploration
The basics of cooling food
<http://www.hi-tm.com/Documents/Basic-cool.html>
Investigate the behavior of northwestern crows
<http://illuminations.nctm.org/imath/912/Whelk/index.html>
Modeling of disease and disease progression
<http://www.phm.auckland.ac.nz/Staff/NHolford/Mss/Disprog/modelling_disease-
progression.htm>
ASYMPTOTE 9
A graph describing the hourly rate
to drill a hole as a function of its
depth. The drilling cost becomes
insurmountable as the depth
approaches 1,000 feet, because it
is too difficult and dangerous to
dig at that depth.
Scaling the Internet Web servers
<http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/cxsr/400/tech/scale_wp.htm>
The terminal velocity of coffee filters
<http://aci.mta.ca/TheUmbrella/Physics/P3401/Investigations/VterminalDDB.html>
Time travel?
<http://members.aol.com/JLandGDC/numin/1999/oct99.htm>
The twisted pendulum experiment
<http://www.carolina.com/coachlab/math.asp>



CARTESIAN COORDINATES
Coordinates are useful to determine relative position and distances. For
example, pixels (dots of light) on a computer are identified by their horizontal
and vertical components, where (0,0) is at the corner of the screen. The coordi-
nates of the pixels are useful for animations that require starting and ending
points for each vertex in a diagram. Given this information, the computer will
predict intermittent coordinates of the vertices to help render the animation, with-
out having to input the coordinates for every second on the screen.
Coordinates are also useful in computer programming to plot points on the
screen or define regions on a blueprint or graphic. For example, an image map is
a graphic that links certain portions of a Web page to different pages on a Web-
site. Image maps are used to enhance the colors on a screen or to provide a larger
region to click a list of items. The image map will probably look like a series of
buttons that are defined by geometric regions, such as rectangles or circles. When
the cursor is moved to a coordinate within a defined region on the image map, it
will move to a new page once the mouse is clicked. Suppose a rectangular region
is defined so that its upper-left coordinate is (12,35) and lower-right coordinate
is (40,70), as shown in the illustration below. This will create a hot spot region
10 CARTESIAN COORDINATES
An image map uses coordinates
to define a rectangular “hot spot”
by noting the opposite corner
coordinates in an image map.
with dimensions of 28 pixels by 35 pixels that will link to a new page if the cur-
sor is clicked at a location on the image map between 12 and 40 pixels and
between 35 and 70 pixels. If the cursor is not in this region, then it will not link
to that page. Notice that the coordinate system on the image map is defined dif-
ferently from the standard rectangular system. Since only positive values are
used, this coordinate system uses the opposite of the negative y-coordinates that
are represented in the fourth quadrant of a Cartesian coordinate system.
Desirable locations for fire stations are places where trucks would have equal
access to the entire town. Ideally, they should be situated so that the longest drive
to the edge of town is the same in all directions. Acoordinate grid could be super-
imposed on a city map, assigning coordinates to each of the intersections. The
distance formula, d =

(x
1
−x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
−y
2
)
2
, could then be used to deter-
mine relative distances, d, of each street based on the coordinates of its end-
points, (x
1
, y
1
) and (x
2
, y
2
), so that the best possible intersection for the fire sta-
tion could be selected.
On a world map, cities and landmarks are assigned a position according to
how far away they are from the equator (0°latitude) and from the prime merid-
ian in Greenwich, England (0° longitude). For example, Chicago is near 41° N
87° W, which means that it is
41
90
in the northern hemisphere and
87
180
in the west-
ern hemisphere.
Aflight from Chicago to Los Angeles would angle the plane 7° south of west
and expect to travel 31° westward on its journey, because Los Angeles is near the
position 34° N 118° W. The distance d traveled between any two cities on the
globe can be determined by the equation
d = 3963 arccos[sin(latitude
1
) sin(latitude
2
) +
cos(latitude
1
) cos(latitude
2
) cos(longitude
2
− longitude
1
)],
where the position in a spherical coordinate system of two cities are (lati-
tude
1
, longitude
1
) and (latitude
2
, longitude
2
) in radians. There are 2π radi-
ans in 360°, so each coordinate should be multiplied by

360
to convert to radi-
ans. In this case, the Chicago coordinate would convert from (41,87) to approx-
imately (0.7156,1.5184), and the Los Angeles coordinate would convert from
CARTESIAN COORDINATES 11
The position of Chicago on the earth
according to its latitude and longitudinal
positions, which are the same as the cen-
tral angles from the center of the earth.
(34,118) to approximately (0.5934,2.0595). Using this formula, the distance be-
tween Chicago and Los Angeles is
d = 3963 arccos[sin(0.7156) sin(0.5934)+
cos(0.7156) cos(0.5934) cos(2.0595 − 1.5184)],
which is approximately 1,758 miles.
online sources for further exploration
Celestial coordinates
<http://www.lhs.berkeley.edu/SII/SII-FindPlanets/SII-FindThatComet/coordinates.
html>
Creating an image map
<http://www.personal.psu.edu/users/k/x/kxs156/tuthow.htm>
<http://www.ils.unc.edu/utils/imagemap-tutorial.html>
Georeferencing and digital images
<http://magic.lib.uconn.edu/help/aerialphotos/GeoreferncingAndDigitalImages.
html>
The satellite times
<http://celestrak.com/columns/v03n02/>
Spherical coordinates and the GPS
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/cases/Global-Positioning/spherical-
coordinates/learn.htm>
Stereograms
<http://library.thinkquest.org/2647/misc/stertech.htm>



CIRCLES
Circles are used in many real-world applications. All manholes are round so
that their covers never slip through the pipes from the ground to the sewers. Any
way you turn the cover it is impossible to force it through the hole, since the dis-
tance from the center of the circle is always the same. Since polygons do not hold
this property, a circle is very useful for this purpose.
Circular wheels allow the opportunity for constant and smooth motion when
riding a bicycle or automobile. If the circle had edges or vertices the ride would
become very bumpy, because the distance from the center of the wheel to its
perimeter would no longer be constant. In addition, a car will travel the distance
its wheels rotate, because the friction between the wheel and pavement cause the
car to move. For every revolution the tires make, the car will travel the length of
12 CIRCLES
the circumference of them. If a wheel has a diameter of 32 inches, then its cir-
cumference, or distance around, is 32π inches ≈ 100.5 inches.
In addition to distance traveled by an automobile, the circumference of cir-
cles is used in several applications. A trundle wheel is a device used to measure
distances that are too long for a tape measure. A marking is placed on the wheel
so that it clicks for one complete revolution. Atrundle wheel can be made in any
size, although it is convenient to make one with a diameter of 31.8 cm, because
then its circumference will be 1 meter (circumference is the product of π and the
diameter of the circle). Therefore, as you push the trundle wheel, every click that
is recorded on the odometer means that the wheel has gone around once and you
have traveled 1 meter.
Another useful application of circumference is to determine the age of cer-
tain trees. The girth, or thickness, of trees increases as they grow older. A fallen
tree often shows a large group of concentric rings, where each ring represents a
year of its life. Since the tree gets thicker during its lifetime, the number of rings
is proportional to its circumference. Therefore, a functional relationship can be
created to estimate the age of a tree based on its circumference. This means that
a measurement of the circumference of a tree can give an indication of its age
without having to chop it down and count its rings.
The area of a circle is useful to determine the price of circular foods that have
the same height. For example, pizzas are often advertised according to their
diameter. A pizza with a diameter of 12 inches might sell for $10, and a pizza
CIRCLES 13
A trundle wheel can be used to
measure long distances by mul-
tiplying the number of its revo-
lutions by its circumference.
The age of a tree is related to
the number of its rings and its
circumference.
with a diameter of 16 inches for $16. Is that a reasonable deal? Since the amount
of pizza is related to its area, it would be more beneficial if the consumer were
told the unit cost of the pizza per square inch. Instead, consumers may develop a
misconception and think that the 16-inch pizza should be 16/12, or 4/3, as much
as the 12-inch pizza.
In the 12-inch pizza, the radius is 6 inches. So the area of the pizza is
π(6)
2
≈ 113.1 square inches. At a sale price of $10, the consumer is paying
about 8.8 cents per square inch of pizza. In the 16-inch pizza, the radius is 8
inches. So the area of the pizza is π(8)
2
≈ 201.1 square inches. At a sale price
of $16, the consumer is paying about 8.0 cents per square inch of pizza. At first
glance, one might think the 12-inch pizza is a better buy, but actually it is the
other way around. Since volume purchases usually have a cheaper unit price,
these prices seem pretty reasonable. Is this true about the prices at your favorite
pizza shop?
The area of a circle is helpful to farmers in determining the amount of space
that a sprinkling system will cover. As a sprinkler rotates, it will spray water in a
circular pattern, or in a sector of a circle if it is restricted in a certain way. The
distance the water reaches, or the radius of the circle, is sufficient information for
the farmer to determine how much space will be covered by the water and how
many sprinklers are needed to water the crops. Crops are often created in rectan-
gular grids to make harvesting easier, but watering in a rectangular pattern is
often less efficient than in a circular pattern. Therefore, the challenge in watering
crops is to determine how many circles can be packed into the rectangle region.
The trick for the farmer is to automate the sprinklers so that they provide just the
right amount of water to the crops to optimize production and minimize expense.
A circle is a figure that has an optimal area based on its perimeter. Based on
a given perimeter, there is not another shape that has an area greater than a cir-
cle. Similarly, based on a given area, there is not another shape that has a smaller
perimeter than a circle. In essence, this information indicates that a great way to
make use of materials and space is to form circles. Think about all the objects
made of raw materials that are shaped into circles, such as plates, cups, pots,
compact discs, and digital video discs. All of these objects are designed to hold
substances or information that take up space in a resourceful way. Parts of circles
14 CIRCLES
A keystone at the center of an arc above a
doorway maintains its structure and support.
can also be used for aesthetic design purposes, such as the arches seen over some
doorways. Roman engineers mastered the use of the circular arch in buildings,
bridges, and aqueducts. Akeystone, the stone placed at the top of the arch, is the
essential component that keeps the structure of the arch together. Without a key-
stone, the arch may crumble if it is not cemented properly.
All materials are not designed to include circles, however, because a circle
does not necessarily serve all functions. For example, a book is shaped like a rec-
tangular prism instead of a cylinder, because it may be easier to store on a shelf
and retrieved easily with its visible binding.
Circular, or angular, motion has several useful applications. It affects the lin-
ear speed and performance of many objects. For example, circular disks spin in
an automobile engine to move its timing belts. The size of the disks can vary,
allowing the engine to distribute its power in different ways. In order to move a
belt, larger wheels do not need to spin as fast as smaller wheels, because they
cover a greater distance in a smaller amount of time. (See Variation.)
Another way to think about the connection between angular and linear speed
is to envision the motion of an ice skater. The spinning rate of the skater will
change with the movement of the radius of his or her arms from the body. To
move faster, the skater will pull his or her arms in towards the body; conversely,
to spin more slowly, the skater will gradually pull his or her arms away from the
body. As an equation, the linear speed, s, is the product of the radius, r, and angu-
lar speed, ω, written as s = rω. Suppose the skater has a constant linear speed of
500 cm/sec. If his or her arm radius is 100 cm, then the skater will be spinning
at a rate of 5 radians/sec, or less than 1 revolution in a second. If he or she pulls
the arms in so that they are 25 cm from the body, then the skater’s angular speed
picks up to 20 radians/sec, about 3
1
/2 revolutions in 1 second.
If the angular speed is held constant, then an object can have different linear
velocities depending on its position on the circular object. For example, a spin-
ning object on a playground or at an amusement park, such as a merry-go-round,
typically has a constant angular speed. Therefore linear velocity increases as the
radius increases. This means that you would feel like you were moving faster if
you stood further away from the center. If you like rides that make you feel dizzy,
then make sure you stand near the outside of a circular wheel when it is in
motion.
CIRCLES 15
The skater slows her camel spin
by extending her arms.
online sources for further exploration
The arch in architecture
<http://www.ba.brantacan.co.uk/architecture.htm>
Circular motion
<http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1e.html>
<http://www.sd83.bc.ca/stu/9906/agal_3b.html>
Make your own trundle wheel
<http://www.geocities.com/thesciencefiles/trundle/wheel.html>
Pizza prices
<http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~pizza/pizzaweb.html>
<http://www.mrpizzaman.com/pizza/index.html>
<http://www.panola.com/biz/pizzahut/create.htm>
Tree rings
<http://www.geo.arizona.edu/K-12/regression/>
<http://web.utk.edu/~grissino/>
<http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/treering.html>



CIRCUMFERENCE. See CIRCLES



COMPLEX NUMBERS
Complex numbers are numbers expressed in the form a + bi, where a is the
real number component and b is the imaginary number component. The number
i is the square root of negative 1: i =

−1. Numbers in the physical world are
often represented by their real number component, such as in measurement,
money, and time. For example, a mile is a unit of measurement that is equivalent
to 5,280 feet. As a complex number, this measurement would be 5,280 + 0i feet.
However, the expression in complex form does not produce any additional mean-
ing if the imaginary number component is equal to zero. Therefore, complex
numbers are useful when the imaginary number component is nonzero.
There are several instances in which imaginary numbers are important in the
physical world. For example, some circuits have unexpected changes of voltage
16 CIRCUMFERENCE
when introduced to current and resistors that have imaginary number compo-
nents. The amount of voltage in a circuit is determined by the product of its cur-
rent and resistance. Without an imaginary number component in both current and
resistance, the voltage reading will remain unaffected. For example, suppose the
current is reading 3 + 2i amps on a circuit with 20 ohms of resistance. The net
voltage would be (3+2i)(20) = 60 + 40i volts. In this case, the voltmeter would
show a reading of 60 volts, because the 40i volts are imaginary. However, if the
resistance was 20 + 4i ohms, then the net voltage would be (3 + 2i)(20 + 4i) =
60 + 12i + 40i + 8i
2
. Since i
2
= −1, this expression simplifies to 52 + 52i. That
means that the introduction of an imaginary number component in the resistance
of the circuit would result in a voltage drop of 8 volts!
Electromagnetic fields also rely on complex numbers, because there are two
different components in the measurement of their strength, one representing the
intensity of the electric field, and the other the intensity of the magnetic field.
Similar to the electric circuit example, an electromagnetic field can have sudden
variations in its strength if both components contain imaginary components.
Complex numbers also indirectly have applications in business. The profit of
the sales of a product can be modeled by a quadratic function. The company will
start with initial expenses and rely on the sales of their product to transfer out of
debt. Using the quadratic formula, the business can predict the amount of sales
that will be needed to financially break even and ultimately start making a profit.
If complex zeroes arise after applying the formula, then the company will never
break even! On a graph in the real plane, the profit function would represent a
parabola in the fourth quadrant that never touches the horizontal axis that
describes the number of products sold. This means that the business will have to
reevaluate their sales options and generate alternative means for producing a
profit.
To generalize this case, any quadratic model that produces complex solutions
from an equation will likely indicate that something is not possible. For exam-
ple, in the business-sales setting, the company may want to test when the profit
will equal one hundred thousand dollars. When solving the equation, the quad-
ratic equation could ultimately be applied, and the existence of imaginary com-
ponents in the solution would verify that this would not be possible. The same
argument could be applied to determine if the world’s strongest man could throw
a shot put 50 feet in the air. If a person can estimate the throwing height h
0
and
the time t the ball is in the air, then the quadratic function h = 0.5gt
2
+v
0
t +h
0
can be applied to determine the initial velocity v
0
and whether the ball will reach
a height h of 50 feet. (Note that the gravitational constant g on earth is equal to
–9.8 meters per second
2
, or –32 feet per second
2
.)
online sources for further exploration
The relevance of imaginary numbers
<http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/answers/relevance.html>
<http://forum.swarthmore.edu/dr.math/problems/zakrzewski10.14.97.html>
COMPLEX NUMBERS 17
Complex numbers in real life
<http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/complexinlife.html>
Complex impedance in circuits
<http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/impcom.html>
Generation of fractals from complex numbers
<http://www.geocities.com/fabioc/>



CONIC SECTIONS
In the third century B.C., the Greek mathematician Appollonius wrote a set of
books dealing with what he called conic sections. He provided a visualization of
ellipses, hyperbolas, and parabolas as intersections of planes with cones. Unlike
ice cream cones, Appollonius’s cone looked like two cones sharing a common
vertex. The picture on the left shows the parabola that is formed by cutting the
cones with a plane parallel to the slant of the cones. It took almost 2,000 years
before applications of conic sections emerged in science and engineering, but
they are now all around us. The middle picture shows a microwave antenna. The
microwaves emerge from the transmitter outside of the reflector at its focus. The
reflector concentrates the wave, as shown in the right-hand picture. Without the
parabolic reflector, the waves would dissipate following the inverse square law.
(See Inverse Square Function for more information.)
The picture on the right shows how the waves from the energy source emerge
from many directions. The energy source is positioned at the focus of the
parabola. Once the rays hit the parabolic reflector, they are transmitted out in par-
allel direction. This concentrates the energy in one direction. For this reason, the
18 CONIC SECTIONS
Cutting a cone to make Parabolic reflector used in a A parabolic reflector
a parabola. microwave antenna (Corel) concentrates energy.
Various representations of the conic section called a “parabola.”
parabolic shape is ideal for car headlights. It would also be ideal for television
tubes were consumers not so demanding that picture screens be rectangular.
Television tube manufacturers have to do some clever engineering to maximize
the benefits of parabolic reflectors and still provide rectangular screens.
If the arrows are reversed in the right-hand drawing, then the parabolic reflec-
tor accumulates and concentrates energy from outside sources. For example, the
dot for the energy source might represent a pipe containing water. Then the para-
bolic reflector can concentrate the sun’s rays to heat the water as part of a solar
heating system. Pipes in highly polished parabolic troughs can focus enough sun-
light to heat an enclosed fluid as high as 750°F or turn water to steam. Hand-held
parabolic reflectors that were invented for spying are available for sport and hobby
activities such as bird watching. The parabolic reflector picks up weak sounds,
such as distant bird calls, and focuses them on a microphone at the focal point.
Sometimes a diffuse view is important. Since they can provide almost 360°
views, hyperbolic mirrors are used for security surveillance in buildings. The
reflection in hyperbolic mirrors is from the convex side, rather than the concave
side used for parabolic mirrors. This is what makes exterior mirrors on the pas-
senger sides of cars show wider views and justify the warning, “Objects may be
closer than they appear.”
Parabolas appear in science and engineering. Ahard-hit baseball flies off the
bat in a parabolic path. The large cables strung between towers of a suspension
bridge, such as the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, form a parabola. Con-
nection to the roadway of the bridge is important in shaping the large cables to
parabolic shape. Atelephone wire that curves because of its own weight is not a
parabola, but is a catenary. If a heavy liquid like mercury is placed in a large can,
and the can is spun, the surface of the liquid will form a paraboloid (every verti-
cal cross section through the center of the can is a parabola). Parabolas are used
in design and medical applications to determine smooth curves from three spec-
ified points in a solid or the image of a solid, such as the points provided in a
medical CAT scan.
Ellipses are a oval conic section that look like squashed circles. They have
two foci that act as centers of the ellipse. Hitting a ball from one focus on an
elliptical pool table will result in a carom from the side of the table that sends the
ball to the other focus. Rooms that have elliptical ceilings or shapes will reflect
the sound of a pin dropping at one focal point so that it is audible many yards
away at the other focal point. The Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City and Stat-
uary Hall in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., are two rooms that have
remarkable acoustics because of their elliptical shapes.
Ellipses are an outcome of some common architectural techniques. The
Romans invented the Groin Vault, the joining of two identical barrel (cylindrical)
vaults over a square plan. The intersection of the vaults form ellipses that go
diagonally to the corners of the square. Although the groin vault is common in
ancient and medieval buildings, it is also found in modern structures such as the
terminal building at the St. Louis Airport.
CONIC SECTIONS 19
Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) revolutionized astronomy when he recognized
that the motion of planets about the sun was elliptical and not circular. Working
with the detailed planetary observations of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), Kepler
found some very slight errors in Brahe’s figures for the circular orbit of Mars. He
attempted to correct the values, but finally concluded the data was correct and
that the orbit of Mars was elliptical with the sun at one of the focal points of the
orbit. His verification of this for the other known planets of his time is known as
“Kepler’s first law.” (See Variation.)
Some comets, like Halley’s comet, follow an elliptical path around the sun
just like planets. Hence Halley’s comet “returns” to earth’s view on a regular
basis. However, some comets appear to follow parabolic or hyperbolic paths.
Once past the sun, they leave our solar system. These comets may have traced
elliptical orbits at one time, but were thrown off trajectory by a gravitational
encounter with a major planet such as Jupiter.
Many machines contain elliptical gears. These develop a nonuniform motion
from a uniform power source. The momentary speedup or slowdown they pro-
duce is important in rotary shears, conveyers, motorcycle engines, and packag-
ing machines.
Statisticians conceptualize plots of many variables on large numbers of sub-
jects as elliptical swarms of points. By finding the axes of such swarms, they syn-
thesize the information from many variables into important structural variables.
online sources for further exploration
Artistic views of conics
<http://www.xahlee.org/SpecialPlaneCurves_dir/ConicSections_dir/conicSections.
html>
Conics in general
<http://www.iln.net/html_p/c/72782/62079/53803/53887.asp>
<http://www.kent.wednet.edu/KSD/KR/MATH/conic_sections2.html>
<http://nths.newtrier.k12.il.us/academics/math/Connections/curves/conics.htm>
<http://chs.osd.wednet.edu/nadelson/chsscimath/Conicsection2001/conic_section_cr
eations.htm>
<http://www.ece.utexas.edu/projects/k12-fall98/14545/Group2/real.html>
Pictures of Appollonius’s analysis
<http://www.sisweb.com/math/algebra/conics.htm>
<http://www.nsm.iup.edu/ma/gsstoudt/conics/conicsmma.html>
Explore conic sections dynamically
<http://www.keypress.com/sketchpad/java_gsp/conics.html>
<http://www.exploremath.com/activities/activity_list.cfm?categoryID=1>
Hyperbolic mirrors
<http://www.neovision.cz/prods/panoramic/h3b.html>
A video view of Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol
<http://www.discovery.com/news/picture/jul99/panoramas/javapano3.html>
Parabolic reflectors and antennas
<http://www2.gvsu.edu/~w8gvu/geo/geo.html>
20 CONIC SECTIONS
How to build a parabolic reflector
<http://nths.newtrier.k12.il.us/academics/math/Connections/reflection/pararefl.htm>
Elliptical orbits
<http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler.html>
<http://www.bridgewater.edu/departments/physics/ISAW/PlanetOrbMain.html>
Elliptical gears
<http://www.cunningham-ind.com/ellipt.htm>
<http://www.hpceurope.com/vgb/archives/Avril00/Elliptiques.html>



COUNTING
Businesses and government agencies often have a need to efficiently count
the number of arrangements or possibilities with various combinations of num-
bers or options. For example, a car dealer may be interested in the number of car
varieties that can be offered in order to persuade customers. If there are 9 differ-
ent models, 6 different colors, and 2 types of interiors, there could be a total of
9 × 6 × 2, or 108, different cars available. In this dealer’s television advertise-
ment you might hear, “Hurry, this weekend only. Come to our car dealership and
view over 100 different styles of cars for sale. Don’t miss out on this great oppor-
tunity!” The procedure of multiplying the number of possibilities for each option
is called the multiplication counting principle.
State vehicle departments can determine the number of nonvanity license
plates they have available by finding the product of the number of possibilities
for each position on the plate. For example, if a state has three letters followed
by three numbers, then the number of possible plates is 9 × 10 × 10 × 26 × 26
× 26 = 9 × 10
2
× 26
3
= 15,818,400. The first position will have 9 possible val-
ues, since it will represent any digit from 1 through 9. The second and third posi-
tions can hold 10 possible digits from 0 to 9. The fourth through sixth positions
have 26 possibilities each, because they can contain any letter in the alphabet. If
for some reason the state runs out of license-plate sequences, they can place
numbers before letters to double the number of possibilities, since the order of
letters and numbers is important on a license plate. Zip codes can be counted in
a similar manner. There are five numbers in a zip code, so there is a total of
10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 10
5
= 100,000 possible zip codes. The United States
Postal Service only uses 95,000 possibilities: 00001 to 95000.
Telephone numbers are counted in a similar way, but have more restrictions
to the values in different positions. The first three digits are the area code. The
area code must start with a digit from 2 to 9, because pressing 0 is a call to the
operator, and pressing 1 is not allowed because it is associated with dialing a
number outside an area code. Also, the area code cannot be 911, since that is an
COUNTING 21
emergency number. Therefore there are a total of 8 × 10 × 10 − 1 = 799 possi-
ble area codes. The local phone number has seven digits, with a three-digit pre-
fix and four-digit suffix. In the prefix, the first digit cannot be 0 or 1 for the same
reason mentioned earlier. Also, the prefix cannot use 555, because that is a
dummy set of numbers used in entertainment media, such as movies and songs,
except for the national information number, 555-1212. Therefore the prefix can
have 8 × 10 × 10 − 1 = 799 possible values. The suffix can have any four-digit
number, which means there are 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 10,000 possible values.
Therefore, using the multiplication-counting principle, there is a total of 799 ×
799 × 10, 000 = 6,384,010,000 possible telephone numbers. That is an average
of almost 25 numbers per person!
A lock manufacturer can determine the number of possible combinations to
open its locks. If a dial lock has 60 numbers and requires three turns, then a total
of 60 × 60 × 60 = 216,000 locks can be made. However, some lock companies
do not want to have the same number listed twice, because dialing in different
directions might end up being confusing. Therefore it might be more appropriate
to create 60 × 59 × 58 = 205,320 lock combinations. The 59 in the second posi-
tion means that there are 59 possible numbers available, because one number has
been selected in the first position; and the 58 in the third position indicates that
there are 58 possible numbers remaining, because one number has been selected
in the first position and a different number has been selected in the second posi-
tion. The product of three consecutive descending numbers is called a permuta-
tion. In this case, we would say that there are 60 permutations taken 3 at time,
meaning that the counting accounts for the selection of three numbers out of a
group of 60 in which the order of selection is important. Instead of writing the per-
mutation as a product of a series of integers n(n − 1)(n − 2) • . . . • (n −r + 1),
it can be symbolized as nPr, where n is the number of possibilities for the first
selection, and r is the number of selections.
Some counting principles are based on situations in which the order of selec-
tion is not important, such as in selecting winning lottery balls. If 6 numbers are
selected from a group of 40 numbers, it does not matter which number is pulled
out of the machine first or last. After all the numbers are randomly drawn, the
results are posted in numeric order, which is probably not the same order by
which they were selected. For example, if the numbers are drawn in the order 35–
20–3–36–22–28, and your ticket reads 3–20–22–28–35–36, then you are still the
winner. When order of selection is not important, this type of counting principle
is called a combination and can be symbolized as nCr. The relationship between
a combination and permutation is determined by the equation nCr =
nPr
n!
because
there are n! ways to arrange a group of n objects, where n! = n(n − 1)(n − 2)
• . . . • 1. In this case, there are 6! = 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 720 ways to rear-
range 6 lottery balls with different numbers. Since the order of numbers is not
important when reading the winning lottery number, there are
40
C
6
possible
numbers, or
40×39×38×37×36×35
6×5×4×3×2×1
= 3, 838, 380 combinations, to select in the lot-
tery. In this type of lottery, the chance of winning would be 1 in 3,838,380.
22 COUNTING
online sources for further exploration
Adventure games, permutations, and spreadsheets
<http://archives.math.utk.edu/combinatorics/Combinatorics/AdvGame.html>
Counting techniques
<http://www.colorado.edu/education/DMP/activities/counting/>
English change-ringing of bells
<http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/Union/UBSCR/crinfo.html>



DERIVATIVE. SEE RATES



EQUATIONS
An equation is a relationship that places equal representation to different
quantities, and is symbolized with an equals sign “=.” All proportions are equa-
tions that are based on equal ratios. For example, Kepler’s law states that the
ratio of the cubed planetary distances from the sun is equal to the ratio of their
squared period of revolutions around the sun, written as
d
3
1
d
3
2
=
p
2
1
p
2
2
. (See Propor-
tions for more information about Kepler’s law on planetary motion.) Functions
can also be written as equations, because they relate two or more variables with
an equals sign. For example, the vertical height, h, of an object is determined by
the quadratic equation h = −0.5gt
2
+v
0
t +h
0
, where g is the acceleration due
to earth’s gravity (9.8 m/sec
2
), v
0
is the initial vertical velocity, and h
0
is the ini-
tial height of the object (see Quadratic Functions for more information about
the derivation and use of this equation). There are many other types of relation-
ships besides proportions and functions that can be represented in the form of an
equation. Some equations are bizarre and have multiple variables, making them
interesting to study or purposeful to use. Other equations simply do not belong
to a family of functions that is commonly studied in high school mathematics.
In 1622, chemist Robert Boyle showed that the product of the pressure, p,
and volume, v, of the same amount of gas at a fixed temperature was constant.
The equation to represent this relationship is p
1
v
1
= p
2
v
2
, where the subscript
notation represents the gas at different times. This formula indicates that as the
EQUATIONS 23
pressure increases, the volume of the gas will decrease, and vice versa. For
example, when diving under water, the amount of pressure in your ear sockets
will increase, causing the amount of space to decrease until your ears “pop.” The
amount of space in your lungs also decreases when you are underwater, making
it more difficult to breath when scuba diving. One way to visualize this effect is
to bring a closed plastic container of soda onto an airplane, and then notice the
change in its shape during takeoff and descent due to varying pressures in the
earth’s atmosphere at different altitudes. If temperature, t, and quantity of gas in
moles, n, vary, then the equation can be extended to the ideal gas law, which is
pv = nrt, where r is the universal gas constant equal to 0.082 (atm L)/(mol K).
The escape velocity of an object represents the speed at which it must travel
in order to escape the planet’s atmosphere. On earth, it is the speed at which a
rocket or shuttle needs in order to break the gravitational pull of the planet. The
equation that relates the escape velocity, v
e
, to the mass, M, and radius, R, of a
planet is approximately v
2
e
= (1.334 × 10
−10
)(M/R). The equation is based on
finding the moment when the kinetic energy, 0.5mv
2
e
, of the rocket exceeds its
potential energy that is influenced by the earth’s gravitational pull, GMm/R,
where Gis a gravitational constant, 6.67 × 10
−11
, and mis the mass of the rocket.
Setting these two relationships equal to one another, 0.5mv
2
e
= GMm/R, sets
up a situation that determines the velocity at which the kinetic and potential
energy of the rocket are the same. An m on both sides of the equation cancels and
the equation simplifies to v
2
e
= (1.334 × 10
−10
)(M/R). The mass of the earth
is 5.98 ⋆ 10
24
kg, and has a radius of 6,378,000 m. This means that a rocket
needs to exceed 11,184 meters per second to fly into space. That is almost 25,000
miles per hour!
Equations involving the sum of reciprocals exist in several applications. For
instance, the combined time to complete a job with two people, T
c
, can be deter-
mined by the equation 1/T
1
+ 1/T
2
= 1/T
c
, where T
1
and T
2
represent the time
it takes two different individuals to complete the job. This equation is based on
the equation P = RT, where P is the worker’s productivity, R is the worker’s rate,
and T is the worker’s time on the job. Since two workers complete the same job,
they will have the same productivity level. This means that the two workers’ pro-
ductivity can be represented by the equations P = R
1
T
1
and P = R
2
T
2
. The
productivity for both workers is based on a combined rate and different time, rep-
resented with P = (R
1
+R
2
)T
c
. Substituting R
1
=
P
T
1
and R
2
=
P
T
2
makes the
equation P =

P
T
1
+
P
T
2

T
c
. Dividing both sides by T
c
and canceling the pro-
ductivity variable leaves the end result,
1
T
1
+
1
T
2
=
1
T
c
.
Suppose an experienced landscaper can trim bushes at a certain house in 3
hours, and a novice takes 5 hours to complete the same job. Together, they will
take 1 hour, 52 minutes, and 30 seconds to complete the task, assuming that they
are working at the same productivity level (i.e., they are not distracting each
other’s performance by chatting). This result was determined by solving the
equation
1
3
+
1
5
=
1
T
c
. If both sides of the equation are multiplied by the product
24 EQUATIONS
EQUATIONS 25
of the fraction’s denominators, or 15T
c
, the equation can be rewritten as 5T
c
+3T
c
= 15. After combining like terms and dividing both sides of the equation
by 8, the solution will be T
c
=
15
8
, which translates to 1 hour, 52 minutes, and 30
seconds. Reciprocal equations exist in other applications as well. The image
formed by a converging or diverging lens can be located with the equation
1
D
i
+
1
D
o
=
1
F
, where D
i
is the distance from the lens to the image, D
o
is the distance
from the object to the lens, and F is the focal distance of the lens.
Sports statistics involve unusual equations. The NFL quarterback rating is a
computation that measures the effectiveness of a player based on his number of
touchdowns (t), interceptions (i), attempts (a), completions (c), and passing
yards (p). The equation that determines the quarterback rating, r, is
r = (500c + 25p + 2000t + 12.5a − 2500i)/(6a).
Notice that interceptions are weighted so that the rating decreases by more than
the value of a touchdown, and that touchdown passes are weighted four times as
much as a completion. This equation is proportioned so that the average quarter-
back will have a rating near 100, according to historical performances in the
league. This equation is based on NFL statistics and needs to be adjusted for
other football leagues, since the fields and rules are slightly different. For exam-
ple, scoring in the Arena Football League occurs more often, since the field is
only 50 yards long, compared to 100 yards in the NFL.
online sources for further exploration
Arena Football League quarterback rating
<http://www.tampastorm.com/features/QBrate/>
Robert Boyle and his data
<http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/GasLaw/Gas-Boyle-Data.html>
Boyle’s Law and absolute zero and Cartesian diver and Model of Lung
<http://chemlearn.chem.indiana.edu/demos/Boyle.htm>
Burning rate of stars
<http://www.phys.uri.edu/~chuck/ast108/notes/node76.html>
Calculate the escape velocity
<http://www-star.stanford.edu/projects/mod/ad-escvel.html>
Euler’s formula and topology
<http://www.nrich.maths.org/mathsf/journalf/dec00/art1/index.html>
Ideal gases
<http://library.thinkquest.org/3616/chem/gas.htm>
Image forming by a lens
<http://www.lightlink.com/sergey/java/java/clens/index.html>
<http://www.lightlink.com/sergey/java/java/dlens/index.html>
Orbit simulation
<http://observe.ivv.nasa.gov/nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit3.html>
Quarterback rating system
<http://user.cybrzn.com/~koz/rating.htm>
<http://www.primecomputing.com/javaqbr1.htm>
Seventeen proofs of Euler’s formula
<http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/junkyard/euler/>
Universal law of gravitation
<http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html>



EXPECTED VALUE
The expected value of a variable is the long-run average value of the variable.
Expected value can also be viewed as the average value of a statistic over an infi-
nite number of samples from the same population.
Studies of expected value emerged from problems in gambling. How much
is a lottery ticket worth? Consider a lottery run by a service organization: a thou-
sand tickets are offered at a dollar each; first prize is $500; there are two second
prizes of $100; and the remaining income from ticket sales is designated for char-
ity. There are three probabilities in this problem: The probability of having the
first-prize ticket is 1 out of 1,000, or 0.001; the probability of a second place
ticket is 0.002; and the probability of winning nothing is 0.997. The average of
prizes weighted with corresponding probabilities gives the expected winning for
a ticket: 500 • 0.001 + 100 • 0.002 + 0 • 0.997 = 0.700. The expected-prize
value for one of these lottery tickets is $0.70. Since the ticket costs a dollar, the
expected loss on a ticket is $0.30. For this model to hold, one must assume that
a ticket would be purchased from many such lotteries. This assumption is met by
state lotteries that sell millions of tickets or Las Vegas slot machines, which are
played millions of times each day. Neither lotteries nor slot machines are fair
games. The expected net winning for each ticket in the lottery or each play of a
slot machine is a negative number. This indicates that these games of chance rep-
resent a long-term loss for the regular gambler.
The concept of weighting costs by probabilities is used in finance, investing,
insurance, industrial decision-making, and law to determine expected values.
Bankers and investors use several indicators based on expected value. One
example is expected return, an expected value on a risky asset based on the prob-
ability distribution of possible rates of return that might include U.S. Treasury
notes, stock-market indices, and a risk premium. Industrial decision-making uses
expected values to compute projected costs of different options. For example, an
oil company may hold property that it may choose for oil drilling, hold for later
drilling, or sell. Each of these options is associated with costs. The company can
26 EXPECTED VALUE
compute probabilities based on past experience for each cost. They then compare
the expected values and choose the option that has the least expected cost. Acon-
troversial industrial use of expected value occurred in the 1970s with the design
of the Ford Pinto automobile. It had a gas tank that was likely to explode when
the car suffered a rear-end collision. The Ford Motor Company computed expect-
ed costs of improving the Pinto gas tank versus the expected costs of settling law-
suits resulting from deaths in Pinto explosions. The latter value was the lesser, so
Ford executives chose to omit gas-tank improvements.
Law firms can use expected values to determine whether or not a client
should continue a suit, settle without a trial, or go to trial. Experience with sim-
ilar lawsuits provides the probabilities. The cost of litigation and the potential
awards provide the estimates of net “winnings.” If the expected value of the net
winnings in a trial is negative, the law firm should advise the client to drop the
suit or accept a settlement.
Ecologists have used expected value to estimate water supplies in the Great
Plains based on probability and volume estimates of soil moisture, rain, and con-
sumption by humans, industry, agriculture, and natural vegetation. The military
uses expected values in conducting “war games.” Costs in military operations,
loss of life, and destruction of property are associated with probabilities to com-
pare the expected values of different strategies.
The French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) pro-
vided one of the earliest and most intriguing uses of expected value. In what is
now called “Pascal’s wager,” he argued that probabilities and payoffs associated
with belief in God versus not believing in God would result in an expected value
that supported belief in God. Almost 400 years later, Pascal’s assumptions and
arguments are still debated by theologians and philosophers.
online sources for further exploration
The cereal box problem
<http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/reese/cereal/intro.html>
Contest odds
<http://silver.sdsmt.edu/~rwjohnso/module7.htm>
Determination of the decision-maker’s utility function
<http://ubmail.ubalt.edu/~harsham/opre640a/partix.htm#rutility>
The “dummies guide” to lottery design
<http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199900/cmselect/cmc-
umeds/958/01111622.htm>
Life-expectancy data
<http://www.iihe.org/information/Databook1996/T49_LifeExpectancyAgeRaceSex.
htm>



EXPECTED VALUE 27
EXPONENTIAL DECAY
Exponential decay can be observed in the depreciation of car values, the half-
life of elements, the decrease of medication in the blood stream, and the cooling
of a hot cup of coffee. The general exponential equations that define exponential
growth, such as the financial model for principal after compound interest is
applied, A = P(1 +
r
n
)
nt
, and the general models for exponential growth such
as y = ab
x
can be used to describe losses over time for values of b that are
between 0 and 1. The changes that are made to the models may involve chang-
ing the base from a number greater than one (growth) to a number less than one
(decay), or leaving the base alone and allowing the power to be negative.
The term “decay” comes from the use of exponential functions to describe
the decrease of radioactivity in substances over time. The law of radioactive
decay states that each radioactive nuclear substance has a specific time known as
the half-life, during which radioactive activity diminishes by half. Some radioac-
tive substances have half-lives measured in thousands to billions of years (the
half-life of uranium-238 is 4.5 billion years), and some in fractions of a second
(muons have a half-life of 0.00000152 seconds). The way in which radioactivity
is measured varies from substance to substance. Uranium-238 decays into lead,
so the proportions of lead and uranium-238 in a sample can be used to determine
the amount of decay over time. The law of decay is stated as A
R
= A
o
(
1
2
)
t/h
,
where A
o
is the amount of radioactive substance at the start of the timing, h is
the half-life time period, and A
R
is the amount remaining after t units of time. In
this format, the base of the exponential equation is
1
2
, clearly a number less than
one. It can also be stated with a base larger than one if the exponent is negative,
as in A
R
= A
o
(2)
−t/h
. The basic shape of the graph of exponential decay is
shown in the plot below. One hundred grams of substance with half-life of
24,000 years is followed for 100,000 years. At the end of 24,000 years, 50 grams
of the radioactive substance are left in the sample. At the end of 48,000 years, 25
grams are left, and at the end of 72,000 years, 12.5 grams. The formula that de-
scribes this model is A = 100(
1
2
)
t/24,000
.
28 EXPONENTIAL DECAY
A graph that describes an exponential decay
of radioactive substance as a function of
time: Quantity remaining of 100 grams of
a radioactive substance with half-life of
24,000 years.
Exponential decay models are also written using base e. The equation A =
100e
−kt
, where k =
ln2
24,000
is the same equation plotted in the graph.
Radiocarbon dating of animal or plant remains that are thousands of years old
is based on the radioactive isotope carbon-14, which has a half-life of 5,700
years. Carbon-14 is constantly produced in the earth’s atmosphere through the
absorption of radiation from the sun. When living organisms breathe or eat, they
ingest some carbon-14 along with ordinary carbon. After an organism dies, no
more carbon-14 is ingested, so the age of its remains can be calculated by deter-
mining how much carbon-14 is left.
Exponential decay in prices is called depreciation. Some types of deprecia-
tion used in accounting are linear. For example, tax law permits a business to
depreciate 20 percent of the original cost of computer equipment for each of five
years. Market prices, however, do not follow a linear pattern. Automobiles typi-
cally depreciate rapidly during the first year, and then less rapidly during each
subsequent year. The used-car prices for one popular automobile that sold for
$27,000 when new are given by P = 27, 000(0.83)
t
, where t is the number of
years after purchase. In this case, the automobile lost 17 percent of its value each
year.
Inflation problems can be viewed as growth problems (increases in prices) or
as drops in the value of currency. For example, the purchasing power of the dol-
lar dropped by 7.2 percent per year during the 1970s. The purchasing power of
$100 is given by P = 100(1 − 0.072)
t
= 100(0.928)
t
, where t is the number of
years after 1970.
Concentrations of a medication that are carried in the bloodstream often fol-
low an exponential decay model. Such drugs are said to have half-lives. Each day
you replace about 25 percent of the fluids in your blood. If you are taking a med-
ication that depends on the bloodstream for circulation, then 25 percent of the
dose is lost as you replace fluids. A person who takes one pill containing 20 mg
of medicine will have about 15 mg (75 percent of 20 mg) in his or her body one
day later, and 11.25 mg (75 percent of 15 mg) two days later, and so on. The half-
life for this drug can be found by solving the equation
1
2
= 0.75
t
, or t ≈ 2.4 days.
Some drugs do not follow an exponential decay pattern. Because alcohol is
metabolized by humans, the quantity of alcohol in the bloodstream after inges-
tion will show a linear decrease rather than exponential decay.
For the many drugs and steroids that have half-lives, the drop off in drug con-
centration decreases less rapidly over time. Therefore it is possible to measure
the quantity of the drug in the body long after ingestion. This means that users of
illegal or dangerous drugs will have traces of the drugs remaining in their blood-
streams for many days. Sensitive drug tests, such as those used on Olympic ath-
letes, can pick up indications of banned drugs used within two weeks or more of
the testing, depending on the half-life of the substance.
If you pour a cup of hot coffee, the temperature will drop off quickly, then
the coffee will remain lukewarm for a long while. Newton’s law of cooling states
that the rate at which the temperature drops is proportional to the difference
EXPONENTIAL DECAY 29
between the coffee temperature and the room temperature. The formula for the
coffee temperature after t minutes is T = T
r
+ (T
o
−T
r
)e
−kt
, where T
o
is the
initial temperature of the coffee, T
r
is the room temperature, and k is a constant
depending on the type of cup. Hence cooling is an exponential decay situation.
(See Asymptote.)
Medical examiners use a version of Newton’s law of cooling to determine the
time of death based on the temperature of a corpse and ambient temperature at
the murder scene.
online sources for further exploration
Journal of Online Mathematics and Its Applications
<http://www.joma.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc5/exponential_decay_module.html>
Carbon dating
<http://www.c14dating.com/>
<http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~lindsay/creation/carbon.html>
Cooling
<http://mvhs1.mbhs.edu/mvhsproj/cooling.html>
<http://members.tripod.com/fix_it_quick/mathisu.html>
<http://www.aw.com/ide/Media/JavaTools/nlhcrate.html>
Nuclear medicine
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_4/ary_11_4.htm>
Radioactive decay
<http://www.joma.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc5/exponential_decay_module.html>
<http://pass.maths.org.uk/issue14/features/garbett/index.html>
The RC circuit
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_7_4/ary_7_4.htm>
Used car prices
<http://www.edmunds.com/used/>
<http://www.kbb.com/kb/ki.dll/kw.kc.bz?kbb&&688&zip_ucr;1409&>



EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
Exponential growth situations are based on repeated multiplication. Aclassic
example was the growth of the rabbit population in Australia. English wild rab-
bits are not native to Australia, but were introduced by Thomas Austin of Win-
chelsea, Victoria, onto his property in 1859. Australia provided an ideal environ-
ment for the rabbits, with plenty of food and no predators, so the population grew
rapidly. By 1910, rabbits had become a plague, driving out many of the native
species across Australia. They destroyed farming areas, caused severe erosion,
30 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
and ruined grazing areas for sheep. During the thirty years after their introduc-
tion, the rabbit population doubled every six months. The table and graph below
show the approximate number of rabbits in Australia for each six-month period
after the introduction of Mr. Austin’s original 24 rabbits.
The equation for the number of rabbits is y = 24 • 2
x
. Because the inde-
pendent variable x is in an exponent, the equation describing the rabbit popula-
tion growth is called an exponential model. The base 2, which represents dou-
bling, is the growth factor. Growth factors greater than one create curves similar
to the rabbit-population curve. When the growth factor is less than one, the curve
will decrease (see Exponential Decay).
Exponential growth models are used extensively in the world of finance.
Investments of money in a certificate of deposit (CD), for example, require the
customer to invest a certain amount of money (principal) for a specified time.
The bank issuing the CD will specify an annual yield, a yearly interest rate that
will be added to the principal each year. The interest becomes part of the princi-
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH 31
The growth of the rabbit population in
Australia from 1859–1864 modeled
by an exponential growth equation.
A graph depicting growth of the
rabbit population in Australia
from 1859–1864.
six-month
year periods (x) rabbit population (y)
1859 0 24
1 24 • 2 = 48
1860 2 24 • 2 • 2 = 96
3 24 • 2 • 2 • 2 = 192
1861 4 24 • 2
4
= 384
5 24 • 2
5
= 768
1862 6 24 • 2
6
= 1,536
7 24 • 2
7
= 3,072
1863 8 24 • 2
8
= 6,144
9 24 • 2
9
= 12,288
1864 10 24 • 2
10
= 24,576
pal held for the customer. The return addition of interest payments to the princi-
pal so that the interest amount can earn interest in later years is called compound
interest. The growth factor in compound-interest problems is 1 plus the annual
yield. So an investor who buys a $5,000 CD advertised at 6.5 percent annual
yield will receive 5000(1 +.065)
x
after x years. After three years, this CD
would be valued at 5000(1.065)
3
= $6,039.75. Banks may choose to compound
interest more frequently. The banking version of the exponential growth formula
is A = P(1 +r/n)
nt
, where A is the amount at the end of t years, P is the start-
ing principal, r is the stated interest rate, and n is the number of periods per year
that interest will be compounded. A typical CD will have interest compounded
each quarter. Financial institutions can offer more-frequent compounding, such
as monthly or daily. Some even offer continuous compounding, which has the
formula A = Pe
rt
, where A is the value of the investment at time t, P is the ini-
tial principal, r is the interest rate, and e ≈ 2.7183. For a given interest rate, more
frequent compounding yields a higher return, but that return does not increase
dramatically as the compounding period moves from months to days to continu-
ous. Because the number of compounding periods can affect the rate of return on
an investment, federal law requires financial institutions to state the annual yield
as well as an interest rate so that consumers can make easier comparisons among
investment opportunities.
Benjamin Franklin was one of the pioneers in the use of exponential growth
models for money and population. In 1790, Franklin established a trust of
$8,000. He specified that his investment should be compounded annually for 200
years, at which time the funds should be split evenly between the cities of
Philadelphia and Boston, and used for loans to “young apprentices like himself.”
Franklin anticipated that the fund would be worth $20.3 million after 200 years
if the annual yield averaged 4 percent. However, the annual yield averaged about
3.4 percent, so $6.5 million was in the fund when it was dispersed to the two
cities in 1990.
Franklin established the practice of studying the American population by
using exponential growth. He recognized that the warning of the Englishman
Thomas Malthus (1766–1834) that population under exponential growth would
outstrip food sources might apply to the new country of the United States. Frank-
lin urged that the growth of states and the entire country be tracked each year.
Some historians contend that President Lincoln used exponential growth models
70 years after Franklin’s recommendation. Lincoln used censuses from 1790 to
1860 to predict that the population of the United States would be over 250 mil-
lion in 1930. The population did not reach this figure until 1990. This shows that
exponential functions can describe situations only as long as the growth factor
remains constant. There are many factors such as economics, war, and disease
that can affect the rate of population growth.
When the Center for Disease Control identifies a new epidemic of flu, expo-
nential growth functions describe the numbers of early cases of infection quite
well. A good definition of epidemic is a situation in which cases of disease in-
crease exponentially. However, as people build up immunization, the disease
32 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
cannot continue exponential growth, and other models become more appropriate.
(See Logistic Functions.)
The federal government keeps close tab on exponential growth situations that
can or may harm the U.S. economy. Inflation is the growth in prices over time.
One measure of inflation is the Consumer Price Index (CPI), which provides
averages of what standard goods and services would cost each year. In the United
States, what cost $100 in 1980 would cost $228.69 in 2000. The value of a dol-
lar was therefore less in 2000 than it was in 1980. This corresponds to a yearly
increase in costs of about 4.2 percent. This can be checked with the exponential
growth calculation 100(1 + 0.042)
20
≈ $227.70. This inflation is not a serious
national problem if wages and salaries increase at the same rate. It becomes a cri-
sis if the costs of goods and services increase at too high a percentage. There was
a time during the last twenty years in which the inflation rate in Brazil reached
80 percent per month! Using the exponential growth equation, that means that
what cost $100 at the start of the year would cost 100(1 + 0.80)
12
≈ $1,157 at
the end of the year.
Exponential growth is an issue in studies of the environment. From 1950
through 1970, it appeared that world oil production was increasing exponentially
at a rate of 7 percent per year to meet the growing worldwide demand. Could that
continue? Because it is harder to find previously undiscovered oil deposits, oil
production has not increased exponentially since 1970. Some scientists contend
that the carbon dioxide content in the upper atmosphere is increasing exponen-
tially. There are few dangerous effects in the early stages of the growth, but as
the amount of atmospheric CO
2
leaps ahead, serious changes such as global
warming will disrupt life on earth.
Exponential growth models are the basis of many scams, such as the chain
letter. Achain letter offers the promise of easy money. One letter might have five
names at the end of it. “Send $10 to the first name on the list. Remove that name
and put your name on the bottom of the list. Send copies of the new letter to five
people.” If you and everyone else does this, the person at the top of the list would
receive $6,250. However, by the time your name came up on top of the list,
1,953,125 people would have had to pass on the chain letter after it had been ini-
tiated. In three more stages, the letter would have to be continued by more peo-
ple than there are in the United States. Because the number of contributors to the
letter must grow exponentially, the only people who benefit from a chain letter
are those who start them. The U.S. Postal Code prohibits chain letters. However,
variants of chain letters that don’t ask for money have been popular via email.
Because these letters ask the recipient to send copies of the letter to all people in
their computer address books, the number of these messages increases very rap-
idly and can clog disk storage and communication links.
There are several other ways in which exponential growth appears in finan-
cial deceits. An entrepreneur will advertise franchises for selling some product.
For payment of a franchise fee, such as $1,000 or $5,000, the franchisee obtains
the rights to sell the product in a certain area. Up to that point, everything is legal.
But some frauds depend on the franchisees selling further franchises, with every-
EXPONENTIAL GROWTH 33
one already in the business sharing some of the franchise fees. In this type of
scheme, millions of dollars can come to the originators, even if none of the prod-
uct is ever sold. The people who pay franchises late in the scheme lose all their
money. When all operations are based on money from new investors rather than
goods or services, the fraud is called a “Ponzi scheme.”
online sources for further exploration
Population changes
<http://www.ea.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/pests/rabbit.html>
<http://www.learner.org/exhibits/dailymath/population.html>
<http://www.joma.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc5/exponential_growth_module.
html>
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/discrete/snooping/learn.htm>
Savings, credit, and compound interest
<http://www.learner.org/exhibits/dailymath/savings.html>
<http://www.richmond.edu/~ed344/webunits/math/banking3.html>
<http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/mortgage.html>
Inflation rates and calculators
<http://www.westegg.com/inflation/>
<http://woodrow.mpls.frb.fed.us/economy/calc/cpihome.html>
<http://www.hec.ohio-state.edu/cts/osue/cpidist.htm>
Chain letters and scams
<http://hoaxbusters.ciac.org/HBHoaxInfo.html#what>
<http://www.usps.gov/websites/depart/inspect/chainlet.htm>
<http://www.chainletters.org/>
<http://home.nycap.rr.com/useless/ponzi/>
<http://www.bosbbb.org/lit/0052.htm>
Food technology
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_2_4/ary_2_4.htm>
Internet growth data
<http://www.mit.edu/people/mkgray/net/internet-growth-summary.html>
Pricing diamond rings
<http://exploringdata.cqu.edu.au/dia_asn.htm>
The US national debt clock
<http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock/>



34 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH
FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
The infinite sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, . . . is called the Fibonacci
sequence after the Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa (ca.1175–ca.1240),
who wrote under the name of Fibonacci. The sequence starts with a pair of ones,
then each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers. The formula for the
sequence is best written recursively (first formula below), rather than the explicit
formula on the right.
Fibonacci established a thought experiment about counts of animals over
generations, and can be described in terms of the family line of honey bees. A
male bee develops from an unfertilized egg—hence has only a mother. Female
bees develop from fertilized eggs; therefore female bees have a father and
mother. How many ancestors does a male bee have? The male bee has one
mother. The mother has a mother and a father. So the male bee has one ancestor
at the parent generation. He has two ancestors at the grandparent generation. If
you work out the great-grandparent generation, you will find that there are three
ancestors. A full picture of the family tree for the bee going back to great-great-
great grandparents will show that the generation counts are 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13.
Placing the male bee at the beginning of the sequence (starting generation)
gives 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, and so on. If you repeat the argument with a female bee, you
will also get a Fibonacci sequence starting with 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, . . . . The sequence
has been shown to have remarkable mathematical properties and some surpris-
ing connections to events outside of mathematics. Eight hundred years after
Fibonacci’s publication of the sequence, an organization and journal, the Fibo-
nacci Quarterly, are devoted to exploring new discoveries about the sequence.
The ratios of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence

a
n
a
n−1

produce a
sequence 1, 2, 1.5, 1.
¯
6, 1.6, 1.625, . . . which converges to the golden ratio
1+

5
2
≈ 1.61803. If a sequence of squares is built up from two initial unit
FIBONACCI SEQUENCE 35

a
1
=1
a
2
=1
a
n
=a
n−1
+a
n−2
t
n
=

1+

5
2

2

1−

5
2

2

5
.
recursive explicit
The family tree for a male bee.
squares (left-hand picture below), the vertices provide links for tracing a loga-
rithmic spiral (middle picture). The spiral (which expands one golden ratio dur-
ing each whole turn) appears in the chambered nautilus (right-hand picture).
The Fibonacci numbers appear in the branching of plants, and counts of spi-
rals in sunflower seeds, pine cones, and pineapples. In one particular variety of
sunflower, the florets appear to have two systems of spirals, both beginning at the
center. There are fifty-five spirals in the clockwise direction, and thirty-four in
the counterclockwise one. The same count of florets in a daisy show twenty-one
spirals in one direction and thirty-four in the other. A pine cone has two spirals
of five and eight arms, and a pineapple has spirals of five, eight, and thirteen. The
spiral also appears in animal horns, claws, and teeth.
On many plants, the number of petals on blossoms is a Fibonacci number.
Buttercups and impatiens have five petals, iris have three, corn marigolds have
thirteen, and some asters have twenty-one. Some species have petal counts that
may vary from blossom to blossom, but the average of the petals will be a Fibo-
nacci number. Flowers with other numbers of petals, such as six, can be shown
to have two layers of three petals, so that their counts are simple multiples of a
Fibonacci number. In the last few years, two French mathematicians, Stephane
Douady and Yves Couder, proposed a mathematical explanation for the Fibo-
nacci-patterned spirals in nature. Plants develop seeds, flowers, or branches from
a meristem (a tiny tip of the growing point of plants). Cells are produced at a con-
stant rate of turn of the meristem. As the meristem grows upward, the cells move
outward and increase in size. The most efficient turn to produce seeds, flowers,
or branches will result in a Fibonacci spiral.
In 1948, R. N. Elliott proposed investment strategies based on the Fibonacci
sequence. These remain standard tools for many brokers, but whether they are a
never-fail way of selecting stocks and bonds is open to debate. Some investors
think that when Elliott’s theories work, it is because many investors are using his
rules, so their effects on the stock market shape a Fibonacci pattern. Neverthe-
less, a substantial number of brokers use Elliott’s Fibonacci rules in determining
how to invest.
In computer science, there is a data structure called a “Fibonacci heap” that
is at the heart of many fast algorithms that manipulate graphs. Physicists have
36 FIBONACCI SEQUENCE
The Fibonacci numbers and their connection to the golden ratio in a chambered nautilus.
used Fibonacci sequences to study quantum transport through Fibonacci lattices
and radiation paths through the solar system.
online sources for further exploration
An absolutely huge collection of information about the Fibonnaci sequence
<http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fib.html>
Computer art based on Fibonacci numbers
<http://www.moonstar.com/~nedmay/chromat/fibonaci.htm>
Fibonacci numbers and the golden section
<http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Personal/R.Knott/Fibonacci/fib.html>
Fibonacci numbers and their application in trend analysis
<http://library.shu.edu/HafnerAW/awh-th-fibonacci-num.htm>
Fibonacci spirals
<http://www.moonstar.com/~nedmay/chromat/fibonaci.htm>
A psychic encounter with Fibonacci numbers
<http://www.telepath.com/novelty/nbart1.html>
Scott’s phi page
<http://www.germantownacademy.org/academics/us/Math/Geometry/stwk98/SCOT-
TRK/Index.htm>
Trader’s corner
<http://www.optioninvestor.com/traderscorner/070501_1.asp>



IMAGINARY NUMBERS. SEE COMPLEX NUMBERS



INTEGRATION
Integration is used to determine a total amount based on a predictable rate
pattern, such as a population based on its growth rate, or to represent an accu-
mulation of something such as volume in a tank. It is usually introduced in cal-
culus, but its use and computation can be performed by many calculators or com-
puter programs without taking calculus. Understanding the utility of an integral
does not require a background in calculus, but instead a conceptual understand-
ing of rates and area.
INTEGRATION 37
Many realistic applications of integration that occur in science, engineering,
business, and industry cannot be expressed with simple linear functions or geo-
metric formulas. Integration is powerful in such circumstances, because there is
not a reliance on constant rates or simple functions to find answers. For exam-
ple, in many algebra courses, students learn that distance = rate × time. This is
true only if the rate of an object always remains the same. In many real-world
instances, the rate of an object changes, such as the velocity of an automobile on
the road. Cars speed up and slow down according to traffic signals, incidents on
the road, and attention to driving. If the velocity of the car can be modeled with
a nonlinear function, then an integral could help you represent the distance as a
function of time, or tell you how far the car has moved from its original position,
even if the rate has changed.
Adefinite integral of a function f(t) is an integral that finds a value based on
a set of boundaries. A definite integral can help you determine the total produc-
tion of textiles based on a specific period of time during the day. For example,
suppose a clothes manufacturer recognized that its employees were gradually
slowing down as they were sewing clothes, perhaps due to fatigue or boredom.
After collecting data on a group of workers, the manufacturer determined that the
rate of production of blue jeans, f, can be modeled by the function f(t) =
6.37e
−0.04t
, where t is the number of consecutive hours worked. For the first two
hours of work, an expected production amount can be determined by the definite
integral, written as

2
0
6.37e
−0.04t
dt.
On a graph in which f(t) describes a rate, the definite integral can be deter-
mined by finding the area between f and the t axis.
In the case of producing blue jeans for the first two hours of work, the area
between f(t) = 6.37e
−0.04t
and the t axis on the interval [0,2] is equal to
approximately 12.24 pairs of jeans. In an eight-hour workday, the last two hours
of work production from an employee would be represented by

8
6
6.37e
−0.04t
dt,
which equals approximately 9.63 pairs of blue jeans. Notice that the area on the
38 INTEGRATION
The area between the graph
of f(t) = 6.37e
−0.04t
and the t axis determined by

2
0
6.37e
−0.04t
dt.
graph is much lower in this interval (the dark solid region), than from 0 to 2 hours
of work (the light shaded region).
This information can help managers determine when employees should take
breaks so that they can optimize their performance, because they would likely
feel more productive when they returned to work.
A definite integral can help heating and cooling companies estimate the
amount of costs needed to send power or gas to each household. On any given
day, the temperature can be modeled with a sinusoidal function, because tem-
perature increases during the day, decreases at night, and then repeats the cycle
throughout the year. For example, suppose the temperature reached a low of 50°
Fahrenheit at 2 AM and a high of 90° at 2 PM. If x represents the number of hours
that have passed during the day, then the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, T,
can be represented by the equation T = 20 cos

2π(x−14)
24

+ 70. Suppose that
the thermostat in the house is set to 80° so that the air conditioning will turn on
once the temperature is greater than or equal to that setting. The amount of
energy used for the air conditioner is proportional to the temperature outside.
That means that the air conditioner will use more energy to keep the house cool
when it is closer to 90° than when it is near 80°. The price to cool the house
might be five cents per hour for every degree above 80°. If the temperature were
83° for the entire hour, then the cost to run the air conditioner would be fifteen
cents. However, since temperature varies according to a sinusoidal function, the
cost per minute would actually change. Therefore, a definite integral bounded by
the time when the temperature is above 80° will help predict the cooling costs.
The temperature should be 80° at x = 10 (10 AM) and x = 18 (6 PM), so the cool-
ing costs per day for days like this would be approximately $2.62 based on an
evaluation of the expression
$0.05

18
10
(20 cos

2π(x−14)
24

+ 70 − 80)dx = $2.62.
Notice that the answer is also represented by 0.05 times the area of the curve
between T = 20 cos

2π(x−14)
24

+ 70 and T = 80, as shown in the following
diagram.
INTEGRATION 39
A comparison of the areas between
the graph of f(t) = 6.37e
−0.04t
and the t axis on the interval from
t = 0 to 2 hours (the light shaded
region) and from t = 6 to 8 hours
(the dark solid region).
Integration can be used to help solve differential equations in order to for-
mulate new equations that compare two variables. A differential equation is a
relationship that describes a pattern for a rate. For example, the differential equa-
tion describing the rate of the growth of a rabbit population is proportional to the
amount present and would be represented by the equation
dP
dt
= kP, where P is
the population, t is the amount of time, and k is a constant of proportionality. If
there were 200 rabbits in the population seven months ago, and 500 rabbits in the
population right now, then an integral will help you find an equation that relates
the population of rabbits to the amount of time that has passed. In this case, solv-
ing the differential equation will result in a general equation of P = 200e
0.131t
,
where t is the number of months that have passed since the rabbits were origi-
nally counted. This information can help farmers understand how their crops will
be affected over time and take preventative measures, since they will be able to
predict future rabbit populations, assuming that changes will not result in the
growth rate due to disease or removal.
The equation d = 0.5gt
2
+v
o
t +d
o
is commonly used in physics when
studying kinematics to describe the vertical position, d, of an object based on the
time the object has been in motion, t. Values that are commonly substituted into
this equation are g = –9.8 meters per second squared to represent the accelera-
tion due to earth’s gravity, the initial velocity of the object, v
o
, and the initial ver-
tical position of the object, d
o
. How was this equation determined? Integration
can help explain how this expression is derived.
The acceleration of an object in vertical motion is equal to the constant value,
g, neglecting any air resistance. Acceleration is a rate of velocity, v, so v =

gdt.
The velocity at t = 0 is v
o
, so this information and the integral determines the
equation v = gt +v
o
. Velocity is a rate of position, so d =

(gt +v
o
)dt. The
vertical position at t = 0 is d
o
, so this information and the integral determine the
equation d = 0.5gt
2
+v
o
t +d
o
.
Many volume formulas in geometry can also be proven by integration. In this
case, the integral serves as an accumulator of small pieces of volume until the
40 INTEGRATION
The area between T = 20 cos

2π(x−14)
24

+ 70
and T = 80, which is the same as

18
10
(20 cos

2π(x−14)
24

+ 70 − 80)dx
entire solid is formed. For example, the volume, r, of a sphere can be represented
by the equation v =
4
3
πr
3
, where r is the radius of the sphere. This equation can
be determined by revolving a semicircle, y =

r
2
−x
2
, about the x-axis.
One really thin cross-sectional slice of the sphere can be represented by a
cylinder with radius y and thickness ∆x, as shown in the left-hand diagram
below. The volume of this cylindrical cross section, then, is v = πy
2
∆x. The
integral will accumulate the volume of all of these cylinders that stack up against
one another from x = –r to x = r.
Therefore the volume of a sphere can be represented by π

r
−r
(

r
2
−x
2
)
2
dx,
which simplifies to v =
4
3
πr
3
. This formula tells manufacturers how much metal
is needed to create certain ball bearings. The formula is also useful for ice cream
store owners to determine how many cones they can serve with each container
of ice cream, assuming that they can convert cubic centimeter units to gallons.
Orange juice manufacturers can use this relationship to estimate the amount of
orange juice they will receive from a batch of fresh oranges.
What about predicting the volume needed to juice other fruits that have non-
circular curves, such as lemons, apples, and pears? The process would be simi-
lar to calculating the volume of a sphere, except that an equation would need to
be developed to model the perimeter of the fruit. For example, if the core of a
pear is placed along the x-axis, a pencil can trace its perimeter in the first two
quadrants. A fourth-degree function can model the curvature of a pear, such as
y = –0.016x
4
− 0.094x
3
− 0.068x
2
− 0.242x + 3.132, and then rotated around
INTEGRATION 41
A sphere with radius, r, is formed
when rotating the semicircle
y =

r
2
−x
2
about the x-axis.
cylindrical slice inscribed in a sphere cylindrical slices stacked to form a sphere
Cylindrical slices with radius y =

r
2
−x
2
and height ∆x are stacked together
to form the volume of the sphere.
the x-axis to form the solid, as shown below. An integral set up like the volume
of a sphere, and bounded by the x-intercepts of the function, will approximate
the volume of the pear.
This pear has a volume ≈ 352 milliliters, as a result of evaluating
π

2.502
−6.347
(–0.016x
4
− 0.094x
3
− 0.068x
2
− 0.242x + 3.132)
2
dx.
online sources for further exploration
BHS calculus student projects
<http://www.bhs-ms.org/calculus.htm>
The case of the murky mell
<http://www.math.iupui.edu/writing_in_math/murky_well.html>
CO
2
concentrations in a river
<http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/integration/>
Flood levels
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_15_6/ary_15_6.htm>
Gavin’s calculus projects
<http://www.math.lsa.umich.edu/~glarose/courseinfo/calc/calcprojects.html>
Heating-degree-days
<http://www.nap.edu/html/hs_math/hd.html>
Internet differential equations activities: Current projects
<http://www.sci.wsu.edu/idea/current.html>
Modeling population growth
<http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/population/>
Nuclear medicine
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_6/ary_11_6.htm>
Petroleum collection
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_13_6/ary_13_6.htm>
Surveying
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_17_6/ary_17_6.htm>
Tunnel Vision, Inc.
<http://panther.bsc.edu/~bspieler/projects/tunnel.html>



42 INTEGRATION
A pear can be constructed by rotating the
function y = –0.016x
4
− 0.094x
3
− 0.068x
2
−0.242x + 3.132 about the x-axis.
INVERSE (MULTIPLICATIVE) 43
INVERSE (MULTIPLICATIVE)
A relationship in the form y =
k
x
, where k is a constant, is called an inverse
function. Sometimes you will see this relationship written as “y is inversely pro-
portional to x.” The graph of this function is a hyperbola, but most real-world
applications with inverse functions relate only to nonnegative values in the
domain.
An inverse proportion indicates that the dependent variable decreases as the
independent variable increases, or vice versa. In other words, as one factor
changes, the other factor will change in the reverse direction. For example, pres-
sure is inversely proportional to the volume of an object. When you dive under-
water, the amount of air space in between your ears begins to decrease, causing
them to pop, because the pressure gradually increases. If your ears do not pop
and release the air inside, then you will feel discomfort or pain, because the pres-
sure becomes too great.
Bottling companies use this same principle in packaging their soft drinks. Air
and carbon dioxide are compressed in a small volume of space when you first
open a container. The built-up pressure inside the small amount of space will
cause the container to fizz or make a sound when it is first opened. After the
gasses in the container have been released and part of the bottle is emptied, the
pressure on the bottle decreases, since the air volume inside has increased. Thus
the bottle does not fizz as much when it is opened later on.
Size is influenced by a combination of surface area and volume. The ratio of
surface area to volume is an inverse relationship, because area units are squared
and volume units are cubed. The ratio of squared units to cubic units is equal to
inverse units. For example, the surface area of a cube with an edge length equal
to 2 cm is 24 cm
2
(6 square faces, each with area of 4 cm
2
). The volume of this
cube is 8 cm
3
. The surface-area-to-volume ratio is 3 cm
–1
(determined by
24 cm
2
8 cm
3
).
Notice that the units are a multiplicative inverse, or reciprocal, of cm.
Since an organism’s metabolic rate is affected by this ratio, it can be mod-
eled after an inverse proportion. This means that large animals will typically
have slower metabolisms than smaller animals, because the ratio of surface area
to volume will decrease for larger volumes. Conversely, smaller animals will
have higher metabolic rates than larger animals, because this ratio increases for
A graph of the inverse function
y =
4
x
.
smaller volumes. Therefore rodents and dogs are much more likely to lose heat
from their bodies than bears and elephants, because they have less heat stored
inside. As a result, smaller animals need to be more active to maintain appro-
priate heat levels within their bodies, causing their metabolism to remain at high
levels. Animals and plants have naturally developed parts of their body to help
expand their surface area without adding considerable volume so that they can
increase their metabolic rate. For example, trees develop leaves from branches,
and humans use capillaries to extend their circulatory system. Microvilli, the
lining of the small intestine, is an example of a large surface area in the human
body with little volume, because it stretches to lengths of over seven meters
long!
Fuel consumption as a function of gas mileage is an inverse relationship. As
automobiles increase their fuel efficiency, or the number of miles per gallon they
attain while driving, then the gasoline consumers will purchase less fuel. Smaller
compact cars typically obtain better gas mileage, because there is less mass to
move when compared to less-fuel-efficient cars such as vans, trucks, and sport-
utility vehicles. If Americans drive approximately 10
12
miles each year, then the
fuel consumption of the United States each year can be represented by the func-
tion g =
10
12
m
, where m is the average gas mileage of the cars that year.
Production rates also form inverse relationships. The time it takes to com-
plete a task is inversely proportional to the rate at which an item is produced or
performed. For example, a grocery store clerk needs to staple price stickers on
5,000 cans. The amount of time needed for the job, t, is dependent on his pro-
ductivity rate, r, according to the function t =
5000
r
. If he works at a faster rate,
then the job will take less time to complete.
Some people claim that “Murphy’s law” can be described as an inversely
proportional relationship. This law maintains that anything can go wrong at the
worst possible moment. For example, when constructing a stage, Murphy’s law
might strike if the most vital tool to complete the job is missing. Another exam-
ple is staying up all night to complete a term paper, only to realize that your disk
has gone bad or your printer is out of ink. If this law were described as an inverse
function, then the availability of an item or luck is inversely proportional to its
importance. Thus as an event or object becomes more important, Murphy’s law
can strike, indicating that it will likely not occur or be available. Conversely, the
object or phenomenon will more likely occur or become available when it is less
needed.
online sources for further exploration
Best practices in network security
<http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Physics/Main/Image_analysis.html>
Boyle’s law
<http://library.thinkquest.org/12596/boyles.html>
Ears, altitude and airplane travel
<http://www.entnet.org/altitude.html>
44 INVERSE (MULTIPLICATIVE)
Gear ratios
<http://www.meceng.uct.ac.za/~mec104w/projects/legogears/legogears.html>
<http://weirdrichard.com/gears.htm>
Investigating direct and inverse variation with the telescope
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt669/Student.Folders/Jeon.Kyungsoon/IU/rational2/T
elescope.html>
Murphy’s law
<http://www.peacockfamily.co.nz/murphys.html>
<http://fun.pinknet.cz/wise/m_apl.htm>
Weight and distance on a lever
<http://www.indiana.edu/~atmat/units/ratio/ratio_t7.htm>
<http://collections.ic.gc.ca/science_world/english/exhibits/leverarm/index.html>
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/teachersguide/lostempires/lostempires_sp3.html>



INVERSE FUNCTION
An inverse is a process, procedure, or operation that is reversed. For exam-
ple, the inverse of walking up the stairs is walking down the stairs. The inverse
of putting on your socks and then your shoes in the morning is taking them off
at night. When you are given driving directions to a friend’s house, you have to
use the inverse of the original directions to find your way home, because all of
the directions will need to be reversed, where left turns will become right turns,
and vice versa.
Two functions, f(x) and g(x), are inverses if their composites are equal to the
independent variable. Symbolically, this is written f(g(x)) = x or g(f(x)) = x.
Also, the coordinates on inverse functions are reversed. If f(x) and g(x) are
inverses, and f(x) contains the point (4,7), then g(x) contains the point (7,4). So
one way to model an inverse of a function is to reverse the coordinates. For exam-
ple, the exchange rate when traveling from the United States to Australia might be
represented by the function a = 1.90u, where u is the number of U.S. dollars, and
a is the number of Australian dollars. This means that 1.90 Australian dollars is
equivalent to 1 U.S. dollar. In this equation, the coordinates are represented by the
ordered pair (u, a). The inverse of this relationship would be to describe the
exchange rate when traveling from Australia to the United States. Therefore the
coordinates would be reversed, or (a, u). In order to represent this equation as a
function that indicates the exchange rate, the equation a = 1.90u needs to be
rewritten as a function in terms of a. This can be done by dividing both sides of
the equation by 1.90 to obtain
1a
1.90
=
1.90u
1.90
, which simplifies to approximately
0.53a = u. This means that the exchange rate on the return to the United States is
about $0.53 (U.S.) for every Australian dollar. You can verify that these two func-
INVERSE FUNCTION 45
tions are inverses by finding their composite u(a(u)), which equals 0.53(1.90u)
and simplifies to equal u.
Inverses are also used to decode secret messages. If an encrypting pattern is
used to change the letters in a sentence, then a decrypting pattern is needed to
place the letters back in their normal positions. For example, suppose an encryp-
tion function of e(w) = 2w + 3 is applied to each letter in a word, where letters
had corresponding numbers (e.g., a = 1, b = 2, c = 3, . . . z = 26). The word
“math” would first translate to a numerical expression, 13 1 20 8, and then be
transformed using the function e(w) = 2w + 3, where w represents the original
number, and e represents the coded number. So the letter “m,” equivalent to 13,
would transform to e = 2(13) + 3 = 29. After transforming 1, 20, and 8, the
final coded expression would be 29 5 43 19. If you receive the secret transmis-
sion of an encoded expression 29 5 43 19, you will need to decode it using the
inverse function, w(e). One way to find this inverse is to solve for w in the equa-
tion e = 2w + 3 by subtracting 3 from both sides and then dividing by 2. Thus
w =
e−3
2
is the inverse operation that will decode the expression. The first num-
ber, 29, would be converted to w =
29−3
2
= 13, which translates to the letter “m”
in the alphabet. If you apply the inverse function to the remaining numbers 5 43
19, you will obtain the word “math” again. Encrypted codes that deal with con-
fidential information, such as credit card numbers and highly classified material,
are far more complex than this function. However, the decryption of obscure
codes is often performed by computers that use a program that relies on the
process of an inverse operation! (For a more secure code, see Matrices.)
online sources for further exploration
Cryptology
<http://www.ssh.fi/tech/crypto/intro.cfm>
<http://www.jcoffman.com/Algebra2/ch4_5.htm>
<http://www.sans.org/infosecFAQ/encryption/mathematics.htm>
Inverse problems in the earth sciences
<http://ees-www.lanl.gov/EES5/inverse_prob.html>
Universal currency converter
<http://www.xe.net/ucc/>
<http://www.wildnetafrica.com/currencyframe.html>



46 INVERSE FUNCTION
INVERSE SQUARE FUNCTION
The inverse square law explains why sound drops off so quickly as you move
away from a source of noise, why porch lights do a good job of illuminating the
front of a house but not the street in front of the house, and why the forest reverts
to darkness as you move away from a campfire. Light and sound emerging from
single sources can be viewed as increasing spheres whose area increases as the
square of the distance from the source. As a result, the proportion of sound or
light reaching a specific unit of area, such as a square meter, varies inversely as
the square of the distance from the source. The standard equation of an inverse
square function is y =
k
x
2
, where k is a constant of proportionality.
Light emerges from a source in all directions. The drawing below illustrates
the distribution of light from a 40-watt light bulb. We will use wattage as the
measure of pointance and illuminance to show how the inverse square works.
Imagine a sphere of radius r containing the light bulb. Forty watts fall on the
interior surface of the sphere. The surface area of the sphere is given by SA =
4πr
2
square meters. The energy falling on 1 square meter is therefore 40 watts
divided by 4πr
2
. In the drawing, this energy is called “L.” If you go out twice as
far, the same energy is distributed over 4 square meters. At three times the dis-
tance, the energy is distributed over 9 square meters.
A standard formula for light intensity is E =
I
r
2
, where E is called the illu-
minance, and I is called the pointance. Illuminance is measured in a variety of
units such as lux and footcandles. Pointance is a measure of the intensity at the
source of the light. As you can see, this is a direct statement of the inverse square
law.
The inverse square law provides information about the likelihood of other
planets having life forms similar to those on earth. Imagine the light that hits your
INVERSE SQUARE FUNCTION 47
Graph of the inverse square function
y =
1
x
2
.
The distribution of light from a
light bulb according to the
inverse square law.
neighborhood at noon on a hot summer day. Call that amount of light L. Mars is
about one-and-a-half times the distance from the sun as the earth, so if your
neighborhood were on Mars, it would receive
L
1.5
2
or 44 percent of the light it
receives on earth. That might be enough to sustain life. The planet Neptune is
about thirty times as far from sun as the earth. If your neighborhood were on
Neptune, it would receive
L
30
2
, or about 0.1 percent of the light it receives on
earth. This wouldn’t be enough to support life as we know it.
The distribution of sound follows the same rule. Just replace the light bulb in
the first illustration by an actor in an auditorium. In an auditorium, the sound
drop due to the inverse square law is usually unacceptable. It would mean that a
person standing in front of the first row of seats, who might be audible to people
in the tenth row, would be barely audible to people in the twentieth row. The
audibility of the speaker (about 70 decibels) to listeners in the first row would
drop to 50 decibels (a soft sound) ten rows behind. Acoustical engineers design
reverberation into auditoriums to focus the sound and overcome the inverse
square law. They place hard surfaces at the back of the stage and on the ceiling
and walls so that sound that would ordinarily dissipate would bounce back and
add to the intensity of that being heard by the audience.
Gravity is an example of a force that follows the inverse square law. How
much lighter will a 160-pound astronaut feel if he or she is in a spaceship 12,000
miles above the earth? The radius of the earth is about 4,000 miles, so the astro-
naut is 16,000 miles from the center of the earth, or about four times the distance
of a person measuring weight on the surface of the earth. By the inverse square
law, the astronaut would feel as though his or her weight were
160
4
2
= 10 pounds,
even though the mass of the astronaut remains unchanged.
Electric force acting on a point charge, q
1
, in the presence of another point
charge, q
2
, is given by Coulomb’s law, F =
kq
1
q
2
r
2
=
q
1
q
2
4πǫ
0
r
2
, where ǫ
0
is the con-
stant for the permittivity of free space. This law is an outcome of the inverse
square law. It is named in honor of the French scientist Charles Coulomb, who
established it in 1777 after studying the forces on magnetized needles.
The inverse square law means that increasing the distance from a source of
nuclear radiation may be the difference between life and death. Accidental expo-
sure to radiation that produces 600 rems (a measure of radiation impact on living
tissue) is almost certain to cause death within two months. Aperson who is twice
as far away will absorb 600/4 = 125 rems, an amount that will result in a signifi-
cant, but temporary, reduction in blood platelets and white blood cells. If the radi-
ation distribution followed an inverse law, rather than an inverse square law, then
a person twice as far away as the one receiving the fatal dose would get 600/2 =
300 rems. This dose causes severe blood damage, nausea, hair loss, hemorrhage,
and death in many cases. Because radiation follows the inverse square law, being
twice the distance from a fatal dose may mean illness rather than death.
The inverse square law comes up in court cases. The lawyer faced the med-
ical examiner and asked suddenly, “The body wasn’t found in the bedroom. How
can you say that the fatal shots were made there?” The examiner replied, “Be-
48 INVERSE SQUARE FUNCTION
cause we found blood spatters on the wall in the bedroom. Measuring the num-
ber of splatters in a square meter, we used the inverse square law to determine
that a high-velocity bullet passed through the victim 1.7 meters from that wall.
Analysis of droplet angles confirmed our estimate.”
online sources for further exploration
Summary from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
<http://www.star.le.ac.uk/edu/solar/edu/invsquar.html>
<http://www.solarviews.com/span/edu/invsquar.htm>
<http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/basics/bsf6-1.html>
Physics examples and lessons
<http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/forces/isq.html>
<http://www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/circles/U6L3b.html>
Universal law of gravitation
<http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html>
Simple experiments
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/inverse_square_law.html>
<http://www.public.iastate.edu/~javapgmr/homepage.html>
<http://www.howstuffworks.com/question441.htm>
Astrophysics
<http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/InverseSquare/index.html>
<http://www.solarviews.com/span/edu/invsquar.htm>
<http://www.star.le.ac.uk/edu/solar/edu/invsquar.html>
Basic notions of celestial mechanics
<http://www.rafed.net/arc/arabic/research/mmar/bncm/bncm1.htm>
Darkness outside of a campfire
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/snacks/inverse_square_law.html>
Electromagnetic radiation
<http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/basics/bsf6-1.html>
How light works
<http://www.howstuffworks.com/question441.htm>
Simulated ocean dive
<http://illuminations.nctm.org/imath/912/Light/light2.html>



LINEAR FUNCTIONS
A linear function is a function that has a constant change in the dependent
variable for every change in the independent variable. For example, the value of
the dependent variable y in the linear function y = 5x − 2 will always increase
by five units for every increase in one unit of the independent variable, x. This
LINEAR FUNCTIONS 49
means that the ratio of these changes, called the slope, is also constant. For exam-
ple, the previous comparison is the same as saying that there will be a change of
fifteen units in the dependent variable for every change in three units of the inde-
pendent variable, since this ratio simplifies to 5. Every linear function can be
written in the slope-intercept form, y = mx +b, where mis the slope of the line,
and b is in the y-intercept.
Realistic situations use linear functions to make predictions or draw compar-
isons that involve constant change. For example, the cost of gasoline is linearly
related to the number of gallons purchased. For every one gallon of gas pur-
chased, the price will increase approximately $1.40. The fact that the gas price
per gallon does not change as gas is pumped allows someone to use a linear func-
tion to predict the amount of money needed to fill the tank. In this situation, the
function c = 1.40g would relate the cost in c dollars to g gallons purchased. If an
automobile has a twelve-gallon tank, then the cost to fill the tank would be c =
1.40(12) = $16.80. In addition, the linear equation is useful when the individual
purchasing gasoline would like to know how much gasoline he or she would
obtain with the $10 available in his or her pocket. In this case, 10 would be sub-
stituted for the variable c, and solving the equation would show that approxi-
mately 7.14 gallons could be purchased, slightly more than half a tank in most
cars.
Linear functions are useful in estimating the amount of time it will take to
complete a road trip. Assuming that traffic conditions are good and the driver is
traveling at a constant speed on a highway, the linear equation d = rt (distance
equals rate times time) can be used to predict the total distance traveled or time
needed to complete the trip. For example, suppose that a family is traveling on
vacation by automobile. The family members study a map to determine the dis-
tance between the cities, estimate a highway speed or rate of 65 miles per hour,
and then solve the linear equation d = 65t to estimate the length of their trip. An
awareness of the time needed for the trip would likely help the family plan a time
of departure and times for rest stops.
Banking institutions determine the amount of simple interest accumulated on
an account by using the linear equation I = Prt, where I is the amount of interest,
P is the initial principal, r is the interest rate, and t is the time in years in which
the interest has been accumulating. For example, a $1,000 loan with 8 percent
simple interest uses the function I = 1000(0.08)t, or simplified to I = 80t, to pre-
dict the amount of interest over a specific time period. Once the principal and
interest rates have been determined, the function is linear, since the amount of
interest increases at a constant rate over time. Over five years, there will be I =
80(5) = $400 net payment in interest.
Circuits rely on linear relationships in order to operate electrical equipment.
The voltage V, current I, and resistance R are related with the equation V = IR. A
power supply has voltage to create a stream of current through electrical wires.
The current in a circuit is typically held constant, such as at 72 Hz, so that there
is a constant stream of electricity. In this case, the linear relationship V = 72R
would help a manufacturer determine the amount of resistance needed in a power
50 LINEAR FUNCTIONS
supply so that an electrical object can operate correctly. Resistors are small
devices that block or slow down the current so that an object does not receive too
much power. For example, if the resistance in a light circuit is too low, then the
bulb would receive an overload of power and be destroyed. If the resistance is
too high, then there will not be enough power reaching the bulb in order for it to
light well. These problems can arise with some appliances when they are moved
to different countries, because the electrical circuits may run with different cur-
rent levels. Consequently, appliances may have different types of resistors so that
they can accommodate to the corresponding current levels in a circuit.
In a business setting, a linear function could be used to relate the total costs
needed to sell a product in terms of the number of products produced. For exam-
ple, suppose a bakery created cookies at a raw material expense of $0.25 per
cookie. Suppose production costs for equipment are an extra $500. In this case,
the linear function t = 0.25c + 500 will represent the total cost, t, needed to pro-
duce c cookies. In general, if a function is modeled by a linear relationship, then
the rate ($0.25 per cookie) will be the slope, and the starting amount ($500 equip-
ment expense) will be the y-intercept of the equation. This information is useful
to the owner, because he or she will be able to predict the average cost of pro-
ducing cookies, start-up expenses included, or the amount of cookies that can be
produced based on a fixed budget.
Unit conversions are often linearly related. For example, the United States
uses a different temperature scale (Fahrenheit) than most of the rest of the world
(Celsius). If an individual from the United States travels to Spain, then a tem-
perature of 30° Celsius would feel considerably different from a temperature of
30° Fahrenheit. The equation that converts the two variables can be determined
by using the freezing and boiling points of water. Water freezes at 0° Celsius and
32° Fahrenheit; water boils at 100° Celsius and 212° Fahrenheit. These two
pieces of information represent two ordered pairs on a line, (0,32) and (100,212).
Since two points are sufficient information to determine the equation of a
line, the slope formula and y-intercept will lead to the equation F =
9
5
C + 32,
where F is the temperature in Fahrenheit, and C is the temperature in Celsius.
This means that a report of 30° weather in Spain suggests that the day could be
spent at the beach, while in the United States a report of 30° weather means that
you might be having snow!
Linear functions can be used to form relationships between data that are
found in natural events and places. For example, there is a strong relationship
between the winning time of the men’s Olympic 100-meter dash and the year in
which it occurs. The graph that follows shows that a line can be drawn to approx-
imate the relationship between these two variables. Notice that all of the data val-
ues do not fall on the line, but instead cluster around it. It is possible for points
to be away from the line, especially during years of unusually exceptional per-
formance. The correlation coefficient, r, is a measure of the strength of the lin-
ear relationship. The relationship is stronger as the absolute value of the correla-
tion coefficient approaches the value of 1. If the correlation coefficient is closer
to 0, then a linear relationship does not likely exist. In the 100-meter dash situa-
LINEAR FUNCTIONS 51
tion, the absolute value of r is equal to 0.88, indicating that the line is a pretty
good model for the data.
The linear equation acts as an approximate prediction of the relationship
between time and year. This predicted pattern is much more reliable within the
range of data, so the variables may not have the same relationship for future
Olympics. After all, the line should eventually level off, because the runners will
never be able to run a time equal to zero! Therefore, this line is most useful to
make predictions between 1900 and 2000, such as estimating the winning times
when the Olympics did not occur or when participation was reduced (often due
to world conflicts). For example, there is no time for 1944 because the Olympics
were suspended during World War II. The time that might have been achieved in
the 1944 Olympics could be estimated using the linear model Predicted Time =
–0.01119Year + 32.185 by substituting 1944 for Year. That gives a predicted win-
ning time of 10.43 seconds. Linear relationships are also common with winning
times and championship performances in many other Olympic events.
Forensic scientists use linear functions to predict the height of a person based
on the length of his arm or leg bones. This information can be useful in identify-
ing missing people and tracing evolutionary patterns in human growth over time.
When a complete skeleton cannot be found, then the height of the deceased per-
son can be predicted by identifying the person’s sex and finding the length of his
or her femur, tibia, humerus, or radius. For example, the height h in centimeters
of a male can be estimated by the linear equation h = 69.089 + 2.238f , where
f is the length of the femur bone in centimeters. In addition, the linear equation
s = –0.06(a − 30) or s = –0.06a + 1.80 is the amount of shrinkage s for indi-
viduals of age a greater than 30 that needs to be accounted for in the height of a
deceased person. For example, if the person had an estimated age of 60 at death,
then –0.06(60) + 1.80 = –1.80 cm would be included in the height prediction.
Ever feel cold in an airplane? The outside temperature decreases linearly with
an increase in altitude. The equation t = –0.0066a + 15 has been described as a
linear model that compares the temperature t (°C) with the altitude a (meters)
when the ground temperature is 15°. Recognizing this relationship helps engi-
neers design heating and cooling systems on the airplanes so that metal alloys
can adapt to the changes in temperature and passengers obtain reasonable air
52 LINEAR FUNCTIONS
The line that models the pattern
of the winning times in the
men’s Olympic 100-meter dash
is Predicted Time =
-0.01119Year + 32.185.
temperatures inside the plane. The linear equation also helps pilots understand
the limitations as to how high they can fly, because not only are there changes in
air pressure, but the temperature decreases by 66° for every 10,000 meters of alti-
tude. You would not want the wind blowing in your face at high altitudes!
The apparel industry uses linear functions when manufacturing dresses.
Dress sizes often reflect a general relationship among a woman’s bust, waist, and
hips. The table below shows the relationship among these measurements.
size s 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
bust b 30.5 31.5 32.5 34 36 38 40 42
waist w 23 24 25 25.5 28 30 32 34
hips h 32.5 33.5 34.5 36 38 40 42 44
A comparison of women’s dress sizes according to bust, waist, and hips
(dimensions in inches).
The data can be generalized into a few linear relationships. The designer esti-
mates that a woman’s dress size is s ≈ 1.2w − 20. Furthermore, the other meas-
urements can be approximated with the linear relationships, b ≈ 1.1w + 5 and
h = b + 2, making the equations a reasonable predictor of all measurements and
sizes, including those that are not listed. These relationships allow manufactur-
ers to mass produce dresses and provide women with a general reference point
for clothing sizes. However, since women have different body types, dresses are
sometimes altered or designed in different ways to accommodate the needs of a
variety of consumers.
Linear models have also been used within political arenas to argue for legis-
lation. For example, the state of Florida had been confronted with the problem of
powerboat speeds along its waterways that affect the survival of the manatees,
which are very large but docile creatures that live in shallow water. Because they
swim on the surface and near shore, many manatees have been killed or injured
by blades of powerboats. Lobbyists concerned about the death of the manatees
were able to show a strong linear relationship between the number of their deaths
and the number of powerboat registrations for the years 1977 to 1990. The equa-
tion is Killed = 0.125 Powerboats − 41.430, where Powerboats is the number of
LINEAR FUNCTIONS 53
Number of manatees killed in
Florida related to the number
of powerboat registrations for
the years 1977 to 1990.
thousands of powerboats registered in Florida. The slope indicates that for every
thousand more powerboats registered, 0.125 more manatees are killed. In other
words, for every 10,000 more powerboats, the slope predicts 1.25 more manatees
are killed.
The data and linear function created a compelling argument that the mana-
tees were at risk of being endangered in a short period of time, unless action was
taken to reduce the number of powerboats and to slow down their speed in shal-
low waters. As a result, the Florida legislature has made it more difficult and ex-
pensive to acquire a powerboat license. It increased the number of game and fish
officers in manatee areas so that “no wake” rules would be strictly enforced.
online sources for further exploration
Battery depletion and piecewise linear graphing
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Pathfinder/Battery/batt.html>
Cassette tape project
<http://ericir.syr.edu/Virtual/Lessons/Mathematics/Functions/FUN0001.html>
The diet problem
<http://www-fp.mcs.anl.gov/otc/Guide/CaseStudies/diet/>
Discovering the linear relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Celsius/celsius.html>
Environmental health
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_8_2/ary_8_2.htm>
Linear regression with human movements
<http://exploringdata.cqu.edu.au/lin_reg.htm>
Nuclear medicine
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_2/ary_11_2.htm>
Olympic statistics
<http://www.swishweb.com/Sports_and_Games/Olympics/>
Plotting temperature and altitude
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Pathfinder/Temp/temp.html>
Property lines
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_17_8/ary_17_8.htm>
Size effects on airplane lift
<http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/size.html>
Timing traffic lights
<http://www.nap.edu/html/hs_math/tl.html>
Voltage circuit simulator
<http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/Voltage/index.html>
<http://java.sun.com/applets/archive/beta/Voltage/index.html>
Your weight on other worlds
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html>



54 LINEAR FUNCTIONS
LOGARITHMS
Logarithms are exponents, so they are used to reduce very large values into
smaller, more manageable numbers. It is easier to refer to the number 13.4 than
the number 25,118,900,000,000, which is approximately equal to 10
13.4
. Anum-
ber x is said to be the base b logarithm of a number y, if y = b
x
. The correspon-
ding logarithmic equation is x = log
b
y. Base-10 logarithms are used to change
numbers to powers of 10. For example, 500 ≈ 10
2.69897
, so 2.69897 is said to be
the base-10 logarithm of 500. This is commonly written as log 500 ≈ 2.69897.
The decimal part “.69897” is called the mantissa, and the integer part “2” is
called the characteristic. Until inexpensive calculators made it easy to do multi-
plication, division, and roots, scientists and engineers used base-10 logarithms to
simplify computations by changing multiplication of numbers into addition of
exponents, and division of numbers into subtraction of exponents. Up until
twenty years ago, the main computational device for high school students in
advanced math and sciences was based on logarithmic scales—the slide rule.
Other common bases for logarithms are the numbers e and 2. The number e ≈
2.718281828459. It can be developed from the compound-interest formula as the
limit of (1 + 1/n)
n
as n increases without bound. The base e is used in exponential
expressions that evaluate continuously compounded interest. Logarithms to the
base e are typically written with the abbreviation ln, called a natural logarithm.
ln(500) ≈ 6.21461, because 500 ≈ e
6.21461
. Mathematical functions using e and ln
simplify computations with rates and areas that result from situations in physics,
biology, medicine, and finance. Hence e and natural logarithms are often used in
the statement of rules and properties in these fields. Base-2 logarithms emerge
from the study of computer algorithms. Computers are based on on-off switches,
so using base-2 logarithms provides a natural connection with machine operations.
Logarithmic scales are used in newspapers, households, and automobiles as
well as in scientific research. How loud is a rock concert? Noise is measured in
decibels, a logarithmic scale that is easier to use than the sound-energy measure-
ment of watts per square meter. Adecibel is one-tenth of a bel, a unit named after
Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922), inventor of the telephone. A soft whisper
is 30 decibels. Normal conversation is at 60 decibels. If you are close to the stage
at a rock concert, you hear music at 120 decibels. If you are so close that the
music hurts your ears, the amplifiers are at 130 decibels. Because the decibel
scale is logarithmic, changes along the scale are not linear. When the rock music
moves from very loud (120 decibels) to painful (130 decibels), your ears are
receiving 10 times as much sound energy. The difference of 70 decibels between
normal conversation (60 decibels) and pain (130 decibels) represents 10
7
more
watts per square meter of sound energy.
People’s perceptions of changes in sound intensity are more aligned to the
decibel scale rather than the actual changes in energy level. The same goes for
the perception of light. The brightness of stars was first put on a quantitative
scale by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus at around 130 BC. He arranged the vis-
ible stars in order of apparent brightness on a scale that ran from 1 to 6 magni-
LOGARITHMS 55
tudes, with stars ranked “1” as the brightest. Astronomers using powerful tele-
scopes have increased this star-magnitude scale to 29. Analysis of the quantity of
light that reaches the viewer indicates that the star-magnitude scale is logarith-
mic. In the nineteenth century, the scale was standardized so that a difference of
5 magnitudes corresponds to 100 times greater light intensity.
Acidity or alkalinity of a substance is measured on the logarithmic scale pH =
–log(H
+
), where H
+
is the concentration of hydrogen ions in moles per liter of the
substance. These pH units provide a more compact scale than moles per liter. The
scale ranges from 0 to 14, with 7 representing a neutral substance (water). Higher
pHs indicate alkalinity, and lower indicate acidic substances. Few plants will sur-
vive in soils more acidic than pH = 4 (the acidity of lemon juice) or more alkaline
than pH = 8 (baking soda). Battery acid (pH 1) and lye (pH 13) will burn your
skin. Litmus papers turn different colors depending on the pH of the substance. A
change in color that represents 2 levels of pH will represent a difference of 100
times the concentration of H
+
ions.
The Richter scale is a measure of the strength of earthquakes. An earthquake
with a Richter scale value of 4 feels like vibration from a passing train. A scale
value of 7 indicates an earthquake that produces ground cracks and causes
houses to collapse. Because the scale is logarithmic, the difference in energy
from the earthquake waves is 10
7−4
= 1,000. An earthquake measured as a 7 on
the Richter scale is 1000 times more powerful than an earthquake measured at 4.
56 LOGARITHMS
sound intensity relative intensity
(watts per square meter) (decibels)
10
3
Military rifle 150
10
2
Jet plane (30 meters away) 140
10
1
Pain level 130
10
0
Amplified rock music 120
10
-1
Power tools 110
10
-2
Noisy kitchen 100
10
-3
Heavy traffic 90
10
-4
Traffic noise in a small car 80
10
-5
Vacuum cleaner 70
10
-6
Normal conversation 60
10
-7
Average home 50
10
-8
Quiet conversation 40
10
-9
Soft whisper 30
10
-10
Quiet living room 20
10
-11
Quiet recording studio 10
10
-12
Barely audible 0
Decibel levels of common noises.
Logarithms can provide an expression of relations that are inverses of expo-
nential situations. A battery charges at a rate that depends on how close it is to
being fully charged. It charges fastest when it is most discharged. The charge C
at any instant t is modeled by the formula C = M(1 −e
−kt
), where M is the
maximum charge that the battery can hold, and k is a constant that depends on
the battery and charger. The formula that gives the time required to charge a bat-
tery uses the natural logarithm function ln: t = −
1
k
ln(1 −
C
M
).
Logarithms appear in a wide range of industrial and technological applica-
tions. The Haugh unit is a measure of egg quality that uses base-10 logarithms.
The logarithms of the sizes of two organs of an animal are related in an allomet-
ric equation. Economists use logarithmic derivatives to compare price changes
of different items. The effective steam pressure in a cylinder is p =
P(1+ln(R))
R
,
where P is the initial absolute pressure, and R is the ratio of expansion. The num-
ber of turns of a rope or pulley about a large cylinder that would be needed to
keep the rope from slipping is found with a formula that uses logarithms of ten-
sion ratios. Electrical engineers use Bode plots, a form of logarithmic graphing,
to determine voltage gains for active or passive filters. Statisticians use loga-
rithms to linearize data that appear to lie in certain curvilinear patterns.
online sources for further exploration
Investigate pH
<http://www.miamisci.org/ph/>
<http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/phdiagram.html>
<http://www.chem.tamu.edu/class/fyp/mathrev/mr-log.html>
e as the base of natural logarithms at the MathSoft site
<http://www.mathsoft.com:80/asolve/constant/e/e.html>
CoolMath’s table of decibel levels at
<http://www.coolmath.com/decibels1.htm>
National earthquake information center
<http://wwwneic.cr.usgs.gov/neis/eqlists/eqstats.html>
An excellent list of applications in technical areas is at British Columbia Institute
of Technology
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/table.htm>
Sonic booms and logarithms
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Sonic/sonic.html>
Sound pressure levels and intensity
<http://www.coolmath.com/decibels1.htm>
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_12_4/ary_12_4.htm>
Belt friction
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_9_4/ary_9_4.htm>
Bode plots
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_1_4/ary_1_4.htm>
LOGARITHMS 57
Modeling exponential decay using logarithms (finding half-life)
<http://math.usask.ca/readin/examples/expdeceg.html>
Further examples on logarithms
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/table.htm>



LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS
Logistic functions predict proportions or probabilities. They are used to deter-
mine proportions of successes in “yes–no” situations from underlying factors.
They can be used to predict the proportions of students admitted to a university
from different SAT-score intervals; the probability of getting an item right on a
test depending on underlying knowledge; the probability that a patient with cer-
tain symptoms will die or live; the proportions of nerves in the brain that will fire
in the presence of different concentrations of stimulating chemicals; the spread
of rumors; and the proportion of consumers that will switch brands or stay with
their current one when presented with different saturations of advertising.
A logistic function takes the form y =
1
1
m
+b
0
b
x
1
, where m is the maximum
value of the dependent variable (in most cases, this will be 1.00). The values b
0
and b
1
are very similar to the numbers used in exponential growth models. The
illustration below shows the shape of a logistic function. The scatterplot in it
shows the percent of applications for admission to a large state university that
resulted in acceptances of the candidates. The groupings of students on the x-axis
are by SAT verbal score. The dot at 700 indicates that 95 percent of the appli-
cants who had SAT verbal scores at 700 (that is, in the range of 680–720) were
accepted. However, only 9 percent of the students at 400 (in the range of 380–
420) were accepted. The equation for the logistic curve that models the data is
A =
1
1+9128(0.983)
SAT
, where A is the proportion accepted at an SAT score level.
58 LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS
University admission rates for students
with different SAT verbal scores. The
acceptance rate of high school students
into a certain college based on their
SAT verbal score.
If you cover up the right side of the curve (SAT verbal scores greater than 550),
the remaining curve looks like an exponential curve.
Consider the spread of rumors. Suppose that every hour a person who hears
a rumor passes it on to four other people. During the early life of the rumor the
equation that represents the spread of the rumor at each hour would be N = 4
t
,
where N is the number of people hearing the rumor at t hours. The exponential
growth equation would require 65,536 new listeners at the eighth hour. But what
if the rumor starts with a student in a 1,000-student high school overhearing the
principal saying, “We are going to dismiss school early today”? If every student
passing on the rumor could find someone who had not heard it, then the rumor
would pass through the entire student body before five hours were up. However,
after four hours, people spreading the rumor will be telling it to students who
already know. This means that the rate at which new listeners receive the rumor
has to decrease as the day goes on. People who learn about the rumor later in the
day are not likely to find anybody who hasn’t heard it. A logistic equation that
models the spread of this rumor is N =
1
1
1000
+0.25
t
, where N is the number of
students in the high school who have heard the rumor, and t is the number of
hours since the rumor started. This model would predict that half the student
body would have heard the rumor by the fifth hour.
Studies of diseases indicate that the early stages of an epidemic appear to
show an exponential growth in infected cases, but after a while the number of
people infected by the disease does not increase very rapidly. Like the spread of
rumors, diseases cannot be easily spread to new victims after much of the popu-
lation has encountered it. Logistic models describe the number of people infected
by a new disease if the entire population is susceptible to it, if the duration of the
disease is long so that no cures occur during the time period under study, if all
infected individuals are contagious and circulate freely among the population,
and if each contact with an uninfected person results in transmission of the dis-
ease. These seem like restrictions that would make it unlikely that logistic mod-
els would be good for studying epidemics, but the federal government’s Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) make effective use of logistic models
for projections of the yearly spread of influenza through urban populations. CDC
statisticians adapt the model in a variety of ways for other types of diseases.
Logistic models are useful for tracking the spread of new technologies
throughout the country. The proportion of schools in the United States that have
Internet connections increased exponentially during the first half of the decade
(1991–2000), then leveled off at the end, with 95 percent of the schools having
Internet connections in 1999. Alogistic function describes this pattern quite well.
Logistic curves describe the spread of other technologies such as the proportion
of families owning cell phones, the proportion of homes with computers, and the
number of miles of railroad track in the country from 1850 through 1950. The
logistic growth function carries a warning for companies that introduce new tech-
nologies: enjoy exponential growth in early sales, because it cannot last. When the
market is saturated with the technology, new sales are very difficult to make.
LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS 59
Logistic models can be used to make population forecasts for anything rang-
ing from humans to ant colonies to bacteria to fermentation levels in beer. Phys-
icists use logistic models to study numbers of excited atoms in lasers. Agri-
cultural chemists use logistic models to quantify the concentration of salt in soil.
Bankers use the models to predict whether a person will default on a loan or
credit card.
online sources for further exploration
Logistic simulations/fractals
<http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ma/gallery/doubling/>
<http://mcasco.com/explorin.html>
U.S. Department of Education (National Center for Education Statistics,
the Digest of Education Statistics 2000)
<http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/Digest99/chapter7.html>
Human population dynamics
<http://phe.rockefeller.edu/poppies/>
Logistic model of USA population
<http://www.dartmouth.edu/~math3f98/csc98/chap5/CSC.USAPop5.html>
Population
<http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/kpduffy/logistic_t.htm>
Airport growth
<http://www1.tpgi.com.au/users/kpduffy/logistic_t.htm>
Biological growth
<http://phe.rockefeller.edu/Bi-Logistic/>
Blood pressure
<http://www.shodor.org/master/biomed/physio/cardioweb/application.html>
Electrical systems
<http://phe.rockefeller.edu/Daedalus/Elektron/>
Loglet lab
<http://phe.rockefeller.edu/LogletLab/>
National Center for Education Statistics, the Digest of Education Statistics 2000
<http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2000/Digest99/chapter7.html>
Semiconductor use
<http://phe.rockefeller.edu/LogletLab/DRAM/>
Working less and living longer
<http://phe.rockefeller.edu/work_less/index.html>



60 LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS
MATRICES 61
MATRICES
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. Operations that correspond to
addition, multiplication, and powering of real numbers provide rules for com-
bining matrices. Inverses of matrices correspond to reciprocals of real numbers.
In addition, there are specific operations on some matrices, such as those used in
game theory and graph theory that transform elements of the matrix to point the
way to best decisions.
Matrices are used to solve large systems of simultaneous equations. High
school students usually see matrices as a way to rewrite systems of equations.
For example,

5x+3y=7
2x−y=5
can be replaced by

5 3
2 −1

x
y

=

7
5

. This
change seems very simple, but it generalizes the system to a matrix system Ax =
b, which has a solution (if it exists) of x = A
–1
b. The problem of accurately com-
puting the inverse A
-1
for large matrices is difficult, even with high-speed com-
puter processors. This remains a critical issue for mathematicians and computer
analysts, because scientists in fields as widely diverse as astronomy, weather
forecasting, statistics, economics, archeology, water management, weapons races
between countries, chicken production, airline travel routes, investment banking,
marketing studies, and medical research rely on the efficient reduction of large
matrices of information.
Matrix multiplication can provide a more secure secret code than simple
replacement ciphers. Replacement ciphers (sometimes called Caesar ciphers in
honor of the Roman emperor Julius Caesar, who used them in his military cam-
paigns) encode a message by replacing each letter with another. The problem
with these ciphers is that certain letters occur more frequently in languages than
do others. If “z” and “m” occur most frequently in an English-language coded
document, it is likely that the most frequent letter is hiding “e” and the next, “t.”
This one-to-one correspondence makes it easy to decode secret messages written
in replacement ciphers. If the code is written with numbers that are encoded with
multiplication by a matrix, the same letter encodes to different letters, depending
on its position in the message. The English-language frequency distribution is
then destroyed, so it is far more difficult for code breakers to decipher the mes-
sage. Recipients who have the encoding matrix, however, can quickly decode the
message by multiplication with the inverse of the matrix.
Some matrices describe transformations of the plane. Common geometric
movements of figures, such as reflections and rotations can be written as 2 × 2
matrices. The table below shows some common transformation matrices.
Reflection in Rotation of 90° Reflection in Rotation of
the y-axis counterclockwise the line y = x 30° counterclockwise
¸
−1 0
0 1
¸
0 −1
1 0
¸
0 1
1 0
¸
cos 30 −sin30
sin30 cos 30

Common transformations of the coordinate plane.
Computer graphics use products of 4 × 4 geometric matrices to model the
changes of position of moving objects in space (such as the space shuttle), trans-
form them to eye coordinates, select the area of vision that would fit on the com-
puter screen, and project the three-dimensional image onto the two dimensions
of the video screen. The matrix products must be computed very rapidly to give
the images realistic motion, so processors in high-end graphic computers embed
the matrix operations in their circuits. Additional matrices compute light-and-
shadow patterns that make the image look realistic. The same matrix operations
used to provide entertaining graphics are built into medical instruments such as
MRI machines and digital X-ray machines. Matrices such as incidence matrices
and path matrices organize connections and distances between points. Airlines
use these matrices on a daily basis to determine the most profitable way to assign
planes to flights between different cities.
The complexity of handling the different forms of rotation that are encoun-
tered in movement requires computers that can process matrix computations very
rapidly. The space shuttle, for example, is constantly being monitored by matrices
that represent rotations in three-space. These matrix products control pitch, the
rotation that causes the nose to go up or down, yaw, the rotation that causes the
nose to rotate left or right, and roll, the rotation that causes the shuttle to roll over.
Stochastic matrices are formed from probabilities. They can represent com-
plex situations such as the probabilities of changes in weather, the probabilities
of rental-car movements among cities, or more simple situations, such as the
probabilities of color shifts in generations of roses. When the probabilities are
dependent only on the prior state, the matrix represents a Markov chain. High
powers of the matrix will converge on a set of probabilities that define a final,
steady state for the situation. In population biology, for example, Markov chains
show how arbitrary proportions of genes in one generation can produce variation
in the immediately following generation, but that over the long term converge to
a specific and stable distribution. Biologists have used Markov chains to describe
population growth, molecular genetics, pharmacology, tumor growth, and epi-
demics. Social scientists have used them to explain voting behavior, mobility and
population of towns, changes in attitudes, deliberations of trial juries, and con-
sumer choices. Albert Einstein used Markov theory to study the Brownian
motion of molecules. Physicists have employed them in the theory of radioactive
transformations. Astronomers have used Markov chains to analyze the fluctua-
tions in the brightness of galaxies.
Ratings of football teams can be done solely on the basis of the team’s sta-
tistics. But more effective and comprehensive ratings of the teams use the statis-
tics of opponents as well. Matrices provide a way of organizing corresponding
information on the team and those it has played. Solving the matrix systems that
result provides a power rating that integrates information on the strength of the
opponents with the information on the team. Sport statisticians contend that the
use of the data make their national ratings more reliable than those that use
human judgment.
62 MATRICES
Linear programming uses algorithms such as the simplex method to compute
the most profitable solution from matrices of production. Matrices also structure
inquiry into situations that have competing players with multiple choices of
action. The outcomes can be organized into matrices that use players for rows
and options for columns. Game theorists have developed mathematical strategies
for transforming the matrices in a way that gives each player the best outcome,
or in a way that avoids worst outcomes. Game strategies have been used to ana-
lyze competition for food, to determine which students get the last seats in col-
lege courses, to resolve conflicts in classrooms, and to select the best choices for
potentially warring nations. The importance of game theory for the study of eco-
nomic behavior is recognized by the awarding of the Nobel prize. The 1994
award in economics went to John Nash, John C. Harsanyi, and Reihard Selten for
their contributions to game theory. Other Nobel awards related to game theory
have been those in 1996 to William Vickrey and James Mirrlees, and to Herbert
Simon in 1979. However, these were not the first Nobel prizes to recognize work
with matrices. In 1973, Wassily Leontief won the prize for his prediction of best
economic strategies from large input–output matrices. Leontief’s theories were
the basis for U.S. government policies that resulted in effective industrial pro-
duction during World War II.
online sources for further exploration
Ratings of college football teams
<http://www.cae.wisc.edu/~dwilson/rsfc/rate/zenor.html>
<http://www.colleyrankings.com/#method>
David Levine’s Zero Sum Game Solver
<http://levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/Games/zerosum.htm>
Cryptology and coding
<http://www.jcoffman.com/Algebra2/ch4_5.htm>
<http://www.sosmath.com/matrix/coding/coding.html>
Electronics
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_7_2/ary_7_2.htm>
Image rotation
<http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/pica/simpil/applications/rotation.html>
Logging
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_15_2/ary_15_2.htm>
Markov chains
<http://www.sosmath.com/matrix/markov/markov.html>
Matrices in chemistry
<http://www.shodor.org/UNChem/math/matrix/>
Matrix model activities
<http://www.colorado.edu/education/DMP/activities/matrices/>
Stability of structures
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_5_2/ary_5_2.htm>
MATRICES 63
Transformation matrices and robotics
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_16_2/ary_16_2.htm>
Viewing objects in computer graphics
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_6_2/ary_6_2.htm>



PERIMETER
The distance around an object, or perimeter, is used for many purposes. The
concept is used by construction workers to determine the amount of trim needed
to seal the intersection between the drywall and ground, and drywall and ceiling
in each room when building a house. Artists use perimeter to determine the
amount of material they will need to put a frame around their pictures.
Homeowners use perimeter to determine the amount of fencing they would
need for their back yard, or railroad ties to surround an outdoor patio. In an open
field, a farmer can determine that the most ideal arrangement for building a rec-
tangular pen for animals is to place his fencing in the form of a square. Suppose
the farmer has 80 meters of fencing. In a rectangular pen, the unknown dimen-
sions of the length and width can be represented by variables, l and w, respec-
tively. The perimeter of the rectangular pen can be written as 80 = 2l + 2w.
The equation can be reduced to l +w = 40 by dividing both sides of the equa-
tion by 2. Ideally, the farmer would like to build the largest pen so that his animals
have the greatest amount of space to move around in. Thus the farmer needs to
determine the dimensions that would produce a maximum area. The area, a, can be
represented by the equation a = lw. Substituting the perimeter relationship
l = 40 −w, the area equation can be rewritten as a = (40 −w)w = 40w −w
2
.
A graph of this function shows that the area attains a maximum value when the
64 PERIMETER
A carpenter or artist uses the concept of perimeter
to build frames for pictures and paintings.
Rectangular pen with length l and width w.
width is 20 meters. If the width is 20 meters, and l = 40 −w, then the length is
also 20 meters when the area of the rectangle is a maximum value. Therefore the
ideal rectangular pen based on an existing amount of fencing is a square.
However, if the farmer wants to build a pen that divides different animals,
then the dimensions will have to be reconsidered. For example, suppose there are
chickens and pigs in a pen that is evenly divided by a fence line. In this case, the
dimensions of the most ideal pen would be determined by the equation 3w
+2l = 80 to account for the added divider. The area of this pen is a =
(40 − 1.5w)w = 40w − 1.5w
2
. A graph of this function shows that the area
attains a maximum value when the width is 40/3 meters. If the width is 40/3
meters, and l = 40 − 1.5w, then the length of the fence should be 20 meters
(40 − 1.5 •
40
3
) when the area of the rectangle is a maximum value.
In addition to building fences, the concept of perimeter is used in building
race tracks. For example, in track and field, a 400-meter track represents the
perimeter around two congruent semicircles, where the turns and straightaways
are each one hundred meters. Building a track with these dimensions requires
designers and engineers to determine the distance across the track between
straightaways, which represents the diameter of the semicircles. Since the cir-
cumference of a circle is π times its diameter, the circumference of a semicircle
is one-half π times its diameter (c =
1
2
πd). Rearranging the variables in the
equation can show that the diameter, d, of a semicircle is d =
2c
π
, where c is the
circumference of the semicircle, which is the 100-meter turn of the track. The
distance across the infield of a track is d =
2•100
π
, which is approximately 63.662
meters.
PERIMETER 65
The area of a square pen with a perimeter
of 40 meters as a function of its width.
Equally divided rectangular pen
with length l and width w to
hold two different animals.
Marking the starting positions in different lanes uses principles of perimeter.
For example, suppose the width of each lane is 1.067 meters, and the inner radius
of the turn is 63.662 meters. In one lap around the track, the runner in lane 1
would run 400 meters, but the runners in the other lanes would run farther if they
all started in the same position and had to stay in their lanes. The runner in lane
2 would be running around a turn with a radius of 64.729 meters, which would
make each turn
64.729π
2
≈ 101.676 meters. Therefore the runner in lane 2 should
start a 400-meter race ahead of the runner in lane 1 by 1.676 meters around the
first turn. Since the lanes are of equal width, each runner in sequential lanes
should start 1.676 meters around the first turn ahead of the previous runner. In a
4 × 400 meter relay, the second runner can move into the first lane after his or
her first turn, which is the fifth turn overall. When staggering this relay, the run-
ner in lane 2 should be moved 50 percent ahead of the other arrangement, since
three of the turns will be run in the same lane instead of two. This means that
each lane should be staggered by (1.50)(1.676) = 2.514 meters apart in this race.
online sources for further exploration
Designing a track
<http://www.crpc.rice.edu/CRPC/GT/sboone/Lessons/Titles/track.html>
Floor plans
<http://www.homebuyerpubs.com/foorplans/floorplans.htm>
<http://www.dldesigngroup.com/plans.html>
<http://ecep.louisiana.edu/ecep/math/n/n.htm>
<http://www.tnloghomes.com/homeplans/index.shtml>
Maximize the area of a rectangular field with fixed perimeter
<http://home.netvigator.com/~wingkei9/javagsp/maxarea.html>
Starting a new game farm
<http://www.agric.gov.ab.ca/livestock/elk/gamefarmapp.html>



66 PERIMETER
The outdoor running track at the Rock
Norman Complex, Clemson University,
contains two semicircles and two sides
that are each 100 meters in length. The
turns require precision marking to
ensure that all athletes run the same
distance in a race.
PERIODIC FUNCTIONS
Graphs of functions that repeat shapes are called periodic. The horizontal
length of each repetition is called the period. Phenomena that are based on cir-
cular motion, such as the rotation of the earth around the sun, will often result in
a periodic graph. The graph below shows the hours of daylight on the fifteenth
of each month for Minneapolis. The data points start with January 15th and are
plotted for two years. The period for this graph is 1 year, or 12 months. The curve
that has been used to approximate the data points is a sine curve, where x is the
month number: Hours = 12.2 + 2.9 sin((x − 2.3) •

12
).
The tilt of the earth and its rotation about the sun cause the sinusoidal pattern
in hours of daylight. Because temperature in a city is dependent on hours of sun-
shine, plots of the average monthly temperature of American cities will be in the
form of a sine curve.
Circular motion can arise from a variety of sources. The distance above
ground of a passenger in a Ferris wheel produces a sine curve as the wheel
rotates. Measures on a pendulum will produce periodic functions. Gravitational
attraction to the moon causes tides. As the moon rotates about the earth, the
heights of tides will produce a periodic function.
Sound, radar, light, radio, and ocean waves are periodic. When you press
middle Aon a piano, the piano strings vibrate, producing sound waves that have
a period of 1/440 second. An oscilloscope provides a video screen for viewing
different electrical patterns. An EKG machine in a hospital is an oscilloscope for
viewing the periodic electrical patterns from a patient’s heart.
PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 67
Hours of daylight for Minneapolis over a period of two years. Daylight patterns
throughout a year are predictable in most cities through sinusoidal modeling.
Heart-rate monitors detect electrical
pulses in an EKG to check if the
heart is beating regularly.
New periodic functions can be created by adding or multiplying two or more
of them. You can see this when you toss two pebbles into a pond. The overlap of
the waves will be a new wave. When audio speakers are arranged in an audito-
rium, they have to be positioned carefully so that the sound waves emerging from
them do not cancel one another out or create a beat that competes with the music.
Fluorescent light bulbs produce a pulsing light that sometimes adds to the cycli-
cal refresh rate on computer screens to produce rapid light bursts that can make
it hard for some people to read the computer display.
Commodity prices often follow a cyclical pattern. Hire rates for temporary-
employment firms appear to form a sine curve. In biology, populations of some
species of animals such as rabbits in a forest will vary over time in a cyclic pat-
tern. When this happens, it is likely that a predator species such as a fox also has
a periodic population pattern that mirrors the rabbit pattern. If there are more
foxes, then there are fewer rabbits; if there are fewer foxes, then there are more
rabbits. In many environments, these periodic relationships continue over time.
The populations of the predator and prey do not level off.
A thermostat is an instrument used to regulate heating and cooling systems,
such as an air conditioner or oven. Once a person sets the thermostat on an oven
for a certain temperature, it will heat up until reaching that temperature, and then
stay close to that temperature until the thermostat is changed. For example, if the
oven is set to 400° Fahrenheit, it will gradually rise to that level for the first
twenty minutes, and then stay at 400° until the temperature is changed or the
oven is turned off. Since temperature naturally slightly varies in the air, it would
also slightly change in the oven, but still oscillate near 400°. This eventual peri-
odic function is shown in below.
The cruise control in an automobile is another device that utilizes periodic
behavior for a function that describes the velocity of an automobile on a highway
as a function of time. As the car accelerates onto the highway, its velocity will
increase and then level off near the speed that is set for the cruise control, usu-
ally the highway’s speed limit. If the road has elevation changes, then the speed
of the automobile in cruise control will vary slightly, since movement on hills
requires different amounts of power on the automobile’s engine. However, sim-
ilar to a thermostat, the slight variability in speed will not affect the long-term
periodic behavior of the graph describing the automobile’s velocity until the
brakes are touched.
68 PERIODIC FUNCTIONS
A graph of the temperature of an
oven in degrees Fahrenheit as a
function of time in minutes when
its thermostat is set to 400°.
The example of the electrical pulse emitted from your heart displayed on an
EKG as shown in the second figure demonstrates that periodic functions do not
have to be trigonometric. However, the mathematical field of Fourier transfor-
mations uses sums of trigonometric functions to approximate periodic functions
of any shape.
online sources for further exploration
Art based on periodic functions
<http://www.sineart.com/>
CoolMath’s links to many sites that show periodic functions
<http://www.coolmath.com/links_trig1.htm>
Alternating current
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_7_3/ary_7_3.htm>
Biorythms
<http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~d_swift/biowhat.html>
Damping functions in music
<http://www.coolmath.com/dampfunction1.htm>
EKG world encyclopedia
<http://www.mmip.mcgill.ca/heart/egcyhome.html>
Heat flow
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/continuous/heatflow/
learn.htm>
High and low tides
<http://www.crpc.rice.edu/CRPC/GT/mwies/Lessons/lesson2.html>
Modeling with a sine function
<http://147.4.150.5/~matscw/trig/trig1.html>
Play a piano
<http://www.nws.mbay.net/maxtemp.html>
Sun or moon rise/set table for one year
<http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneYear.html>
Temperature data
<http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/ftpdata/tavegl.dat>
<http://www.nws.mbay.net/maxtemp.html>
<http://www.met.utah.edu/jhorel/html/wx/climate/maxtemp.html>



PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 69
PLANE
A plane represents any flat two-dimensional surface that has infinite length
and width. In everyday life, we use only finite versions of planes due to limited
space and material. Walls, desktops, book covers, and floors are examples of
planes. These items are made flat, because they are easier to produce and con-
venient to write on or cover. For example, a curved wall may be interesting to
look at, but expensive to create. A flat wall, on the other hand, is much easier to
wallpaper or to fix when it is damaged.
Planes have some useful properties that give people ideas about design and
construction. For example, the intersection of two nonidentical planes, such as
the wall and ceiling, forms a line. This idea guarantees that walls and containers
made from flat surfaces can be sealed, assuming that there are no holes in them.
A saw blade cuts in a straight line, because it represents two intersecting
planes—the saw and the piece of wood.
Another property of planes is that three noncollinear points lie in the same
plane. For example, a triangle has three vertices, so it will lie on a flat surface.
Three-legged stools will never wobble, because the three ends of the legs lie on
the same plane—the floor—regardless of their length. Ideally though, the leg
lengths should be close to being the same to help support someone’s mass near
the center of the chair. Four-legged stools will sometimes wobble if one leg is
longer or shorter than the other legs, because the end of one of the legs is on a
different plane.
If a line or segment is perpendicular to a plane, then any congruent segments
with an endpoint on that plane and another endpoint at a common point on the
line or segment will be equidistant from the foot of the plane. Metal beams are
placed on a radio satellite to support its receiver as waves are reflected off the
dish. If they are created at the same length and intersect the receiver at the same
point, then they will land on the dish at the same distance from the center. This
method ensures that the beams land on the perimeter of the circle, since all points
on the circle are equidistant from its center, which is directly below the location
of the receiver.
Inclined planes—planes that are raised at an angle—are used for a variety of
purposes. They are created for handicapped people in wheelchairs as an alterna-
70 PLANE
A radio antenna uses metal beams
of equal length to support the
receiver at its focal point.
tive to stairs. They are used to exit highways so that cars can gradually change
elevation. They are also used in a variety of tools. Screws have an inclined plane
that bends around its center so that they can create an angled entry when break-
ing a wall’s surface. Screwdrivers have an inclined plane at their tip so that they
can firmly fit into the top of a screw.
A Mercator projection is a method used to transform spherical coordinates
into a plane. This transformation gives cartographers the opportunity to produce
maps on flat surfaces, even though the earth is spherical. An advantage to this
technique is that images of maps can be placed into books and read more easily.
However, a disadvantage is that the regions near the poles illustrate inaccurate
areas of the landmasses. For example, on a Mercator projection map, a country
near the North Pole such as Greenland appears almost fifteen times its actual
size. Another way to make a plane representation of the earth is to cut along the
longitudinal lines and create gores. However, when the gores unfold, the map
will have empty spaces, leaving a distortion between distances near the pole.
online sources for further exploration
Mercator projection
<http://www.ualberta.ca/~norris/navigation/Mercator.html>
<http://www.usgs.gov/education/learnweb/MpLesson2Act1.html>
<http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/rocket_sci/orbmech/mercator.html>
The three-point problem from geology
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/Envir/Three.Point.html>
The wedge
<http://www.tpub.com/machines/4a.htm>
<http://www.advancement.cnet.navy.mil/products/web-pdf/tramans/bookchunks/
14037_ch4.pdf>



PLANE 71
A screw uses a rotating inclined
plane to drill into flat surfaces.
POLAR COORDINATES
Polar coordinates locate a point by indicating a direction and a distance from
a central point (the pole). In the point P = [r, θ], the distance r is given first, fol-
lowed by the direction θ expressed as an angle of rotation from a fixed line
through the pole called the polar axis. This is different from Cartesian or rectan-
gular coordinates in which points are located by distances from two perpendicu-
lar axes. When the polar axis corresponds to the positive x-axis in a Cartesian
plane, the Cartesian coordinates (x, y) for P can be computed as x = r cos θ and
y = r sinθ. While Cartesian graphs are rectangular, polar graphs are circular.
Notice that
x
2
+y
2
= (r cos θ)
2
+ (r sinθ)
2
= r
2
(cos θ)
2
+r
2
(sinθ)
2
=
r
2
(cos
2
θ + sin
2
θ) = r
2
(1) = r
2
,
which is the same as the standard equation of a circle with the center at the ori-
gin and radius r.
Polar coordinates can be used to map the earth. The figure below is a CIA
(Central Intelligence Agency) map showing the northern hemisphere. The North
Pole is in the center of the concentric circles of latitude. The polar axis is on the
great circle of longitude that goes through Greenwich, England. On polar graph
paper, this axis would be placed in the same position as the positive ray of the x-
axis in Cartesian coordinates.
Navigators on ships and airplanes use the language of polar coordinates to
specify the direction and speed of travel. Astronomers use polar coordinates to
plot paths of planets and the sun with respect to a viewing position on the earth.
Polar coordinates are useful in mathematics for writing curves that cannot be
written as functions or simple relations in x- and y-coordinates. The following
graph of a five-leaf rose would be difficult to express in an equation using only
x–y coordinates.
72 POLAR COORDINATES
The positions and distances on the globe are represented as a polar coordinate system.
Some spirals that can be graphed with polar coordinates model shapes in
nature. Note in the figure below how the shape of the spiral of the form r = ab
θ
mimics the shape of the shell of the chambered nautilus. As the creature grows,
the shell compartment expands in a way that allows the nautilus to retain its
shape.
Although polar coordinates simplify equations for some beautiful curves, they
also make some equations more complicated. For example, the polar equation for
the line y = mx +b is r =
b
sinθ−mcos θ
.
Polar coordinates have surprising uses in computer graphics. The polar coor-
dinates distortion filter available for Adobe Photoshop remaps every pixel’s rec-
tangular (Cartesian) coordinates to polar coordinates, or vice versa. This makes
it easy to make objects circular as well as producing fountain-like effects associ-
ated with turning polar coordinates into Cartesian ones.
POLAR COORDINATES 73
Graph of r = 4 cos 5θ for θ = 0 to 2π.
Some graphs are easier to represent in
polar rather than rectangular form,
especially if they have rotational symmetry.
logarithmic spiral r = 5(1.3)
θ
shell of a chambered nautilus
A nautilus resembles the polar graph r = ab
θ
.
The chambered nautilus picture from the
previous figure after being distorted with the
polar coordinate filter in Adobe Photoshop.
Log-polar transformations have been developed to embed copyright infor-
mation in computer-graphic files to preserve the copyright notice from deletion.
Spherical polar coordinates are useful in simplifying physics equations such
as Schrodinger’s equation and the Maxwell speed equation. In many cases, writ-
ing expressions in polar form simplifies the application of calculus and differen-
tial equation techniques.
Polar coordinates have another important application in mathematics: They
simplify some operations with complex numbers. Multiplication of the complex
numbers z = a +bi and w = c +di gives (ac −bd) + (ad +bc)i. The corre-
sponding multiplication in polar form would be of the numbers z = [r, θ] and
w = [s, φ]. Then zw = [rs, θ +φ]. The polar form simplifies the powers and
roots of complex numbers. In polar form, z
n
= [r
n
, nθ], which is known as De-
Moivre’s theorem. (See Complex Numbers and Vectors.)
online sources for further exploration
Polar plotting and graphing
<http://mss.math.vanderbilt.edu/~pscrooke/MSS/plotpolar.html>
<http://www.world-of-newave.com/fxwavex/help/en/plug-ins/nwfxpic/polar.htm>
<http://john.redmood.com/polar.html>
<http://www.univie.ac.at/future.media/moe/galerie/zeich/zeich.html>
Spherical and cylindrical coordinates
<http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/sphc.html>
<http://www.iac.tut.fi/~sahrakor/research/teksti/node8.html>
<http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Scelcoor.htm>
Logarithmic spirals
<http://brand.www.media.mit.edu/people/brand/logspiral.html>
<http://www.notam.uio.no/~oyvindha/loga.html>
<http://www.meru.org/goldmean.html>
<http://xahlee.org/SpecialPlaneCurves_dir/EquiangularSpiral_dir/equiangular
Spiral.html>
Sun position in polar coordinates
<http://www.jgiesen.de/sunpol/index.html>
Azimuth and elevation
<http://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Scelcoor.htm>
Computer graphics
<http://www.adscape.com/eyedesign/photoshop/four/filters/polarcoordinates.html>
<http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~nj2t-hg/ilpov21e.htm>
<http://www.blueberry-brain.org/syndyn/spirals/figsfrac.htm>
Polar coordinates in robotics
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_16_1/ary_16_1.htm>
Polar distortion filter
<http://www.adscape.com/eyedesign/photoshop/four/filters/polarcoordinates.html>



74 POLAR COORDINATES
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS 75
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS
A polynomial function f(x) has a general equation f(x) = a
1
x
n
+a
2
x
n−1
+a
3
x
n−2
+. . . +a
z
, where coefficients and constants are associated with a and
exponents associated with n are positive integers. Linear functions, such as
y = 3x − 5, and quadratic functions, such as r = 3w
2
− 5w + 7, are polynomial
functions that have numerous applications discussed elsewhere in this book (see
Linear Functions and Quadratic Functions). Polynomial functions with degree
three or greater are found in applications associated with volume and financial
planning.
Empty open-faced containers such as crates are put together by attaching a
net of five rectangles. Arectangular piece of plastic can be cut so that it can turn
into an open-faced rectangular prism when folded at its seams. If a square piece
is cut out of each corner of a rectangle, then four folds will form a net with five
rectangles that can be formed to develop the prism, as shown below.
Amanufacturer is probably interested in finding the location to cut the square
from the corners so that the consumers will be able to fill the crate with the most
amount of material. In essence, the goal is to maximize the volume based on a
fixed amount of material. Suppose that square corners are removed from a rec-
tangular sheet of plastic with dimensions of 6 feet by 4 feet. Each side of the
prism can be represented in terms of the edge length, x, of the square that was
removed from the corners, as shown below.
The volume of the crate, v, is the product of its dimensions, so it can be rep-
resented by the equation v = x(6 − 2x)(4 − 2x). This equation is a polynomial
function, because it is the factored form of v = 4x
3
− 20x
2
+ 24x. A relative
maximum of this function on a graph, as shown on the following page, within a
domain between 0 and 2 feet occurs when x ≈ 0.78 feet, or about 9.4 inches.
This means that the crate with the largest possible volume will occur when
squares with an edge length of 9.4 inches are cut from the corners.
Open-faced prism with dimensions x by l − 2x by w − 2x formed by cutting squares
with side length x out of the corners of rectangular sheet with dimensions l by w.
Open-faced prism formed by cutting
squares with edge length, x, out of the
corners of a rectangular sheet with
dimensions of 6 feet by 4 feet.
Long-term investing uses a polynomial function to account for money that is
invested each year. Suppose an account was set up so that you contributed money
each year towards your retirement based on a fixed percentage of interest, assum-
ing that you continued to add a minimum amount of money to the account each
year and did not withdraw money at any time. The total amount of money, m, in
the bank after n years based on an annual interest rate of r percent can be repre-
sented by the function
m = a
1
(1 +
r
100
)
n
+a
2
(1 +
r
100
)
n−1
+a
3
(1 +
r
100
)
n−2
+. . . +a
z
,
where the coefficients, a, are the individual amounts of money deposited into the
account after each year. For example, if $500 is deposited at the end of the first
year, $700 at the end of the second year, $800 at the end of the third year, and
$400 at the end of the fourth year, then the total amount of money in the account
at the end of the fourth year is determined by the equation
m = 500(1 +
r
100
)
3
+ 700(1 +
r
100
)
2
+ 800(1 +
r
100
) + 400.
This means that the initial deposit of $500 will compound three times, the second
deposit of $700 will compound two times, and so on. If an employee uses this
retirement plan for only four years and wants to know the value of the account
21 years after the first investment, then the equation would be rewritten to
m = 500(1 +
r
100
)
20
+ 700(1 +
r
100
)
19
+ 800(1 +
r
100
)
19
+ 400(1 +
r
100
)
18
.
This information is useful for people in their financial planning so that they can
learn how to save money for their children’s education and their own retirement.
online sources for further exploration
Antenna pattern correction
<http://earth.esa.int/0xc1cce41c_0x00005bfe>
Application of polynomial functions
<ftp://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/pub/smad/senior/mathsb/mb_if005.doc>
76 POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS
Graph of the volume of a prism formed by folding
a sheet of paper with squares of edge length, x,
removed from each of the corners.
Building boxes
<http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/mathline/lessonplans/hsmp/buildingboxes/
buildingboxes_procedure.shtm>
Drag racing
<http://ceee.rice.edu/Books/CS/chapter3/data1.html>
Shrimp
<http://144.35.21.240/mathdept/labs/shrimp.htm>
Toxic waste
<http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au/centoff/graphcalc/tasks/ic6pc.pdf>



PROBABILITY
A probability is a number between 0 and 1 that tells us how likely an event
is to happen. Probabilities are expressed as ratios or percents. When probabilities
are computed from an analysis of possible outcomes, such as the probability that
a sum of 7 will show on the toss of a pair of dice, the probability is sometimes
called a theoretical probability. When the probability is computed on the basis of
experience or surveys, such as the probability of a randomly selected adult being
a smoker, it is called a relative frequency or experimental probability. Gambling
probabilities are sometimes expressed as odds. Odds express the ratio of suc-
cesses to failures, or vice versa. If you hear a bettor on a horse race say, “The
odds against Fleetfoot winning are five to two,” that means for every five times
Fleetfoot loses, he will win twice. The probability of losing is five out of seven,
and the probability of winning is two out of seven.
Games that have equal probabilities for all participants are called fair. Most
people think that tossing a coin to determine who kicks off a football game is fair,
because their life experience with coins indicates that the probability of a head is
equal to a probability of a tail. Determining the winning state-lottery ticket by
pulling winning ping-pong balls from agitated buckets is felt to be fair, because
every number has an equal chance of being selected. This perception has been
written into the election laws of many states. Illinois determines the seventh
member of its redistricting committee (otherwise evenly divided between Demo-
crats and Republicans) by pulling a name out of a hat. In 1998, the tie in ballots
for mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, was broken by the toss of a coin. Kansas once
settled a tie for state representative by having the two candidates pull chips from
a bag that contained six black and six white backgammon chips. The winner was
the first to draw a white chip. New Mexico allows tied candidates to play any
game of chance to break a tie. Coin tossing remains the favorite way of breaking
PROBABILITY 77
ties in the state, but as recently as 1998, two candidates who were tied in the elec-
tion for mayor of Estancia, New Mexico, opted to play five-card stud for the job.
Statisticians use probabilities and relative frequencies in determining relation-
ships. A key concept from probability is the idea of independence. The formal
mathematical definition of independence is given in the equation P(A+B) =
P(A) • P(B). If two events, A and B, are independent, then the probability of
them both happening is the product of the separate probabilities. The concept of
independence is behind investigations such as the Physicians’ Health Study,
which tested the effects of aspirin on over 22,000 doctors. Half the doctors were
given a daily dose of aspirin, and half were given a neutral pill (placebo). Doctors
didn’t know what kind of pill they received. The researchers periodically con-
tacted the participants to find out if the physician had suffered a heart attack. The
results showed that 0.9 percent of the participants who received aspirin had heart
attacks, and 1.7 percent of those with the placebo had heart attacks. Although it
looks like the percents favor aspirin, the percents are so small that it is possible
they were due to chance. The study data is shown on the following table. This is
called a contingency table.
heart attack no heart attack TOTAL
aspirin 104 10,933 11,037
placebo 189 10,845 11,034
TOTAL 293 21,778 22,071
The results from the aspirin–physician heart study.
Statisticians assume that the medication and heart attacks are independent. If
so, then P(aspirin and heart attack) = P(aspirin) • P(heart attack). Using the rel-
ative frequencies from the total row and total column gives the following prod-
uct:
11037
22071

293
22071
. That probability times the number of participants tells how
many doctors receiving aspirin would have had heart attacks if heart condition
were independent of medication. That frequency is 147. As you can see from the
table below, the almost equal separation of physicians into aspirin and placebo
treatments indicates that the expected values for heart attacks should have been
separated into almost equal proportions.
heart attack no heart attack TOTAL
aspirin 147 10,890 11,037
placebo 146 10,888 11,034
TOTAL 293 21,778 22,071
Expected frequencies for the aspirin–physician heart study The computations
assume that the totals represent the population, and that heart condition is inde-
pendent of medication.
The statistician conducts a chi-square test to compare the actual frequencies
to the expected frequencies. In this case, the chi-square indicated that the ob-
78 PROBABILITY
served frequencies were not close to the expected values, so aspirin reduced heart
attacks.
Making careful lists and working from simple examples can determine many
probability problems. How many families with three children have exactly two
boys? If boys and girls are equally likely, you can list eight possibilities: BBB,
BBG, BGB, BGG, GBB, GBG, GGB, and GGG. The list is called the sample
space, because each family is equally likely. Three of these, BBG, BGB, and
GBB, represent two boys and one girl. So the probability of a family of three chil-
dren having exactly two boys is three-eights, or 37.5 percent.
The problem of finding how many families would have two boys in three
children can be approached through a simulation. A simulation replaces the ele-
ments of this problem with repeated trials of an experiment using objects that
behave like the birth of children. Tossing a coin could represent the birth of a
child. If you were to determine boys by the head of the coin showing, you could
simulate a family of three children by tossing three coins, say a penny for the first
child, a dime for the second child, and a quarter for the third. This experiment
can be carried 500 or more times very quickly. The probability of two boys
would be estimated by the proportion of times the three coins showed exactly
two heads. In one experiment, this proportion turned out to be 35.8 percent,
which is a little less than the value computed from the sample space. It is now
common to use computers to model complex relationships with simulations.
Computers can generate random numbers (or numbers that act randomly) and
perform rapid computation of probabilities. The Defense Department uses simu-
lations to evaluate outcomes of military actions. Aircraft designers use computer
simulations of air molecules hitting the surface of an airplane to determine its
most efficient shape. The Centers for Disease Control uses simulations to predict
the paths of epidemics. It makes recommendations for vaccinations and preven-
tion procedures based on the outcomes of its simulations.
Coins and children present examples of binomial probability situations.
When there are two outcomes of a single trial (heads or tails on one coin, boy or
girl for one birth), and a fixed number of independent trials, the computation of
outcome probabilities can be generated by terms in the expansion of the binomial
(p +q)
n
, where n is the number of trials, p is the probability of one outcome
(called the success), and q = 1 −p is the probability of failure. Families of three
children would be modeled by
(p +q)
3
= p
3
+ 3p
2
q + 3pq
2
+q
3
.
The term 3p
2
q would represent the probability of two boys and one girl. Since
p = q =
1
2
, the value 3p
2
q =
3
8
agrees with our previous computation.
The binomial probability theorem provides direct solutions for problems that
don’t have equal probabilities such as the proportion of recessive genes in a pop-
ulation or how many people should be booked for flights so that there are no
empty seats. In a situation in which there are different percentages of a dominant
gene A and a recessive gene a, shouldn’t the dominant gene eventually “win out”
PROBABILITY 79
in the population? For example, 1 out of 1,700 Caucasian children is born with
cystic fibrosis, which is caused by a recessive gene. Unfortunately, that propor-
tion remains the same from generation to generation. In 1908, a British mathe-
matician and a biologist used binomial probabilities to explain genetic stability.
The Hardy-Weinberg equation models the genetic distribution with the perfect
square binomial (p +q)
2
= p
2
+ 2pq +q
2
, where p is the proportion of the
dominant gene A, and q is the proportion of the recessive gene a. In the situation
of cystic fibrosis, p
2
is the proportion of people who are pure dominant, 2pq is
the proportion of people who do not have cystic fibrosis but are carriers, and q
2
is the proportion of people who have cystic fibrosis. In Caucasian children, q
2
is
the incidence rate of 1/1700 or 0.00059. Taking the square root gives q = 0.024.
The recessive gene a for cystic fibrosis accounts for q = 2.4 percent of the genes,
and the dominant gene A accounts for p = 97.6 percent. Computing the propor-
tion of people free from the cystic fibrosis gene gives p
2
≈ 0.9253, and the pro-
portion of people who are carriers of the recessive gene is 2pq ≈ 0.0468. About
92.5 percent of the population is free of the cystic fibrosis recessive gene, but 4.7
percent are carriers. In the absence of mutations and migration, these proportions
will remain constant from generation to generation. Markov chains can be used
to handle the relative frequencies of many species in populations as well as gene
pairs. (See Matrices.)
Airline scheduling can be considered a binomial probability problem.
Assume that 90 percent of the people who buy tickets actually show up at the air-
port to board the plane. If the plane seats 50, then on average, 90 percent of 50
seats = 45 would be filled. Airlines run on small profit margins, so those five
empty seats could make the flight a money loser. Airlines attempt to solve this
problem by selling more than 50 tickets for the flight. If they sold 52 seats, for
example, on average, 47 people would actually show up for the flight. But there
would be times when 51 or 52 people showed up. Some people would not get on
the flight, so the airline would have to pay a penalty and incur the wrath of the
passengers who had a ticket but did not get a seat. The airlines want to oversell
just enough to regularly fill all seats, but not to overbook so much that the penal-
ties outweigh the additional ticket income. The binomial expansion (p +q)
52
will give the chances that one or more ticketed customers will lack a seat. The
expansion of (p +q)
52
starts out as p
52
+ 52p
51
q + 1326p
50
q
2
+. . . . The first
term gives the probability that all 52 ticketed passengers will show up, (0.9)
52

0.00417. The second term gives the probability that 51 ticketed passengers will
show up, 52(0.9)
51
(0.1) ≈ 0.000463. Adding these probabilities gives 0.0046.
About five flights in every thousand will have customers who would not get
seats. This isn’t a big probability, so the airline would be safe in selling 52 seats
for flights on this size plane. With these probabilities, the airline could compute
the expected profits on its flights, accounting for the penalties paid to the
unserved passengers. (See Expected Value.) They would have to repeat the com-
putation for 53 tickets sold, 54 tickets, and so on. At 55 tickets sold, for exam-
ple, the binomial expansion indicates that about one-third of the flights would
have to turn away ticketed passengers. That is probably too often. Larger powers
80 PROBABILITY
of binomial situations can be estimated with normal distributions. (See Standard
Deviation.)
Probability arguments are common in court cases. DNA (deoxyribonucleic
acid) matching gives a probability that blood, semen, or hair found at a crime
scene matches the accused. The early cases of prosecution based on DNAmatch-
ing produced lengthy arguments about the accuracy of the techniques and the
computation of the probabilities. For example, some of the genetic markers that
are used in establishing probabilities occur in different proportions in different
racial groups. By 1996, recommendations from the National Research Council,
the National Institute of Justice, and other government and legal organizations
resulted in standardized laboratory techniques and computations of probabilities,
so DNA evidence is as well accepted as fingerprint matches.
Probabilities have been used to determine whether juries were representative
in gender and racial composition to the communities they served. Lawyers for Al
Gore and George W. Bush used probability arguments before Florida courts to
persuade judges that their respective parties should prevail in the contested pres-
idential election of 2000. In the Microsoft antitrust case, the Department of
Justice presented probabilities that the Microsoft Corporation would force other
companies out of business. Courts have based financial awards to patients whose
cancer was misdiagnosed by doctors on computations of the patients’ reduced
probability of survival.
Probabilities can be computed from geometry formulas. Consider balls falling
uniformly on a square piece of cardboard 20 inches on a side that has a circular
hole 5 inches in diameter. The proportion of balls that fall through the hole is pro-
portional to the ratio of area of hole to area of the cardboard. This would be com-
puted using the formulas for area of circle and square:
π(2.5)
2
20
2
≈ 0.049. Aball has
about a 5 percent chance of falling through the hole rather than bouncing off the
cardboard. Winning carnival games is much more difficult than it appears!
online sources for further exploration
The geometry junkyard shows geometric probability problems
<http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/junkyard/random.html>
The birthday problem
<http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/reese/birthday/>
Discrete probability
<http://www.colorado.edu/education/DMP/activities/discrete_prob/>
Diffusion
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/probability/diffusion/
learn.htm>
Lottery odds calculations
<http://www.lottery.state.mn.us/odds.html>
<http://www.howstuffworks.com/lottery1.htm>
<http://www.alllotto.com/oddscalc.asp>
<http://indigo.ie/~gerryq/Lotodds/lotodds.htm>
PROBABILITY 81
Nuclear medicine
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_8/ary_11_8.htm>
Poker probabilities
<http://www.pvv.ntnu.no/~nsaa/poker.html>
Probability and utility of the real world
<http://research.microsoft.com/~horvitz/real.htm>
Probability in the real world
<http://forum.swarthmore.edu/dr.math/faq/faq.prob.world.html>



PROPORTIONS
Proportions are equations that compare ratios or scaled quantities. Cartog-
raphers use proportions to make maps, because they need to scaledown distances
so that large pieces of land can be viewed on a sheet of paper. For example, the
state of Illinois is approximately 370 miles long. If the map maker wants to place
Illinois on a sheet of paper that is 25 cm long, a proportion that can be used to
determine a scale in this situation is
s miles on map
370 miles
=
1 cm on map
25 centimeters
. Cross multi-
plying these quantities helps solve the equation, s = 370/25 = 14.8. The legend
on the map might indicate that 1 cm represents 15 miles.
Eratosthenes used a proportion to determine the radius of the earth in around
230 BC. He had traveled between the cities of Alexandria and Cyrene and deter-
mined that its distance was around 5,000 stades, where each stade is about 559
feet. At noon, he had measured the angles of shadows formed by sticks in the
ground and determined that there was not any shadow at Cyrene, and an angle of
elevation of α = 82.8 degrees at Alexandria, as shown below.
Eratosthenes argued that the angle formed near the top of the stick, 7.2 degrees,
is the same as the central angle in the earth that determines the sector between
the two cities, since light rays travel parallel to the earth, as shown as follows.
82 PROPORTIONS
The shadow produced on the ground at
noon at Alexandria based on an angle
of elevation of α degrees.
Therefore the distance from Cyrene to Alexandria represented 7.2/360 of the
earth’s circumference, since there are 360 degrees in a circle. Using the proportion,
7.2 degrees between cities
360 degrees in circle
=
5000 stades between cities
number of stades around earth
,
Eratosthenes determined that the distance around the earth is about 250,000
stades, or 139,750,000 feet. Since the cross section of the earth is approximately
a circle, the radius can be determined by using the equation c = 2πr, comparing
the circumference, c, to its radius, r. Substituting the value c = 139,750,000 feet
and solving the equation will show that the radius of the earth is about 22,241,900
feet, or 4,214 miles. That’s only 6 percent off the actual distance of 3,963 miles!
Movie screens are created to handle film with specific dimensions. Suppose
the width of each film cell is 5.48 cm and the height is 2.30 cm. An ideal movie
screen would show the entire picture without cropping out any of the sides. A
small movie theater may leave a horizontal length of 7 meters, about 23 feet, to
place its screen. In order to project the film perfectly on the screen, a proportion
comparing the height and width needs to be used so that the correct height of the
screen can be accurately determined. The height of the screen, h, is equal to ap-
proximately 2.94 meters, or 9.66 feet, by solving the equation determined by the
proportion
h vertical meters on screen
2.30 vertical cm on film
=
7 horizontal meters on screen
5.48 vertical cm on film
.
Proportions are used to predict the mass of a dinosaur with scaled models.
Since a model is a miniature version of the actual dinosaur, paleontologists use
the ratio
length of actual dinosaur
3
length of model
3
=
volume of actual dinosaur
volume of model
.
This ratio is cubed, because volume is a three-dimensional concept, compared to
a one-dimensional concept of length. For example, the volume of a cube is the
PROPORTIONS 83
Congruent angles formed by the
sun’s rays at Cyrene and at the
center of earth. Note that figure is
not drawn to scale.
Movie screens are designed to be
in a similar proportion as the
dimensions of film cells.
length of one of its edges raised to the third power. The ratio is used to find the
volume of the actual dinosaur, since the other measurements can be taken from
a model and a fossil of the skeleton. (See Similarity for an example.) The den-
sity of an object is the ratio of its mass to volume, so the mass of the dinosaur
can be predicted by estimating the density of a dinosaur as that of a modern-day
reptile or mammal.
The population of wildlife animals is determined by tagging animals and using
proportions. It is important to know these populations in order to understand if a
species is at risk of endangerment, or if there is an overpopulation that is affecting
an ecosystem. Every animal in a region cannot be counted, because it would be too
difficult to find all of them, not to mention that it would be distracting and poten-
tially disturbing to the ecosystem if ecologists were constantly roaming around.
Consequently, a scientist will go to an area such as a forest and temporarily cap-
ture animals to tag them. In addition to placing tags on them, the scientist will
likely examine their health to understand their potential to reproduce or spread dis-
ease. A few weeks later, after the animals have had a chance to roam around the
forest, the scientists will recapture a group of animals again to check their health
and keep track of the proportion of animals that are tagged. This information will
help the scientists determine how many animals are in that region of the forest,
assuming that the birthrate and death rate are fairly similar during that time period.
This method of estimating animal populations is called capture–recapture.
For example, suppose 50 deer are captured and tagged in a forest. Two weeks
later, 100 deer are captured, and 18 of them have tags. The proportion
number of tags in population
number of tags in second sample
=
number of deer in population
number of deer in second sample
can be used to predict the total number of deer in that region of the forest. In this
case, the number of deer in the population, p, is approximately 277 based on a
solution to the equation
50
18
=
p
100
.
84 PROPORTIONS
It is difficult to track animals due to
their mobility and ability to hide well. A
capture–recapture method can be used
to tag and predict their population
without having to count them all.
A scaled model of a tyrannosaurus can
be used to predict its actual mass with
information about its actual length.
In baseball, an earned run average (ERA) is a statistic that describes how
many runs a pitcher would be expected to give up in a nine-inning game. How-
ever, a pitcher hardly lasts that long during a single game. On a good day, a major
league pitcher will play for about six to nine innings. However, if the pitcher is
giving up a lot of runs he will play considerably less, perhaps from one to five
innings. Regardless of the length of the pitching performance, an ERAis used to
compare the different pitchers. Typically, better pitchers have lower ERAs. For
example, a pitcher that gives up two runs in seven-and-a-third innings has an
ERA of 2.45, because the ERA is determined by the proportion
number or runs allowed
number of innings pitched
=
number of runs in an entire game (or ERA)
number of innings in a nonextended game
.
Substituting the numbers, the proportion is
2
7
1
3
=
ERA
9
. A bad pitcher may give
up five runs after two-and-two-thirds innings and have an ERAof 16.88. Usually,
the ERA is a statistic that represents a player’s performance over an entire sea-
son, and is updated after each pitching performance.
In 1619, Johannes Kepler determined a proportion relating the mean dis-
tances, d, that planets were from the sun and the period of their revolution, p.
This proportion,
d
3
1
d
3
2
=
p
2
1
p
2
2
, was determined through data collection, and can be
proven using Newton’s theory of gravitation. At the time, this information was
helpful to astronomers to predict the approximate distance that another planet is
from the sun. For example, Mars is observed in the night sky to have a period of
687 days revolving around the sun. There are 365 days in an earth year, so the
ratio of periods of these orbits is 1.882. Kepler’s proportional formula can be re-
written as

d
1
d
2

3
=

p
1
p
2

2
because exponents distribute in any expression in-
volving a quotient of two numbers. When the Mars-to-earth ratio is substituted
into the equation, the ratio of the distances will be approximately 1.524, as a
result of the solution to the equation

d
1
d
2

3
= (1.882)
2
. This means that Mars is
about 50 percent further from the sun than the earth, perhaps one reason in
understanding why most of Mars regularly maintains temperatures below 0°
Fahrenheit. (See Inverse Square Function for another explanation.) This infor-
mation is also helpful for astronomers to predict when a spacecraft can be
launched from earth so that its trajectory would come in close contact with a
planet. For example, the Voyager ships launched in 1977 had trajectories that
placed them near Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune in order to take photos
that could be sent back to earth for further study.
The strength of an animal or object is proportional to its surface–area-to-
weight ratio. Small insects can carry objects much greater than their mass, while
humans can only carry small percentages of their mass. If an ant were to grow in
size, it could not maintain its surface area-to-weight ratio. Suppose a giant ant
were twenty times longer than a tiny ant. Since area is related to the square of
length in an object, the ant’s surface area would increase by a factor of 20
2
, or
400. The volume of the ant, which is proportional to its mass, would increase by
a factor of 20
3
, or 8,000, because volume is related to the cube of an object’s
PROPORTIONS 85
length. If the original ratio
surface area
volume
=
s
v
for the ant, the giant version 20 times
bigger in each dimension would have
surface area
volume
=
400 s
8000 v
. Hence the relative
strength of a giant ant would be only
400
8000
or 5 percent as much as a tiny ant. For
example, if a regular ant can carry ten times its body weight, then a giant ant
could only carry one-half its body weight. If such a giant ant existed, it would
probably have slightly different proportions than the smaller ant, since the cross-
sectional area of its legs would probably need to be proportionally larger in order
to maintain a dramatic increase in mass. Otherwise, there would be close to 90
times (20
3/2
) as much pressure on its legs than before, which would probably
cause the legs to snap. Ouch! That is why elephants need tree-trunk-style legs in
order to support their own weight. This proportional understanding of strength
helps designers build stronger paper towels, bags, and boxes, and helps engineers
build stronger and more durable machines that can withstand pressure such as
airplanes and bridges.
online references for further exploration
Eratosthenes of Cyrene
<http://share2.esd105.wednet.edu/jmcald/Aristarchus/eratosthenes.html>
Build a solar system
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/solar_system/>
Circumference of earth using techniques by Eratosthenes
<http://share2.esd105.wednet.edu/jmcald/Aristarchus/eratosthenes.html>
<http://w3.ed.uiuc.edu/noon-project/>
Earned Run Average all-time leaders
<http://www.baseball-almanac.com/piera1.shtml>
<http://www.baseball-almanac.com/piera4.shtml>
Nuclear medicine
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_1/ary_11_1.htm>
Orbit simulation
<http://observe.ivv.nasa.gov/nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit3.html>
Map making
<http://www.sonoma.edu/GIC/Geographica/MapInterp/Scale.html>
<http://www.epa.gov/ceisweb1/ceishome/atlas/learngeog/mapping.htm>
Proportional representation in voting
<http://www.ci.cambridge.ma.us/~Election/pr-quota.html>
<http://www.ci.cambridge.ma.us/~Election/ballots.html>
Scale models
<http://www.faa.gov/education/resource/f16draw.htm>
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model.html>
<http://www.americanmodels.com/sscale.html>
Understanding scale speed in model airplanes
<http://www.astroflight.com/scalespeed.html>



86 PROPORTIONS
PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM 87
PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
The Pythagorean theorem states that the sum of the squares of the legs of a
right triangle, a
2
+b
2
, is the same as the square of its hypotenuse, c
2
. There are
over 100 proofs of the Pythagorean theorem, many of which show that the sum
of the areas of squares on the legs is equal to the area of the square on the hypot-
enuse, as shown in the figure below. Conversely, any triangle that has sides that
are related by the equation a
2
+b
2
= c
2
must have a right angle opposite the
longest side.
The Pythagorean theorem is useful on a baseball diamond for several rea-
sons. Since the bases are each 90 feet apart in the form of a square, the theorem
helps us find the distance the catcher has to throw the ball to second base when
a runner is trying to steal. The right triangle formed would be with half of the
infield, where the legs of the triangle are the base paths of 90 feet each, and the
hypotenuse is from home plate to second base. The hypotenuse can be found by
solving the equation 90
2
+ 90
2
= c
2
. Solving for c will show that the throw is
about 127.3 feet. This information is useful, because it will give coaches an idea
about how hard the catcher needs to be able to throw a ball accurately in order to
throw a runner out. If the catcher throws a ball at about 70 miles per hour, then
it will only take about one-and-a-quarter seconds for the ball to reach the base.
The geometry of rhombuses and the Pythagorean theorem can be used to
show that the center of the pitcher’s mound is not in the pathway of the ball when
it is thrown from third to first base. The diagonals of the square running-path
between the bases are perpendicular bisectors of each other, forming congruent
right triangles in the center. If the pitcher was placed at the intersection of the
diagonals, he might get hit by a throw from the third baseman. To avoid contact,
the pitcher needs to be placed closer to home plate than this intersection. The
Pythagorean theorem gave the distance between home and second base to be
127.3 feet. The pitcher must be closer to home plate than 63.6 feet. The actual
placement of the center of the pitching mound is 60.5 feet from home plate.
The Pythagorean theorem is used to approximate the distance of two nearby
towns on a map. Changes in the earth’s curvature are minimal within short
ranges, so the latitude and longitude positions can serve as points on a coordinate
plane. For example, suppose that Smithsville is five miles north and two miles
east of Laxtown. The two cities would be 5.39 miles away on a map, represent-
ing the distance that the “crow flies.” This distance can be determined by solv-
ing the equation 5
2
+ 2
2
= d
2
that is determined with the Pythagorean theorem.
The Pythagorean theorem illustrates
that the sum of the areas of the
squares connected to the legs of a
right triangle is equal to the area of
the square connected to the
hypotenuse of a right triangle.
Carpenters use Pythagorean triples to verify that they have right angles in
their work. For example, a carpenter making a cabinet can perfectly align pieces
of wood in a right angle with the use of only a tape measure. Using the Pytha-
gorean triple {3,4,5}, or any multiple such as {12,16,20}, the carpenter can place
a mark on the bottom after 12 inches, a mark on the side after 16 inches, and
rotate the intersecting boards at its hinge until the distance between the markings
is 20 inches. A triangle with sides of 12, 16, and 20 inches is a right triangle,
since 12
2
+ 16
2
= 20
2
.
Construction workers building along the sides of mountains use the Pythagor-
ean theorem to determine the amount of supplies needed to create a railroad track
for a funicular or a cable line for a gondola. The horizontal and vertical distances
from the foot of the mountain to its top can be determined on a map, forming the
legs of a right triangle that can be drawn in the mountain’s center. The third side of
the triangle, the hypotenuse, represents the walk up the mountain, which never has
to be physically measured, since it can be found using the Pythagorean theorem.
The visible distance to a horizon can be found with the Pythagorean theorem,
given that the radius of the earth is 6,380 km. Inside a 100-meter-tall lighthouse,
a night watchman or the coast guard may be interested in the distance a ship is
from shore when seen at the horizon. This information can be readily found, since
the horizon distance is perpendicular to the radius of the earth, forming a right tri-
angle into the center of it, as shown below. The viewing distance inside the top of
the lighthouse is then the solution to the equation 6380000
2
+b
2
= 6380100
2
, a
value of over 35 km!
Extensions of the Pythagorean theorem provide distances in three or more
dimensions. If a rectangular box has dimensions of length L, width W, and
height H, the main diagonal has a length given by d
2
= L
2
+W
2
+H
2
. Can a
42-inch-long umbrella be packed into a carton that is 40 inches long, 10 inches
wide, and 10 inches high? According to the three-dimensional Pythagorean the-
orem, the diagonal is about 42.43 inches long. Yes, it should just barely fit. (See
Vectors for applications in many dimensions.)
online sources for further exploration
Astronomy connections
<http://www.kyes-world.com/pythagor.htm>
88 PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
A cross-sectional view of earth that
illustrates the viewing distance from
a lighthouse to the horizon. Note that
the diagram is not drawn to scale.
Baseball and the Pythagorean Theorem
<http://www.geom.umn.edu/~demo5337/Group3/bball.html>
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/proof/puzzle/baseball.html>
Construction
<http://www.geom.umn.edu/~hipp/app2.html>
Latitude and longitude
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Latitude/pythag.html>
Real-world applications
<http://www.geom.umn.edu/~hipp/rwapps.html>
When would I use the Pythagorean Theorem?
<http://forum.swarthmore.edu/dr.math/faq/faq.pythagorean.html>



QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
Quadratic functions take on the standard form f(x) = ax
2
+bx +c, and
have graphs that are parabolas. Applications of quadratic functions commonly
refer to maximizing or minimizing a quantity, because they will have a highest or
lowest point at their vertex. For example, a business owner would be interested in
the greatest profit his or her company can attain based on the sales of its products.
This maximum or minimum point can be found by rewriting the expression
into vertex form through a process called completing the square. The vertex form
of a quadratic function is f(x) = a(x −h)
2
+k, where (h, k) is the vertex. The
following symbolic manipulation illustrates how the standard form f(x) =
ax
2
+bx +c can be manipulated into vertex form. Factor the leading coeffi-
cient, a, from the first two terms: f(x) = a(x
2
+
b
a
x) +c. Complete the square
of the factored component, and then subtract that value so that nothing is added
to the expression:
f(x) = a(x
2
+
b
a
x +
b
2
4a
2
) −
ab
2
4a
2
+c.
QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 89
Graph of the quadratic function
f(x) = −3x
2
+ 2x + 5.
Rewrite the expanded trinomial as a perfect square and simplify:
f(x) = a(x +
b
2a
)
2

b
2
4a
+c.
Compare this expression to the vertex form of a quadratic function and notice
that the vertex can be represented as (−
b
2a
, −
b
2
4a
+c). This coordinate will serve
as a shortcut to find the highest point when a < 0, and lowest point when a > 0,
in an application that uses quadratic functions.
Take, for instance, a business setting that sells sport memorabilia. The
demand, and hence the price, for a baseball player’s autographed ball may
decline as more of them become available. Suppose that the price of an auto-
graphed ball, a, from a new hall-of-famer begins at $200 and declines by five
cents, or $0.05, for every ball, x, sold. This relationship would be represented by
the equation a = 200 − 0.05x. The revenue, r, obtained from selling the balls
would be the product of the number of balls sold and the price for each ball, or
r = x(200 − 0.05x) = 200x − 0.05x
2
. The business owner will have to pay for
general start-up costs such as hiring the baseball player to sign autographs and
renting a place to sell the merchandise, as well as paying for the materials, such
as the cost of each ball. Suppose the start-up costs are $1,300 and the business
owner pays $1.25 for each new ball. Then the cost, c, that the business assumes
in terms of the number of balls sold will be c = 1.25b + 1300.
The profit, p, is the difference between the revenue and cost, or r −c, which
equals (200x − 0.05x
2
) − (1.25x + 1300), and simplifies to p = -0.05x
2
+
199.75x − 1300. In a quadratic function in the form of f(x) = ax
2
+bx +c, a
maximum value will occur when x = –
b
2a
, since a < 0. In this case, a maximum
profit will occur when approximately 1,997 balls are sold (x = −
199.75
2(−0.05)
=
1997.5). In that case, a reasonable sale price of the “limited edition” ball should
be around 200 − 0.05(1997) = $100.15. Although, to appease the human psy-
che, a more reasonable price might be twenty cents cheaper at $99.95 so that con-
sumers feel like they are getting a deal by paying less than $100. A graph and
table of values can also support this sale price as a means of producing almost a
maximum possible profit.
The vertical height, h, of an object is determined by the quadratic equation
h = –0.5gt
2
+v
o
t +h
o
, where g is the acceleration due to earth’s gravity (9.8
m/sec
2
), v
o
is the initial vertical velocity, and h
o
is the initial height of the object.
Therefore an object with an initial vertical velocity of 45 meters per second,
thrown at a height of 0.4 meters, can be modeled with the equation h = –4.9t
2
+
45t + 0.4. Engineers of fireworks can use this type of function so that the rockets
explode at a time where optimal height offers safety as well as viewing pleasure.
This quadratic equation can also be used to measure the initial vertical veloc-
ity of an object thrown in the air, such as a ball, assuming that it reaches the
ground with minimal air resistance. For example, if a ball thrown at a height of
1.45 meters is airborne for 3.84 seconds, then the values can be substituted into
the equation h = –0.5gt
2
+v
o
t +h
o
to solve for v
o
. In this case, the height after
3.84 seconds is equal to 0 meters, because that is the amount of time it takes for
90 QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
the ball to reach the ground. The equation then becomes 0 = –0.5(9.8)(3.84)
2
+
v
o
(3.84) + 1.45, which has a solution of v
o
approximately equaling 18.4 meters
per second. Substituting this value into the general function will also provide
enough information to help you find the maximum height of your throw.
The equation h = –0.5gt
2
+v
o
t +h
o
can be simplified to h = –0.5gt
2
+h
o
for objects in freefall because v
o
= 0 when an object is dropped. Therefore if you
plan to bungee-jump 200 meters off of a 250-meter-high bridge, then you should
expect to be dropping for about 6.4 seconds. This value comes from substituting
for the variables and solving the equation 50 = –0.5(9.8)t
2
+ 250. (Note that the
ending position will be 50 meters above the ground, since the rope is only
extending 200 meters.) This general equation could also be used to estimate
heights and times for other objects that are released at high heights, such as the
steep drops on some amusement park rides.
Horizontal distance, such as the distance traveled after slamming on the brakes
in a car, can also be modeled with a quadratic function. In an effort to reconstruct
a traffic accident, a law office could use the function d = 0.02171v
2
+0.03576v
−0.24529 to determine how far a car could travel in feet, d, when breaking, or
how fast it was moving in feet per second, v, before it started braking. The law
office might also consider the average reaction time of 1.5 seconds upon seeing a
hazardous condition. So the total stopping distance, t, can be modeled with the
equation t = 0.02171v
2
+ 0.03576v − 0.24529 + 1.5v, which simplifies to t =
0.02171v
2
+ 1.53576v − 0.24529.
Area applications can also be modeled by quadratic functions, because area
is represented in square units. For example, pizza prices depend on the amount
of pizza received, which is examining its area. However, on a pizza menu, the
sizes are revealed according to each pizza’s diameter. If a 12-inch pie costs $12,
a misconception would be to think that the 16-inch one should cost $16. Afunc-
tion to represent the price, p, of this type of pizza in terms of its diameter, d, is
p = 0.106π(
d
2
)
2
, because it is a unit cost times the pizza’s area. The value 0.106
is the price per square inch of pizza in dollars, assuming that the 12-inch pie for
$12 will have the same unit-cost value as any other size pizza. Therefore a 16-
inch pizza should cost p = 0.106π(
16
2
)
2
≈ $21.31. The restaurant, however, may
decide to give a financial incentive for customers to purchase larger pies and
reduce this price to somewhere near $20.
Devising and purchasing tin cans for food are applications of surface area
that can be represented by a quadratic function. Since most tin cans are cylindri-
cal, the surface area can be determined by finding the area of the rectangular lat-
eral area and the sum of the two bases, as shown in the following figure. If the
manufacturer determines the height of its cans to be 4 inches tall with a variable
radius, then the amount of sheet metal in square inches, a, needed for each can
would be a = 8πr + 2πr
2
, where r is the radius of the can in inches.
If tin costs the manufacturer $0.003 per square inch, then the materials cost,
c, to produce each case of twenty-four cans can be represented by the function
c = (24)(0.003)a = (24)(0.003)(8πr + 2πr
2
), which simplifies to c ≈ 1.81r+
QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 91
0.45r
2
. Therefore a case of cans with a radius equal to 1 inch would cost about
$2.26 to produce, and a case of cans with a radius equal to 2 inches would cost
about $5.42. (See Surface Area.)
Temperature usually changes according to changes in elevation. In fact, the
boiling point of water in degrees Celsius, b, can approximate the elevation above
sea level in meters, e, according to the equation e = 1000(100 −b)
2
+
580(100 −b). This means that water will boil at 100° Celsius near sea level, and
closer to 99° Celsius at about one mile in altitude, such as near Denver,
Colorado.
online sources for further exploration
Braking and stopping distances compared with speed
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/cycling/brakes2.html>
<http://www.scottsdalelaw.com/shepston/braking.html>
The ejection seat and parabolic paths
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Eject/eject.html>
Fluid flow
<http://www.imacc.org/standards/ex15.html>
Minimum surface area of a can
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/MinSurf/Minimum.Surface.Area.html>
Optimization and analysis using quadratic functions
<http://www.wake.tec.nc.us/math/Chimp/Unit3/QUADRT_S.html>
Profit
<http://users.aber.ac.uk/matacc2/ma12610/mich00b/node3.html>
Projectile motion simulations
<http://library.thinkquest.org/2779/Balloon.html>
<http://www.explorescience.com/activities/Activity_page.cfm?ActivityID=19>
<http://www.phys.virginia.edu/classes/109N/more_stuff/Applets/ProjectileMotion/
jarapplet.html>
The way things fall
<http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Sfall.htm>



92 QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
Net of a tin can that is used to deter-
mine the amount of material needed
in manufacturing production.
QUADRILATERALS
Four-sided plane figures are called quadrilaterals. Quadrilaterals can be con-
vex or concave. The wing structure of the B-117A bomber is in the shape of a
convex quadrilateral (white outline on the illustration below). Special types of
quadrilaterals such as rectangles and squares are used for warning signs and
flags. The illustration shows these common kinds of quadrilaterals:
• a convex quadrilateral superimposed on the wing structure of a F-117A
Nighthawk;
• a square traffic sign;
• a rectangular flag;
• an isosceles trapezoid superimposed on the bottom section of the John
Hancock Building in Chicago;
• a kite;
• parallelogram faces of a Moissanite-9R CSi crystal structure;
• diamonds (rhombi) on a playing card;
• a city lot in the shape of a trapezoid.
The types of quadrilaterals differ in the number of pairs of parallel sides, size
of angles, and length and direction of diagonals. The parallelogram has parallel
opposite sides. As a result, opposite angles are congruent, and opposite sides are
congruent. If a parallelogram has all four sides of the same length, then it is a
rhombus. This results in the diagonals of a rhombus being perpendicular. A par-
allelogram that has at least one right angle is a rectangle. It must have all right
angles and diagonals that are the same length. A square is simultaneously a rec-
QUADRILATERALS 93
convex square rectangle isosceles trapezoid
kite parallelogram rhombi (diamonds) trapezoid
Different types and uses of common quadrilaterals.
tangle and a rhombus. Hence it has only right angles, its diagonals are congruent
and perpendicular, and all four sides are of equal length.
There are many uses of parallelograms in carpentry. A four foot by six foot
window frame is made by connecting four-foot pieces to the six-foot pieces so
that opposite sides of the frame are equal in length. The resulting figure is a par-
allelogram. Even though the corners are securely connected, it is likely to shear
so that the angles are not 90 degrees. Even a slight deviation may mean that a
rectangular window will not fit into the frame. To square the frame, the carpen-
ter measures the diagonals. The parallelogram frame will be rectangular only
when the diagonals have the same length. When the frame is in the wall opening,
the carpenter will use shims, small pieces of wood, to adjust the fit of the frame
until the diagonals are the same length. Then the carpenter can be sure that the
rectangular window will fit into the frame.
Doors are usually shaped like rectangles so that they can seal better at their
hinge, or at their edges. An entire side of a door can be well connected to a set of
hinges, as well as allow a person to easily walk through. If the door were shaped
as an oval it would be primarily for design purposes, since the door would likely
be less durable and more expensive. Only a small section could be attached to
maybe one hinge, affecting its ability to stay well connected to the house. In
addition, walking through the doorway would be more challenging, because less
floor space would be available as compared to the flat edge of a rectangle. Some-
times doorways are rectangular and have an arch at the top, which is an archi-
tectural style seen in many cultures. It is built principally for design or historical
significance and is usually more difficult and expensive to construct.
Floor tiles in the shape of the same quadrilateral will always fit perfectly,
because the sum of any quadrilateral’s angles is 360 degrees, the same measure
of degrees in a circle. In order to tessellate a plane, all of the objects must con-
nect perfectly without any gaps or overlaps—what you would expect of tiles in
a bathroom or kitchen. At the point where multiple tiles intersect, their interior
angles must equal 360 degrees so that they fit neatly around a common center
point. If the different angles of a quadrilateral are used around an intersection of
four quadrilaterals, they will always tessellate perfectly.
Trisection of a long piece of lumber into thinner strips requires that guide
lines be set up for the ripsaw. Acarpenter can take a 12-inch ruler and rotate it so
that its opposite ends are at the edges of the lumber. After marking the board at
the 4 and 8 inch positions at one end, the carpenter slides the ruler down the
board and marks the 4 and 8 inch positions at the other. Corresponding marks are
used to draw long lines down the board as guides for the saw. This works,
because the marks at 4 and 8 inches provide vertices of a parallelogram.
94 QUADRILATERALS
Using an inch ruler to divide
a board lengthwise into three
equal sections.
Apantograph is used to produce a scale drawing. The picture below of a pan-
tograph shows that the four pivot points that connect the pieces of wood form a
parallelogram. The ratio of lengths of sides controls the scale of magnification.
Pantographs that handle three dimensions are used to trace solid models of bolts,
car fenders, or teeth. The pantograph records the three-dimensional coordinates
for the surface of the object. Milling machines use the database of coordinates to
shape a block of metal, plastic, or carbon composite into a high-precision copy
of the original object.
The parallelogram law is used in physics to determine the net result of two
forces. The vectors a = (3, 3) and

b = (7,–1) are shown on the figure below as
arrows starting at the origin and ending at the respective coordinates. The paral-
lelogram law indicates that the resultant vector is found by completing the par-
allelogram defined by the vectors. The diagonal from the origin is the desired
vector. This corresponds to the point that would be found by the addition of coor-
dinates: (3, 3) + (7,–1) = (10, 2). (See Vectors.)
Because of the many uses of quadrilaterals, students around the world are
expected to know formulas for the area and perimeter of most common quadri-
laterals. In addition, they must also know the volume formulas for the three-
dimensional analogs of some quadrilaterals such as the cube and rectangular
solid. Formulas for the multidimensional parallelepipeds are expressed as deter-
minants of matrices formed from the vectors. For example, the area of the paral-
lelogram illustrated above can be computed from the determinant of

3 7
3 −1

= 3(−1) − 7(3) = −24. The area is 24. (See Matrices.) Extensions to more
dimensions provide measures of strength of association of variables in multi-
variate statistics.
QUADRILATERALS 95
A pantograph being used
to magnify a picture of
a dinosaur.
Parallelogram law for adding
vectors. The resultant vector
c =a +

b is the diagonal of
the parallelogram.
online sources for future exploration
Demonstration of a pantograph
<http://www.ies.co.jp/math/java/geo/panta/panta.html>
Floor plans
<http://www.homebuyerpubs.com/foorplans/floorplans.htm>
<http://www.dldesigngroup.com/plans.html>
<http://ecep.louisiana.edu/ecep/math/n/n.htm>
<http://www.tnloghomes.com/homeplans/index.shtml>
Home decorating
<http://www.learner.org/exhibits/dailymath/decorating.html>
Maximize the area of a rectangular field with fixed perimeter
<http://home.netvigator.com/~wingkei9/javagsp/maxarea.html>
Surveying
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_17_2/ary_17_2.htm>
Tessellation of quadrilaterals
<http://library.thinkquest.org/16661/simple.of.non-regular.polygons/quadrilaterals.
html>



RATES
A rate describes change that is dependent on a variable, such as the change
of temperature in a month or the change in price of an item based on the quan-
tity sold. The concept of rate is studied throughout mathematics in different
forms. It can usually be identified in an expression by the word “per,” such as in
“two dollars per gallon”; or “for each,” as “one-half unit of credit earned towards
graduation for each required course completed”; or “for every,” as in “six points
for every touchdown scored.”
Rates are commonly associated with the amount of distance traveled, d, in
the equation d = rt, where r is the rate of an object and t is the amount of time
traveled. In this case, the rate would be expressed in units related to speed, such
as meters per second or miles per hour. Rate can also be used in contexts of pro-
duction levels for a given time period. For example, two hundred bushels of corn
are processed by the manufacturing plant each day, or twenty copies of the news-
paper are sold each hour at the newsstand. Rate is also associated with accumu-
lating or acquiring something, such as rainfall or a salary. For instance, the thun-
derstorm is producing rain at a rate of one inch per hour. At work, an employee
would use a rate to describe his hourly wage by saying that he earns $8 per hour
for delivering pizzas.
96 RATES
The examples described thus far represent rates as values associated with
time. Rates can also be stated in terms of quantities produced or achieved. For
example, the delivery boy receives five cents for each newspaper he drops off
each morning. In addition, Mrs. Newsome’s first-grade class receives twenty
minutes of extra playtime for every one hundred behavior points earned. In a
securities exchange, a rate can be used to illustrate a fair trade, such as in stock
or currency values. For instance, the exchange price of Big Hit Co. today ended
at $48.5 per share. When traveling to Mexico, you would expect to receive an ex-
change rate of about 9.3 pesos for every U.S. dollar.
Rates can also be used to describe changes in an environment or physical set-
ting. For example, two hundred additional employees are needed for every 8 per-
cent increase in demand for the company’s products. In terms of temperature
conversion, there is a change of 1.8° Fahrenheit for every degree Celsius. When
driving along a mountain terrain, a road sign that mentions a 5 percent grade
means that there is a change in elevation of five vertical feet for every one hun-
dred horizontal feet.
Many scientific, engineering, and human measures are rates. Density is a
weight-per-volume measure such as pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic
centimeter. Sound frequencies, such as those associated with musical notes, are
expressed as rates in cycles per second. Air pressure, such as tire pressure, is
expressed as pounds per square inch. The wealth of countries is compared as the
rate of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita. In 1997, Mexico had GNP per
capita of $8,110; Canada had a GNP per capita of $21,750. States can be com-
pared by population density: the number of people per square mile. Comparisons
may be dramatic. For example, New Jersey has 1,100 people per square mile,
while Wyoming has 4.7.
Comparison shopping requires rates. If an eight-ounce can of corn sells for
98 cents, the unit cost is 98/8 = 12.25 cents per ounce. Aten-ounce can that sells
for $1.02 would have a unit cost of 102/10 = 10.20 cents per ounce. The larger
can is the better deal, because it provides the lower unit cost.
Rate, in mathematics courses through algebra, is often presented as having a
constant value. When you read about the speed of an object or a person’s work
wages, it is assumed that there will not be any change in these values. In such
cases, the rate can be represented as the slope of a linear function that describes
a total amount. For example, if you are earning $8 per hour for delivering pizzas,
and always earn wages at that rate, then your total earnings, e, in terms of the
number of hours you have worked, h, can be represented by the equation e = 8h.
Notice that the hourly rate is the same as the slope of the linear function.
Suppose you wanted to make copies for a class presentation at the local copy
shop. If the machine charges 10 cents per copy, then the total amount of money,
m, that you would need would depend on the number of copies, c, you make.
Since 0.10 is the rate in dollars, the equation m = 0.10c would help you deter-
mine the amount of money you would need, or the number of copies you could
make with a certain amount of money. For example, if you had $4.30 in your
RATES 97
pocket you could make forty-three copies, since the solution to 4.30 = 0.10c is
c = 43.
Realistically, rates are often variable, meaning that they change. Acar on the
highway will not always travel 55 miles per hour because of varying road con-
ditions. If traffic is heavy due to rush hour or an accident, the car will likely slow
down at times. Therefore the average rate is sometimes stated in reports. The
average (mean) rate can be calculated by finding the slope between beginning
and ending points on the graph that represents a total amount. For example, if a
car is traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour, then the total distance
traveled as a function of time would be a linear function with a slope of 55, as
shown below.
However, if the car varies its speed, the total distance function will now look
like a curve that does not have a constant slope. If a car travels for three hours on
the highway, the average speed can be determined by finding the slope of the line
that time equals 0 and 3 hours. According to the slope between the endpoints in
the graph in the figure below, the average speed during the three hours is 49 miles
per hour, since the change in distance was 147 miles over three hours.
Some highway systems in the United States give a timed ticket for automobiles
once they enter on the toll road so that they can pay the fee at the end of their route
instead of having to pay along the way. Upon exiting the highway and paying the
toll, the highway patrol system can determine the average speed of the vehicles
during their travel by dividing the change in distance between the tollbooths and
the change in time from the initial starting point to the ending point. For example,
suppose you enter tollbooth 3 at mile-marker 27 at 12:34 PM. If you leave the high-
way at tollbooth 17 at mile-marker 136 at 1:57 PM, you could actually receive a
98 RATES
The relationship between the distance
an automobile travels compared to its
time when it travels at a constant rate
of 55 miles per hour.
A distance versus time graph of
an automobile with varying
rates during a three-hour time
period. The slope of the dotted
line is the automobile’s average
speed during that time period.
speeding ticket without having been tracked by a radar speed-detection device! In
this case, the change in distance between tollbooths 3 and 17 is 109 miles, and the
change in time between 12:34 PM and 1:57 PM is 1 hour and 23 minutes, or approx-
imately 1.38 hours. Therefore the average speed of the car is about 79 miles per
hour, much faster than the speed limit! The mean-value theorem in calculus
implies that a car constantly in motion with this average speed will have traveled
at that rate at least one time during the journey, even if undetected by radar. The
graph below describes the position of the car for its time on the highway. The dot-
ted line represents the average rate of 79 miles per hour. The three times that the
car was traveling at 79 miles per hour are indicated with the word “speeding.”
Note that there are many other times that the car was speeding more than 79 miles
per hour. The mean value theorem from calculus only tells that there is at least one
time that the car had to be going the average rate of 79 miles per hour.
In addition to tracking speeding drivers, the time-stamping method is also help-
ful in determining the average speed of truck drivers, who need to take breaks from
the road so as not to fall asleep behind the wheel. Consequently, the average speed
of semi-trucks should be lower than other automobiles to account for the rest time.
The average rate associated with the slope on an interval is also an arithmetic
mean. Sometimes average speed can use other forms of the word average. On a
racetrack, car speeds are determined by finding the average of the lap rates. This
value is different from the average speed determined by the slope of a position
function, which is the same as the total distance divided by the total time trav-
eled. For example, suppose a race car circles a two-mile lap five times, with lap
times of 46, 48, 47, 45, and 49 seconds. In this case, the lap speeds would be
2/46, 2/48, 2/47, 2/45, and 2/49 miles per second. The recorded average speed
would be the average of these rates,
2/46+2/48+2/47+2/45+2/49
5
= 4060879/95344200 miles per second,
which is approximately 153.33 miles per hour. If an arithmetic mean were used
to determine this rate, then the total distance traveled, ten miles, would be
divided by the total time taken for five laps, 235 seconds. This value of 10/235
miles per second, or approximately 153.19 miles per hour, may be a more accu-
rate representation of the average speed of the car. Since lap time is more easily
and commonly tracked continuously throughout the race, the average lap speed
is used instead of the average rate.
RATES 99
The slope of the dotted line represents the
average speed of the car from 12:34 PM to
1:57 PM, which is 79 miles per hour. The
automobile has this rate at three other
locations in this interval based on the
equivalent slopes of the small thick lines
(at the points denoted speeding).
Besides finding the average rate as a means to describe varying speeds, it is
possible to determine the instantaneous rate of an object using differential calcu-
lus. If a total amount, such as distance or production levels, can be described as
a function, then the rate at any moment can be determined by finding the deriv-
ative of that function. Instead of finding the slope at the endpoints of an interval,
a derivative is the slope of a line tangent to a curve at a particular point.
The slope of the tangent line will describe the speed of the car at a specific
moment in time. For example, in the above figure, a tangent line with a slope of
70 miles per hour is drawn on the curve at 1:34 PM, illustrating the speed of the
car at that moment.
In addition to automobile travel, the motion of falling objects shows variable
rates. Since the earth pulls objects at a rate of 9.8 meters per second squared,
falling objects are constantly accelerating. The position of a penny dropped off of
a 400-meter-tall skyscraper can be represented by the function h = –4.9t
2
+ 400,
where h is the height of the penny above the ground in meters, and t is the time
in seconds the penny is airborne. This function is a parabola. It will not have a
constant slope, which means that the penny will not fall at the same rate towards
the ground. However, the slope of the line tangent to the curve at any time, or the
instantaneous rate, can be predicted by the derivative of this function, which is
h

= –9.8t. This means that the penny will be falling at a rate of 9.8 meters per
second after one second, 19.6 meters per second after two seconds, and so on.
According to the position function, h = –4.9t
2
+ 400, the penny will reach the
ground at approximately t = 9 seconds, where h is equal to 0. According to the
derivative of the position function, the velocity of the penny by the time it hit the
ground would be h

= –9.8(9) = –88.2 meters per second, fast enough to fall
straight through a person’s body. Hence, you are not likely to be permitted to drop
objects from tall buildings!
Human workforce productivity can have varying rates. In a factory, the work-
ers may be less productive in the early morning because they are tired, and then
reach an optimal work rate later in the morning when they are more awake. Later
in the afternoon, they may become less productive again due to fatigue or bore-
dom. Understanding the varying working rates of employees may help manage-
ment determine an optimal time to take a break or to change work shifts. Know-
ing the change in work rates would provide information to make smart decisions
100 RATES
The slope of the dotted line that is
tangent to the curve is the auto-
mobile’s instantaneous speed of
70 miles per hour at 1:34 PM.
on behalf of the safety of the employees, as well as to support the economic ben-
efits of the company.
In consumer sales, the profit from a business is often dependent on the num-
ber of products sold. An ideal production level would be to determine the
moment when the change of profit, or the rate at which profit is changed, begins
to level off to zero. According to supply-and-demand principles, the company
would like to produce the appropriate amount of products in order to meet con-
sumer demand, but not end up with a surplus in inventory. If too many goods are
produced the rate of profit declines, because the company would lose money on
excess inventory. For example, suppose the price per cup of lemonade, l, de-
pended on the number of cups, n, purchased according to the equation
l = 2.00 − 0.01n. This equation suggests that the price of a cup of lemonade
would be $2.00 if none were sold, but the price will decline by one penny for
every cup sold. The revenue, r, obtained for selling lemonade would be the prod-
uct of the price per cup and the number of cups purchased. Therefore the total
revenue would be equivalent to r = lc = (2.00 − 0.01n)n = 2.00n − 0.01n
2
.
The cost to make the lemonade depends on start-up expenses and the quantity of
lemonade sold. If the lemonade stand costs $12.00 to set up and each cup costs
$0.14 to produce, then the cost, c, for the company to make lemonade can be rep-
resented by the equation c = 0.14n + 12.00. The profit, p, obtained by selling
lemonade is the difference between the revenue and costs, which is p =
r −c = (2.00n − 0.01n
2
) − (0.14n + 12.00) =–0.01n
2
+ 1.86n − 12.00. The
graph of the profit function is a parabola, illustrating that the rate of profit
changes, because the graph is nonlinear. Notice that the maximum profit of the
function occurs when ninety-three cups are sold—the moment when the rate of
profit is equal to zero or where the slope of tangent line equals zero, as shown in
the figure below.
online sources for further exploration
Designing a speedometer
<http://barzilai.org/archive/lc/speedometer.html>
Distance between two ships
<http://www.nadn.navy.mil/MathDept/cdp/relatedrates/rates.html>
Fair division activities
<http://www.colorado.edu/education/DMP/activities/fair_division/>
RATES 101
A maximum value of a quad-
ratic function can be found
by locating the horizontal
tangent line.
Gross national product data
<http://www.economagic.com/em-cgi/data.exe/fedstl/gnp+1>
Motion
<http://www.mste.uiuc.edu/murphy/MovingMan/MovingMan.html>
<http://webphysics.ph.msstate.edu/jc/library/2-6/index.html>
Motion of a piston
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_16_5/ary_16_5.htm>
Occupational health and safety
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_12_1/ary_12_1.htm>
Pipe flow
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_8_3/ary_8_3.htm>
Roofing
<http://www.professionalroofing.net/past/march00/qa.asp>
Slope use permit
<http://www.ci.larkspur.ca.us/3025.html>
Stressed out: slope as a rate of change
<http://math.rice.edu/~lanius/Algebra/stress.html>
Universal currency converter
<http://www.xe.net/ucc/>
<http://www.wildnetafrica.com/currencyframe.html>
Exchange rates for world currencies
<http://www.x-rates.com/>



RATIO
Aratio is a quotient of two numbers. One of the most famous ratios in math-
ematics is π ≈ 3.14159, the ratio of circumference of a circle to the diameter. A
ratio is different from a rate, in that the units for the numerator and denominator
in a ratio are the same. A ratio does not have any units of measurement, unlike
rates that have units such as miles per hour or dollars per pound. Some examples
of ratios that are given here are really rates, but it is common practice in partic-
ular occupations and sciences to call them ratios.
There are many statistics dealing with money that are ratios. The federal gov-
ernment maintains the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Cost of Living Index
(COL). The CPI is the ratio of costs of common items in the current year to the
costs of the same items during 1982–1984. The costs are usually expressed as a
multiple of 100, so that the number represents the current cost of purchasing
goods and services that would have cost $100 during 1982–1984. In 2001, the
102 RATIO
RATIO 103
CPI was 177. This means that the ratio of costs for goods and services in 2000
was 1.77 times as high as the costs for the same items during 1982–1984. The
COL is computed for almost two hundred metropolitan areas. It reflects the ratio
of costs of goods and services in a specific area to the average for the country as
a whole. The COL is expressed as a percent. At the beginning of 2001, the COL
for San Francisco was 179.8, and for Houston, 95.8. Those ratios mean that it
costs 1.798 times the U.S. average to live in San Francisco, but 95.8 percent of
the national average to live in Houston. Stockbrokers use the price-earnings ratio
(P/E) as a way of evaluating stocks. This ratio is defined as the market value per
share divided by the earnings per share. If a company has stock valued at $40 per
share, and has earned a net of $2 per share over the last year, the P/E ratio for the
company would be $40/$2 = 20. Most stocks traded on the major exchanges have
P/E ratios between 15 and 25. Riskier stocks that have potential for rapid growth
are likely to have P/E ratios above 25, if any at all. (If a company has not pro-
duced any earnings, then its P/E ratio is reported as 0.) In these circumstances,
people invest their money in companies that they think will have low P/E ratios
or a high demand in the future. The P/E ratio is only one of many ratios routinely
reported for stocks.
Percents are based on ratios. If a taxpayer pays $3,000 on an income of
$20,000, then the tax ratio is 3000/20000 = 15 percent. The federal government
refers to this as a tax rate. If an investment of $500 is now worth $550, the per-
cent increase is the ratio of absolute change to starting value, or 50/500 = 10 per-
cent. When you specify how long it took for this increase, you express the change
as a percent per year, or interest rate.
Test scores are often reported as percentile ranks. Astudent with a percentile
rank of 60 on a college placement test achieved a score that was equal to or
higher than the scores of 60 percent of the students taking the test. Therefore the
percentile rank is a ratio of counts of students.
Body mass index (BMI) is the quotient of your weight in kilograms divided
by your squared height, where height is measured in meters. Although this meas-
ure is a rate (kilograms/m
2
), the units are not reported and are not used in com-
putations of other health measures. BMI values from 20 to 25 are associated with
the lowest health risks; values above 30 are associated with the highest. Weight-
to-hip ratio (WHR) is a true ratio that indicates whether an adult carries weight
around the waist or hips. Weight carried around the middle (higher ratio) is asso-
ciated with more health problems. Many ratios developed for human physiology
are applied to other animals. The ratio of an animal’s surface area to its volume
measures how much energy the animal has to produce to counter the heat lost
through the skin. (See Inverse (Multiplicative) for an additional explanation.) A
mouse has a surface-area-to-body ratio that is about ten times that of a human,
so the mouse has to eat almost all day long to maintain its body heat, while a
human does quite well with three meals per day.
The modern musical scale is based on a consistent ratio of frequencies from
note to next note for the twelve notes of an octave. Middle C-sharp (275 cycles
per second [cps]) is about 1.059 times middle C (260 cps); D (292 cps) is about
1.059 times C-sharp. This sequence continues to high C (520 cps), which is twice
the frequency of middle C. Pythagoras (as later corrected by Galileo) tried to
identify simple integer ratios for what would correspond to the white keys of a
piano. The Pythagorean scale uses 9/8 for the ratio that would compute D from
middle C (9/8 of 260 = 292.5).
Time signatures found at the beginning of a piece of music look like fractions
without the fraction bar. They represent beat patterns for the measure. The nota-
tion
3
4
means that there are three beats per measure, and a quarter note (1/4)
receives one beat. This sets the ratio of note values to measures for the piece of
music.
Almost all mechanical objects in your house use gears. Avideotape machine
uses gears to control tape motion. Windup and pendulum clocks use gears. Bi-
cycles use gears. Gear ratios tell how rotational motion changes when you con-
nect gears with different numbers of teeth. When a small gear with forty-seven
teeth connects with a larger gear with seventy teeth, the gear ratio is
47
60
. The gear
ratio can be used to compute how many times the larger gear will rotate com-
pared to the smaller gear. (See Rotations for additional information about gears.)
Ratios that express mixtures are often written with a colon. When a garden-
ing expert recommends two parts of sand, five parts of potting soil, and one part
perlite for the soil mixture in a window box, the ratios can be written in one
expression as 2:5:1. A fertilizer that is labeled as 25-5-5 represents the percents
of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium. The high ratio of nitrogen to the other
substances means that this fertilizer is probably for the quick development of
lawns, which need nitrogen. Afertilizer with a lower ratio of nitrogen like 10-20-
20 would be good for a garden. Directions for recipes and household products
are often given in ratios of parts. Awedding punch is two parts orange juice, two
parts lemonade, one part pineapple juice, and one part grapefruit juice. The juices
are in ratio of 2:2:1:1. (See Proportions and Similarity for additional applica-
tions of ratios in this form.)
The golden ratio or golden section is based on a rectangle that can be split
into a square and a smaller rectangle that is similar to the original rectangle. The
ratio of length to width of the original rectangle is
1+

5
2
≈ 1.61803. The ancient
Greeks believed that this rectangle embodied the most satisfying proportions.
The Parthenon in Athens fits the golden ratio. Some sociologists have argued that
people who have certain facial features close to the golden ratio are judged by
others as being more beautiful or handsome. The golden ratio expresses many
patterns in plant and animal structures. (See Fibonacci Sequence for more infor-
mation about applications of the golden ratio.)
Measures in science and engineering that produce extremely large numbers
are simplified by ratio measures. In aviation, the Mach number indicates the ratio
of the plane’s speed to the speed of sound. Mach 1 is a critical value for airplanes.
Below the speed of sound, a plane pushes air aside like a boat traveling through
104 RATIO
water. But when the plane hits the speed of sound, the airwaves can’t move out
of the way of the plane. The build up at the front of the plane causes a shock
wave that creates stress on the plane and is often audible to people on the ground
as a “sonic boom.” The speed of sound varies according to temperature and other
factors. It is about 762 miles per hour at sea level, and about 664 miles per hour
at 35,000 feet. Ajet traveling at 1,400 miles per hour 35,000 feet above sea level
would be traveling at 1400/664 ≈ Mach 2.1. A jet-propelled wheeled vehicle
achieved Mach 1.02 on the Bonneville Salt Flats on a day when the speed of
sound was 748 mph. Its speed was 763 miles per hour.
Astronomers measure solar-system distances with a ratio measure called an
astronomical unit (AU). An AU of 1 represents the average distance of the earth
to the sun, about 14,960,000,000 kilometers. For even larger distances than the
solar system (which is about 80 AU in diameter), astronomers use ratio measures
based on light years. One light year is the distance traveled by light in one year
(about 9.46 × 10
17
cm). Our galaxy is about 100,000 light years in diameter. Par-
secs (3.26 light years), kiloparsecs (1,000 parsecs), and megaparsecs (1 million
parsec) are used to measure distances across many galaxies.
Trigonometric ratios are used to find unusual or inaccessible heights and
lengths. By measuring angles and shorter distances, an engineer can calculate the
height of skyscrapers by creating diagrams with right triangles and using these
ratios. (See Triangle Trigonometry for an explanation.)
Scale models use ratios to indicate how the lengths of an object compare to
corresponding measures in the model. A 1:29 scale-model train would be large
enough for children to ride outdoors on top of the cars. It would be 1/29th of the
size of a real train. An HO-gauge tabletop train is at a scale of about 1:87. An
8.64-inch model of an 18-foot-long automobile (216 inches) would be at the
scale of 1:25. Scale models can also help provide information to calculate
unknown information, such as the mass of a dinosaur. (See Similarity.) Although
the design of buildings, cars, toasters, and furniture may involve drawings and
models that are smaller than the final version, scale models that are larger than
real life are important in many fields. Manufacturers of computer chips make
scale drawings much larger than the actual chip to show the packed circuitry.
Medical researchers make large-scale models of viruses and cell structures to
determine how shapes affect resistance to disease.
The fundamental law of similarity uses scaling to indicate how surface area
and volume of the model relate to the actual object. If k is the ratio of a length in
the object to the corresponding length in the model, k
2
is the ratio of surface
areas, and k
3
is the ratio of volumes. This law explains the limits on human and
animal growth. If a six-foot-tall, 180-pound human were to double in size so that
his relative proportions were maintained, he would be twelve feet tall, but his
volume, and hence his weight, would be eight times as much. The giant’s weight
would be 1,440 pounds—which couldn’t be supported by human bone structures.
(See Proportions for an alternate explanation.)
RATIO 105
online sources for further exploration
Consumer price index (CPI)
<http://stats.bls.gov/cpihome.htm>
The P/E ratio and other stock ratios are discussed at the Motley Fool page
<http://www.fool.com/School/EarningsBasedValuations.htm>
Musical scales
<http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/music/pythag.html>
FAA instructions on making a scale drawing of an F-16
<http://www.faa.gov/education/resource/f16draw.htm>
Compute gear ratios for a bicycle
<http://home.i1.net/~dwolfe/gerz/howto1.html>
<http://www.panix.com/~jbarrm/cycal/cycal.30f.html>
U. S. Census Bureau QuickFacts on States (Rates and Ratios)
<http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/>
Body-mass calculator
<http://cc.ysu.edu/~doug/hwp.cgi>
<http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/bu2/inflateCPI.html>
Cooking by numbers
<http://www.learner.org/exhibits/dailymath/cooking.html>
Density lab
<http://www.explorescience.com/activities/activity_page.cfm?activityID=29>
<http://www.panix.com/~jbarrm/cycal/cycal.30f.html>
How to compute baseball standings
<http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/baseball.html>
Scale models
<http://www.faa.gov/education/resource/f16draw.htm>
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model.html>
<http://www.americanmodels.com/sscale.html>
Screen ratios
<http://www.premierstudios.com/ratio.html>
Tuning in
<http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/careers/aa/lessons/aom15.htm>



106 RATIO
REFLECTIONS
Areflection is a transformation that produces an image of equal size by flip-
ping an object over a line. For example, you will see a reflection of yourself
when you look in the mirror. Your size in the mirror will be the same as your
actual size, but all of your features will be reversed. So if your hair is parted to
the left, it will appear to be parted to the right in a reflection. Using two mirrors
can create double reflections, allowing someone such as a hair stylist to show
you the back of your head after a haircut while you look straight ahead.
Reflections of objects are naturally visible in water. If you walk up to a pond
on a still, sunny day, you will see an image of yourself on the surface of the
water. In the picture below, buildings and boats on a Holland canal are reflected
in the surface of the canal. The reflection is so good that when you turn the pic-
ture upside down, it looks almost the same.
Reflections are sometimes used to create illusions or expand the size of an
object. Many restaurants have large mirrors on one wall so that the room will
appear twice as large. In an amusement park, a house of mirrors creates multiple
images of anyone walking through, making it difficult to determine the correct
pathway to the exit. Another example of using reflections to replicate an object is
to create designs with a kaleidoscope. Akaleidoscope is a cylindrical toy that cre-
ates colorful patterns by using tiny objects situated at its base and in between two
intersecting mirrors. The reflections at the base repeat themselves as a function of
the angle n between the mirrors. Since there are 360 degrees in a circle, then
there will be
360
n
repetitions of the object caused by reflections. Each time the
kaleidoscope rotates, the tiny objects inside it move around and consequently
change the symmetrical pattern one sees when looking through the cylinder.
REFLECTIONS 107
Boats and buildings reflected
in a canal in Holland.
Source: Adobe Stock Photos.
A kaleidoscope uses mirrors to produce mul-
tiple reflections and create colorful patterns.
Photo by Dror Bar-Natan, online at <http://
www.ma.huji.ac.il/~drorbn/Gallery/Symmetry
/Tilings/S333/Kaleidoscope.html>.
Reflections can be used to trap light in an object. When a gem such as a dia-
mond is cut into the shape of a polyhedron, it gives light an opportunity to reflect
many times once it is captured inside. One of the reasons that a diamond is pre-
cious is its ability to bend light so that it stays inside the gem longer, thus mak-
ing it sparkle.
Sound waves reflect in a theater to amplify music. Prior to electronic ampli-
fiers, which increase the volume of microphones and electric guitars at rock con-
certs, special attention was paid to acoustical architecture in concert halls. Next
time you watch a performance or a symphony in an indoor theater, notice the spe-
cial plates built in or attached to the ceiling. They are angled and curved in order
to reflect sound waves so that everyone in the theater can hear the performance.
Without this special attention to reflecting sound waves, certain sections of the
concert hall would not receive adequate sound, because the sound would either
be absorbed by a surface, dissipate, or create destructive interference patterns.
(See Inverse Square Function.)
Reflections are also used in remote sensors to detect a signal. For example,
there are several ways that you can change your television station using a remote
control. One way is to aim the remote so that its ray will land directly on the sen-
sor on the television set. Another way, however, is to aim the remote at a reflec-
tion of the sensor. Imagine that one of the walls in your home was a reflecting
mirror, and determine the location of the television sensor behind the wall. If you
aim the remote at the reflection of the sensor, the light beam will bounce off of
the wall and land directly on the sensor. Many motion-based security systems
operate in a similar fashion. An invisible beam reflects off of all walls in a room,
creating multiple beams throughout that room. The alarm system is signaled if
the beam at any point in the room is disturbed.
The angle of incidence, α, is the angle at which a beam of light touches a wall,
and the angle of reflection, β, is the angle at which the beam leaves the wall. If
the beam of light does not pass through the material, then the angle of incidence
is equal to the angle of reflection. (See Angle for more explanation.) Knowing this
theorem can help you become skilled at various games that use reflections, such
as billiards and miniature golf. In both of these activities, the player is usually at
an advantage if he or she can find ways to maneuver the ball by bouncing it off of
a wall. In order to accurately place a ball on a target or in a hole, the player needs
to aim the ball towards the reflection of the hole, similar to directing a remote con-
trol. Therefore an easier way to utilize the reflection is to predict the location on
the wall where the angle of incidence will equal the angle of reflection.
108 REFLECTIONS
Light rays reflect from walls at congruent angles. The angle of incidence, α,
has the same measure as the angle of reflection, β.
Using reflections in games becomes more complicated, however, in situa-
tions where a ball needs to bounce off two walls. The same relationships regard-
ing reflections exist in these circumstances, but the player will need to focus on
reflections of reflections in order to utilize multiple walls in the attempt.
For example, suppose the player realizes that he or she cannot get a hole-in-
one by hitting just one wall, as indicated in the above figure. Instead, the player
imagines hitting two walls, the side wall first and then the back wall. In order to
sink the shot, he or she will need to locate the reflection of the hole on the back
wall, H

, and then the location of the reflection of the reflection, H
′′
. The player
then aims towards the side wall at the double reflection of the hole, H
′′
, and the
ball should follow a path towards the first reflection by hitting the back wall, and
then land in the hole, as shown below.
The process can get even more complicated with more reflections, such as
what takes place in games like racketball. In such a fast game, it may be difficult
to predict where the ball will eventually land after it has been struck. However,
a general knowledge of reflections can give a player a sense of what direction the
ball will head once it hits the first wall.
The relationship between the angle of incidence and angle of reflection also
informs product designers that full-length mirrors should only be one-half a per-
son’s height. In this type of mirror, the reflection of light from your eye level to
your waistline will angle down towards your toes (see the following figure). This
relationship is true, because the point of contact with your line of sight and the
mirror is at the midpoint of your body, where the angle of incidence is congruent
REFLECTIONS 109
A failed attempt to obtain a hole-in-
one on a miniature golf course using
reflections, because the ball will be
blocked by the left wall.
A strategy to obtain a hole-in-one on
a miniature golf course that uses
reflections for a ball to hit two walls.
to the angle of reflection. That way, looking at the bottom of a mirror that is half
your size will allow you to look directly at your feet.
The concepts behind reflections can also be used to optimize fuel consump-
tion in water travel. Suppose a cruise liner was departing a port and headed
towards a series of remote islands. Along the way, it may need to refuel near a
mainland to ensure that it can travel the entire distance. The ship will be most
fuel efficient if it angles its navigation towards the shore to refuel, so that its
angle of incidence is equal to its angle of reflection. Even though the ship will
not use a reflection, moving along this path allows it to travel the smallest dis-
tance, as shown in the figure below. This path will be equivalent in distance to a
direct route between the starting point and destination, because the ship will be
directed towards the reflection of the destination. Since reflections preserve con-
gruence, the ship will still be traveling along a line, which is the shortest path
between two points.
Most molecules come in two forms, mirror images of each other. This would
be merely a chemical curiosity were it not that the reflection images of molecules
in medications can produce catastrophically different results. During the 1960s,
the drug thalidomide was given to pregnant women to reduce nausea. One of the
forms of the thalidomide molecule worked well for that task. Unfortunately, the
other form of thalidomide, the mirror image of the good molecule, caused limb
deformities in thousands of infants before its effects were recognized. The drug
L-dopa counteracts symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as tremors and mus-
cle rigidity. The mirror image of the L-dopa molecule, D-dopa, is toxic. The pro-
duction of thalidomide and L-dopa produces both forms in equal amounts. Asig-
nificant task for scientists was to determine how to remove the toxic form of the
molecules from medications, leaving only the beneficial mirror images. The
110 REFLECTIONS
A mirror needs to be only one-half your
height in order to see your entire body.
A reflection of the final destination
is used to determine the shortest
path for a ship when a fuel stop is
needed on a journey.
2001 Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to scientists who developed catalysts
that would determine the twists in the molecules and either remove the malignant
forms or change their orientation to the beneficial version.
online sources for further exploration
The billiards simulation
<http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/chaos/home.html>
Diamond design
<http://www.gemology.ru/cut/english/tolkow/_tolk1.htm>
Frieze patterns
<http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~mathed/Geometry/Transformations/frieze.html>
Mathematical art of M. C. Escher
<http://www.mathacademy.com/pr/minitext/escher/>
Measurement microphones
<http://www.josephson.com/tn6.txt>
Reflection of light
<http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/lightandcolor/reflection.html>
Reflectors
<http://nths.newtrier.k12.il.us/academics/math/Connections/reflection/REFLECT.
htm>
Road coatings
<http://www.montefiore.ulg.ac.be/services/acous/eclair/reflecten.html>
Seismic reflection
<http://www.enviroscan.com/techapps/22.html>
Total internal reflection
<http://www.sciencejoywagon.com/physicszone/lesson/09waves/totint/>
<http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/refrn/u14l3c.html>
<http://www.sciencejoywagon.com/physicszone/lesson/09waves/totint/internal.
htm>



ROTATIONS
Rotations allow the same object to reappear along a circular path. For exam-
ple, in a tiling pattern, lizards can be rotated so that they tessellate, or fit neatly
into each others’ grooves, as shown in the following figure. Since there are three
congruent lizards in a circle centered around the intersection of the lizard’s
knees, the angle of rotation must be one-third of the degree measure of a circle,
which is 120 degrees.
Rotations are used in circular motion, such as the rotation of a wheel caused
ROTATIONS 111
by movement in the axle of a car. The rotation of the wheels and the friction
between the wheels and the road enable a car to move forward.
Circular gears with wedges help support rotation in engines and machines.
For example, a bicycle uses gears to change the amount of force needed to move
the pedals. As the gear rotates, its teeth grab onto the chain and move it forward
in order to spin the wheels on the bicycle. Gears with a smaller radius require less
force, since the chains move a smaller distance. As the bicycle builds speed, the
gears rotate more quickly, making it more difficult to pedal in lower gears. By
shifting the chain to a higher gear with a greater radius when the bicycle
increases speed, the pedals will slow down, since the chain has a greater distance
to move, making it easier to maintain a higher speed. When the person on the
bicycle slows down, the gears should be shifted down to a smaller radius so that
pedaling becomes easier.
Several amusement-park rides rotate to create a spinning effect. An object
will feel like it is moving more quickly around a circle if it sits further away from
its center of rotation. In this situation, the object has to travel a further distance
around a circle than an object closer to the center, but also during the same time
period. Rotational motion with ice skaters changes, because angular momentum
is conserved. Angular momentum is determined by the product of the radius of
the arm length and the skater’s angular velocity. If his or her arm radius decreases
so that the arms are closer to the body, his or her angular velocity will increase.
As a result, skaters will spin faster when they move their arms closer to their bod-
ies. Conversely, skaters can slow down their spinning motion by spreading their
arms out from their bodies.
The earth rotates around an axis that passes through the two poles. The radius
of the earth is 3,963 miles. Therefore every object at the equator is moving at a
112 ROTATIONS
Tessellation of lizard tiles based on
rotations for an outdoor patio.
The gears of a bicycle rotate and
latch onto the chain to help propel
the bicycle forward when force is
applied to the pedals.
rate of approximately 1,037 miles per hour, because these objects travel 2 2π(3,963)
miles in twenty-four hours. The angular rate of objects in circular motion is the
circular distance divided by the time to travel that distance. If a person is stand-
ing away from the equator, then his or her angular rate is
2π•3963•cos θ
24
, where θ
is the latitudinal angle of the city. For example, if a person is standing at 60°N
latitude, then he or she will only be half as far from the earth’s axis of rotation,
because cos 60° is one-half. Then this person will only be moving half as fast
around the earth. People actually do not feel like they are moving faster at dif-
ferent parts of the world because everything else is moving at the same rate. You
feel differences in motion when something else is moving faster or slower than
your motion.
Rocket launches take advantage of the earth’s rotational velocity. The launch-
ed aircraft takes off towards the east—the same direction as the rotation of the
earth—giving it an extra boost once it is airborne. Also, launches in the United
States are at Cape Canaveral, Florida, which is closer to the equator than most
other cities in the country. Since it is farther from the earth’s axis of rotation than
many other U.S. cities, the earth’s rotation will be more supportive at that loca-
tion by giving it almost the best possible additional speed as it leaves the earth’s
atmosphere.
online sources for further exploration
Applications of rotations
<http://www.spacesciencegroup.nsula.edu/sotw/newlessons/application.asp?Theme=
astronomy&PageName=rotation>
Bicycle gears
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/cycling/gears1.html>
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/cycling/gears3.html>
Image rotation
<http://www.ece.gatech.edu/research/pica/simpil/applications/rotation.html>
Mathematical art of M. C. Escher
<http://www.mathacademy.com/pr/minitext/escher/>
Relative motion—rotation and the motion of the moon
<http://www.joma.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc4/moon.html>
Rotations on a sphere
<http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/mathalgo/sphere0.htm>
ROTATIONS 113
Relative distance away from the
earth’s axis of rotation based on lati-
tudinal position. A person is half as
far from the earth’s axis of rotation
when he or she is standing at 60°
latitude because cos 60° = 1/2.
Satellite reception
<http://repairfaq.cis.upenn.edu/sam/icets/satellte.htm>
X-ray diffractometry
<http://www.optra.com/XRAYwebsite.htm>



SEQUENCES
Sequences are sets of numbers that often share a recursive or explicit rela-
tionship. For example, the Fibonacci sequence in the form 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21,
. . . is determined by the sum of every two previous consecutive integers in its
sequence and has many real-world applications. (See Fibonacci Sequence for
several examples.) A different pattern occurs in the terms in a geometric
sequence, where consecutive terms have a constant ratio. A geometric sequence
with an initial value equal to 4 and constant ratio of –0.5 would be 4, –2, 1, –0.5,
0.25, . . . Another type of sequence based on a constant difference between terms
is called an arithmetic sequence. An arithmetic sequence with an initial value
equal to 4 and a constant difference of –0.5 would be 4, 3.5, 3, 2.5, 2, . . .
Sequences exist in applications that have discrete and predictable patterns, such
as the value of an automobile, camera aperture, music notes, or predicting the
timing of an eruption.
Automobile value is based on its original price, depreciation rate, and age.
Since the depreciation is fairly constant for a particular model, a car’s yearly prices
can be determined using a geometric sequence. The constant ratio in this case is
0.80, since the car maintains 80 percent of its value after each year. A car selling
for $20,000 new that depreciates 20 percent each year will be worth $16,000 the
next year, and $12,800 the year after that. These values can be determined by mul-
tiplying each successive term by 0.80, or using the explicit formula for a geomet-
ric sequence, g
n
= g
1
r
n−1
, where g
n
is the value of the car after the nth year, g
1
is the initial value of the car during the first year, and r is the constant ratio. In this
case, the explicit equation for the sequence is g
n
= 20, 000(0.80)
n−1
. The table
on the next page represents a sample blue-book listing of the value of a vehicle for
different years based on this equation. Notice that the car loses its greatest amount
of value during the first year, since a percentage of the total value is reduced from
the original price.
Standard f-stops on cameras permit the photographer to select how much
light passes through the lens. The sequence is 1, 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22,
32. Each of the f-stop numbers on a standard lens represents half the light of the
number before it. The consecutive f-stops are in geometric sequence with the
common ratio

2.
114 SEQUENCES
nth year value ($)
1 20,000.00
2 16,000.00
3 12,800.00
4 10,240.00
5 8192.00
6 6553.60
7 5242.88
8 4194.30
9 3355.44
10 2684.35
The estimated values of an automobile with a new price of $20,000
and depreciating 20 percent each year.
The twelve tones in an octave form a geometric sequence so that the end of
an octave has a frequency twice that of its low tone. High C (512 cps) is twice
middle C (256 cps). The multiplication of frequencies is a constant ratio across
the octave, so each multiplication must be the twelfth root of 2, or about 1.059.
So if Ais 440 cps, the next key, B-flat, will be 440•1.059 ≈ 466 cps. (See Ratio.)
Old Faithful is a popular attraction at Yellowstone National Park, because the
geyser produces long eruptions that are fairly predictable. When tourists visit Old
Faithful, they will see a sign that indicates an estimated time that the geyser will
next erupt. No one controls the geyser like an amusement park ride. Instead, its
patterns over time have caused park rangers to develop predictable eruption times
using an arithmetic sequence. The time between eruptions is based on the length
of the previous eruption. If an eruption lasts one minute, then the next eruption
will occur in approximately forty-six minutes (plus or minus ten minutes). If an
eruption lasts two minutes, then the next eruption will occur in approximately
fifty-eight minutes. This pattern continues based on a constant difference of
SEQUENCES 115
Old Faithful is a popular attrac-
tion at Yellowstone National Park,
because it is a very large geyser
and quite predictable. Source:
National Park Service photograph.
twelve minutes, forming an arithmetic sequence of 46, 58, 70, 82, 94, . . . An erup-
tion of n minutes will indicate that the next eruption, a
n
, will occur in
a
n
= a
1
+ (n − 1)d minutes, where a
1
is the length after a one-minute eruption,
and d is the constant difference of waiting time among eruptions that are a one-
minute difference in time. In this particular situation, the next eruption will occur
in a
n
= 46 + (n − 1)12 minutes, if the previous eruption was n minutes long.
Harmonious chords produce another type of sequence. If you depress piano
keys for middle C, middle G, high C, and high E, then play low C, you will hear
the four other tones. If the string for low C is one meter long, then a string a half
meter long will sound a middle C, a one-third meter string would give middle G,
high C would be one-fourth meter, and high E would be one-fifth meter. The
list of overtones is the sequence 1,
1
2
,
1
3
,
1
4
,
1
5
, . . . which is called a harmonic
sequence. Any sequence that is formed from reciprocals of terms of an arithmetic
sequence is called harmonic. Harmonic sequences are important in the study of
magnetism, electricity, and the design of electric motors. Cosmologists studying
the origins of the universe look for harmonic patterns in microwave traces
received from space.
online sources for further exploration
A demonstration that the harmonic series doesn’t converge
<http://www.mathematik.com/Harmonic/>
Artificial intelligence
<http://www.cs.wustl.edu/area-ai.html>
Biological sequence alignment
<http://www.ics.uci.edu/~eppstein/gina/align.html>
DNA sequence database
<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/collab/>
Intensity, exposure, and time in photography
<http://www.arch.virginia.edu/arch569/content/lectures/lec-03/>
Iteration and recursion activities
<http://www.colorado.edu/education/DMP/activities/iteration_recursion/>
Linear models
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/discrete/linear/learn.htm>
Musical scales
<http://www.tromba.demon.co.uk/scales.html>
<http://www.midicode.com/tunings/greek.shtml>
Predicting Old Faithful
<http://www.jason.org/expeditions/jason8/yellowstone/oldfait1.html>
Used car prices
<http://www.edmunds.com/used/>
<http://www.kbb.com/kb/ki.dll/kw.kc.bz?kbb&&688&zip_ucr;1409&>



116 SEQUENCES
SERIES 117
SERIES
Many applications that are based on the sum of predictable discrete patterns
can be examined with series. For example, a doctor may prescribe an amount of
medication to take each day, because he or she knows that the patient’s blood-
stream will be able to maintain a certain level of the medication over time.
Prescriptions are based on a mathematical series, because the total amount of
drug accumulates in the bloodstream each day. In other words, the sum of the
remaining amounts of the drug in the bloodstream is added to a new amount
everyday. One way to determine the total amount of a drug that will eventually
end up in the bloodstream is to take the initial amount and add the amount that
remains from yesterday, from two days ago, three days ago, and so on. If the
amount of drug that remains in the bloodstream is a predictable pattern each day,
then an equation can be used to compare dosages and accumulating amounts in
the bloodstream.
Some illnesses, such as high blood pressure or thyroid deficiency, can be
treated with regular medication. Suppose a doctor knows that 200 mg of a drug
is the amount of medication needed to maintain the patient’s health. Because
most drugs circulate in the bloodstream, amounts of the drug are removed as the
blood is cleaned by the kidneys. Suppose that the kidneys remove 40 percent of
the drug each day. That leaves the drug effectiveness at 60 percent of what it was
twenty-four hours earlier. Therefore the doctor has the patient take a pill each
day. Surprisingly, a 200 mg pill each day is far too large a dose to maintain a 200
mg level in the bloodstream. If the doctor prescribes 200 mg each day, the patient
will have 200 mg in the bloodstream on the first day. At the end of one day, only
120 mg will remain, but another 200 mg will be added, making the total amount
320 mg. This overdose can potentially be very harmful for the patient, so the doc-
tor needs to determine an ideal dosage that will allow only 200 mg to remain in
the bloodstream at any given time.
Apharmacist can model this situation by using a spreadsheet or table of val-
ues, making sure that the amount in the bloodstream at the end of the day is 60
percent the amount at the beginning of the day, and then adding that value to the
amount at the beginning of the next day. The following table illustrates how
much of the drug would remain in the bloodstream during the first twenty days
if 200 mg were taken each day. Notice that eventually the amount of drug in the
bloodstream will level off near 500 mg after about ten days.
days start of day end of day
1 200.000 120.000
2 320.000 192.000
3 392.000 235.200
4 435.200 261.120
5 461.120 276.672
6 476.672 286.003
days start of day end of day
7 486.003 291.602
8 491.602 294.961
9 494.961 296.977
10 496.977 298.186
11 498.186 298.912
12 498.912 299.347
13 499.347 299.608
14 499.608 299.765
15 499.765 299.859
16 499.859 299.915
17 499.915 299.949
18 499.949 299.970
19 499.970 299.982
20 499.982 299.989
The amount of drug (in milligrams) in a person’s bloodstream when 60 percent
remains from the previous day and an additional 200 mg are added each day.
A pharmacist can modify this initial amount on the first day and observe
changes in the limit of this sum to determine that 80 mg is an appropriate daily
dosage to maintain 200 mg in the bloodstream over time, as shown below.
days start of day end of day
1 80.000 48.000
2 128.000 76.800
3 156.800 94.080
4 174.080 104.448
5 184.448 110.669
6 190.669 114.402
7 194.401 116.641
8 196.641 117.984
9 197.984 118.791
10 198.791 119.274
11 199.274 119.565
12 199.565 119.739
13 199.739 119.843
118 SERIES
days start of day end of day
14 199.843 119.906
15 199.906 119.944
16 199.944 119.966
17 199.966 119.980
18 199.980 119.988
19 199.988 119.993
20 199.993 119.996
The amount of drug (in milligrams) in a person’s bloodstream when 60 percent
remains from the previous day and an additional 80 mg are added each day.
This situation is an example of a geometric series, since the amount remaining in
the bloodstream is affected by a constant ratio of 60 percent. The sum can be re-
written as
days since last dosage
1 2 3 4
80 + 80(0.60)
1
+ 80(0.60)
2
+ 80(0.60)
3
+ 80(0.60)
4
+ . . .
The sum, s, can be determined by the equation s =
g
1
(1−r
n
)
1−r
, where g
1
is the
initial dosage, r is the constant ratio, and n is the number of days the dosage is
taken. Since the number of days that the drug is taken is unknown, pharmacists
need to examine situations in which the drug is taken indefinitely. Therefore the
sum of an infinite geometric series is s =
g
1
1−r
because
lim
n→∞
g
1
(1−r
n
)
1−r
=
g
1
1−r
when |r| < 1. In this case, the desired sum, s, is 200 mg, r is 60 percent or 0.60,
and g
1
is unknown. Substituting the values into the equation, you will get
200 =
g
1
1−0.60
, and a solution of g
1
= 80 mg. Thus the doctor needs to make pre-
scriptions of 80 mg each day in order to maintain the desired dosage of 200 mg.
Geometric series are also used to predict the amount of lumber that can be
cut down each year in a forest to ensure that the number of trees remain at a sta-
ble level. Each year, forest rangers plant seeds for new trees to account for those
chopped down and lost to forest fires. Suppose the ranger wants to know what
proportion of trees they can afford to lose or remove each year if they plant 500
new trees and want to consistently maintain 80,000 trees in the forest. After sub-
stituting s and g
1
in the formula s =
g
1
1−r
, the unknown value for r is 0.00625.
This means that the forest ranger wants to maintain 99.375 percent of the trees
each year. However, an interesting phenomenon is to notice that the forest can
recover from a disaster such as a fire in a reasonably short period of time.
Suppose a fire destroys 35 percent of the trees in the forest, leaving 52,000 trees.
If 500 new trees are planted each year, and 0.625 percent of the total number of
SERIES 119
trees is used for wood each year, then the forest will reach its ideal level of
80,000 trees in about seven years, since
500(1−0.9375
7
)
1−0.9375
> 28, 000, the number of
trees lost in the fire.
Arithmetic series are used when consecutive values have a constant differ-
ence. The sum of the first n terms of the series, s
n
, is determined by the equa-
tion s
n
= (a
1
+a
n
)

n
2

or s
n
= (2a
1
+ (n − 1)d)

n
2

. For example, the sum
of the first one hundred positive integers is generated by the series 1 + 2 + 3 +
. . . + 100. This is an arithmetic series with n = 100 terms, a
1
= 1, and a
100
=
100. Therefore the sum of this series, s
100
= (1 + 100)

100
2

= 5, 050. Drilling
and mining operations use arithmetic series to determine the total distance their
machines will need to drill when excavating rock from the earth. Suppose a con-
struction team is hired to dig a hole that has a cross-sectional area of 10 square
meters and will be 50 meters deep. Suppose that the drilling machine moves 2
feet downward when digging in the earth’s surface, and then stops to allow
workers to remove the 20 cubic meters of loose dirt. Therefore the first drilling
attempt will be 2 meters deep, the second drilling attempt will be 4 meters deep,
the third drilling attempt will be 6 meters deep, and so on for a total of 25 trips.
In this situation, the drilling machine and the dirt from the ground will need to
be moved a total of 650 meters in order to dig a 50 meter hole, since (2 • 2 +
(25 − 1)2)

25
2

= 650. The mining or construction company can then use this
information to determine its fees based on the total distance it will need to move
dirt out of the hole.
online sources for further exploration
Buying on credit
<http://www.nap.edu/html/hs_math/bc.html>
Drug dosage
<http://www.nap.edu/html/hs_math/drd.html>
<http://www.chch.school.nz/cma/IdeasTeach/hypnotic.htm>
<http://barzilai.org/cr/med-dosage.html>
Geometric series applications
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/series/geometric/learn.htm>
Loan or investment formulas
<http://oakroadsystems.com/math/loan.htm>



120 SERIES
SIMILARITY
Two figures are similar if they have the same shape, but not necessarily the
same size. More specifically, all of the corresponding sides between two similar
shapes are proportional and all of the corresponding angles are congruent. For
example, most rectangular television screens are similar, since they have a 4-to-3
aspect ratio. That means that conventional television screens are produced so that
the length is 4/3 times the width. The diagonal length of the television screen is
often the reported number in advertisements. Using the 4-to-3 aspect ratio, a tel-
evision screen that has a 25 inch diagonal will have dimensions of 16 inches by 9
inches, and a television screen with a 40 inch diagonal will have dimensions of 32
inches by 24 inches. Notice that the diagonal-to-length ratio is 5 to 4, and the diag-
onal to width ratio is 5 to 3, causing the width, length, and diagonals of every stan-
dard television set to be a multiple of the {3,4,5} Pythagorean triple.
In 1889, engineers in Thomas Edison’s laboratory established that the 4:3
ratio was the best one for movie screens. It is now being challenged by the 16:9
ratio for high-definition TV sets (HDTV) that use a wider screen than the tradi-
tional one to mimic the wide screens in theaters.
Book covers are examples of two objects that are often not similar. Even
though two books may have rectangular covers with congruent angles, they are
only similar if their side lengths are proportional. For example, a book cover with
dimensions of 6 inches by 3.5 inches is not similar to a book cover with dimen-
sions of 7 inches by 4.5 inches. The corresponding ratios of 7/6 and 4.5/3.5, or
9/7, are not equal.
Similarity is used for many real-world purposes. The film on a movie reel is
projected onto a big screen so that the images appear larger, but in the same pro-
portion. If the screen images were not similar to the slides on the reel, the images
would appear distorted, being either too fat or too long (see Proportions for a
more detailed explanation). An overhead projector serves the same purpose,
allowing images such as a teacher’s handwriting to appear larger on a screen so
that it is easier to read. A telescope and microscope also change the size of
images, making them easier to see while preserving the shape of the original
object. The development of pictures from a camera also uses similarity princi-
ples. As negatives are processed onto photo paper, they expand uniformly in size.
If a picture needs to be enlarged into a poster, then the ratio of the corresponding
sides between the negative and the poster need to be identical. This means that if
the different sizes of photo paper are not similar, then some cropping will occur.
SIMILARITY 121
Dimensions of a standard television
screen with a 4-to-3 aspect ratio.
Similarity can be used to approximate lengths and distances. For example, on
a sunny day you can use similarity to determine the height of a tall object such
as a flagpole by using just a tape measure. If you measure your height, your dis-
tance from the flagpole, and the length of your shadow, then you will be able to
set up a proportion to find the height of the flagpole. For instance, suppose you
are standing 5 meters away from the flagpole, you are 1.65 meters tall, and you
measure your shadow to be 1.38 meters long (see the figure below). Similar tri-
angles can be used to show that your height corresponds to the flagpole height,
and your shadow length corresponds to the flagpole’s shadow length.
In this case, the proportion
f
5+1.38
=
1.64
1.38
can be used to find the height of the
flagpole, f, which equals approximately 7.63 meters (close to 25 feet).
Architects and designers use similarity to create and visualize new buildings.
Aminiature two- or three-dimensional model that is a replica of a future building
is often put together during a design phase. It is easier and less expensive to make
changes to a miniature replica of an object than to the object itself, so careful
attention to size and detail is important in model-making. Once the ideas behind
the design of the house are negotiated, the floor plans are passed on to the builders
to replicate the model on a larger scale. Since the actual floor space of the house
is similar to the paper mock-up of the floor plan, the corresponding dimensions
between the real structure and the model are proportional. However, the area com-
paring the house’s floor space to the floor-plan area is proportional to the square
of the ratio of the dimensions. For example, if the house is 50 times larger than
the floor plan, then the area of the house is 2,500 (which is 50
2
) larger than the
floor plan. This area proportion of similar figures is squared, because area is a
measurement of two dimensions. For example, suppose two similar squares have
respective lengths of 2 and 100 cm. The area of the squares would be 4 cm
2
and
10,000 cm
2
, respectively. Even though the ratio of their lengths is 100/2 or 50, the
ratio of their areas is 10,000/4 or 2,500, which is the same as 50
2
. Carpenters can
use this information to determine the amount of wood and carpeting needed for
the floors if they are not given the actual dimensions of the house.
Similarity can also be used to predict the mass of unusually large or even
extinct animals, such as dinosaurs. A scale model of a dinosaur can be used to
predict the actual volume of it, assuming that the ratio comparing the actual
length to the model length is available. Suppose that an accurately scaled model
of a tyrannosaurus with a length of 0.3 meters is used to determine its mass.
122 SIMILARITY
A method to find the height of a tall
object, such as a flagpole, based on
smaller measurements and principles
of similarity.
Since an actual tyrannosaurus was about 15 meters long, the ratio of the actual
dinosaur to the model is 50 to 1, because 15/0.3 = 50. Use the density ratio of
mass
volume
to determine the mass of the tyrannosaurus. Most animals and reptiles
have a density near 0.95 =
m
v
, so the mass of the tyrannosaurus can be calculated
once the volume is found. The volume of the actual tyrannosaurus can be calcu-
lated by using the cube of the ratio of the lengths of the actual dinosaur to the
model. The cube of the ratio is used, because volume is a measure of three
dimensions. Therefore the volume of the actual Tyrannosaurus will be 50
3
, or
125,000 times the volume of the dinosaur model.
You can measure the volume of an irregular object, such as a dinosaur model,
by submersing it in a bucket of water. Place a bucket of water filled to the brim
(and larger than the dinosaur model) inside a larger empty bucket. Drop the
dinosaur model into the bucket of water, and the excess water will spill over the
sides into the empty bucket. Pour the excess water into a graduated cylinder,
which is a tool to measure the volume of water. This volume should be the same
as the volume of the dinosaur model, because the model replaced the same
amount of space in the bucket as the excess water. Suppose that the volume of
the model is 61 milliliters. This means that the volume of the actual tyranno-
saurus was about 125,000 times 61, or 7,625,000 milliliters, or 7,625 liters. Since
density equals mass divided by volume, the equation 0.95 =
m
7,625
can be used
to predict the mass, m, of the tyrannosaurus. Note that the units of density are
kilograms per liter, so volume units are in liters and calculated mass units are in
kilograms. The solution to the equation predicts the tyrannosaurus’s mass to
equal approximately 7,243 kilograms, which is about 16,000 pounds. That is the
same as 100 people that have an average mass of 160 pounds. Most football
coaches would like to recruit a tyrannosaurus for their teams!
Similarity is sometimes not used in models, which as a result can cause mis-
conceptions about length and size. Most models of the solar system are inaccu-
rately proportioned so that they can be easily stored, carried, and viewed within
a reasonable amount of space. If a teacher wants to illustrate planetary motion
on a solar-system model, he or she needs to be able to move the planets around
fairly easily, and students need to see all of them. Realistically, however, this
type of model is inaccurate, because the planet sizes vary tremendously and are
spread apart by vastly different distances. For example, if an accurate scale
model of the planets in the solar system were used in a classroom with the sun
at the center of the room, then the first four planets would be within 227 cm of
the center, and the remaining planets would be stretched out to almost 6 meters
away! The large variability in distances among the planets would make it diffi-
cult to build a movable model that illustrates rotation around the sun. Further-
more, the volumes of the planets vary considerably. Large planets, like Jupiter
and Saturn, have diameters that are about ten times larger than the earth. If the
planets were built to scale, these giant planets would have to be a thousand times
larger than the earth, because the ratio of volumes between similar figures is
SIMILARITY 123
equal to the ratio of the cubes of their lengths. For visualization and instructional
purposes, this would be difficult to create in a hand-held model. It unfortunately
provides misconceptions about the relative sizes and distances among planets in
our solar system.
online sources for further exploration
Map making
<http://www.sonoma.edu/GIC/Geographica/MapInterp/Scale.html>
<http://www.epa.gov/ceisweb1/ceishome/atlas/learngeog/mapping.htm>
Nuclear medicine
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_1/ary_11_1.htm>
Scale model of a pyramid
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model.html>
Scale models
<http://www.faa.gov/education/resource/f16draw.htm>
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model.html>
<http://www.americanmodels.com/sscale.html>
Screen ratios
<http://www.premierstudios.com/ratio.html>
<http://www.pbs.org/opb/crashcourse/aspect_ratio/>
Understanding scale speed in model airplanes
<http://www.astroflight.com/scalespeed.html>



SLOPE. SEE LINEAR FUNCTIONS; RATES



SQUARE ROOTS
Asquare root is the inverse of a squared number. The square root of 49, writ-
ten as

49 or 49
1/2
, is equal to 7, because 7
2
equals 49. Many real-world rela-
tionships involve square roots. For example, the height of liquid wax in a candle
is directly proportional to the square root of the amount of time a candle has been
burning. This information is useful in the design of candles, because the presence
124 SLOPE
of liquid will slow down the burning of the wick. Hence, fatter candles do not
need very long wicks, because they will likely form a pool of liquid as they burn.
Pilots of airplanes and hot-air balloons use square roots to estimate viewing
distances. The viewing distance in kilometers, d, from an airplane on a clear
day, depending on its altitude in meters, a, can be estimated by the equation v =
3.56

a. The viewing distance from an airplane to the horizon is perpendicular
to the radius of the earth, forming a right triangle between the airplane, horizon,
and center of the earth (see the figure below). The Pythagorean theorem can be
used to compare the distances, v
2
+ 6380
2
= (6380 +
a
1000
)
2
, using the fact
that the radius of the earth is 6,380 km. The square-root version of the equation
is approximately equal to this format, since commercial airplanes do not fly
much higher than 10,000 meters.
Police investigators use square roots at the scenes of auto accidents. They can
estimate the speed of a car by the length of the tire skids and the conditions of the
road. The speed of a car in miles per hour, s, that skidded d feet is s =

30fd.
The variable f describes the coefficient of friction of the road. On dry concrete,
this value is about 0.8, and in wet conditions, f is about 0.4. Measuring the length
of the skids will help determine if the offender’s speed was a factor that con-
tributed to the accident.
The period of a pendulum, or the time it takes to move back and forth, can
be determined by the equation t = 2π

l
g
, where t is the time in seconds, l is its
length in meters, and g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 meters/second
2
).
This equation is actually a combination of a couple of equations, g = lw
2
and
w =

t
, that relate to circular motion and the pendulum’s length, period, and an-
gular velocity w. Notice that the mass of the object at the end of pendulum is not
included in the equation, because all objects will fall at the same rate, regardless
of their mass. The pendulum equation is useful for clockmakers, because a
grandfather clock is designed so that its pendulum arm takes one second to swing
in one direction, or two seconds to swing back and forth. If t = 2 is substituted
into the equation, then the pendulum arm length l will be approximately 1 meter
long.
Using square roots can help a person become a better consumer of art. The
best view of a picture is when the angle, α, from the bottom of the picture to the
top is greatest, as shown in the following figure. An ideal distance, d, to stand
SQUARE ROOTS 125
The Pythagorean theorem can be used
to determine the maximum viewing
distance, v, a pilot has in an airplane
compared with its altitude, a.
Note: this drawing is not to scale.
from a painting is based on how much higher the bottom of the painting is from
a person’s eye level, b, and how much higher the top of the painting is from a per-
son’s eye level, t, according to the equation d =

bt.
If the average human is about 67 inches tall, and a large painting is 60 inches
tall, and the bottom is placed about 70 inches from the ground, then b =
70 − 67 = 3, and t = 3 + 60 = 63. Therefore a reasonable place to draw a view-
ing line would be about 14 inches away from the wall based on evaluating
d =

3 · 63 ≈ 13.7 inches. This formula can be applied to similar venues, such
as helping you find the best seat in a movie theater.
online sources for further exploration
Best angle of view
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/Angle.View/Angle.view.html>
Bouncing ball
<http://www.sosmath.com/calculus/geoser/bounce/bounce.html>
Calculating angles in a pyramid
<http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/miter.html>
Distance between two ships
<http://www.nadn.navy.mil/MathDept/cdp/relatedrates/rates.html>
How to compute baseball standings
<http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/baseball.html>
Latitude and longitude
<http://daniel.calpoly.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Latitude/distance.html>
The square root law of inventory
<http://logistics.about.com/industry/logistics/library/blsqrootlaw.htm>



126 SQUARE ROOTS
The optimum viewing angle of a painting,
α, is greatest when the distance a person
stands from the painting, d, is equal to the
square root of the product of the distances
from the edges of the painting to the eye-
level height (d =

bt).
STANDARD DEVIATION
The standard deviation is a number that indicates the variability in a set of
data. It is a measure of the dispersion of data in a sample or population. Standard
deviations are used in quality control in business and industry and in the compu-
tation of standard test scores (such as the SAT and ACT). The concept of stan-
dard deviation provides the basis for widely used statistical techniques.
The start of the computation of standard deviation is the deviation about the
mean, the difference of the actual score and mean score. If a college-placement
test has a national mean of 512, and a student has a score of 650, the deviation is
138. Deviations are negative when the score is below the mean.
Even though each deviation tells something about the spread of data, the sum
of deviations is always zero, which gives no overall information about the spread
of the data. To make sure negative deviations do not cancel with positive, statisti-
cians choose to square each deviation. Then they average the squared deviations to
produce a number that indicates how the data is spread out around the mean. The
average squared deviation is called the variance. The square root of the variance is
the standard deviation. There are two formulas for standard deviation. One form
assumes that the data set is the entire population of cases: σ =

Σ(X−µ)
2
N
, where
µ is the mean of the data, and N is the number of pieces of data. If the numbers
could be considered a sample from the population, then the mean and standard
deviations would represent estimates of the entire season’s scores. The standard
deviation has a different symbol in this case, and a slightly different formula:
s =

Σ(X−X)
2
n−1
, where X is the mean of the sample, and n is the sample size.
The standard deviation is used to compute standardized scores for the com-
parison of data from different sets and measures. Astandardized score is computed
as z =
X−µ
σ
, or the deviation divided by the standard deviation. As a ratio, it has
no units. The standardized score can compare different measures of the same per-
son. Suppose a student had a score of 540 on the SAT-Math and 24 on the ACT
Mathematics. On which did he or she do better? The national mean for SAT-Math
is 514, with a standard deviation of 113. So z
SATM
=
540−514
113
≈ 0.23. The
national mean for ACT Mathematics is 20.7, with a standard deviation of 5.0. So
z
ACTM
=
24−20.7
5.0
≈ 0.66. Therefore she did relatively better on the ACT Mathe-
matics, because she had a greater standardized z score.
Z scores have been used to compare baseball players from different eras.
Does Ty Cobb’s batting average of .420 in 1922 represent better batting than
George Brett’s .390 in 1980? It has been argued that it is difficult for a player
today to hit over .400, because the general quality of players is much higher than
it was in the early days of professional baseball. If you use the standard scores
based on means and standard deviations of baseball players in their respective
eras, Cobb has a z score of about 4.15 and Brett, 4.07. The two stars were equally
outstanding in performance during their respective eras.
SAT and ACT scores are normally distributed, which means that a frequency
STANDARD DEVIATION 127
chart or histogram will appear to be bell-shaped. In this type of distribution, there
are some handy “rules of thumb” that use standard deviation to describe the
spread of data. In a normally distributed set of data, about 68 percent of it is con-
tained within one standard deviation of the mean (as shown in the figure below),
95 percent within two standard deviations, and 99.7 percent within three standard
deviations.
The normal curve has two points of inflection where the curve changes from con-
cave-downward, to concave-upward. These are located at ±1 standard deviation
units. The point of inflection at +1 standard deviation is shown in the figure.
The rules of thumb for a normal distribution stop at ±3 standard deviations
from the mean, because almost all of the data is trapped by those limits. That is
not enough for the management goal of “six sigma” quality adopted by many
American businesses. In such cases, the goal is to have fewer than 3.4 defects per
million products. The six sigma, or 6σ, is chosen because 99.99966 percent of
the cases in a normal distribution fall within six standard deviations of the mean.
If that proportion represents defect-free products, then the remainder, 0.00034
percent, represent defects. Such high-quality control standards at six sigma will
likely reduce the number of defects in a product, but at a high cost when an in-
spection fails. Reducing the standards to 99.7 percent defect-free products will
likely save the company money in the long run, unless the company is dealing
with personal health and safety issues. Physicists use a five-sigma criterion in
determining whether a subatomic particle has been revealed. They think that only
a five-sigma result, indicating a 99.99995 percent chance that the result can be
reproduced, is trustworthy and can survive the test of time.
The rules of thumb are often used by manufacturers to design clothing and
furniture that will sell to the broadest audience. For example, an automobile
manufacturer developing an automobile for potential female customers might
design the driver’s seat to fit the heights of most women. To make the greatest
profit, the seat must be as standard as possible. The heights of American women
are normally distributed with a mean of 64 inches, with a standard deviation of
2.5 inches. If the manufacturer has its designers work on a seat that will be com-
fortable for women from 59 to 69 inches tall (two standard deviations above and
below the mean), then the rule of thumb says that the seat would be appropriate
for 95 percent of the women.
In medical quality-control testing it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness
of a medical instrument, because many medical measurements such as blood
128 STANDARD DEVIATION
About 68 percent of the area under a normal distribution curve is between
-1 and 1 standard deviations (z scores).
pressure, glucose content in urine, and cholesterol in blood can have different
distributions based on sex or age. Some electronic sensors have the statistics for
different population groups in memory. When a reading for a particular type of
patient is more than two standard deviations from the mean for his or her group,
the instrument will sound a tone, alerting nurse or doctor to the critical value. A
dynamic instrument that accounts for patient’s variables establishes a more pre-
cise diagnosis of medical problems.
When the standard deviation is computed from statistics on many samples,
such as a standard deviation of ACT composite school averages for many
schools, the standard deviation is called a standard error. Survey statistics in
newspapers are often reported as a range of values, such as in “our survey of 250
randomly selected adults showed that 62 percent of the residents oppose the new
highway. The margin of error was 6 percent.” In most cases, the margin of error
for a reported statistic is two standard errors. The report of the survey results
would be “62% ± 2•Standard Error.” This gives a range of values that is likely
(95 percent certain) to trap the percentage that would have been obtained had the
entire population been surveyed. So the newspaper would be saying, “If the
entire population of residents had been surveyed, there is a 95 percent chance
that the true proportion is between 56 percent and 68 percent.” In the weeks prior
to national and state elections, you will read about polls that indicate which can-
didate is ahead in the race, and whether the candidate has a clear lead. If candi-
dates are separated by two standard errors, the newspaper would project a win-
ner. The sampling of voters as they leave polling booths is a method that
television networks have used to make predictions of winners on their news pro-
gramming shortly after the polls close. However, as the networks found out in the
November 2000 presidential election, it is necessary that samples be carefully
designed to be representative of the population. Had the networks followed the
cautious recommendations of statisticians, they would not have had to make their
embarrassing switches of victory reports from George Bush to Al Gore based on
the controversial voting reports from the state of Florida.
Statistics computed on samples establish the close connection between stan-
dard deviation and the normal curve. Although the numbers in an entire popula-
tion might not follow a normal distribution, the central limit theorem states that
means of samples from the population will be normally distributed. Further, the
standard deviation of the sample means (standard error of the mean) is the stan-
dard deviation of the population divided by the square root of the sample size.
The central limit theorem is the foundation for inferential statistics, the branch of
statistics that is used to determine whether a new drug is better than older treat-
ments, whether consumers really like the flavor of a new, improved toothpaste,
when an assembly line is producing too many defects, whether students in a
school are not doing well on a state test, and when a stock price is stabilizing.
Pollsters use the central limit theorem to determine how large their samples must
be to reach a desired level of accuracy.
STANDARD DEVIATION 129
online sources for further exploration
Baseball
<http://www.stat.ncsu.edu/~st350_info/reiland/350hw3.htm>
Biomedical electronics
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_1_8/ary_1_8.htm>
Bioretention applications
<http://www.epa.gov/nps/bioretention.pdf>
Election polls
<http://www.pollingreport.com/election.htm>
Estimating trees
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_15_8/ary_15_8.htm>
Food technology
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_2_8/ary_2_8.htm>
Gallup polls
<http://www.gallup.com/>
Indiana custom rates
<http://www.agecon.purdue.edu/extensio/pubs/custom_rates.htm>
Mining
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_10_8/ary_10_8.htm>
Petroleum technology
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_13_8/ary_13_8.htm>
Six sigma
<http://www.isixsigma.com/>
<http://www.fnal.gov/pub/ferminews/ferminews01-03-16/p1.html>
Standard deviation in spreadsheets
<http://www.beyondtechnology.com/tips016.shtml>



STEP FUNCTIONS
Astep function is a mathematical relationship that has a graph that looks like
steps. As a result, the function has the same output for multiple input values. For
example, a telephone company may charge you 12 cents a minute for a long-dis-
tance call. A3.3 minute, 3.7 minute, or 4.0 minute call will be charged 48 cents,
or the price of a four-minute phone call, because the phone rate rounds up for
every fraction of a minute beyond a whole value. In this case, the price of the
phone call in dollars, p, can be determined by the function p = 0.12⌈t⌉, where t
is the length of the phone call in minutes. The ⌈t⌉ indicates that the value for t
should be rounded up to the nearest integer. This type of step function is called a
ceiling function and is sometimes represented by the expression ceil(t). There-
130 STEP FUNCTIONS
fore the phone-call function can also be written as p = 0.12ceil(t). Any phone
call between 3.01 and 4.00 minutes will result in the same charge, or any phone
call between 4.01 and 5.00 minutes will result in the same charge, and so on. The
figure below illustrates the price of a phone call as a function of its time.
Other rates that use discrete values for pricing can often be modeled with step
functions. The price to mail a package is dependent on its mass according to a step
function. If the cost to deliver a letter is 34 cents for the first ounce and 23 cents
for each additional ounce, then the function p = 0.23⌈m− 1⌉ + 0.34 describes
the total price in dollars, p, as a function of the mass in ounces, m. This equation
is slightly different than the one for the price of a phone call, because there is a
different rate for the first ounce. The ⌈m− 1⌉ portion of the equation accounts for
the additional price of any mass above one ounce. You can determine this rela-
tionship in the equation because any value of m between 0 and 1 will cause the
quantity ⌈m− 1⌉ to equal 0, meaning that nothing additional to 34 cents will be
added to the cost of postage for mail that is between 0 and 1 ounces.
Consulting and repair rates are often represented by step functions. Avisit to
an attorney’s office might be $100 for making an appointment, and then an addi-
tional $150 per hour, or fraction thereof. That means that an hour-and-a-half
appointment would be equivalent to a $400 fee—$100 for showing up and $300
for two hours of work. Sometimes rates are divided into smaller increments of
time, such as with automobile repair. Some auto shops may charge $80 per hour,
and make charges to the next one-half hour. That means that a car that has been
repaired for an hour and 13 minutes will be charged for 1.5 hours of labor, or
$120. As a step function, the repair cost in dollars, r, in terms of the number of
hours of labor, h, is represented by the equation r = 40⌈2h⌉. This equation needs
to consider the number of half-hour intervals, since the overall charge is rounded
to the nearest half-hour. The 2h in the equation describes the number of half-
hours of labor, and the 40 represents the half-hour rate of $40.
The cost of a taxicab ride also relates to a step function in terms of the dis-
tance traveled. Often there is an initial amount charged for getting in the cab, like
$2.70, and then an additional fee, like $0.30, for every block or fraction of a
block traveled. In this case, a 9.3-block cab ride would cost 2.70 + 0.30⌈9.3⌉, or
$5.70. Notice that the distance traveled would be equivalent to 10 blocks, since
there is not a specific fee for 0.3 blocks. In fact, in most cases involving fees or
costs paid by the consumer, rates are usually rounded up with a ceiling function.
STEP FUNCTIONS 131
The total price of a long-distance phone call as a function of its length
when the fee is 12 cents per minute or any fraction thereof.
It is easier to charge someone for partial time or expense than to give that person
an added bonus.
Acase in which expense is rounded down is in the payment of hourly wages.
If an employee works 40.7 hours in a week, then he or she might only get paid
for 40 hours time, since she did not put in a full 41 hours. Astep function is used,
because it is easier to pay employees at an hourly rate than a minute rate, as well
as to encourage employees to follow a tight schedule. In this situation, the step
function that rounds down is called a floor function, or the greatest integer func-
tion. If the employee earns $12 per hour, then his or her weekly salary payment
in dollars, s, as a function of the number of hours worked, h, is s = 12[h]. The
[h] is the symbol to represent the greatest integer value of h, which in essence
rounds the value down to the nearest integer. This equation can equivalently be
written as s = 12⌊h⌋ or s = 12 floor (h) so that they include symbols describ-
ing the floor function.
A floor function has also been used to identify the day of the week for any
date on the calendar since 1582. The remainder of the division in the equation
w =
d+2m+

3(m+1)
5

+y+

y
4

y
100

+

y
400

+2
7
is used to predict the day of the week, w, where Sunday is the first day of the week
and Saturday is the seventh or zero day. The variable d represents the day of the
month, m represents the number of the month, and y represents the year. An
exception to the value of mis in January and February, which are the month num-
bers according to the previous year. That means that January is represented by 13,
February by 14, March by 3, April by 4, and so on. For example, February 16,
1918 occurred on a Tuesday, because the remainder is equal to 3 when d = 14,
m = 16, and y = 1918 are substituted into the equation.
online sources for further exploration
Calendars
<http://astro.nmsu.edu/~lhuber/leaphist.html>
<http://www.smart.net/~mmontes/ushols.html>
Find hourly rates
<http://www.allfreelance.com/>
Houston Lighting and Power calculator
<http://www.energydotsys.com/lgscalc.htm>
Postage rate calculators
<http://postcalc.usps.gov/>
<http://wwwapps.ups.com/servlet/QCCServlet [updated 4/26/01]>
<http://www.federalexpress.com/us/rates/>
Telephone rate calculator
<http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/5395/ratecalc.html>



132 STEP FUNCTIONS
SURFACE AREA 133
SURFACE AREA
There are more uses of surface area than determining how much paint to buy
to paint a house. The mathematics of surface area determines how objects retain
heat, how cans are cut from sheets of metal, how cells exchange fluids, and how
animal metabolism relates to size. Two important mathematics questions about
surface area are: “What shapes make surface area a minimum for a specific vol-
ume?” and “For the same shape, how do volume and surface area change as the
figure is scaled up or down?”
The first question has some simple results for common figures. The cube is
the solid that minimizes surface area for a specific volume in a prism. The sphere
is the solid that minimizes surface area for any volume. This last result shows up
in soap bubbles or oil drops. In the absence of other forces, these will be spheres.
Packaging companies have additional minimization issues to handle when
they determine how a package such as a cereal box or a soda can should be con-
structed from raw materials. The desired volume is not the only issue they must
consider. If the product is going to grocery stores, then it has to have standard
dimensions. The shape of the product may determine or restrict the dimensions
of the package. If the carton is glued together, then additional surface is needed
for the glued regions. Finally, most packaging is cut from one piece of flat mate-
rial, so the engineer has to decide how the cuts will be made to minimize waste.
Some of the issues have natural solutions. For example, the first illustration in
the figure below shows a wasteful method of cutting circular-can lids from sheets
of aluminum. The middle diagram shows that stacking the circles like the cells
in a beehive would produce four more lids from the same sheet of material. The
complexity of cutting single cartons is shown by a flattened box of bandages in
the last illustration. Many of these cartons must be cut from large pieces of
glazed cardboard.
Nature has solved the minimization issue in remarkable ways. In a beehive,
each cell is a regular hexagonal prism, open on one end and with a trihedral angle
at the other. The trihedral angle must have a consistent geometry, because the
bees build identical cells on the other side of one wall of cells. It is believed that
this shape developed because it is strong and because it uses the least amount of
inefficient way of cutting cutting circles with less pattern for cutting a bandage
circles (18 circles) waste (22 circles) box
Cutting shapes from sheets of material that will be used in packaging.
wax (surface area) for the necessary storage area (volume of the cell). The sur-
face area of the cell is given by S = 6sh −
3
2
s
2
cot(θ) +

3s
2

3
2

csc(θ), where
S is the surface area, s is the length of the sides of the hexagon, and h is the
height. The values of s and h are constant for specific species of bees. Using cal-
culus, the angle that requires the least volume of wax for cells has a size of 55°
regardless of s and h. Measurements of the actual angles in hives rarely differ
from this value by more than 2°.
Nature sometimes needs to maximize surface area. The interiors of your
lungs are networked with air sacs (alveoli). The sacs are formed from very thin
membranes that allow oxygen to pass from the air in the lungs to your blood, and
carbon dioxide to move from your blood to the air that will be exhaled. The sur-
face area covered by a human’s skin is about 2 square meters, but the total sur-
face area of the alveoli is about 100 square meters! The massive surface area is
needed to provide sufficient exchange of the two gasses within the time of one
breath. Similarly, fish have gills that offer substantial surface membranes
between the water and the bloodstream so that they can quickly exchange the car-
bon dioxide in blood for oxygen from the water.
Some common household tasks favor larger areas. If you want to dry wet
clothes, you should spread them out rather than rolling them into a ball. If you
want to cool a drink fast, crush an ice cube into the beverage rather than drop-
ping a solid cube into it.
The fundamental law of similarity asserts that when you scale up (or down)
a solid figure by a scale factor k, you scale up the surface area by k
2
and the vol-
ume by k
3
. If you build a car model that is a 1:24 scale model of a real car, that
means you are multiplying each dimension of the car by 1/24. The surface area
would be changed by a factor of (1/24)
2
, and the volume by (1/24)
3
. If the model
and the real car were made from the same materials, then the weight scale would
match volume. Weight would be scaled down by (1/24)
3
. (See Ratio.) Because
scaling has such a dramatic influence on surface area and volume, larger animals
have an easier time maintaining their metabolism levels than do smaller ones.
This can be shown by examining the ratio of volume to surface area for a series
of cubes, starting with 1 cm on a side through 1 meter on a side.
side (cm) area (cm
2
) volume (cm
3
) ratio of volume to area
1 6 1 1/6 ≈ 0.17
3 54 27 27/54 ≈ 0.5
10 600 1,000 1,000/600 ≈ 1.67
50 15,000 125,000 125,000/15,000 ≈ 8.33
80 38,400 512,000 512,000/38,400 ≈ 13.33
100 60,000 1,000,000 1,000,000/60,000 ≈ 16.67
Ratio of volume to area for different cubes.
134 SURFACE AREA
An animal loses heat through external surface area. The energy needed for
basic metabolism is roughly proportional to the volume of the animal. An animal
that has a large volume with respect to its surface area will have an easier time
maintaining its metabolism. Alarge animal will have a lower heart rate and food
requirements that are a fraction of its weight. An animal that has a small volume
compared with surface area will have to work hard to replace the heat lost. We
can expect small animals to have rapid heartbeats and daily food requirements
that may be multiples of the animals’ weight. A polar bear is compact: Its large
bulk means that it will have a large volume-to-area ratio. A hummingbird has a
volume-to-surface-area ratio close to 0.5. It loses heat rapidly and hence must
have a rapid heartbeat and relatively large food intake to maintain its metabolism.
Perhaps that is one of the reasons that there are no hummingbirds in the Arctic.
Of course, animals aren’t cubes. A human being is not packaged like a polar
bear. We have hands that are very useful, but in winter they provide more surface
area proportional to the volume they contain, so the wise person will wear mit-
tens instead of gloves to reduce the heat loss.
The volume-to-surface-area ratio is a factor at the microscopic level. Cells
cannot benefit from larger volume-to-surface-area ratios. Since energy must come
through the cell membrane, small ratios are an advantage. The compensation
made by plant cells is that larger plant cells maintain less of a spherical shape
(more cylindrical), while small plant cells are close to spherical. With a less spher-
ical shape, the larger cells maintain an advantageous volume-to-surface-area ratio.
online sources for further exploration
Camping (wearing gloves)
<http://www.princeton.edu/~oa/winter/wintcamp.shtml>
Figuring out how many rolls of wall covering you need
<http://www.homerepairworkshop.com/scripts/hrw.mv?ACTN=DSPLY&ART=146>
Lead paint concentrations
<http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/lead/leadapp2.html>
Medicinal tablet surface area
<http://www.micromeritics.com/sa_gem_a91.html>
Minimum surface area of a can
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/MinSurf/Minimum.Surface.Area.html>
Painting
<http://www.resene.co.nz/archspec/datashts/olsurf.htm>
Soap bubbles
<http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/bubbles/bubbles.html>
<http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/featuredmicroscopist/deckart/index.html>
Size effects on airplane lift
<http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/size.html>
Theory of flight
<http://web.mit.edu/16.00/www/aec/flight.html>
SURFACE AREA 135
Ultracapacitors
<http://www.powercache.com/products/technical.html>
Unfolding the human brain
<http://scientium.com/drmatrix/sciences/math.htm>



SYMBOLIC LOGIC
The nineteenth-century mathematician George Boole is the acknowledged
founder of modern symbolic logic. He recognized that an algebra of logic could
be developed following the model of the algebra of real numbers. The variables
of the algebra are statements that have one of two values: TRUE (1) or FALSE
(0). The fundamental operations are NOT, AND, and OR, as opposed to the num-
ber operations of opposite, multiplication, and addition. The algebra of logic
underlies decision-making, modern electronics, library searches, and branching
in computer programs.
Computer software is built on logical structures. If a market analyst had to
select all of the California residents who were female from a computer database
of customers in the United States, the status of each person in the database would
be evaluated with an expression such as “this person is from California and this
person is a women.” Sarah Jones (female) from San Francisco would evaluate as
TRUE for both parts. Amy Redfox (female) from Arizona would be evaluated as
FALSE AND TRUE. Since Amy misses one criterion, she should be excluded
from the final set. Hence the value for Amy should be FALSE AND TRUE =
FALSE. Although there may be millions of people in the database, each one falls
into only one of four categories of logic. If you use a spreadsheet program, you
can build truth tables that show the relationships among NOT, AND, and OR for
these four cases. In the table below, all possible cases of statements p and q are
listed using the words TRUE and FALSE. Each case has been evaluated with the
spreadsheet’s functions for logic. For example, the spreadsheet formula in cell
D2 is = AND(A2,B2). The formula in cell E4 is = OR(A4,B4). The last column
gives truth values of an expression that uses of all of the Boolean operations.
136 SYMBOLIC LOGIC
(p AND q)
p q NOT p p AND q p OR q OR (NOT q)
True True False True True True
True False False False True True
False True True False True False
False False True False False True
Truth tables from Microsoft Excel.
Each of these has a representation in an electrical circuit. The diagram below
is a circuit showing two ON–OFF switches p and q. The circuits pass through
AND, OR, and NOT connectors that act on the current as though it were a logic
statement, with ON represented by TRUE, and OFF by FALSE. When will the
light bulb be on? The logical expression corresponding to the circuit is in the last
column of the spreadsheet in the previous table. The light is off when p is FALSE
(OFF) and q is TRUE (ON). All other situations result in the light being ON.
Two Boolean expressions that yield the same truth tables are equivalent.
When complex circuits are expressed as Boolean algebra statements, the rules of
logic can be used to simplify the circuit to one that is logically equivalent. The
result is lower cost. Some circuits are used so frequently that they are designed
as “new” Boolean operations. One of DeMorgan’s laws is that (NOT p) OR
(NOT q) is equivalent to NOT(p AND q). The first form would require a circuit
with three logic switches. The second requires only two. The result is usually
combined in a switch called a NAND switch. There is also a NOR switch that
computes NOT(p OR q).
Computers represent numbers in binary form, whereby the numbers 0, 1, 2, 3,
4, 5, 6 look like 0, 1, 10, 11, 100, 101. The digits in a base 2 number can be stored
as a sequence of memory positions (bits) that are on (1) or off (0). Addition rules
for three cases of digit pairs are easy: 0 + 0 = 0, 0 + 1 = 1, 1 + 0 = 1. The third
case requires a “carry”: 1 + 1 = 10. Circuits called “half-adders” perform the addi-
tion of two bits to produce a sum bit and a carry bit. The addition of multidigit
numbers requires many half-adders.
Boolean operators are the fundamental connectors in written commands that
perform searches on the Internet or in computer-based library card-catalogs.
Inquiries on such databases are called “Boolean searches.” The set operations
of union and intersection are used in place of OR and AND, respectively, in set
theory.
The example of the light circuit assumes that electricity flows through a cir-
cuit instantaneously. Circuits that represent sequential firing of switches require
that the algebra include a parameter for time. Although this complicates the oper-
ations, a time parameter makes the Boolean operators effective for describing
neural nets in the brain and spinal cord, as well as simplifying computer circuits
that require timed pulses of electricity.
Boole suggested that the truth values of 1 and 0 could be extended to proba-
bilities of a statement being correct. In the late 1960s his idea was formalized in
the field called fuzzy logic. The algorithms for fuzzy logic related to the binary
logic shown here, but have been more successful in providing answers to prob-
lems that start with vague or contradictory information. Applications have in-
SYMBOLIC LOGIC 137
An electrical circuit using logic switches.
cluded the computer recognition of handwritten Japanese Kanji characters,
home-use blood-pressure indicators, and recognition of trends in masses of infor-
mation on stock prices. Fuzzy logic procedures appear in such diverse applica-
tions as determining the length of hospital stays, detecting insurance fraud,
deciding where to drill for oil, and selecting the television slot time that would
be the best for an advertiser.
online sources for further exploration
The DOIT Information Science online course (select “hardware”)
<http://doit.ort.org/course/intro.htm>
Boolean search vocabulary
<http://www.netstrider.com/search/logic.html>
<http://www.health.library.mcgill.ca/eguides/boolean.htm>
Logic in the computer language C
<http://www.learn-c.com/boolean.htm>
Logic in humor: Monty Python’s argument clinic
<http://www.infidels.org/news/atheism/sn-python.html>
Logic in rhetoric
<http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/itl/graphics/main.html>
Fuzzy logic
<http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol1/sbaa/article1.html>



SYMMETRY
Many everyday objects are symmetrical. Something is reflection-symmetric
if it is divided into two equal pieces so that one piece can fold directly over the
other piece. The folding line is called the line of symmetry, and is also a reflect-
ing line. Numerous types of insects are reflection-symmetric, such as butterflies
and ants.
Human faces are nearly reflection-symmetric, but no one is perfect! Seldom
are human feet perfectly symmetrical, since one foot is typically slightly larger
138 SYMMETRY
The wings of butterflies are reflection-
symmetric with their bodies.
than the other. However, shoes are manufactured to be symmetrical because the
same foot is not larger on every person nor is the larger foot uniformly larger
among people. Hence, one foot may have a tighter fit in one of the shoes.
Some objects are designed to be reflection-symmetric so that they can bal-
ance and have more support. For example, airplane engines and wheels are
placed equidistant from the fuselage to divide equally their mass and power. Cer-
tain merchandise might be intentionally built not to be reflection-symmetric if it
is customized to meet a person’s needs. For instance, scissors are made especial-
ly for right-handed or left-handed people. Aleft-handed person will find it more
difficult cutting with a right-handed pair of scissors.
Many kites are reflection-symmetric, because they have a cross beam that is
a perpendicular bisector of the other cross beam, as shown in the following fig-
ure. The perpendicular bisector then becomes a line of symmetry that divides the
kite into two equal pieces.
An object is rotation-symmetric if one of its pieces can be rotated around a
point so that it is congruent with its other piece(s). For example, some flowers
are rotation-symmetric, because their pedals are uniformly distributed, as shown
below.
SYMMETRY 139
Shoes are reflection-symmetric. The size
and shape of the soles of each shoe match
when they are placed on top of each other.
The cross beams in a kite divide it in
equal pieces and provide support when
the kite is in the air.
The pedals of a flower are rotated around
its center and are evenly spaced apart.
Some items are constructed to be rotation-symmetric so that they can be use-
ful at multiple angles, or provide an equal distribution. For example, wrenches can
turn bolts at many different positions, and screwdrivers can twist screws continu-
ously. An eggbeater is equally productive at all of its angles when mixing cookie
batter. The blade at the bottom of the lawn mower cuts the grass evenly. A fan
helps circulate air continuously and equally. Playing cards can be held either right-
side up or upside down. Aquarterback can throw a smooth spiral to optimize the
distance of a throw because a football is shaped symmetrically.
An object that is intentionally produced so that it is not rotation-symmetric
sometimes serves a unique purpose, such as that it can only be used in one posi-
tion or does not want its mass distributed equally. For example, a knife is intended
to be held by its handle; a gun can only be fired in one direction; and a pitcher of
water has a handle and lip to provide more support and smoother pouring.
online sources for further exploration
Frieze patterns
<http://www.ucs.mun.ca/~mathed/Geometry/Transformations/frieze.html>
Occupations
<http://www.kitezh.com/symmetry/>
Oriental carpets
<http://mathforum.org/geometry/rugs/>
Symmetry activities
<http://www.camosun.bc.ca/~jbritton/jbsymteslk.htm>
Symmetry and the shape of space
<http://comp.uark.edu/~cgstraus/symmetry.unit/>
Symmetry around the world project
<http://www.schools.ash.org.au/stkierans-manly/Classes/Yr6/6B/Symmetry/>
Symmetry, crystals, and polyhedra
<http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/symmetry/symmetry.htm>
Symmetry in physics
<http://www.emmynoether.com/>
Symmetry point groups
<http://newton.ex.ac.uk/people/goss/symmetry/>
Symmetry project
<http://www.stleos.pvt.k12.ca.us/StLeosSite/classes/Seventh/realworldgeometry/
SYMMETRY/symindex.html>
Types of trusses
<http://www.trussnet.com/Resources/Basics/types.cfm>
Wallpaper groups
<http://www.clarku.edu/~djoyce/wallpaper/>



140 SYMMETRY
TANGENT
The term tangent can be used to describe a function (see Periodic Functions)
or a ratio in trigonometry applications (see Triangle Trigonometry). A geomet-
ric tangent is a segment or line that locally touches a curve or figure at one point,
but does not pass through the curve at that location. For example, y = x
3
− 3x
2
+2x − 7 has a tangent of y = 2x − 11 at the point (2,–7), as shown below.
The slope of a tangent line represents the derivative of a function at a point.
This value is the same as the instantaneous rate of change of an object with vary-
ing rate. For example, the number of bushels, b, of corn removed in a field can be
modeled with the function b = 50 − 50e
−0.08h
, where h is the number of hours
past 8:00 AM. The rate of productivity during any hour of the day can be deter-
mined by evaluating the derivative with a specific value of h, which is the same
as the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point, as shown in the figure
below. Without the derivative, the slope of the tangent line can be approximated
by finding the slope of a secant line that contains two points that are extremely
close to the point of tangency. For example, h = 4 at 12:00 PM. The production
rate at noon can be approximated by the slope of the line between 11:59:59 and
12:00:01. These times should be converted into decimals so that they can be sub-
stituted into the equation. Since there are 3,600 seconds in an hour, the difference
of 1 second from 12:00 PM will be measured as 1/3600, or approximately
0.000278 hours, from h = 4. Using the slope formula, m =
y
2
−y
1
x
2
−x
1
, the slope of
the tangent is
m ≈
b(4.000278)−b(3.999722)
4.000278−3.999722

.001615
.000556
≈ 2.9 bushels per hour.
TANGENT 141
A line can be tangent to many types of curves, including geometric shapes and functions.
A line tangent to a
circle at point C.
A line tangent to the function
y = x
3
– 3x
2
+ 2x – 7 at (2,–7)
The slope of the tangent line can predict the
productivity rate at a particular moment in time.
At this rate, it would seem appropriate to take a break so that workers can rejuve-
nate for the afternoon.
Besides worker productivity, the slope of a tangent line can help determine
the speed of an object, the location where business profits are at a maximum, the
hourly rate for business consulting, the moment when ticket sales for a particu-
lar movie have declined rapidly, and many other applications about rates that can
be modeled with functions (see Rates).
Tangents are also used in applications related to circles. For example, radio
signals will reach a distance from the antenna on the tower to the horizon. The
visible sight to the horizon represents the point of tangency, where no other parts
of the earth can be seen. Since a line tangent to a circle is perpendicular to its
radius, this distance can be determined using the Pythagorean theorem. A radio
antenna that is 200 meters tall can have a signal that reaches a distance of approx-
imately 50 km. Since the radius of the earth is approximately 6,380 km, the equa-
tion s
2
+ 6, 380
2
= 6, 380.2
2
is used to find the signal radius, s, based on the
geometric representation depicted below.
An object released from a circular-motion path will leave in a straight-line
tangent to the circle at the point of release. For example, a discus thrower spin-
ning in a circle will throw the disc out towards the open field in a straight path
after she releases the weight from her hand, as shown below. When a cowboy
spins a lasso in a circular path, and then releases his grip, the rope will travel in
a straight path towards the calf that he is trying to capture.
142 TANGENT
A cross-sectional view of the earth that
illustrates the broadcasting distance of
a radio antenna—the distance from the
top of the tower to the horizon. Note
that the diagram is not drawn to scale.
A discus thrower rotates rapidly to
add momentum to a throw. Even
though the thrower is rotating as she
releases the discus, the projectile will
be along a straight path.
The smoothness in sidewalk curves is designed using common tangents from
arcs on different circles. Without the use of tangents, curved sidewalk paths
would have jagged corners, as depicted as follows.
Belts that operate machinery, as shown in the figure below, are wrapped
around circular wheels that keep the belts in motion as they rotate. Since the belts
are tangent to both circles, they can smoothly cycle around the wheels without
jumping or falling off.
online sources for further exploration
Centripetal force
<http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1c.html>
<http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys06/bcentrif/default.htm>
Curved mirrors
<http://www.math.montana.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/deriv/mirror/learn.htm>
Eliminating the discharge snub pulley
<http://www.mineconveyor.com/snubhead.htm>
Ferroelectric complex oxides
<http://www.sas.upenn.edu/chem/gallery/phys/rappe.html>
Introducing the ellipse (flashlight)
<http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/3550/ellipse.htm>
Selection and installation of conveyer belt scales
<http://www.rocktoroad.com/selection.html>
Surfing
<http://www.ies.co.jp/math/java/calc/doukan/doukan.html>



TANGENT 143
sidewalk curves with nontangent arcs of circles sidewalk curves with tangent arcs of circles
Smooth curves in sidewalks are created with tangent arcs of circles.
Moving belts remain tightly on spin-
ning wheels, because they are tangent
to both circles at both locations.
TRANSLATIONS
Atranslation is a shift of points over the same distance and in the same direc-
tion. When you slide a checker piece across a game board from one square to
another, you are performing a translation. A home run in baseball represents the
hitter’s four translations: home plate to first base, first to second, second to third,
and third to home. The carpet design that is produced in hundreds of yards of a
carpet roll represents many translations of a single design. Musicians who trans-
pose a piece of music down to the range of a singer are performing a translation.
Translations in the coordinate plane can be expressed by the addition of coor-
dinates. The following figure shows the translation of the plane by the translation
6 right and 2 down. The translation can be expressed as an ordered pair (6,–2),
and the transformation by addition of ordered pairs. This is shown on the draw-
ing as the movement of a triangle. Every point (x, y) in the preimage of the tri-
angle will be translated 6 right and 2 down to a corresponding point (x

, y

) in
the image triangle. This gives the equation (x, y) + (6,-2) = (x

, y

). Applying
this to the vertex (-3, 4) gives (-3, 4) + (6,-2) = (3, 2) as shown. Applied to the
vertex (-5, 1) gives (-5, 1) + (6,-2) = (1,-1). The picture shows that the corre-
sponding vertex in the image triangle is (-1, 1).
Translations change equations of functions in a systematic fashion. If a graph
of a function y = f(x) is translated by (h, k), the resulting graph will be the
function y −k = f(x −h). If you translate a parabola y = x
2
by (3,-2), the
resulting graph has the equation y − (-2) = (x − 3)2, or y = x
2
− 6x + 7.
Translations apply to three-dimensional figures and functions in the same way as
they do in two dimensions.
The language of translations depends on the application. Translations that
represent moves of chess pieces can be indicated by the column or rank (labeled
with letters in the picture below) and rows or files (labeled with numbers).
144 TRANSLATIONS
The translation (slide) of a triangle by 6 right
and 2 down, (x, y) + (6,-2) = (x

, y

).
Coordinate system in chess.
Coordinate notation indicates the starting square for the piece and the ending
square. The white knight can move B1-C3. This represents the translation, or
move, of the knight. Chess players keep track of games and communicate with
distant players using this coordinate system or the similar algebraic system.
When you sing “Frere Jacques” or “Row, Row, Row My Boat” with other
people, it is likely that you separate into groups. When the first group finishes the
line “Row, row, row my boat, gently down the stream,” the second group will
start singing. When it finishes the first line, the third group will start. Meanwhile,
the first two groups continue singing. Songs that are melodious when the start is
shifted by line are called rounds. The shift is a translation in time.
Shifts in musical keys are called transpositions. Shown below is a four-note
theme from a Mozart symphony in C major transposed down to G major. Each
note has been shifted six piano notes down.
Translations have been used to build patterns in painting, architecture, weav-
ing, and ceramics from ancient Greeks to medieval Celts to contemporary Acoma
Pueblo potters in New Mexico. The basic ribbon pattern is based on repeated
translations of a simple design (see the left figure below). Another design is
based on translating the basic figure, then reflecting it. This is called a glide
reflection (right figure, below). Translations, rotations, and reflections of “seed”
patterns are fundamental in designing quilt patterns.
The simple translation of a simple seed figure, as in the left illustration, is the
basis of periodic functions. A seed, such as the two nodes of the sine function
from 0° to 360° can be translated in 360° moves to create the full periodic func-
tion of the sine. (See Periodic Functions.)
online sources for further exploration
Art
<http://hometown.aol.com/Cyrion7/celtic/index.htm>
Music
<http://www.musictheory.halifax.ns.ca/20key_trans.html>



TRANSLATIONS 145
Transposition from C major to G major.
Left: A translation pattern from Pueblo pottery. Right: A glide reflection—
a translation alternated with a reflection.
TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY
Trigonometry can be used to find unknown lengths or angle measurements.
In a situation involving right triangles, only a side length and an angle measure-
ment are needed to determine the length of an object. This information is useful
to engineers, because they can find large or hard-to-measure distances without
having to measure them. For example, the height of a flagpole or a tall building
can be determined using a measured distance from the pole and an angle of ele-
vation from the ground (see below).
Suppose you measure a distance 10 meters away from a flagpole along the
ground. You record an angle of elevation at that point equal to 40°, as depicted.
In right-triangle trigonometry, one of the following three ratios can be used to
find the flag height of the poll:
sinθ =
opposite
hypotenuse
cos θ =
adjacent
hypotenuse
tanθ =
opposite
adjacent
.
In this case, tanθ (pronounced tangent) should be used, because the opposite
side from the angle of elevation θ is unknown (the height of the flagpole), and
the adjacent side is the distance along the ground of 10 meters. Therefore the
height of the flagpole, approximately 8.4 meters, can be found by solving the
equation tan40

=
flagpole
10
.
Sometimes the angle of elevation is recorded from an object above the ground,
such as a transit sitting on a tripod, as illustrated. If the angle measurement is not
taken from the ground, then the height of the tripod will need to be included in the
final calculation. In this case, if the transit is 1.5 meters off of the ground, then the
angle of elevation would be approximately 35° (see the following figure).
The missing length will be approximately 6.9 meters, after setting up an
equation using the tangent function, tan35

=
length above transit
10
. To find the
complete flagpole length, the height of the transit will need to be added to this
calculation in order to obtain the same answer calculated earlier.
146 TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY
The height of a tall object, such as a flagpole,
can be determined with trigonometry by
measuring a distance along the ground and
an angle of elevation.
Engineers use transits to measure
angles of tall or hard-to-reach objects.
Right-triangle trigonometry can be used to determine an unknown angle
based on two lengths. For example, the navigator of a ship will try to minimize
the traveling distance by adjusting the direction of the boat to account for the
water’s current. If the current is moving parallel to the waterfront, then the speed
of the boat observed from land will be greater due to the push from the current.
Suppose that the ship is moving perpendicular to the shore at 40 feet per second
and is recording a land speed of 42 feet per second.
The current will push the boat off course if it is trying to reach a destination
directly across the river. Using the cosine of the angle cos θ, the ship’s navigator
can determine the angle in which to rotate the boat so that it does not move off
course. The cosine function is used in this case, because the two measurements
known are the adjacent (the boat speed) and hypotenuse (the land speed) sides of
the right triangle. Substituting the given values in this relationship, the unknown
angle of 17.8° can be found by solving the equation cos θ =
40
42
. To find an angle
measurement, the inverse cosine of the ratio, or cos
−1
(40/42), needs to be
entered on the calculator. This means that if the boat moves straight towards its
journey, it will actually veer off course by 17.8°. If the boat is still headed straight
without accounting for the current, it will veer almost one-third of a mile off
course for every mile traveled. To avoid this problem, the ship’s navigator will
have to turn the boat 17.8° away from the perpendicular path and against the cur-
rent in order to travel directly across the river.
Applications of right-triangle trigonometry also exist in areas outside of sur-
veying and navigation. Air-traffic control at small airports must establish the
cloud height in the evening to determine if there is enough visibility for pilots to
safely land their planes. Alight source directed at a constant angle of 70° towards
the clouds situated 1,000 feet from an observer, and the observer’s angle of ele-
TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY 147
Boats need to turn an angle by θ against the current
in order to account for the force of it so that they can
head in the most direct path towards the shore.
A transit can be used to measure the angle of elevation to help
determine the height of a tall object, such as a flagpole. The
sum of the height of the transit and the leg of the right triangle
along the flagpole represents the total height of the flagpole.
vation θ to the spotlight in the clouds, are sufficient information to determine the
cloud height (see below).
In this situation, the equations tanθ =
h
y
, tan70° =
h
x
, and x +y = 1, 000
can be used to find the cloud height, h. Planes can safely land if the cloud height
is above 1,000 feet, with horizontal ground visibility of at least three miles.
The pilot can also use right-triangle trigonometry to determine the moment
when a plane needs to descend towards the airport. If the plane descends at a large
angle, the passengers may feel uneasy due to a quick drop in altitude and also
may not adjust well to changes in pressure. Consequently, the pilot tries to antic-
ipate the opportunity to descend towards the airport at a small angle, probably
less than 5°. Based on the plane’s altitude, air-traffic control at the airport can
determine the point at which the plane should begin to descend. With a descent
angle of 3° and altitude a, the plane should start its approach at a distance of
tan3

a
feet away from the airport, assuming that the plane descends at the same
angle until it reaches the ground.
Construction workers can determine the length of a wheelchair ramp based
on restrictions for its angle of elevation. For example, suppose an office needs to
install a ramp that is inclined at most 5° from the ground. If the incline is too
great, it would be difficult for handicapped people to move up the ramp on their
own. Based on this information, the architect and construction workers can deter-
mine the number of turns needed in the ramp so that it will fit on the property
and stay within the angle-of-elevation regulations. In addition to wheelchair
ramps, a similar equation can be set up to determine the angle by which to pave
a driveway so that an automobile does not scrape its bumper on the curb upon
entering and leaving.
All triangle applications finding unknown sides or angles, however, are not
always situated in settings where a right triangle is used. In these cases, either the
law of sines or law of cosines can be applied. One example of applying the law
of sines is to find the height of a hill or a mountain, since it is unlikely that one
will be able to find the distance from the base of a hill or mountain to its center,
as shown in the following figure.
The law of sines states that the ratio of the sine of an angle to the side length
of its opposite side is proportional for all opposite angle and side pairs. That is,
in triangle ABC,
sinA
a
=
sinB
b
=
sinC
c
. If a person measures an angle of eleva-
148 TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY
Determining the cloud height.
tion from the base of the hill to its peak, and then repeats the measurement at a
given distance away, the law of sines can be used to find the height of the hill.
Actually, it can first be used to find the length along the side of the hill, and then
right-triangle trigonometry can be used to find the hill’s height. In this case, a
surveyor takes measurements c = 1, 000 feet apart and measures angles of ele-
vation to the tip of the hill equal to m < B = 75° and m < A = 43°. The fol-
lowing equation to find the length alongside the hill, a, can be set up using the
law of sines:
sin32

1,000
=
sin43

a
.
The 32° angle opposite the 1,000 foot distance can be found by using the fact
that the sum of the angles in a triangle is equal to 180°. This length of a, approx-
imately 1,287 feet, can help engineers determine the amount of railway needed
to build a funicular to transport materials, or the amount of cable needed to build
a gondola line for skiing. Since a right triangle is in the diagram, right-triangle
trigonometry can be used to find the hill’s height. Solve the equation sin75° =
h
1,287
to determine the height of the hill, h, which is approximately 1,243 feet.
That is a length equal to about four football fields, but straight up in the air!
The law of cosines is a theorem used in triangle trigonometry to find the
measurement of a side when two sides and an included angle are given, or to find
the measurement of an angle when three sides are given. For example, a public-
works contractor can determine the amount of cement needed to pave a new road
that intersects two other intersecting roads in town (to form a triangle), as shown
below.
In this case, the contractor needs to determine the angle formed between the
existing roads, m

C, and the location of the intersection of the other two roads
in order to predict the distance of the new road. Since the distance traveled is pro-
portional to the amount of cement used, the formula c
2
= a
2
+b
2
− 2ab cos C
will help determine the amount of cement needed to connect the roads, where a,
b, and c are sides of the triangle (the length of the roads), and C is the angle in-
cluded between the existing roads a and b. Asimilar type of investigation would
also be needed for bridge designers or tunnel developers.
TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY 149
The height of a hill can be determined
using the law of sines and right-triangle
trigonometry by measuring the angles of
elevation at points A and B, and the dis-
tance between points A and B.
The length of a newly paved road can be
determined using the law of cosines, given
the length of two adjacent roads and angle
C—the angle between the existing road.
Triangle trigonometry has many other applications that help find unknown
lengths or angle measurements. For instance, paintings, motion pictures, and
televisions have ideal viewing distances in order to create the greatest possible
image from the eye. The triangle is formed between the view and the top and bot-
tom (or the sides) of the viewing object.
Astronomers use triangle trigonometry to determine distances and sizes of
objects. For example, the distance from the earth to the moon, and earth to the sun,
can be found by identifying their angles from the horizon during an eclipse. The
height of a solar flare can also be determined by measuring the angle from the sun
to the tip of the flare, and using distance information about the earth and sun.
online sources for further exploration
Astronomy and geography
<http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Academy/8245/trigonometry.html>
Cable television
<http://www.wake.tec.nc.us/math/Projects/Raychem/deb-raychem_trig.htm>
Civil engineering and navigation
<http://www.ece.utexas.edu/projects/k12-fall98/14545/Group1/app.html>
Height of a tree
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/Kite/kite.html>
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_15_3/ary_15_3.htm>
Inclined ramp
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_12_3/ary_12_3.htm>
Pipe flow
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_8_3/ary_8_3.htm>
Saturn’s mass and distance from earth
<http://www.amtsgym-sdbg.dk/as/AOL-SAT/SATURN.HTM>
Surveying
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_17_3/ary_17_3.htm>
<http://catcode.com/trig/trig13.html>



VARIATION
When two quantities increase proportionally, we say they are directly related.
Mathematically, the two quantities x and y must be related as y = kx, where k is
a nonzero constant called the constant of variation. The formula for circumfer-
ence c of a circle in terms of radius r is c = 2πr. The constant of variation is 2π.
The independent variable can be a power. The area of a circle is directly related
to the square of the radius, A = πr
2
. The constant of variation is π. Kepler’s
150 VARIATION
VARIATION 151
third law of planetary motion uses a fractional power. The period T of a planet’s
orbit around the sun is proportional to the 3/2 power of its distance R from the
sun, T = kR
3/2
. Because Kepler’s first law stated that planets circle the sun in
elliptical paths, the semimajor axis provides the measure of distance.
Many geometry formulas can be expressed as direct variation. Since the area
of a cube is A = 6s
2
, where A is the surface area and s is the length of an edge,
it follows that s =

A
6
. The length of an edge varies directly as the square root
of surface area of the cube. The length of the edge varies directly as the cube root
of the volume V , s =

V
3
.
Joint variation occurs when the dependent variable varies directly as the
product of two or more independent variables. Many geometry formulas are in
joint variation. The volume of a cylinder is V =
1
3
πr
2
h. The volume V varies
jointly as the radius r squared and the height h. The constant of variation is
1
3
π.
The volume of a rectangular solid having length L, width W, and height H is
expressed in the formula, V = LWH. The volume varies jointly as length,
width, and height. The constant of variation is 1.
Biologists and medical scientists have provided formulas for the surface area
of a human-being’s skin. The DuBois formula relates area in square centimeters
jointly to the 0.425 power of weight in kilograms and the 0.725 power of height
in centimeters, A = 71.84W
0.425
H
0.725
. The formula estimates the surface area
for the average adult male to be about 1.8 square meters, and for the average
adult female, about 1.6 square meters.
Population biologists use different kinds of variation to express rates of
change. The change in a population undergoing rapid growth (see Exponential
Growth) is c = rP, where c is the change in the number of organisms, P is the
population count before change, and r is the rate of change. In 1995, Mexico’s
population was 91.1 million people. It was increasing at a rate of 2.0 percent per
year. The change formula for Mexico would be the direct variation formula, c =
0.02P. Using the formula to predict the change in population for 1995 to 1996
gives, c = 1.822 million people. The change for the following year would be
based on 92.2 people. If there is a limit to the population of a country, say M
people, then the change formula would be c = kP(M −P). Change in a popu-
lation varies jointly as the current population and the available capacity for peo-
ple. This leads to a more complex pattern of growth. (See Logistic Functions.)
Inverse variation occurs when the variables are related through a reciprocal.
If you must travel 200 miles at a constant rate, the distance-rate-time formula
says that 200 = rt. Solving for t gives the equation t =
200
r
. In this equation, t
varies inversely as r. The constant of variation is 200. The independent variable
can be a power. For example, the intensity I of light falling on an object varies
inversely as the square of the distance d from the light. The formula is I =
k
d
2
.
(See Inverse Square Function.)
The law of the lever is an inverse variation. The distance d from the fulcrum
in feet needed to stabilize the seesaw with a person who weights w pounds is
d =
k
w
. If Jane weighs 100 pounds and sits 5 feet from the fulcrum, how far away
will Juan, who weighs 150 pounds, have to sit in order to balance Jane? Use
Jane’s data to find the constant of variation k: 5 = k/100, so k = 500. Now
solve for Juan’s distance: d = 500/150 = 3.33. Juan would have to sit 3 feet 4
inches from the fulcrum in order to balance Jane. Note that the constant k was
computed from Jane’s statistics. If she were to change position or be replaced by
someone else, the value of k would change.
Pulley systems are a series of ropes and wheels that help lift and support
heavy objects by distributing weight in multiple locations. Elevator shafts rely on
pulleys to move the cabin, and movers use pulleys to transport cumbersome or
heavy objects such as pianos into tall buildings. A100 pound weight can feel like
a 50 pound weight when it is moved by a two-pulley system, because half the
weight is distributed at the other pulleys. As the number of pulleys in the system
increases, the amount of force needed to move the object decreases proportion-
ally. Therefore a three-pulley system needs a 33.33-pound force to move the 100
pound weight, a four-pulley system needs a 25 pound force to move the 100
pound weight, and so on. The force, f, needed to move an object, the weight of
the object, w, the number of pulleys needed in a system, p, are related with the
equation, f = w/p. If the weight is constant, then the force applied varies in-
versely with the number of pulleys used.
Compound variation combines direct and indirect variation with two or more
independent variables. The gravitational force between two planets varies
directly as the product of the masses of the planets, and inversely as the square
of the distance between them: F =
Gm
1
m
2
d
2
, where F is the force in newtons, G
is a gravitational constant (6.67 × 10
−11
newton-meters per square kilogram), r
is the distance in meters between the centers of two planets, and m
1
and m
2
are
the mass of each planet in kilograms. The constant of variation would be differ-
ent if measurements are made in different units, such as in feet rather than meters
and pounds rather than kilograms. The formula works if one of the planets is the
earth and the other “planet” is a person high above the earth’s surface. It simpli-
fies to an inverse-variation formula for the weight of a body above the
earth: W =
k
d
2
, where W is the weight above the planet, d is the distance be-
tween the person and the center of the earth, and k is a constant. It may seem
strange that both masses have disappeared, but they are handled by the constant.
Consider a 170 pound astronaut who is 9,000 miles above the surface of the
earth. How much does he weigh at that altitude? First write the equation for his
weight at the surface of the earth. Since the radius of the earth is about 4,000
miles, 170 =
k
4,000
2
. Solving for k yields, k = 2.72 × 10
9
. The inverse-square
formula is therefore W =
2,720,000,000
d
2
. Using this formula with the distance d =
13,000 miles from the center of the earth gives, W ≈ 16.09. The astronaut would
weigh about 16 pounds.
The deflection D of a diving board is a function of the weight W of the diver,
the length of the board L, the elasticity E of the material making up the board,
152 VARIATION
and the moment of inertia I of the cross section of the board. The variation for-
mula is D = k
WL
3
3EI
.
Ohm’s law is a direct variation statement V = IR, where V is voltage, I is
current, and R is the resistance in a particular conductor. R, which is measured
in ohms, is constant of variation for the particular conductor. Resistance is meas-
ured in ohms and will vary across different wires. For example, electrical resist-
ance R in a wire varies directly as its length L, and inversely as its cross-sec-
tional area A: R =
ρL
A
, where ρ is the constant of variation. The constant of vari-
ation is called resistivity and has been computed for many materials: gold has a
resistivity of 2.35 × 10
−8
; carbon, 3.50 × 10
−5
; and wood, 10
8
. If one assumes
that the wire is round, then the variation is R =
kL
r
2
. The coefficient of variation,
k, would be the resistivity divided by π. If resistance in a wire must be reduced,
there are two routes: you could shorten the wire, or you could use a wire with a
larger radius. The latter might have the most payoff, because the radius is squared
in the formula. The three-dimensional graph below shows the resistance (verti-
cal axis) of copper wire wrapped into a coil. The lower-left axis shows the radius
in meters of wire running from 2 mm up to 1 cm (0.01 meter). The axis on the
right shows how long the wire would be if it were unwrapped. The axis runs,
right to left, from 0 to 1,200 meters. The length does not appear to affect results.
However, radii under 5 mm send the resistance soaring.
Some laws appear in different forms of variation depending on the situation.
The simple form of Poiseuille’s law states that the speed S at which blood moves
through arteries and veins varies directly with the blood pressure P and the
fourth power of the radius r of the blood vessel: S = kPr
4
. This is derived from
Poiseuille’s law for the flow of fluids, which relates to flow F rather than speed
(flow is speed times cross-section area of the tube): F =
k∆Pr
4
nL
, where ∆P is
the change in pressure from the beginning of a tube to the end, r is the radius of
the tube, n is a measure of viscosity of the fluid, L is the length of the tube, and
k is a constant of variation. In this version, which is used to determine the flow
of oil through pipes and also fluids through tubes in an automobile, flow is
directly related to the change in pressure and fourth power of tube radius, and is
inversely related to viscosity and the length of tube.
In general, solving variation problems involves two steps: first, solve for the
constant of variation in a known situation; and second, use that constant to
VARIATION 153
Resistance of coiled copper wire for
wire diameters from 0.002 to 0.01 m,
and lengths from 0 to 1200 m.
rewrite the formula and evaluate the dependent value for the unknown situation.
Variation problems can also be solved with proportions. (See Proportions.)
online sources for further exploration
Applications of variation
<http://www.iln.net/html_p/c/72782/62079/53795/53836/58708_58712.asp>
<http://www.jcoffman.com/Algebra2/ch9_2.htm>
Diving
<http://library.thinkquest.org/28170/34.html>
Fan laws
<http://www.apco1650.demon.co.uk/fdr.htm>
Financial hedging
<http://www.cs.trinity.edu/~rjensen/000overview/mp3/138intro.htm>
Galilieo’s pendulum experiments
<http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/Student_Work/Experiment95/galileo_pendu-
lum.html>
Kepler’s laws
<http://www.cvc.org/science/kepler.htm>
<http://observe.ivv.nasa.gov/nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit3.html>
Harmonics, resonance, and interference
<http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/physics/u5c42phy.html>
Murphy’s law of locksmithing
<http://www.google.com/url?sa=U&start=7&q=http://www.jfbdtp.com/Murphy.html
&e=747>
Population growth described in Annenberg Math in Everyday Life
<http://www.learner.org/exhibits/dailymath/population.html>
Ventilation
<http://human.physiol.arizona.edu/SCHED/Respiration/Morgan31/Morgan.L31.
html>
Formulas that show different variation can be found in XREF
<http://www.xrefer.com/>



VECTORS
Vectors emerged from the study of physical situations in which two or more
forces were applied to an object. Avector is a directed line segment whose length
is proportional to the time, distance, or force being measured. Many people use
vectors to give directions. “Go down this street six blocks. Turn left at the stop
sign. Go another two blocks to the stoplight. Turn left at the stoplight at Maple
154 VECTORS
Street. Go southwest eight blocks on Maple.” Applications of vectors appear in
physics, navigation, computer graphics, airplane design, and statistics.
In the illustration below, Sarah and James are pulling a wagon. Sarah pulls
with 25 pounds of force, and James with 15 pounds. They are pulling at an angle
of 20°. What is the net direction and force on the wagon? The James vector

j is
drawn along the x-axis of the grid. The three units represent 15 pounds of force.
The vector for Sarah, s, is 5 units long, representing 25 pounds of force. It is
drawn 20° from

j. The parallelogram law in physics states that the resultant vec-
tor r is the diagonal of the parallelogram that is formed with sides parallel to the
vectors. (See Quadrilaterals.) The obtuse angle in the triangle is formed by two
sides and the diagonal is 160°. By the law of cosines (see Triangle Trigonometry),
r
2
= s
2
+j
2
− 2sj cos θ
r
2
= 25
2
+ 15
2
− 2(25)(15) cos 160°.
Solving for r yields a force of 39.43 pounds. Using the law of sines computes the
angle between r and

j to be about 12.5°. Because they are pulling at an angle,
the forces don’t add to the total possible for Sarah and James (40 pounds of
force), but they come close.
The same kind of analysis applies to paths of airplanes. The next figure
shows an airplane pointed due northeast at 400 miles per hour. Its vector a is
drawn 45° clockwise from north. A90-mile-per-hour wind is blowing 10° south
of east. The wind vector w is shown at 10° clockwise from east. The angle
between the plane vector and the wind vector is 55°. The plane will be blown
somewhat off course. What is its direction and ground speed? The situation
depicted indicates directions in degrees according to navigation conventions.
Complete the resultant vector r and compute its length and direction. From the
VECTORS 155
Vectors showing James

j and
Sarah s pulling on a wagon. Their
resultant force is r, indicated by the
diagonal of the parallelogram.
Vector diagram for an airplane headed
northeast that is blown off course by a
wind 10° south of east.
law of cosines r
2
= 400
2
+ 90
2
− 2(400)(90) cos 125

. The length of r is about
458 miles per hour. The angle between a and r is about 9.3°. So the direction
would be about 45

− 9.3

= 35.3

north of east. Even though the airplane
would be pointed northeast, from the ground it would appear to be traveling only
35.3° north of east. (See Triangle Trigonometry.)
When vectors are written as an ordered pair, the length is written first, and
the angle second. (See Polar Coordinates.) Sarah’s vector would be written as
s = [25, 20

]; James’ vector would be

j = [15, 0

]. The brackets indicate that the
vector is written in polar-coordinate form. The lengths of the vectors are written
with the absolute value sign. The length of Sarah’s vector would be |s| = 25.
Polar form is a natural way of presenting force vectors, but the algebra of vec-
tors is easier to work with in Cartesian-coordinate form (x,y). This is called the
component form. To convert a vector in polar form v = [d, θ] to component form,
use the formulas x = d cos θ and y = d sinθ. Sarah’s polar vector would be
s = (25 cos 20

, 25 sin20

) ≈ (23.50, 8.55). To reconstruct the length of Sarah’s
vector from component form, use the Pythagorean theorem:
|s| =

(25 cos 20

)
2
+ (25 sin20

)
2
= 25.
The addition of vectors in component form is done by the addition of coor-
dinates. If v = (a, b) and w = (c, d), the parallelogram law requires that the vec-
tor sum be v + w = (a +c, b +d). Component form makes it easier to handle
problems involving gravity. If a golf ball is hit with an impact of 70 meters/sec-
ond at a 30° angle, the distance of the ball (ignoring wind resistance and gravity)
is given by the vector

b = [70t, 30

], where time t is given in seconds. The com-
ponent form is

b = (70t cos 30

, 70t sin30

). A graph would show the golf ball
traveling upwards into space at an angle of 30° from the ground. However, grav-
ity provides a force vector that reduces vertical distance as g = (0,–4.9t
2
). The
vector addition of the ball and gravity gives a parabolic path produced by

b +g = (70t cos 30

, 70t sin30

− 4.9t
2
). Algebra can be used to determine
how far the ball has traveled horizontally when it hits the ground. (See Angle for
computations of the path of a projectile.) Vector descriptions of motions and
forces are used to describe the collisions of atomic particles, the interaction of
chemical substances, and the movements of stars and galaxies.
Component form has operations that are somewhat like multiplication, but
yet different. The dot product of two vectors is given by v • w = (ac, bd), where
v = (a, b) and w = (c, d). Lengthening a vector by a scale factor k is given by
kv = (ka, kb). The dot product is used in the formula for the cosine of an angle
between two vectors: cos θ =
v• w
|v|| w|
. The effectiveness of component-form vec-
tors comes when vectors operate in more dimensions. For three-dimensional
space, the dot product of v = (v
1
, v
2
, v
3
) and w = (w
1
, w
2
, w
3
) is v • w =
(v
1
w
1
, v
2
w
2
, v
3
w
3
), an easy-to-remember extension of the two-component
model. Further, the equation for the cosine of the angle between two vectors
looks exactly the same, even though there is an additional dimension.
156 VECTORS
Since the concepts of addition, dot product, and angle between vectors scale
up to many dimensions, vector mathematics adapts well to statistical computa-
tions. Consider the test-score data on five students shown in the table below. The
deviation scores form vectors with five components. The science vector is s =
(5, 0, 1, -1, -5). The math vector is m = (5,-3, 3, -2,-3).
science math science math
raw score raw score deviation score deviation score
student X Y x y
Albert 85 25 5 5
Manuel 80 17 0 -3
Bonnie 81 23 1 3
Sharon 79 18 -1 -2
Elena 75 17 -5 -3
average (mean) 80 20
Test data on five students. Deviation scores are computed by taking the test score
minus the mean (e.g., x
Bonnie
= 81 − 80 = 1;. y
Elena
= 17 − 20 = -3).
Computations with the vectors give the lengths to be
|s| =

5
2
+ 0
2
+ 1
2
+ (−1)
2
+ (−5)
2
=

52 and | m| =

56.
When each of these lengths is scaled by the reciprocal of the square root of
dimensions,
1

5
, the computation produces the standard deviation for each vec-
tor. These are about 3.22 for s and 3.34 for m. (See Standard Deviation for uses
and formulas.) The cosine of the angle between the two vectors is
cos θ =
s• m
|s|| m|
=
5(5)+0(−3)+1(3)+(−1)(−2)+(−5)(−3)

52

56
≈ 0.83.
This is called the correlation coefficient for the two vectors and is commonly
designated with the letter r. We say that for this group of students, science scores
correlate 0.83 with math scores. Because it is a cosine, the correlation coefficient
r ranges from -1 to +1. Correlations at +1 (angle θ = 0

) and -1 (angle θ = 180

)
indicate that the vectors are collinear. Correlations close to 0 (angle θ = 90

)
indicate that the vectors are going in different directions. In the first case (r = 1),
the vectors are pulling in the same direction. In the second case (r = -1), they are
opposites. Our correlation coefficient for science and math tests (r = 0.83) cor-
responds to an angle between the vectors of about 33.5°. In a space of five
dimensions, these vectors are separate enough that each one is measuring some
underlying skills that are different for different students, but they are also meas-
uring something that is the same for all students. Generally, students who scored
high on science also scored high on math. The square of the cosine provides a
measure of overlap. This coefficient of determination is r
2
= 0.83
2
≈ 0.70. It
VECTORS 157
indicates that 70 percent of the variability in math scores is accounted for by the
variability in science scores. When statisticians work with many scores, they
examine the correlations among all the variables to determine how the number
of dimensions of the original space can be reduced to fewer, stronger, and more
interpretable dimensions.
In the case of three dimensions, the operation of cross product provides a
way to compute perpendiculars to planes. The cross product of v = (v
1
, v
2
, v
3
)
and w = (w
1
, w
2
, w
3
) is defined as v × w = (v
2
w
3
−v
3
w
2
, v
3
w
1
−v
1
w
3
,
v
1
w
2
−v
2
w
1
). The cross product is a vector. Its relationship to the plane formed
by v and w is shown in the figure. The cross product is said to be orthogonal to
the plane.
The cross product is computed for surfaces of airplanes or boat hulls. The
direction of air or water currents across the surfaces is modeled by the angles that
the currents make with vectors that are orthogonal to the surface. This is not a
recent concept. Sketches in the notebooks of the Wright brothers one hundred
years ago show computation of vector forces on the different wings they tried
before achieving the first airplane flight. A spinning wheel, like the disk in a
gyroscope, produces a force called torque. This is a force that is perpendicular to
the plane of rotation. If you ride a bike very fast, you will feel resistance as you
try to tilt the bicycle to the left or right. The torque produced by the spinning
wheels will try to maintain its direction, so you must use some pressure to pro-
duce a tilt. If you are traveling slowly, the torque isn’t very strong, so it is easy
to tilt the bike and fall. Large cruise ships have gyroscopes with heavy wheels
that spin rapidly. The torque produces a force that counters the movement from
waves, making for a smoother ride for passengers.
Computer-graphic programmers use orthogonal vectors to determine how
light sources would hit surfaces visible in a computer game or architectural image.
The angles between the light rays from an external source to orthogonal vectors
on the surface are computed. If the angles are close to 0°, then the light will be
shown at full intensity. If close to 90°, then the light is reaching the surface with
minimal intensity. The vector computations (the vector-graphic phase) are then
transferred into the display device as light intensity and color for the different
points (pixels) that would be visible. This is the raster graphic phase. By control-
ling the brilliance of pixels on the screen according to vector computations, com-
puter-graphic designers present realistic scenes to the viewer. Some computer
files store images as vectors (the rules that create the image), and some files keep
the bitmap of the image (a snapshot of the pixel intensity). Postscript files contain
158 VECTORS
The cross-product vector v × w
is perpendicular to the plane
formed by the vectors v and w.
rules for generating graphics on printers and computer screens, and use vector
concepts in drawing letters as well as pictures. Graphics files on your computer
that end in .GIF or .JPG are raster files. Vector files (geometric files) are easier to
modify than raster files. Raster files display faster than vector files, although the
high speed of modern processors makes this a negligible difference to the ordi-
nary computer user. Vector descriptions of images are used for computer identifi-
cation of faces, for translating handwriting into computer text, for descriptions of
protein structures, and for the location of tumors in medical CAT scans.
online sources for further exploration
Animations of vector operations
<http://www.reed.edu/~obonfim/Phys100.html>
<http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/mechanics/vectors/components/vector
Components.html>
<http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/vector_calculator.html>
Computer graphics
<http://www.enginemonitoring.org/illum/illum.html>
<http://www.sli.unimelb.edu.au/envis/hidden.html>
<http://www.ati.com/na/pages/resource_centre/dev_rel/sdk/RadeonSDK/Html/
Tutorials/RadeonBumpMap.html>
<http://www.greuer.de/ecalc3d.html>
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (medical visualization)
<http://www.cis.rit.edu/htbooks/mri/>
Parachute vectors
<http://www.explorescience.com/>
Vector properties
<http://www.netcomuk.co.uk/~jenolive/homevec.html>
<http://forum.swarthmore.edu/~klotz/Vectors/vectors.html>
<http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/vectors/u3l1a.html>
Vectors in text
<http://www.wdvl.com/Authoring/Graphics/Tools/PSP7/Text_Path/>



VOLUME
Volume describes the amount of space contained in a three-dimensional
object. Almost every object we use has volume, due to having depth. Even a
sheet of paper has volume, because it has thickness, although a very thin one. If
an object, such as paper, does not have volume, then it could be stacked indefi-
nitely without having any height. You can estimate the thickness of a sheet of
VOLUME 159
paper by measuring the height of a ream of paper and then dividing by 500
sheets. Hence, to find the volume of the sheet of paper, or the amount of wood
needed to make the paper, you would divide the volume of the prism formed by
the ream by the number of sheets of paper in the ream.
Manufactures think about volume as they build containers for their products.
Canned and boxed foods are often sold by their mass. Knowing the density of the
substance can help determine the amount of volume it will use in a container,
since density, d, is the ratio of mass, m, and volume, v. In terms of an equation,
d =
m
v
. Nonuniform products that contain air pockets such as potato chips and
cereal will often have additional empty volume when a package is opened,
because the contents will have settled and filled air pockets.
In addition to packaging food, companies that produce fragile items need to
consider the volume of additional materials that are needed, such as Styrofoam,
shredded paper, or packing bubbles. The amount of insulated packaging needed
would be equal to the difference between the volume of the box and the volume
of the item. If the item being shipped is in the form of a geometric solid, such as
a prism, pyramid, sphere, or cylinder, then the volume can be predicted with an
equation. For example, suppose a crystal ball with a radius of 2 inches is shipped
in a cubical container with an edge length of 6 inches. The volume of packaging
material needed to surround the crystal ball would be: the volume of the cube
minus the volume of the sphere = 6
3

4
3
π • 2
3
≈ 182 cubic inches. That is al-
most 85 percent of the space in the box!
Beverage production and distillation centers use the concept of volume to
determine how many containers can be filled based on their available raw mate-
rials. Cola companies need large tanks, usually cylindrical, to mix the raw ingre-
dients needed to create soft drinks. Once created, the cola will need to be emp-
tied into cans for distribution. Suppose a 5,000 gallon tank of cola is ready to be
dispersed into 12 ounce cans. If each gallon is equivalent to 128 fluid ounces,
then 5,000 × 128 = 128,000 ounces of cola are available to produce a little more
than 53,000 soft drinks (128,000/12 ≈ 53,333), and over 2,200 (53,333/24 ≈
2,222) cases for distribution.
Ice cream cones are constructed so that the ice cream drips inside of the cone
as it melts. When ice cream is served, the spherical scoops lie on top of a cone
that is empty inside. The volume of ice cream inside the cone will gradually
increase as the temperature of the ice cream rises and pressure is applied at the
top of the cone. The cone keeps the ice cream inside it from melting more
quickly, since it is not exposed to the outside air temperature. An ice cream cone
with a height of 8 cm and base radius of 2 cm can hold close to half of a scoop
of ice cream with radius 2.5 cm. This is determined by dividing the volume of
the cone
1
3
π • 2
2
• 8 by the volume of the spherical scoop
4
3
π • 2.5
3
, whose ratio
is approximately 0.512.
Construction workers who use concrete consider the amount of cement
needed to complete a job. When a driveway for a new house is planned, its
160 VOLUME
dimensions need to be measured so that an appropriate amount of cement is
brought to the site. Suppose a driveway 12 feet wide and 30 feet long is needed
for a new home, and the cement poured needs to be 1.25 feet deep so that it will
not break apart under pressure from automobiles or extreme temperatures. The
volume of cement needed to complete this job can be determined by the product
of its dimensions, since the cement will fill into a rectangular prism. Therefore
the amount of cement needed is (12)(30)(1.25) = 450 cubic feet. If a bag of
cement mixture prepares 0.75 cubic feet of concrete, then the cement truck will
need to contain 600 bags of mixture in order to create the driveway. Since each
bag is about a hundred pounds, multiple trucks will be needed to carry the 60,000
pound load.
The dispersion of an oil spill can be predicted based on the amount of oil that
is lost. On March 24, 1989, the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in
Prince William Sound, Alaska, spilling more than 11 million gallons of oil. There
are 231 cubic inches in a gallon, so the spill had an approximate volume of 254
billion (231 × 11,000,000 = 254,100,000,000) cubic inches of oil. Thousands of
marine animals and fish were killed by the oil that contaminated the water. As oil
spreads, it typically leaves a layer that is 1/100 inch thick on the surface of the
water. The direction of the spill is influenced by the placement of the spill and
the direction of the ocean’s current. In this circumstance, much of the oil had
brushed on shore, at the beaches. What if the spill had happened in the middle of
the ocean? Imagine the effect of spilling water in an open space on the floor.
Assuming that the floor is flat, the spill will disperse in nearly a circular region.
If the oil had spilled in the middle of the ocean without land interference, the spill
could have covered nearly 2.5 billion (254,100,000,000 ⋆ 1/100) square inches
of the surface of the water. If the path of the oil dispersed in the shape of a cir-
cle, then it could have spread in a radius of close to half a mile. This information
can be determined by solving for r in the equation πr
2
= 2,541,000,000, and then
converting the inch units to miles. There are 5,280 feet in one mile, and 12 inches
in a foot. Therefore the conversion is 5,280 × 12 = 63,360 inches for every mile.
Benjamin Franklin was one of the first to determine that very little oil will spread
out over a huge area of water. His work actually gave one of the first estimates
of the thickness of a molecule of oil, even though no one in Franklin’s time knew
about molecules.
online sources for further exploration
Aluminum tanks
<http://www.fifthd.com/gear/tankspecs.html>
Application to environmental health
<http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_8_1/ary_8_1.htm>
Balloon volumes
<http://www.overflite.com/volume.html>
VOLUME 161
Blood pressure
<http://www.shodor.org/master/biomed/physio/cardioweb/application.html>
Cost for landscaping
<http://gardening.sierrahome.com/tools/landscaping/volumeandcost_calc.jsp>
Density of water, ice, and snow
<http://astro.uchicago.edu/cara/southpole.edu/flaky.html>
How big are your lungs?
<http://www.troy.k12.ny.us/schools/ths/ths_biology/labs_online/school_labs/print_
versions/lung_lab_school_print.html>
Measurement microphones
<http://www.josephson.com/tn6.txt>
Spherical polytropes
<http://www.phys.lsu.edu/students/valencic/approject1.html>
Tank volume
<http://www.grapl.com/vmlnotes/examples/tank_volume.htm>
Unit converter
<http://www.webcom.com/legacysy/convert2/volume.html>
<http://www.ex.ac.uk/cimt/dictunit/ccvol.htm>
Volume of an irregular solid
<http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt725/Envir/Volume.html>



162 VOLUME
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BIBLIOGRAPHY 165
About the Authors
EVAN M. GLAZER is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Georgia in the
Department of Instructional Technology, and a former mathematics teacher at
Glenbrook South High School in Glenview, Illinois. He has written in the math-
ematics and technology areas. His book, Using Internet Primary Sources to
Teach Critical Thinking Skills in Mathematics, was published in 2001 by Green-
wood Press.
JOHN W. MCCONNELL is a lecturer at North Park University, earning his
doctorate in mathematics education from Northwestern University. Before his re-
tirement, he was instructional supervisor of mathematics at Glenbrook South
High School in Glenview, Illinois, for twenty-seven years. He has written many
publications in the field of K–12 mathematics, including three textbooks in the
University of Chicago School Mathematics Project.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Glazer, Evan, 1971– . Real-life math : everyday use of mathematical concepts / Evan M. Glazer and John W. McConnell. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-313-31998-7 (alk. paper) 1. Mathematics—Popular works. I. McConnell, John W. II. Title. QA93 .G45 2002 510—dc21 2001058635

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data is available. Copyright © 2002 by Evan M. Glazer and John W. McConnell All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, by any process or technique, without the express written consent of the publisher. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2001058635 ISBN: 0-313-31998-7 First published in 2002 Greenwood Press, 88 Post Road West, Westport, CT 06881 An imprint of Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. www.greenwood.com Printed in the United States of America

The paper used in this book complies with the Permanent Paper Standard issued by the National Information Standards Organization (Z39.48-1984). 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

DEDICATED TO

the mathematics teachers at Glenbrook South High School who were fearless in adapting real-world applications to their lessons, and who generously shared their best teaching ideas with us

.

16 Complex Numbers. 23 Expected Value. 21 Derivative. 7 Cartesian Coordinates. 18 Counting. 35 Imaginary Numbers. 23 Equations. 28 Exponential Growth. 12 Circumference. 45 Inverse Square Function. 37 Inverse (Multiplicative). 26 Exponential Decay. 10 Circles. 1 Asymptote. 16 Conic Sections.Contents ▲ ▼ ▲ Introduction. ix MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS Angle. 30 Fibonacci Sequence. 47 . 37 Integration. 43 Inverse Function.

107 Rotations. 130 Surface Area. 154 Volume. 159 Bibliography. 138 Tangent. 124 Square Roots. 87 Quadratic Functions. 72 Polynomial Functions. 124 Standard Deviation. 102 Reflections. 150 Vectors. 89 Quadrilaterals. 77 Proportions. 55 Logistic Functions. 70 Polar Coordinates. 67 Plane. 64 Periodic Functions. 133 Symbolic Logic. 146 Variation. 114 Series. 136 Symmetry. 75 Probability. 96 Ratio. 58 Matrices. 163 .viii CONTENTS Linear Functions. 127 Step Functions. 121 Slope. 117 Similarity. 61 Perimeter. 141 Translations. 82 Pythagorean Theorem. 144 Triangle Trigonometry. 49 Logarithms. 111 Sequences. 93 Rates.

international corporations. but don’t find any reason to believe that they are real. Unfortunately. employment. Even fewer know how to make best decisions based on the probabilities of risk rather than blind gambles. Thousands of American students still work from textbooks that limit applications to age problems and mixtures of nuts. even good students don’t know how mathematics affects their lives. It is now hard to find a field of study that does not use mathematical tools. Despite the call from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000) for meaningful learning through study of realistic applications.Introduction ▲ ▼ ▲ “When are we ever going to use this?” This plaintive question from frustrated mathematics students is heard in schools around our country as they wrestle with pages of abstract mathematics and learn algorithms that appear to go nowhere. What should students know and be able to do? Proficiency in some algorithms is important. many students will find that the only modernization of content over their grandparents’ math books is that jet planes have replaced the trains that used to travel at different rates between cities. Few understand the power of compound interest. Abstraction in mathematics—stripping concepts of all but . The twentieth century saw an explosion of applications of mathematics. and individual investors use mathematical rules to determine production. Few know the mathematical implications of public policies that will affect their lives. and prices. Chemists use solid geometry to describe molecules. Everybody uses computers. Biologists use differential equations. Historians determine authorship of obscure documents through statistical analysis of words. The secondary-school mathematics curriculum is faced with multiple challenges. They study real numbers. Few realize that the compound interest embedded in credit cards can bring adults to bankruptcy. Set designers in theaters use trigonometry to determine the best lighting for a play. Governments.

A student who has learned trigonometry may gain a deeper understanding as to how an engineer might use the mathematics to make predictions by viewing different formulas and calculations. This book is an effort to promote real-world connections as they are applied in people’s daily lives and careers. algebraic. The mathematics described here cover concepts that are found in courses from prealgebra through introductory calculus. teaching. the text should be used as a tool to enhance current instructional practices. should not be stripped away. and appreciation for mathematics. It is an account of the mathematical applications that we have learned and shared with people in our teaching careers. regardless of their backgrounds. Instead. Further. “When are we ever going to use this?” audience This book is intended to be a reference guide for anyone interested in understanding how some high school mathematics concepts are applied in nature and society. or geometric concepts. or to create a classroom activity grounded in a particular application. we feel that a more cohesive learning environment . Each of the concepts is presented so that the reader can gain different levels of understanding due to the varying levels of mathematical complexity. But these are not sufficient. We hope this reference guide helps you enjoy and appreciate the use and application of mathematics in our culture and environment. teachers. students should have an opportunity to see a broad expanse of math applications so they can find links between their interests and aspirations and their mathematics coursework. and librarians use these ideas to enhance their learning. Since we do not intend to teach mathematical concepts here.x INTRODUCTION their bare structures—is a feature that makes mathematics a powerful intellectual tool. there are occasions in which mathematics is discussed without reference as to how an equation is formed or how it was solved. thereby hoping that they will recognize value in the applications of mathematics. like paths of projectiles. Instead. and should not be regarded as a primary tool for learning and instruction. each concept is informally described so that primary emphasis can be placed on its applications. We do not intend for teachers to teach mathematics in the way it is presented here. but rather should be used to motivate the arithmetic. or to spark student interest in math. A student or parent referencing the term angle will learn through descriptive text and diagrams that it is used for a variety of purposes in navigation and road construction. Therefore. We hope that high school students. Much of the mathematics taught in grades 7 to 12 is there because it is important outside the math classroom. Foundation applications. purpose This reference guide is an effort to provide exposure to mathematical applications. Our intent is to make the content readable by all levels and ages of students. We hope you will find some answers to the question.

In fact. content The content in this reference guide is based on over forty mathematical concepts that are studied in different levels of high school mathematics. but the concepts can be used to introduce similarity. In addition. World Wide Web references at the end . We do not feel that every mathematical principle taught in a high school curriculum has a realistic application. the study of angles formed by parallel lines does not have many realistic applications. Sometimes an application will be described in the form of a story. such as referring to slope and derivative as rates.com>. We do feel there are situations where it is necessary to explore some mathematics that may not be applied. The amount of mathematics described in each of the sections varies. Simplified situations are used in this reference guide in order to provide general principles in a concise manner so that the concepts can be understood by a high school student.INTRODUCTION xi with these applications requires that the teacher and the learner examine the mathematical principles behind why and how a concept is applied. Sometimes we will just point in the direction of an important application. so that the applications can be used efficiently. application to show the genesis of a mathematical concept. we simply cannot be aware of all of the applications that have realistic connections to the concepts we have listed. The depth of description of an application varies within each concept. This format has been selected for pragmatic purposes. the concepts presented here do not introduce every application of high school mathematics. and other times it will be described in a few sentences to avoid redundancy with a similar analysis in another section. For example. we occasionally synthesize concepts. Furthermore. such as assuming that the earth is a perfect sphere. For example. even though the real world often has unusual limitations. We would much rather provide a flavor of how mathematics is used than go into detail for every application. Each of the concepts is listed alphabetically and can be read independently. Sometimes we will provide a historical. many applications discussed in this book are based on simplified conditions. If you have any additional ideas. even though there are additional interesting connections to other concepts that may not have as much emphasis in a school’s curriculum. Furthermore. a topic with many useful applications. we approximate the shapes of objects. The ideas presented in this book are not a comprehensive account of high school mathematics nor do they represent every possible application. or cross-reference topics because some applications are based on related or multiple concepts. For example. Consequently. we neglect weather conditions when studying the motion of a baseball. or peculiarities. constraints. Our intent is to promote applications about mathematical concepts that are commonly studied in high school mathematics. rather than contemporary. depending on the context and complexity of the situation. linear functions are typically learned in algebra and are continually used beyond calculus. please share them with us by sending an email to <evanmglazer@yahoo.

coe.ca/examples/table.edu/CTL/CTL/> British Columbia Institute of Technology Mathematics Department Applications to Technology <http://www.htm> Micron’s Math in the Workplace <http://www.mathforum.bcit.jsp?path=/Education/Math+in+the+Workplace> .com/content.xii INTRODUCTION of each section offer opportunities for further exploration of some of these applications.org/library/topics/applied/> Contextual Teaching and Learning in Mathematics at the University of Georgia <http://jwilson.micron.math. We offer such a listing here. giving Web references that provide a huge number of applications.uga. online sources for further exploration The Math Forum <http://www.

For example. Street intersections are made at angles as close as possible to 90°. . so that visibility is easier when turning. Restructuring the angles in an intersection to make turning a vehicle easier. If you find a nonperpendicular four-way intersection with a stoplight. initial street design restructured street design The use of angles in the design of parking spaces affects how many cars can park in a lot. direction.Mathematical Concepts ▲ ▼ ▲ ANGLE Position. so there may be less accidents in a lot with angled spaces. precision. and optimization are some reasons why people use angles in their daily life. it would probably be more likely to get into an accident because the turn is difficult. It is beneficial for city planners to create additional turns so that there are larger turning angles for safer traffic. It would be easier for the driver if the road were constructed so that an additional intersection is added so the car can turn once at 150° and again at 90°. Most parking arrangements involve spaces that are perpendicular or slightly angled to the curb. if a car has to make a sharp 60° turn onto traffic. it is likely to have a “No Turn on Red” sign for those drivers who would be at an obtuse angle. An advantage to using obtuse-angled spaces is that it is easier to turn a car at an obtuse angle than at a right angle. An advantage to using right-angled spaces is the opportunity to fit more cars in the parking lot. if not greater.

saved by using right-angled spaces is s = −l cos α for each row in the parking lot. this is written as cos θ = s . so cos θ = − cos α. each row would lose s = −20 cos 120◦ = 10 feet. The cosine of the angle between the curb and the parking lines. to the length of the parking space. s = −l cos α. Multiplying both sides of the equation by l will change it to s = l cos θ. where l is the length of the space and α is the angle of the turn into the space. The amount of space. l. s. When the shape of a space is transformed from a rectangle (right-angled) to a parallelogram (obtuse-angled).2 ANGLE right-angled parking spaces obtuse-angled parking spaces Parking-space arrangements in parking lots. The angle against the curb and the car’s turning angle are supplementary. which is equivalent to a little more than one space! An overhead view of a car making an obtuse-angled turn of α degrees into a parking spot that is angled θ degrees with the curb. cos θ. the turning angle would be 120°. the length of the parking space is the hypotenuse of a right triangle formed with the curb. In the obtuse-angled situation. The interior angles on the same side of the transversal (the parking lines) are supplementary. that is needed in a parking lot with angled spaces. is the ratio of the horizontal curb space. because the curb and car’s path are parallel. Substituting this result into s = l cos θ generates the equation. . In an equation. If the lot is transformed from right-angled spaces to oblique-angled spaces. Suppose the dimensions of a parking space are 8 feet by 20 feet. s. s. If the parking lines were at a 60° angle with the curb. l Variables that affect the extra horizontal space. the extra horizontal distance needed in a parking-lot row will be the amount of space that the last car displaced from its previous perpendicular arrangement.

it will need to change direction again so that it moves perpendicular to its path in the opposite direction. because it is assumed that navigation direction is counterclockwise from the North position. β. where s is the distance from shore and d is the distance to the final destination. . suppose a ship is 3 miles from shore and is docking at a port that is 6 miles away. 30° North of West 60° West of North Alternate methods of denoting direction when a boat is 3 miles from shore and 6 miles from its destination. military-orienteering specialists. sailors need to tilt their boat at an angle. or 30° North of West. and ship-navigation crews are responsible for using angles to move efficiently towards a destination. s. navigation teams will determine an angle to direct their course of movement. This action ensures that the boat continues to maintain a 45° angle with the wind. The captain can also simply ask to move the boat 60°. For example. because they would be pushed backwards. which will not always happen. Sailors call this tacking. is equal to s arccos( d ). d. and the distance from its final destination. ideally 45°. so that the wind catches the sail. After accounting for wind and current speed. Sailboats cannot steer directly into the wind. This direction is equivalent to the angle that is formed between the path of the boat and the northern or westward direction. of a boat based on its distance from shore. Notice that the distances from the port are represented in a 30°– 60°– 90° triangle. This zigzag pattern enables the boat to reach its finishing point while constantly sailing into the wind. The captain will request the boat to be moved 60° West of North. with minimal current affecting the path of the boat. The navigation angle. β. or East of North. if the destination is situated to the East of the ship’s location. The angle of navigation. that will be East s or West of North can be determined by finding arccos( d ).ANGLE 3 Airplane pilots. In order to sail against the wind. Notice that the navigation angle will be negative. If the boat pushes off course.

The ball will be on the ground when y is 0. the angle of the ball coming into the wall will equal the angle of the ball leaving the wall. such as baseballs.9t2 . In billiards or miniature golf. assuming there is no spin on the ball. Substituting in the equation for x . Angles are useful for reflecting light rays or objects off of flat objects. The horizontal distance in meters. it is released or hit. the vertical distance in meters. a player can use this principle when aiming for a hole by simply aiming for the hole’s reflection. x. The two equations describing the path of the ball in both directions are represented as x = v0 t cos α y = v0 t sin α − 4. The latter solution gives the time the ball will be in the air. they will use an angle close to 90°. to its ending position. Since the earth’s gravitational force pulls a ball towards the surface. If they want to hit a ball short and high. reflections preserve congruence.4 ANGLE The path of a boat from its starting position. E. In essence. that the ball is in the air. The angle by which an object. as shown below.9 v0 sin α. α. of an object can be determined by the product of its initial velocity in meters per second. S. they will use an angle close to 0°. This is true because a ball’s reflection off a wall will be the same distance away from the wall as if it had gone in a straight line. v0 . basketballs. footballs. y. use angles strategically. The angle of a ball approaching a wall will equal the angle of the ball leaving the wall. Solving the second equation for the 1 time t that will provide this value gives t = 0 or t = 4. By the transitive property. when it is sailing against a headwind. t. and the cosine of the angle. also needs to be considered in order to determine the ideal angle at which to release or hit a ball. approaches a wall is equal to the angle by which the object bounces off the wall. Athletes who try to throw or hit balls certain distances. and golf balls. the time in seconds. In order to hit a low-flying line drive. such as a ball.

or 38 meters per second. This makes the horizontal-distance equation more complicated: √ 2 v0 sin α v0 sin2 α−19. When a golfer tees off or a football kicker aims for a long field goal. Higher values of n allow the light to bend more. The refraction of light is dependent on the angle in which light enters the object and the material it passes through. Horizontal distance (meters) traveled by a golf ball hit at 70 meters per second at an angle of α radians.6(y−1) x = v0 cos α . A baseball player. The angle of light rays will change after hitting a different surface. on the other hand. 9. since Θ2 decreases as n2 increases. As light passes through an object. Snell’s law states that n1 • sin Θ1 = n2 • sin Θ2 .ANGLE 5 v 2 sin(2α) 1 2 yields 4. The graph of horizontal distances x as a function of the angle α shows that the angle that will give the golfer the best distance is 45° (π/4 radians). he or she should strike the ball at a 45° angle in order to obtain maximum distance. very close to the angle if the ball were hit from the ground. . giving it a distorted view if you look through the glass. needs to alter this thinking slightly. Snell’s law can be used to determine the angle of refraction. Frogs know this angle: push-off angle for a frog hop has been measured to be close to 45°. it will bend.8° angle.8 . or the angle in which light bends as it passes through a new surface.8 When the ball hits the ground (y = 0). and that his or her club hits the ball at v0 = 70 meters/second. where n is the index of fraction (the ratio of the speed of light in air to the speed of light in that material) and Θ is the angle of incidence. Using trigonometric identities gives x = 0 9. because he hits a ball about 1 meter off of the ground. such as a glass of water.9 v0 sin a cos a. such as water. Suppose a golfer hits a tee shot. the graph of this function shows that a ball reaching the bat at 85 miles per hour. will attain a maximum horizontal distance when the ball leaves the bat at about a 44.

thinkquest.net/~davisks/throwing/> <http://www.html> <http://buphy.com/activities/Activity_page.umn.orfe.html> <http://www.swarthmore. which consequently makes them sparkle.ru/cut/english/tolkow/_tolk1.cfm?ActivityID=19> <http://www.gemology.ezcomm.virginia.edu/classes/109N/more_stuff/Applets/ProjectileMotion/ jarapplet.edu/py106/notes/Refraction.edu/ugrad/vpl/optics/snell.k12.us/gbssci/phys/Class/refrn/u14l2a.coe.princeton.il.de/throwing/throw.html> Photography angles: <http://www.ca/eye/snell.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ .6 ANGLE Gems such as diamonds have a high index of refraction.edu/emt725/Bearings/Bearings.html> The mathematics of rainbows: <http://www.yorku.gov/mac/isb/pubs/factsheets/fs03501.html> Snell’s law: <http://www.html> Robot navigation angle: <http://www.html> River crossing–swimming angles: <http://www.physics.htm> Projectile motion simulations: <http://library.htm> <http://www.uga.nl/phomepag/markerink/tiltcalc.phys. online sources for further exploration The best angle to view a baseball game: <http://forum. allowing them to trap light and reflect it internally.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/> Navigation problems: <http://jwilson.html> <http://www.html> Diamond design: <http://www.html> Sailing strategies: <http://www.bumerang-sport.concentric.htm> Finding your way with map and compass: <http://mac.explorescience.glenbrook.com/~cyliax/Articles/RobNav/robnav.htm> <http://www.usgs.nl/phomepag/markerink/shifcalc.nwu.a1.a1.gov:2080/docs/mathexpl/swimwalk.emsl.edu/~rvdb/sail/sail.html> Throwing a boomerang: <http://www.bu.pnl.edu/pow/solutio65.geom.org/2779/Balloon.

the function f (x) = x−2 has x+3 a vertical asymptote at x = −3 because asymptote at y = 1 because lim x−2 x→±∞ x+3 lim x−2 x→−3 x+3 = 1. such as the amount of power supply in a battery. Most substances that have a decaying effect. illustrates asymptotic behavior because the liquid gradually approaches room temperature after sitting awhile in the cup. such as ice sitting in a cup. The warming of liquids. (See Exponential Decay. A vertical asymptote of x = c exists on a function f(x) if at a point of discontinuity. then in this case there would be a horizontal asymptote of y = 0 on the graph. x = c. of coffee as a function of the number of minutes it sits in a closed cup. In the real world. horizontal asymptotes typically represent a leveling-off effect. A horizontal asymptote of y = k exists on a function f(x) if the limit of f(x) as x approaches positive or negative infinity equals k. because the amount of the particle approaches zero. The cooling of hot liquids in a mug. the limit of f(x) as x approaches c equals positive or negative infinity. except that the temperature graph rises towards the A graph of the temperature.ASYMPTOTE ASYMPTOTE 7 An asymptote is an imaginary line or curve that a function approaches as its independent variable approaches infinity or an undefined value. For example. demonstrates a similar phenomenon. The temperature of the coffee levels off near room temperature after an hour and a half.) If the dependent variable y is the amount of the particle. such as coffee. = ±∞ and a horizontal Graph of f (x) = x−2 x+3 with asymptotes at x = −3 and y = 1. will have an asymptote of y = 0 on a graph that describes its amount as a function of time. such as the radioactive decay of a particle diminishing until it is almost gone. in degrees Fahrenheit. .

airplanes could not pass the sound barrier. the cost to extract petroleum from the Earth is dependent on its depth. Scientific barriers based on speed are asymptotic until technological advances overcome a barrier. because the liquid either warms or cools to that temperature after it is left out for awhile. This information is helpful for the skydiver to determine how much time can be spent in the air for skydiving acrobatics and at what point the parachute should be opened for safe landing.6 meters per second. or quantities. the wind resistance will inhibit the falling rate so that the body does not exceed 50 meters per second. because light is not fast enough to show an image of the ship to an observer. in meters per second of a person falling out of the plane after t seconds. until 1947. After 1 second. However. A person jumping from an airplane will reach a terminal velocity at which he cannot fall any faster due to wind resistance. once the barrier was broken. Terminal velocity is the limiting speed of an object due to wind resistance when it is in free-fall. airplanes progressively became faster and faster. As testing and experimentation progresses over time. For example.8 meters per second. what type of consequence will occur.) Before that time. because they were not built to handle the shock waves produced at such speeds. scientists and engineers were given data that helped them develop airplanes that could maintain their structural integrity under the stressful conditions associated with travel at those speeds. Consequently. the skydiver is falling at a rate of 9. However. Oil that is deeper underground will typically be more expensive to remove. a skydiver will jump out of an airplane and be pulled towards the earth at an acceleration of 9. For example. v. Vertical asymptotes typically appear in applications that deal with improbable events. Many science-fiction stories portray ships disappearing when they travel faster than the speed of light.8t describes the velocity. Today. called Mach 1. Scientists argue whether it will be possible to move at speeds faster than light. (See Ratio.8 meters per second squared. and if so. and after 2 seconds. y = 50 becomes the horizontal asymptote on the velocity versus time graph. For example. the detected speeds of particles have been gradually approaching the barrier of 3 × 108 meters per second. This means that the velocity of the person falling will gradually increase until it reaches terminal velocity. The equation v = 9. particle physicists are challenging the speed of light by accelerating particles in large circular chambers. costs. the asymptote would represent the room temperature. if the skydiver lies flat during free-fall. approaching the speed of sound but unable to surpass it. because it is more difficult to create deeper tun- .8 ASYMPTOTE asymptote. In both cases. the person’s velocity has increased to 19.

where w is the unknown width of the field.ac.000 feet. because it is too difficult and dangerous to dig at that depth. as well as having to deal with the added distance covered by equipment to extract dirt and rocks. if a preschool wants to build an enclosed playground for its students. a vertical asymptote will exist near the deepest level on a graph. The builders would consider the best way to lay out their available fencing so that the students have a large amount of play space.nctm.auckland. Consequently. In such situations.phm. A graph describing the hourly rate to drill a hole as a function of its depth. because not only is it impossible to divide by zero.com/Documents/Basic-cool. workers take an increased risk of the tunnel caving in.html> Investigate the behavior of northwestern crows <http://illuminations. but it is impossible to have a rectangular play space that does not have any length! online sources for additional exploration The basics of cooling food <http://www.html> Modeling of disease and disease progression <http://www.ASYMPTOTE 9 nels. Vertical asymptotes also sometimes symbolize quantities that are nonexistent.hi-tm. In this case.org/imath/912/Whelk/index.nz/Staff/NHolford/Mss/Disprog/modelling_diseaseprogression. For instance.htm> . This means that tunneling down 11 to 20 feet may be twice as difficult than tunneling the first 10 feet. and 200 square feet is the desired area of the play space. The drilling cost becomes insurmountable as the depth approaches 1. Geologists would find this information useful. and so on. it would need to build a fence. and tunneling down 21 to 30 feet may be three times as difficult than tunneling down 11 to 20 feet. thus being able to recommend the appropriate digging depths that would be safe and economically beneficial to the government and local business. indicating that it would be nearly impossible to dig at certain depths. A function to describe the dimensions of a rectangular play space are w = 200 . l = 0 is a vertical asymptote. l is the unknown length of l the field.

For example.com/coachlab/math. without having to input the coordinates for every second on the screen. Coordinates are also useful in computer programming to plot points on the screen or define regions on a blueprint or graphic. as shown in the illustration below. Image maps are used to enhance the colors on a screen or to provide a larger region to click a list of items.html> Time travel? <http://members.com/JLandGDC/numin/1999/oct99.carolina.ca/TheUmbrella/Physics/P3401/Investigations/VterminalDDB. .35) and lower-right coordinate is (40.htm> The twisted pendulum experiment <http://www. the computer will predict intermittent coordinates of the vertices to help render the animation. Suppose a rectangular region is defined so that its upper-left coordinate is (12.htm> The terminal velocity of coffee filters <http://aci.70).10 CARTESIAN COORDINATES Scaling the Internet Web servers <http://www. an image map is a graphic that links certain portions of a Web page to different pages on a Website.mta. Given this information. The image map will probably look like a series of buttons that are defined by geometric regions.0) is at the corner of the screen. it will move to a new page once the mouse is clicked.asp> ▲ ▼ ▲ CARTESIAN COORDINATES Coordinates are useful to determine relative position and distances. pixels (dots of light) on a computer are identified by their horizontal and vertical components. When the cursor is moved to a coordinate within a defined region on the image map. such as rectangles or circles. The coordinates of the pixels are useful for animations that require starting and ending points for each vertex in a diagram. where (0.aol. This will create a hot spot region An image map uses coordinates to define a rectangular “hot spot” by noting the opposite corner coordinates in an image map.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/pd/cxsr/400/tech/scale_wp. For example.

which means that it is 41 in the northern hemisphere and 180 in the west90 ern hemisphere. y1 ) and (x2 .1. this coordinate system uses the opposite of the negative y-coordinates that are represented in the fourth quadrant of a Cartesian coordinate system. they should be situated so that the longest drive to the edge of town is the same in all directions. A flight from Chicago to Los Angeles would angle the plane 7° south of west and expect to travel 31° westward on its journey. The distance d traveled between any two cities on the globe can be determined by the equation d = 3963 arccos[sin(latitude1 ) sin(latitude2 ) + cos(latitude1 ) cos(latitude2 ) cos(longitude2 − longitude1 )].5184). so that the best possible intersection for the fire station could be selected. Desirable locations for fire stations are places where trucks would have equal access to the entire town. d = (x1 − x2 )2 + (y1 − y2 )2 . cities and landmarks are assigned a position according to how far away they are from the equator (0°latitude) and from the prime meridian in Greenwich. could then be used to determine relative distances. Ideally. Chicago is near 41° N 87 87° W. (x1 . Since only positive values are used. The position of Chicago on the earth according to its latitude and longitudinal positions. of each street based on the coordinates of its endpoints. There are 2π radi2π ans in 360°. On a world map. y2 ). where the position in a spherical coordinate system of two cities are (latitude1 . so each coordinate should be multiplied by 360 to convert to radians. longitude1 ) and (latitude2 . If the cursor is not in this region. For example.7156.CARTESIAN COORDINATES 11 with dimensions of 28 pixels by 35 pixels that will link to a new page if the cursor is clicked at a location on the image map between 12 and 40 pixels and between 35 and 70 pixels. Notice that the coordinate system on the image map is defined differently from the standard rectangular system. because Los Angeles is near the position 34° N 118° W.87) to approximately (0. the Chicago coordinate would convert from (41. England (0° longitude). longitude2 ) in radians. d. The distance formula. assigning coordinates to each of the intersections. and the Los Angeles coordinate would convert from . In this case. which are the same as the central angles from the center of the earth. A coordinate grid could be superimposed on a city map. then it will not link to that page.

psu. In addition. Using this formula.htm> <http://www. since the distance from the center of the circle is always the same.edu/SII/SII-FindPlanets/SII-FindThatComet/coordinates.thinkquest.personal. because the friction between the wheel and pavement cause the car to move.unc.5934. For every revolution the tires make. html> The satellite times <http://celestrak.edu/frankw/ccp/cases/Global-Positioning/sphericalcoordinates/learn.0595).com/columns/v03n02/> Spherical coordinates and the GPS <http://www. All manholes are round so that their covers never slip through the pipes from the ground to the sewers.lib.118) to approximately (0.7156) sin(0.758 miles.7156) cos(0.0595 − 1.html> Georeferencing and digital images <http://magic. Circular wheels allow the opportunity for constant and smooth motion when riding a bicycle or automobile.5934) cos(2. online sources for further exploration Celestial coordinates <http://www.ils.berkeley.5934)+ cos(0.edu/utils/imagemap-tutorial. which is approximately 1. If the circle had edges or vertices the ride would become very bumpy.12 CIRCLES (34.uconn.lhs. a car will travel the distance its wheels rotate. because the distance from the center of the wheel to its perimeter would no longer be constant. a circle is very useful for this purpose.edu/users/k/x/kxs156/tuthow.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ CIRCLES Circles are used in many real-world applications.htm> Stereograms <http://library.edu/help/aerialphotos/GeoreferncingAndDigitalImages. html> Creating an image map <http://www.math. Since polygons do not hold this property. the distance between Chicago and Los Angeles is d = 3963 arccos[sin(0.5184)]. the car will travel the length of .org/2647/misc/stertech.montana.2. Any way you turn the cover it is impossible to force it through the hole.

because then its circumference will be 1 meter (circumference is the product of π and the diameter of the circle). then its circumference. or thickness. The age of a tree is related to the number of its rings and its circumference. A trundle wheel can be made in any size. of trees increases as they grow older. For example. A trundle wheel is a device used to measure distances that are too long for a tape measure. A trundle wheel can be used to measure long distances by multiplying the number of its revolutions by its circumference. Another useful application of circumference is to determine the age of certain trees.CIRCLES 13 the circumference of them. although it is convenient to make one with a diameter of 31. or distance around.8 cm. as you push the trundle wheel.5 inches. A marking is placed on the wheel so that it clicks for one complete revolution. The girth. the circumference of circles is used in several applications. A fallen tree often shows a large group of concentric rings. the number of rings is proportional to its circumference. A pizza with a diameter of 12 inches might sell for $10. where each ring represents a year of its life. every click that is recorded on the odometer means that the wheel has gone around once and you have traveled 1 meter. pizzas are often advertised according to their diameter. The area of a circle is useful to determine the price of circular foods that have the same height. Therefore. If a wheel has a diameter of 32 inches. Therefore. Since the tree gets thicker during its lifetime. This means that a measurement of the circumference of a tree can give an indication of its age without having to chop it down and count its rings. a functional relationship can be created to estimate the age of a tree based on its circumference. and a pizza . In addition to distance traveled by an automobile. is 32π inches ≈ 100.

1 square inches. as much as the 12-inch pizza. At first glance. cups. So the area of the pizza is π(8)2 ≈ 201. Similarly. the consumer is paying about 8. the radius is 6 inches. As a sprinkler rotates. Is this true about the prices at your favorite pizza shop? The area of a circle is helpful to farmers in determining the amount of space that a sprinkling system will cover. Therefore.1 square inches. or the radius of the circle. All of these objects are designed to hold substances or information that take up space in a resourceful way. In the 16-inch pizza. Since volume purchases usually have a cheaper unit price. pots. it will spray water in a circular pattern. Is that a reasonable deal? Since the amount of pizza is related to its area. there is not another shape that has a smaller perimeter than a circle. is sufficient information for the farmer to determine how much space will be covered by the water and how many sprinklers are needed to water the crops. the radius is 8 inches. this information indicates that a great way to make use of materials and space is to form circles. In the 12-inch pizza. Think about all the objects made of raw materials that are shaped into circles. the challenge in watering crops is to determine how many circles can be packed into the rectangle region. Based on a given perimeter. and digital video discs. compact discs. . there is not another shape that has an area greater than a circle. The trick for the farmer is to automate the sprinklers so that they provide just the right amount of water to the crops to optimize production and minimize expense. Crops are often created in rectangular grids to make harvesting easier. or 4/3. A circle is a figure that has an optimal area based on its perimeter. or in a sector of a circle if it is restricted in a certain way. consumers may develop a misconception and think that the 16-inch pizza should be 16/12. Instead. So the area of the pizza is π(6)2 ≈ 113.14 CIRCLES with a diameter of 16 inches for $16. The distance the water reaches. but watering in a rectangular pattern is often less efficient than in a circular pattern. At a sale price of $10. but actually it is the other way around.0 cents per square inch of pizza. such as plates. it would be more beneficial if the consumer were told the unit cost of the pizza per square inch.8 cents per square inch of pizza. At a sale price of $16. Parts of circles A keystone at the center of an arc above a doorway maintains its structure and support. the consumer is paying about 8. based on a given area. In essence. one might think the 12-inch pizza is a better buy. these prices seem pretty reasonable.

CIRCLES

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can also be used for aesthetic design purposes, such as the arches seen over some doorways. Roman engineers mastered the use of the circular arch in buildings, bridges, and aqueducts. A keystone, the stone placed at the top of the arch, is the essential component that keeps the structure of the arch together. Without a keystone, the arch may crumble if it is not cemented properly. All materials are not designed to include circles, however, because a circle does not necessarily serve all functions. For example, a book is shaped like a rectangular prism instead of a cylinder, because it may be easier to store on a shelf and retrieved easily with its visible binding. Circular, or angular, motion has several useful applications. It affects the linear speed and performance of many objects. For example, circular disks spin in an automobile engine to move its timing belts. The size of the disks can vary, allowing the engine to distribute its power in different ways. In order to move a belt, larger wheels do not need to spin as fast as smaller wheels, because they cover a greater distance in a smaller amount of time. (See Variation.) Another way to think about the connection between angular and linear speed is to envision the motion of an ice skater. The spinning rate of the skater will change with the movement of the radius of his or her arms from the body. To move faster, the skater will pull his or her arms in towards the body; conversely, to spin more slowly, the skater will gradually pull his or her arms away from the body. As an equation, the linear speed, s, is the product of the radius, r, and angular speed, ω, written as s = rω. Suppose the skater has a constant linear speed of 500 cm/sec. If his or her arm radius is 100 cm, then the skater will be spinning at a rate of 5 radians/sec, or less than 1 revolution in a second. If he or she pulls the arms in so that they are 25 cm from the body, then the skater’s angular speed picks up to 20 radians/sec, about 3 1/2 revolutions in 1 second.

The skater slows her camel spin by extending her arms.

If the angular speed is held constant, then an object can have different linear velocities depending on its position on the circular object. For example, a spinning object on a playground or at an amusement park, such as a merry-go-round, typically has a constant angular speed. Therefore linear velocity increases as the radius increases. This means that you would feel like you were moving faster if you stood further away from the center. If you like rides that make you feel dizzy, then make sure you stand near the outside of a circular wheel when it is in motion.

16

CIRCUMFERENCE
online sources for further exploration

The arch in architecture <http://www.ba.brantacan.co.uk/architecture.htm> Circular motion <http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1e.html> <http://www.sd83.bc.ca/stu/9906/agal_3b.html> Make your own trundle wheel <http://www.geocities.com/thesciencefiles/trundle/wheel.html> Pizza prices <http://www.ecst.csuchico.edu/~pizza/pizzaweb.html> <http://www.mrpizzaman.com/pizza/index.html> <http://www.panola.com/biz/pizzahut/create.htm> Tree rings <http://www.geo.arizona.edu/K-12/regression/> <http://web.utk.edu/~grissino/> <http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/treering.html>

▲ ▼ ▲

CIRCUMFERENCE .

See

CIRCLES

▲ ▼ ▲

COMPLEX NUMBERS

Complex numbers are numbers expressed in the form a + bi, where a is the real number component and b is the imaginary number component. The number √ i is the square root of negative 1: i = −1. Numbers in the physical world are often represented by their real number component, such as in measurement, money, and time. For example, a mile is a unit of measurement that is equivalent to 5,280 feet. As a complex number, this measurement would be 5,280 + 0i feet. However, the expression in complex form does not produce any additional meaning if the imaginary number component is equal to zero. Therefore, complex numbers are useful when the imaginary number component is nonzero. There are several instances in which imaginary numbers are important in the physical world. For example, some circuits have unexpected changes of voltage

COMPLEX NUMBERS

17

when introduced to current and resistors that have imaginary number components. The amount of voltage in a circuit is determined by the product of its current and resistance. Without an imaginary number component in both current and resistance, the voltage reading will remain unaffected. For example, suppose the current is reading 3 + 2i amps on a circuit with 20 ohms of resistance. The net voltage would be (3+2i)(20) = 60 + 40i volts. In this case, the voltmeter would show a reading of 60 volts, because the 40i volts are imaginary. However, if the resistance was 20 + 4i ohms, then the net voltage would be (3 + 2i)(20 + 4i) = 60 + 12i + 40i + 8i 2. Since i 2 = −1, this expression simplifies to 52 + 52i. That means that the introduction of an imaginary number component in the resistance of the circuit would result in a voltage drop of 8 volts! Electromagnetic fields also rely on complex numbers, because there are two different components in the measurement of their strength, one representing the intensity of the electric field, and the other the intensity of the magnetic field. Similar to the electric circuit example, an electromagnetic field can have sudden variations in its strength if both components contain imaginary components. Complex numbers also indirectly have applications in business. The profit of the sales of a product can be modeled by a quadratic function. The company will start with initial expenses and rely on the sales of their product to transfer out of debt. Using the quadratic formula, the business can predict the amount of sales that will be needed to financially break even and ultimately start making a profit. If complex zeroes arise after applying the formula, then the company will never break even! On a graph in the real plane, the profit function would represent a parabola in the fourth quadrant that never touches the horizontal axis that describes the number of products sold. This means that the business will have to reevaluate their sales options and generate alternative means for producing a profit. To generalize this case, any quadratic model that produces complex solutions from an equation will likely indicate that something is not possible. For example, in the business-sales setting, the company may want to test when the profit will equal one hundred thousand dollars. When solving the equation, the quadratic equation could ultimately be applied, and the existence of imaginary components in the solution would verify that this would not be possible. The same argument could be applied to determine if the world’s strongest man could throw a shot put 50 feet in the air. If a person can estimate the throwing height h0 and the time t the ball is in the air, then the quadratic function h = 0.5gt2 + v0 t + h0 can be applied to determine the initial velocity v0 and whether the ball will reach a height h of 50 feet. (Note that the gravitational constant g on earth is equal to –9.8 meters per second 2, or –32 feet per second 2.)
online sources for further exploration

The relevance of imaginary numbers <http://www.math.toronto.edu/mathnet/answers/relevance.html> <http://forum.swarthmore.edu/dr.math/problems/zakrzewski10.14.97.html>

gsu. the Greek mathematician Appollonius wrote a set of books dealing with what he called conic sections.C. Unlike ice cream cones.18 CONIC SECTIONS Complex numbers in real life <http://www. the . Once the rays hit the parabolic reflector. as shown in the right-hand picture. Appollonius’s cone looked like two cones sharing a common vertex..edu/mathnet/questionCorner/complexinlife.) Cutting a cone to make a parabola. Parabolic reflector used in a microwave antenna (Corel) A parabolic reflector concentrates energy. but they are now all around us. The picture on the left shows the parabola that is formed by cutting the cones with a plane parallel to the slant of the cones. Without the parabolic reflector.edu/hbase/electric/impcom. The microwaves emerge from the transmitter outside of the reflector at its focus. This concentrates the energy in one direction. hyperbolas. For this reason. Various representations of the conic section called a “parabola. (See Inverse Square Function for more information.toronto. The middle picture shows a microwave antenna. the waves would dissipate following the inverse square law. He provided a visualization of ellipses.geocities.html> Complex impedance in circuits <http://hyperphysics.000 years before applications of conic sections emerged in science and engineering.math.html> Generation of fractals from complex numbers <http://www. they are transmitted out in parallel direction.phy-astr. The reflector concentrates the wave. and parabolas as intersections of planes with cones.com/fabioc/> ▲ ▼ ▲ CONIC SECTIONS In the third century B. It took almost 2.” The picture on the right shows how the waves from the energy source emerge from many directions. The energy source is positioned at the focus of the parabola.

Since they can provide almost 360° views. are two rooms that have remarkable acoustics because of their elliptical shapes. but is a catenary. the dot for the energy source might represent a pipe containing water. A hard-hit baseball flies off the bat in a parabolic path. Pipes in highly polished parabolic troughs can focus enough sunlight to heat an enclosed fluid as high as 750°F or turn water to steam. If a heavy liquid like mercury is placed in a large can. the surface of the liquid will form a paraboloid (every vertical cross section through the center of the can is a parabola). The parabolic reflector picks up weak sounds. such as the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco. D. it is also found in modern structures such as the terminal building at the St. the joining of two identical barrel (cylindrical) vaults over a square plan. form a parabola. . A telephone wire that curves because of its own weight is not a parabola. “Objects may be closer than they appear. Although the groin vault is common in ancient and medieval buildings. This is what makes exterior mirrors on the passenger sides of cars show wider views and justify the warning. and focuses them on a microphone at the focal point. The intersection of the vaults form ellipses that go diagonally to the corners of the square. Ellipses are an outcome of some common architectural techniques.” Parabolas appear in science and engineering. Rooms that have elliptical ceilings or shapes will reflect the sound of a pin dropping at one focal point so that it is audible many yards away at the other focal point. The large cables strung between towers of a suspension bridge.CONIC SECTIONS 19 parabolic shape is ideal for car headlights. They have two foci that act as centers of the ellipse. rather than the concave side used for parabolic mirrors. Then the parabolic reflector can concentrate the sun’s rays to heat the water as part of a solar heating system. Louis Airport. Ellipses are a oval conic section that look like squashed circles. For example. The reflection in hyperbolic mirrors is from the convex side.S. such as the points provided in a medical CAT scan. Television tube manufacturers have to do some clever engineering to maximize the benefits of parabolic reflectors and still provide rectangular screens. The Mormon Tabernacle in Salt Lake City and Statuary Hall in the U. The Romans invented the Groin Vault. It would also be ideal for television tubes were consumers not so demanding that picture screens be rectangular.C. Hand-held parabolic reflectors that were invented for spying are available for sport and hobby activities such as bird watching. Hitting a ball from one focus on an elliptical pool table will result in a carom from the side of the table that sends the ball to the other focus. Capitol in Washington. If the arrows are reversed in the right-hand drawing. and the can is spun. then the parabolic reflector accumulates and concentrates energy from outside sources. Sometimes a diffuse view is important. Connection to the roadway of the bridge is important in shaping the large cables to parabolic shape.. hyperbolic mirrors are used for security surveillance in buildings. Parabolas are used in design and medical applications to determine smooth curves from three specified points in a solid or the image of a solid. such as distant bird calls.

conveyers.exploremath. These develop a nonuniform motion from a uniform power source. motorcycle engines.us/academics/math/Connections/curves/conics. and packaging machines. Working with the detailed planetary observations of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601).iln.neovision. The momentary speedup or slowdown they produce is important in rotary shears.” (See Variation.asp> <http://www.htm> <http://www.com/sketchpad/java_gsp/conics.html> Pictures of Appollonius’s analysis <http://www. html> Conics in general <http://www.html> Parabolic reflectors and antennas <http://www2.html> Explore conic sections dynamically <http://www. By finding the axes of such swarms.cfm?categoryID=1> Hyperbolic mirrors <http://www.html> <http://nths.newtrier.discovery. His verification of this for the other known planets of his time is known as “Kepler’s first law.html> A video view of Statuary Hall in the U.wednet. some comets appear to follow parabolic or hyperbolic paths.gvsu. like Halley’s comet.edu/ma/gsstoudt/conics/conicsmma. they synthesize the information from many variables into important structural variables.) Some comets.ece.edu/KSD/KR/MATH/conic_sections2. These comets may have traced elliptical orbits at one time. but finally concluded the data was correct and that the orbit of Mars was elliptical with the sun at one of the focal points of the orbit.wednet.net/html_p/c/72782/62079/53803/53887.keypress.cz/prods/panoramic/h3b.S.edu/nadelson/chsscimath/Conicsection2001/conic_section_cr eations. online sources for further exploration Artistic views of conics <http://www.edu/projects/k12-fall98/14545/Group2/real.org/SpecialPlaneCurves_dir/ConicSections_dir/conicSections. Many machines contain elliptical gears. However. Capitol <http://www. Statisticians conceptualize plots of many variables on large numbers of subjects as elliptical swarms of points.html> .htm> <http://www.htm> <http://chs. Hence Halley’s comet “returns” to earth’s view on a regular basis. follow an elliptical path around the sun just like planets. but were thrown off trajectory by a gravitational encounter with a major planet such as Jupiter.utexas.k12.com/news/picture/jul99/panoramas/javapano3.com/activities/activity_list. Once past the sun.com/math/algebra/conics. He attempted to correct the values.edu/~w8gvu/geo/geo.osd.html> <http://www. Kepler found some very slight errors in Brahe’s figures for the circular orbit of Mars.kent.il.iup.20 CONIC SECTIONS Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) revolutionized astronomy when he recognized that the motion of planets about the sun was elliptical and not circular. they leave our solar system.nsm.sisweb.xahlee.

since that is an . The first position will have 9 possible values.hpceurope. but have more restrictions to the values in different positions.818.newtrier.html> Elliptical gears <http://www. because pressing 0 is a call to the operator. “Hurry. The United States Postal Service only uses 95. then the number of possible plates is 9 × 10 × 10 × 26 × 26 × 26 = 9 × 102 × 263 = 15. Also. since it will represent any digit from 1 through 9. a car dealer may be interested in the number of car varieties that can be offered in order to persuade customers.il.edu/departments/physics/ISAW/PlanetOrbMain. There are five numbers in a zip code.edu/astr161/lect/history/kepler. so there is a total of 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 105 = 100. and 2 types of interiors.k12. For example. the area code cannot be 911. If for some reason the state runs out of license-plate sequences.html> <http://www.com/ellipt.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ COUNTING Businesses and government agencies often have a need to efficiently count the number of arrangements or possibilities with various combinations of numbers or options.000 possibilities: 00001 to 95000. because they can contain any letter in the alphabet.bridgewater. Don’t miss out on this great opportunity!” The procedure of multiplying the number of possibilities for each option is called the multiplication counting principle. The first three digits are the area code.phys. this weekend only. The area code must start with a digit from 2 to 9. For example. Telephone numbers are counted in a similar way.htm> Elliptical orbits <http://csep10.us/academics/math/Connections/reflection/pararefl. since the order of letters and numbers is important on a license plate.htm> <http://www. If there are 9 different models.cunningham-ind. different cars available.COUNTING 21 How to build a parabolic reflector <http://nths. 6 different colors. they can place numbers before letters to double the number of possibilities.400. if a state has three letters followed by three numbers. The fourth through sixth positions have 26 possibilities each. State vehicle departments can determine the number of nonvanity license plates they have available by finding the product of the number of possibilities for each position on the plate. The second and third positions can hold 10 possible digits from 0 to 9. Zip codes can be counted in a similar manner. there could be a total of 9 × 6 × 2. Come to our car dealership and view over 100 different styles of cars for sale. or 108. and pressing 1 is not allowed because it is associated with dialing a number outside an area code. In this dealer’s television advertisement you might hear.000 possible zip codes.utk.com/vgb/archives/Avril00/Elliptiques.

which is probably not the same order by which they were selected. When order of selection is not important. some lock companies do not want to have the same number listed twice. with a three-digit prefix and four-digit suffix. the chance of winning would be 1 in 3. and the 58 in the third position indicates that there are 58 possible numbers remaining. In the prefix. The local phone number has seven digits. For example. meaning that the counting accounts for the selection of three numbers out of a group of 60 in which the order of selection is important. The suffix can have any four-digit number. Therefore there are a total of 8 × 10 × 10 − 1 = 799 possible area codes. this type of counting principle is called a combination and can be symbolized as nCr.010. because dialing in different directions might end up being confusing.838. 555-1212. then you are still the winner. . where n! = n(n − 1)(n − 2) • . However. we would say that there are 60 permutations taken 3 at time. The 59 in the second position means that there are 59 possible numbers available.380. . because one number has been selected in the first position. because that is a dummy set of numbers used in entertainment media. In this type of lottery.22 COUNTING emergency number. 000 = 6. the prefix cannot use 555. Some counting principles are based on situations in which the order of selection is not important. which means there are 10 × 10 × 10 × 10 = 10. Since the order of numbers is not important when reading the winning lottery number. then a total of 60 × 60 × 60 = 216. After all the numbers are randomly drawn. In this case. the results are posted in numeric order. Therefore it might be more appropriate to create 60 × 59 × 58 = 205. • (n − r + 1). or 40×39×38×37×36×35 = 3.000 locks can be made. . In this case. That is an average of almost 25 numbers per person! A lock manufacturer can determine the number of possible combinations to open its locks.000 possible values.384. The relationship between a combination and permutation is determined by the equation nCr = nPr because n! there are n! ways to arrange a group of n objects. • 1. If 6 numbers are selected from a group of 40 numbers. if the numbers are drawn in the order 35– 20–3–36–22–28. there are 6! = 6 × 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 720 ways to rearrange 6 lottery balls with different numbers. The product of three consecutive descending numbers is called a permutation. there is a total of 799 × 799 × 10. to select in the lot6×5×4×3×2×1 tery.000 possible telephone numbers. such as movies and songs. and your ticket reads 3–20–22–28–35–36.320 lock combinations. Instead of writing the permutation as a product of a series of integers n(n − 1)(n − 2) • . Also. where n is the number of possibilities for the first selection. If a dial lock has 60 numbers and requires three turns. because one number has been selected in the first position and a different number has been selected in the second position. Therefore the prefix can have 8 × 10 × 10 − 1 = 799 possible values. such as in selecting winning lottery balls. . it can be symbolized as nPr. using the multiplication-counting principle. 838. it does not matter which number is pulled out of the machine first or last. 380 combinations. except for the national information number. the first digit cannot be 0 or 1 for the same reason mentioned earlier. . and r is the number of selections. Therefore. there are 40 C6 possible numbers.

colorado.5gt2 + v0 t + h0 .” All proportions are equations that are based on equal ratios. v0 is the initial vertical velocity. There are many other types of relationships besides proportions and functions that can be represented in the form of an equation. and h0 is the initial height of the object (see Quadratic Functions for more information about the derivation and use of this equation).html> Counting techniques <http://www. The equation to represent this relationship is p1 v1 = p2 v2 .bris. of the same amount of gas at a fixed temperature was constant. and is symbolized with an equals sign “ =.8 m/sec 2). and spreadsheets <http://archives.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ DERIVATIVE . v. permutations. Other equations simply do not belong to a family of functions that is commonly studied in high school mathematics. where g is the acceleration due to earth’s gravity (9. the vertical height.utk. where the subscript notation represents the gas at different times.ac. h. (See Propor3 2 2 tions for more information about Kepler’s law on planetary motion. In 1622. p. For example. and volume.uk/Depts/Union/UBSCR/crinfo. This formula indicates that as the . S EE RATES ▲ ▼ ▲ EQUATIONS An equation is a relationship that places equal representation to different quantities. chemist Robert Boyle showed that the product of the pressure.math. written as d1 = p2 . For example. Kepler’s law states that the ratio of the cubed planetary distances from the sun is equal to the ratio of their d3 p2 1 squared period of revolutions around the sun.EQUATIONS online sources for further exploration 23 Adventure games.edu/combinatorics/Combinatorics/AdvGame.) Functions can also be written as equations. because they relate two or more variables with an equals sign. making them interesting to study or purposeful to use. Some equations are bizarre and have multiple variables. of an object is determined by the quadratic equation h = −0.edu/education/DMP/activities/counting/> English change-ringing of bells <http://www.

it is the speed at which a rocket or shuttle needs in order to break the gravitational pull of the planet. causing the amount of space to decrease until your ears “pop. repP P resented with P = (R1 + R2 )Tc . and 30 seconds to complete the task. and quantity of gas in moles. GM m/R. can be determined by the equation 1/T1 + 1/T2 = 1/Tc . The escape velocity of an object represents the speed at which it must travel in order to escape the planet’s atmosphere. This means that the two workers’ productivity can be represented by the equations P = R1 T1 and P = R2 T2 . to the mass. Suppose an experienced landscaper can trim bushes at a certain house in 3 hours. when diving under water.. Substituting R1 = T1 and R2 = T2 makes the equation P = P T1 + P T2 Tc . T1 + T2 = Tc . and T is the worker’s time on the job. ve . they will have the same productivity level.24 EQUATIONS pressure increases.98 ⋆ 10 kg. they are not distracting each other’s performance by chatting).” The amount of space in your lungs also decreases when you are underwater. then the equation can be extended to the ideal gas law. 2 Setting these two relationships equal to one another. For example. vary. they will take 1 hour. which is pv = nrt. and has a radius of 6. and vice versa. sets up a situation that determines the velocity at which the kinetic and potential energy of the rocket are the same. and m is the mass of the rocket. The productivity for both workers is based on a combined rate and different time. The mass of the earth 24 is 5. If both sides of the equation are multiplied by the product . t. R is the worker’s rate. M. the volume of the gas will decrease.5mve = GM m/R. That is almost 25. and then notice the change in its shape during takeoff and descent due to varying pressures in the earth’s atmosphere at different altitudes. of the rocket exceeds its potential energy that is influenced by the earth’s gravitational pull. and radius.334 × 10−10 )(M/R). and a novice takes 5 hours to complete the same job. the amount of pressure in your ear sockets will increase. If temperature. Tc . assuming that they are working at the same productivity level (i.67 × 10−11 . the combined time to complete a job with two people. On earth.000 miles per hour! Equations involving the sum of reciprocals exist in several applications. Dividing both sides by Tc and canceling the pro- 1 1 1 ductivity variable leaves the end result. where P is the worker’s productivity.e.082 (atm L)/(mol K).000 m. R. For instance. 52 minutes.5mve . 0.184 meters per second to fly into space. An m on both sides of the equation cancels and 2 the equation simplifies to ve = (1. where T1 and T2 represent the time it takes two different individuals to complete the job. making it more difficult to breath when scuba diving. One way to visualize this effect is to bring a closed plastic container of soda onto an airplane. The equation that relates the escape velocity. This result was determined by solving the 1 1 1 equation 3 + 5 = Tc . Since two workers complete the same job.378. of a 2 planet is approximately ve = (1. 0.334 × 10−10 )(M/R). where r is the universal gas constant equal to 0. n. 6. This equation is based on the equation P = RT. This means that a rocket needs to exceed 11. where G is a gravitational constant. The equation is based on 2 finding the moment when the kinetic energy. Together.

wvusd. The NFL quarterback rating is a computation that measures the effectiveness of a player based on his number of touchdowns (t).chem.html> Ideal gases <http://library. The image 1 formed by a converging or diverging lens can be located with the equation Di + 1 1 Do = F .edu/demos/Boyle. since the fields and rules are slightly different.com/sergey/java/java/clens/index. since the field is only 50 yards long. which translates to 1 hour. After combining like terms and dividing both sides of the equation by 8. attempts (a).nrich. and that touchdown passes are weighted four times as much as a completion. the equation can be rewritten as 5Tc +3Tc = 15. the solution will be Tc = 15 .nasa.html> <http://www.html> Euler’s formula and topology <http://www. is r = (500c + 25p + 2000t + 12.lightlink.html> Boyle’s Law and absolute zero and Cartesian diver and Model of Lung <http://chemlearn. and 30 8 seconds. For example. Do is the distance from the object to the lens. scoring in the Arena Football League occurs more often.k12.htm> Burning rate of stars <http://www.org/3616/chem/gas. completions (c). interceptions (i).ivv.edu/projects/mod/ad-escvel. This equation is proportioned so that the average quarterback will have a rating near 100.thinkquest. Reciprocal equations exist in other applications as well.us/GasLaw/Gas-Boyle-Data. Sports statistics involve unusual equations.org/mathsf/journalf/dec00/art1/index. 52 minutes. compared to 100 yards in the NFL.phys. This equation is based on NFL statistics and needs to be adjusted for other football leagues.stanford.com/features/QBrate/> Robert Boyle and his data <http://dbhs. and F is the focal distance of the lens. or 15Tc .EQUATIONS 25 of the fraction’s denominators.lightlink.html> Orbit simulation <http://observe. r.html> Calculate the escape velocity <http://www-star.tampastorm. Notice that interceptions are weighted so that the rating decreases by more than the value of a touchdown. The equation that determines the quarterback rating. according to historical performances in the league.maths.gov/nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit3.indiana.ca.edu/~chuck/ast108/notes/node76.html> .com/sergey/java/java/dlens/index. online sources for further exploration Arena Football League quarterback rating <http://www.5a − 2500i)/(6a).htm> Image forming by a lens <http://www. and passing yards (p).uri. where Di is the distance from the lens to the image.

For example.htm> Seventeen proofs of Euler’s formula <http://www.700.cybrzn. and the remaining income from ticket sales is designated for charity.000. The company can . the probability of a second place ticket is 0. One example is expected return.htm> <http://www. Industrial decision-making uses expected values to compute projected costs of different options. insurance. which are played millions of times each day. Neither lotteries nor slot machines are fair games. one must assume that a ticket would be purchased from many such lotteries.utk.002.26 EXPECTED VALUE Quarterback rating system <http://user. an expected value on a risky asset based on the probability distribution of possible rates of return that might include U.primecomputing. Since the ticket costs a dollar. Each of these options is associated with costs. There are three probabilities in this problem: The probability of having the first-prize ticket is 1 out of 1. there are two second prizes of $100.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav. Studies of expected value emerged from problems in gambling. The expected-prize value for one of these lottery tickets is $0. and law to determine expected values.com/javaqbr1. and the probability of winning nothing is 0. For this model to hold. The average of prizes weighted with corresponding probabilities gives the expected winning for a ticket: 500 • 0. or 0.001. the expected loss on a ticket is $0. first prize is $500. Expected value can also be viewed as the average value of a statistic over an infinite number of samples from the same population. and a risk premium.30.phys. investing.997. This indicates that these games of chance represent a long-term loss for the regular gambler. hold for later drilling.uci.001 + 100 • 0.com/~koz/rating.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ EXPECTED VALUE The expected value of a variable is the long-run average value of the variable.997 = 0.002 + 0 • 0. an oil company may hold property that it may choose for oil drilling. The expected net winning for each ticket in the lottery or each play of a slot machine is a negative number.S.edu/~eppstein/junkyard/euler/> Universal law of gravitation <http://csep10.ics. Bankers and investors use several indicators based on expected value. Treasury notes. The concept of weighting costs by probabilities is used in finance.70. This assumption is met by state lotteries that sell millions of tickets or Las Vegas slot machines. How much is a lottery ticket worth? Consider a lottery run by a service organization: a thousand tickets are offered at a dollar each. industrial decision-making. stock-market indices. or sell.

htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ .edu/reese/cereal/intro. rain.the-stationery-office.ubalt. and natural vegetation. In what is now called “Pascal’s wager.iihe. A controversial industrial use of expected value occurred in the 1970s with the design of the Ford Pinto automobile. The latter value was the lesser. settle without a trial. and consumption by humans.htm#rutility> The “dummies guide” to lottery design <http://www.uiuc. the law firm should advise the client to drop the suit or accept a settlement.” If the expected value of the net winnings in a trial is negative. Almost 400 years later.edu/~rwjohnso/module7. agriculture. Ecologists have used expected value to estimate water supplies in the Great Plains based on probability and volume estimates of soil moisture. loss of life. Pascal’s assumptions and arguments are still debated by theologians and philosophers. and destruction of property are associated with probabilities to compare the expected values of different strategies. The French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) provided one of the earliest and most intriguing uses of expected value. The cost of litigation and the potential awards provide the estimates of net “winnings. It had a gas tank that was likely to explode when the car suffered a rear-end collision. Law firms can use expected values to determine whether or not a client should continue a suit.EXPECTED VALUE 27 compute probabilities based on past experience for each cost.uk/pa/cm199900/cmselect/cmcumeds/958/01111622. online sources for further exploration The cereal box problem <http://www. so Ford executives chose to omit gas-tank improvements.mste.htm> Determination of the decision-maker’s utility function <http://ubmail.htm> Life-expectancy data <http://www. or go to trial.sdsmt.” Costs in military operations. The military uses expected values in conducting “war games. The Ford Motor Company computed expected costs of improving the Pinto gas tank versus the expected costs of settling lawsuits resulting from deaths in Pinto explosions. They then compare the expected values and choose the option that has the least expected cost.edu/~harsham/opre640a/partix.co.html> Contest odds <http://silver. Experience with similar lawsuits provides the probabilities.org/information/Databook1996/T49_LifeExpectancyAgeRaceSex. industry.parliament.” he argued that probabilities and payoffs associated with belief in God versus not believing in God would result in an expected value that supported belief in God.

and the cooling of a hot cup of coffee. 2 where Ao is the amount of radioactive substance at the start of the timing. the halflife of elements. h is the half-life time period. The general exponential equations that define exponential growth. as in AR = Ao (2)−t/h .000 years is followed for 100. or leaving the base alone and allowing the power to be negative. The formula that describes this model is A = 100( 1 )t/24. so the proportions of lead and uranium-238 in a sample can be used to determine the amount of decay over time. One hundred grams of substance with half-life of 24. and some in fractions of a second (muons have a half-life of 0. Some radioactive substances have half-lives measured in thousands to billions of years (the half-life of uranium-238 is 4. The law of radioactive decay states that each radioactive nuclear substance has a specific time known as the half-life. At the end of 24.5 billion years). 2 A graph that describes an exponential decay of radioactive substance as a function of time: Quantity remaining of 100 grams of a radioactive substance with half-life of 24. such as the financial model for principal after compound interest is r applied.000 years.000 years. 50 grams of the radioactive substance are left in the sample.000 years.000 . In 1 this format. the base of the exponential equation is 2 . 12. The changes that are made to the models may involve changing the base from a number greater than one (growth) to a number less than one (decay). At the end of 48. 25 grams are left.5 grams. The law of decay is stated as AR = Ao ( 1 )t/h .00000152 seconds). Uranium-238 decays into lead. The term “decay” comes from the use of exponential functions to describe the decrease of radioactivity in substances over time.000 years. .000 years. during which radioactive activity diminishes by half. The way in which radioactivity is measured varies from substance to substance. the decrease of medication in the blood stream. It can also be stated with a base larger than one if the exponent is negative. The basic shape of the graph of exponential decay is shown in the plot below. A = P (1 + n )nt . and AR is the amount remaining after t units of time. and the general models for exponential growth such as y = abx can be used to describe losses over time for values of b that are between 0 and 1. clearly a number less than one. and at the end of 72.28 EXPONENTIAL DECAY EXPONENTIAL DECAY Exponential decay can be observed in the depreciation of car values.

can pick up indications of banned drugs used within two weeks or more of the testing.700 years. depending on the half-life of the substance. After an organism dies. 000(0. and then less rapidly during each subsequent year. the drop off in drug concentration decreases less rapidly over time.000 is the same equation plotted in the graph. however. or t ≈ 2. then the coffee will remain lukewarm for a long while.000 when new are given by P = 27. tax law permits a business to depreciate 20 percent of the original cost of computer equipment for each of five years.75t . When living organisms breathe or eat. Newton’s law of cooling states that the rate at which the temperature drops is proportional to the difference . For example. Some drugs do not follow an exponential decay pattern. The equation A = ln2 100e−kt . the quantity of alcohol in the bloodstream after ingestion will show a linear decrease rather than exponential decay.2 percent per year during the 1970s. If you are taking a medication that depends on the bloodstream for circulation.83)t . The used-car prices for one popular automobile that sold for $27.928)t . Exponential decay in prices is called depreciation. In this case. the automobile lost 17 percent of its value each year. the temperature will drop off quickly. where t is the number of years after 1970. Automobiles typically depreciate rapidly during the first year. Concentrations of a medication that are carried in the bloodstream often follow an exponential decay model. and so on. The half1 life for this drug can be found by solving the equation 2 = 0. such as those used on Olympic athletes. they ingest some carbon-14 along with ordinary carbon. the purchasing power of the dollar dropped by 7. This means that users of illegal or dangerous drugs will have traces of the drugs remaining in their bloodstreams for many days. If you pour a cup of hot coffee. Such drugs are said to have half-lives. The purchasing power of $100 is given by P = 100(1 − 0.25 mg (75 percent of 15 mg) two days later. Radiocarbon dating of animal or plant remains that are thousands of years old is based on the radioactive isotope carbon-14. Inflation problems can be viewed as growth problems (increases in prices) or as drops in the value of currency. Market prices. and 11. do not follow a linear pattern. Therefore it is possible to measure the quantity of the drug in the body long after ingestion. where t is the number of years after purchase. so the age of its remains can be calculated by determining how much carbon-14 is left. A person who takes one pill containing 20 mg of medicine will have about 15 mg (75 percent of 20 mg) in his or her body one day later.072)t = 100(0. For example. no more carbon-14 is ingested. Some types of depreciation used in accounting are linear. where k = 24. Carbon-14 is constantly produced in the earth’s atmosphere through the absorption of radiation from the sun.EXPONENTIAL DECAY 29 Exponential decay models are also written using base e.4 days. Each day you replace about 25 percent of the fluids in your blood. then 25 percent of the dose is lost as you replace fluids. which has a half-life of 5. Because alcohol is metabolized by humans. For the many drugs and steroids that have half-lives. Sensitive drug tests.

30

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

between the coffee temperature and the room temperature. The formula for the coffee temperature after t minutes is T = Tr + (To − Tr )e−kt , where To is the initial temperature of the coffee, Tr is the room temperature, and k is a constant depending on the type of cup. Hence cooling is an exponential decay situation. (See Asymptote.) Medical examiners use a version of Newton’s law of cooling to determine the time of death based on the temperature of a corpse and ambient temperature at the murder scene.
online sources for further exploration

Journal of Online Mathematics and Its Applications <http://www.joma.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc5/exponential_decay_module.html> Carbon dating <http://www.c14dating.com/> <http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~lindsay/creation/carbon.html> Cooling <http://mvhs1.mbhs.edu/mvhsproj/cooling.html> <http://members.tripod.com/fix_it_quick/mathisu.html> <http://www.aw.com/ide/Media/JavaTools/nlhcrate.html> Nuclear medicine <http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_4/ary_11_4.htm> Radioactive decay <http://www.joma.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc5/exponential_decay_module.html> <http://pass.maths.org.uk/issue14/features/garbett/index.html> The RC circuit <http://www.math.bcit.ca/examples/ary_7_4/ary_7_4.htm> Used car prices <http://www.edmunds.com/used/> <http://www.kbb.com/kb/ki.dll/kw.kc.bz?kbb&&688&zip_ucr;1409&>

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

Exponential growth situations are based on repeated multiplication. A classic example was the growth of the rabbit population in Australia. English wild rabbits are not native to Australia, but were introduced by Thomas Austin of Winchelsea, Victoria, onto his property in 1859. Australia provided an ideal environment for the rabbits, with plenty of food and no predators, so the population grew rapidly. By 1910, rabbits had become a plague, driving out many of the native species across Australia. They destroyed farming areas, caused severe erosion,

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

31

and ruined grazing areas for sheep. During the thirty years after their introduction, the rabbit population doubled every six months. The table and graph below show the approximate number of rabbits in Australia for each six-month period after the introduction of Mr. Austin’s original 24 rabbits.
six-month periods (x)

year

rabbit population (y)

1859 1860 1861
The growth of the rabbit population in Australia from 1859–1864 modeled by an exponential growth equation.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

24 24 • 2 = 48 24 • 2 • 2 = 96 24 • 2 • 2 • 2 = 192 24 • 24 = 384 24 • 25 = 768 24 • 26 = 1,536 24 • 27 = 3,072 24 • 28 = 6,144 24 • 29 = 12,288 24 • 210 = 24,576

1862 1863 1864

The equation for the number of rabbits is y = 24 • 2x . Because the independent variable x is in an exponent, the equation describing the rabbit population growth is called an exponential model. The base 2, which represents doubling, is the growth factor. Growth factors greater than one create curves similar to the rabbit-population curve. When the growth factor is less than one, the curve will decrease (see Exponential Decay). Exponential growth models are used extensively in the world of finance. Investments of money in a certificate of deposit (CD), for example, require the customer to invest a certain amount of money (principal) for a specified time. The bank issuing the CD will specify an annual yield, a yearly interest rate that will be added to the principal each year. The interest becomes part of the princi-

A graph depicting growth of the rabbit population in Australia from 1859 –1864.

32

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

pal held for the customer. The return addition of interest payments to the principal so that the interest amount can earn interest in later years is called compound interest. The growth factor in compound-interest problems is 1 plus the annual yield. So an investor who buys a $5,000 CD advertised at 6.5 percent annual yield will receive 5000(1 + .065)x after x years. After three years, this CD would be valued at 5000(1.065)3 = $6,039.75. Banks may choose to compound interest more frequently. The banking version of the exponential growth formula is A = P (1 + r/n)nt , where A is the amount at the end of t years, P is the starting principal, r is the stated interest rate, and n is the number of periods per year that interest will be compounded. A typical CD will have interest compounded each quarter. Financial institutions can offer more-frequent compounding, such as monthly or daily. Some even offer continuous compounding, which has the formula A = P ert , where A is the value of the investment at time t, P is the initial principal, r is the interest rate, and e ≈ 2.7183. For a given interest rate, more frequent compounding yields a higher return, but that return does not increase dramatically as the compounding period moves from months to days to continuous. Because the number of compounding periods can affect the rate of return on an investment, federal law requires financial institutions to state the annual yield as well as an interest rate so that consumers can make easier comparisons among investment opportunities. Benjamin Franklin was one of the pioneers in the use of exponential growth models for money and population. In 1790, Franklin established a trust of $8,000. He specified that his investment should be compounded annually for 200 years, at which time the funds should be split evenly between the cities of Philadelphia and Boston, and used for loans to “young apprentices like himself.” Franklin anticipated that the fund would be worth $20.3 million after 200 years if the annual yield averaged 4 percent. However, the annual yield averaged about 3.4 percent, so $6.5 million was in the fund when it was dispersed to the two cities in 1990. Franklin established the practice of studying the American population by using exponential growth. He recognized that the warning of the Englishman Thomas Malthus (1766–1834) that population under exponential growth would outstrip food sources might apply to the new country of the United States. Franklin urged that the growth of states and the entire country be tracked each year. Some historians contend that President Lincoln used exponential growth models 70 years after Franklin’s recommendation. Lincoln used censuses from 1790 to 1860 to predict that the population of the United States would be over 250 million in 1930. The population did not reach this figure until 1990. This shows that exponential functions can describe situations only as long as the growth factor remains constant. There are many factors such as economics, war, and disease that can affect the rate of population growth. When the Center for Disease Control identifies a new epidemic of flu, exponential growth functions describe the numbers of early cases of infection quite well. A good definition of epidemic is a situation in which cases of disease increase exponentially. However, as people build up immunization, the disease

the franchisee obtains the rights to sell the product in a certain area. the number of these messages increases very rapidly and can clog disk storage and communication links. Postal Code prohibits chain letters. In the United States. There are few dangerous effects in the early stages of the growth. 1. it appeared that world oil production was increasing exponentially at a rate of 7 percent per year to meet the growing worldwide demand. and other models become more appropriate. There are several other ways in which exponential growth appears in financial deceits.80)12 ≈ $1. the person at the top of the list would receive $6. Send copies of the new letter to five people. variants of chain letters that don’t ask for money have been popular via email. A chain letter offers the promise of easy money. the letter would have to be continued by more people than there are in the United States. One measure of inflation is the Consumer Price Index (CPI).S. but as the amount of atmospheric CO2 leaps ahead. serious changes such as global warming will disrupt life on earth. what cost $100 in 1980 would cost $228. The value of a dollar was therefore less in 2000 than it was in 1980.125 people would have had to pass on the chain letter after it had been initiated. Up to that point. “Send $10 to the first name on the list. In three more stages. This can be checked with the exponential growth calculation 100(1 + 0.2 percent.157 at the end of the year. that means that what cost $100 at the start of the year would cost 100(1 + 0.S.70. For payment of a franchise fee.000. This inflation is not a serious national problem if wages and salaries increase at the same rate.042)20 ≈ $227. This corresponds to a yearly increase in costs of about 4.69 in 2000.” If you and everyone else does this. Exponential growth models are the basis of many scams. oil production has not increased exponentially since 1970. Could that continue? Because it is harder to find previously undiscovered oil deposits. which provides averages of what standard goods and services would cost each year. such as the chain letter.EXPONENTIAL GROWTH 33 cannot continue exponential growth. An entrepreneur will advertise franchises for selling some product. everything is legal. Because the number of contributors to the letter must grow exponentially.250. with every- . However. Exponential growth is an issue in studies of the environment. Inflation is the growth in prices over time. (See Logistic Functions. It becomes a crisis if the costs of goods and services increase at too high a percentage. However. such as $1. by the time your name came up on top of the list. Some scientists contend that the carbon dioxide content in the upper atmosphere is increasing exponentially.000 or $5. But some frauds depend on the franchisees selling further franchises. One letter might have five names at the end of it. From 1950 through 1970. economy. Because these letters ask the recipient to send copies of the letter to all people in their computer address books. Remove that name and put your name on the bottom of the list. There was a time during the last twenty years in which the inflation rate in Brazil reached 80 percent per month! Using the exponential growth equation.) The federal government keeps close tab on exponential growth situations that can or may harm the U. the only people who benefit from a chain letter are those who start them. The U.953.

htm> The US national debt clock <http://www.org/HBHoaxInfo.ea.math.org/exhibits/dailymath/population.htm> Internet growth data <http://www.html> Inflation rates and calculators <http://www.richmond. and compound interest <http://www.ciac.html#what> <http://www.bcit.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/mortgage.math.cqu.edu/cts/osue/cpidist.rr.learner.ca/examples/ary_2_4/ary_2_4.com/debt_clock/> ▲ ▼ ▲ . html> <http://www.ohio-state.org/exhibits/dailymath/savings.mit.34 EXPONENTIAL GROWTH one already in the business sharing some of the franchise fees.com/inflation/> <http://woodrow.htm> <http://www.westegg.au/biodiversity/invasive/pests/rabbit.chainletters.learner.html> <http://www.gov.frb.edu/people/mkgray/net/internet-growth-summary.htm> Savings. The people who pay franchises late in the scheme lose all their money.org/> <http://home.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc5/exponential_growth_module.mpls. credit. In this type of scheme.gov/websites/depart/inspect/chainlet.montana. the fraud is called a “Ponzi scheme.edu.htm> Chain letters and scams <http://hoaxbusters.us/economy/calc/cpihome.edu/~ed344/webunits/math/banking3.htm> Food technology <http://www.math.brillig.html> <http://www.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/discrete/snooping/learn.com/useless/ponzi/> <http://www.org/lit/0052.usps.hec.” online sources for further exploration Population changes <http://www.bosbbb. When all operations are based on money from new investors rather than goods or services.nycap. even if none of the product is ever sold.html> <http://www.html> <http://www.html> <http://www.joma. millions of dollars can come to the originators.au/dia_asn.fed.html> Pricing diamond rings <http://exploringdata.toronto.

. 5.1175–ca. He has two ancestors at the grandparent generation. .5. The family tree for a male bee. 2. 13. . 8. So the male bee has one ancestor at the parent generation. 5. 8.6. 13.FIBONACCI SEQUENCE FIBONACCI SEQUENCE 35 The infinite sequence 1. The sequence has been shown to have remarkable mathematical properties and some surprising connections to events outside of mathematics. 8. 2. sequence 1. . recursive explicit Fibonacci established a thought experiment about counts of animals over generations. an organization and journal. 1. rather than the explicit formula on the right. If you work out the great-grandparent generation. are devoted to exploring new discoveries about the sequence. 5. If you repeat the argument with a female bee. the Fibonacci Quarterly. The formula for the sequence is best written recursively (first formula below). 1.61803.625. 5. 21. .¯ 1. is called the Fibonacci sequence after the Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa (ca. . 34. 3. you will find that there are three ancestors. an The ratios of consecutive terms of the Fibonacci sequence an−1 produce a 6. 1. 3. and can be described in terms of the family line of honey bees. 2. . How many ancestors does a male bee have? The male bee has one mother. 8. . . Placing the male bee at the beginning of the sequence (starting generation) gives 1. Female bees develop from fertilized eggs. Eight hundred years after Fibonacci’s publication of the sequence. A male bee develops from an unfertilized egg—hence has only a mother. 2.1240). 3. and so on. . which converges to the golden ratio √ 1+ 5 ≈ 1. 1. The sequence starts with a pair of ones. A full picture of the family tree for the bee going back to great-greatgreat grandparents will show that the generation counts are 1. 1. therefore female bees have a father and mother. who wrote under the name of Fibonacci. then each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers. If a sequence of squares is built up from two initial unit 2 . The mother has a mother and a father. 2. a1 =1 a2 =1 an =an−1 +an−2 tn = √ 1+ 5 2 2 − √ 5 √ 1− 5 2 2 . you will also get a Fibonacci sequence starting with 1. 3.

and counts of spirals in sunflower seeds. In the last few years. Buttercups and impatiens have five petals. corn marigolds have thirteen. The most efficient turn to produce seeds. Some investors think that when Elliott’s theories work. A pine cone has two spirals of five and eight arms. Nevertheless. there is a data structure called a “Fibonacci heap” that is at the heart of many fast algorithms that manipulate graphs. or branches will result in a Fibonacci spiral. Elliott proposed investment strategies based on the Fibonacci sequence. The Fibonacci numbers and their connection to the golden ratio in a chambered nautilus. proposed a mathematical explanation for the Fibonacci-patterned spirals in nature. the cells move outward and increase in size. The Fibonacci numbers appear in the branching of plants. and teeth. Stephane Douady and Yves Couder. In 1948. but whether they are a never-fail way of selecting stocks and bonds is open to debate. In computer science. Physicists have . N. and a pineapple has spirals of five. two French mathematicians. The spiral also appears in animal horns. but the average of the petals will be a Fibonacci number. can be shown to have two layers of three petals. pine cones. flowers. the vertices provide links for tracing a logarithmic spiral (middle picture). such as six. both beginning at the center. The same count of florets in a daisy show twenty-one spirals in one direction and thirty-four in the other. claws. These remain standard tools for many brokers. The spiral (which expands one golden ratio during each whole turn) appears in the chambered nautilus (right-hand picture). There are fifty-five spirals in the clockwise direction. it is because many investors are using his rules. eight. and thirty-four in the counterclockwise one. In one particular variety of sunflower.36 FIBONACCI SEQUENCE squares (left-hand picture below). the number of petals on blossoms is a Fibonacci number. Flowers with other numbers of petals. and thirteen. R. On many plants. and some asters have twenty-one. the florets appear to have two systems of spirals. Cells are produced at a constant rate of turn of the meristem. Plants develop seeds. As the meristem grows upward. flowers. iris have three. or branches from a meristem (a tiny tip of the growing point of plants). so that their counts are simple multiples of a Fibonacci number. and pineapples. so their effects on the stock market shape a Fibonacci pattern. Some species have petal counts that may vary from blossom to blossom. a substantial number of brokers use Elliott’s Fibonacci rules in determining how to invest.

htm> A psychic encounter with Fibonacci numbers <http://www.germantownacademy.telepath.htm> Fibonacci spirals <http://www.com/novelty/nbart1.html> Scott’s phi page <http://www.com/~nedmay/chromat/fibonaci.uk/Personal/R.htm> Trader’s corner <http://www. online sources for further exploration An absolutely huge collection of information about the Fibonnaci sequence <http://www.shu. such as a population based on its growth rate.ac.asp> ▲ ▼ ▲ IMAGINARY NUMBERS .uk/Personal/R. Understanding the utility of an integral does not require a background in calculus.htm> Fibonacci numbers and the golden section <http://www.moonstar.ac. or to represent an accumulation of something such as volume in a tank.html> Fibonacci numbers and their application in trend analysis <http://library. but instead a conceptual understanding of rates and area.INTEGRATION 37 used Fibonacci sequences to study quantum transport through Fibonacci lattices and radiation paths through the solar system.ee. but its use and computation can be performed by many calculators or computer programs without taking calculus.html> Computer art based on Fibonacci numbers <http://www.surrey. It is usually introduced in calculus.com/~nedmay/chromat/fibonaci.Knott/Fibonacci/fib.optioninvestor.edu/HafnerAW/awh-th-fibonacci-num.moonstar.Knott/Fibonacci/fib.com/traderscorner/070501_1.surrey. .ee. S EE COMPLEX NUMBERS ▲ ▼ ▲ INTEGRATION Integration is used to determine a total amount based on a predictable rate pattern.org/academics/us/Math/Geometry/stwk98/SCOTTRK/Index.

the definite integral can be determined by finding the area between f and the t axis. and industry cannot be expressed with simple linear functions or geometric formulas.2] is equal to approximately 12.38 INTEGRATION Many realistic applications of integration that occur in science.37e−0. students learn that distance = rate × time. Notice that the area on the . perhaps due to fatigue or boredom. the rate of an object changes. f . Cars speed up and slow down according to traffic signals. even if the rate has changed. A definite integral of a function f (t) is an integral that finds a value based on a set of boundaries. suppose a clothes manufacturer recognized that its employees were gradually slowing down as they were sewing clothes.37e−0. For example. The area between the graph of f (t) = 6.04t . or tell you how far the car has moved from its original position. can be modeled by the function f (t) = 6. This is true only if the rate of an object always remains the same. A definite integral can help you determine the total production of textiles based on a specific period of time during the day. written as 0 6.04t and the t axis on the interval [0. In many real-world instances. On a graph in which f (t) describes a rate. the area between f (t) = 6. For the first two hours of work.24 pairs of jeans. incidents on the road. and attention to driving. If the velocity of the car can be modeled with a nonlinear function.37e−0. the manufacturer determined that the rate of production of blue jeans. business. Integration is powerful in such circumstances.04t and the t axis determined by 2 6. an expected production amount can be determined by the definite 2 integral.37e−0.04t dt.37e−0. then an integral could help you represent the distance as a function of time. In an eight-hour workday. where t is the number of consecutive hours worked.37e−0.04t dt. After collecting data on a group of workers. because there is not a reliance on constant rates or simple functions to find answers.63 pairs of blue jeans. in many algebra courses. engineering. such as the velocity of an automobile on the road. the last two hours 8 of work production from an employee would be represented by 6 6.04t dt. 0 In the case of producing blue jeans for the first two hours of work. which equals approximately 9. For example.

The temperature should be 80° at x = 10 (10 AM) and x = 18 (6 PM).05 times the area of the curve between T = 20 cos 2π(x−14) + 70 and T = 80. can be represented by the equation T = 20 cos 2π(x−14) + 70.62. This information can help managers determine when employees should take breaks so that they can optimize their performance. because temperature increases during the day. T . On any given day. Therefore. For example. If the temperature were 83° for the entire hour. If x represents the number of hours that have passed during the day. . The amount of energy used for the air conditioner is proportional to the temperature outside. as shown in the following 24 diagram. The price to cool the house might be five cents per hour for every degree above 80°. a definite integral bounded by the time when the temperature is above 80° will help predict the cooling costs.62 based on an evaluation of the expression $0. However. the temperature can be modeled with a sinusoidal function. so the cooling costs per day for days like this would be approximately $2. than from 0 to 2 hours of work (the light shaded region). because they would likely feel more productive when they returned to work. suppose the temperature reached a low of 50° Fahrenheit at 2 AM and a high of 90° at 2 PM.37e−0.05 18 (20 cos 2π(x−14) 24 10 + 70 − 80)dx = $2. and then repeats the cycle throughout the year. decreases at night.04t and the t axis on the interval from t = 0 to 2 hours (the light shaded region) and from t = 6 to 8 hours (the dark solid region). A comparison of the areas between the graph of f (t) = 6. Suppose that 24 the thermostat in the house is set to 80° so that the air conditioning will turn on once the temperature is greater than or equal to that setting. the cost per minute would actually change. then the cost to run the air conditioner would be fifteen cents. That means that the air conditioner will use more energy to keep the house cool when it is closer to 90° than when it is near 80°. Notice that the answer is also represented by 0. A definite integral can help heating and cooling companies estimate the amount of costs needed to send power or gas to each household. since temperature varies according to a sinusoidal function. then the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.INTEGRATION 39 graph is much lower in this interval (the dark solid region).

which is the same as + 70 − 80)dx Integration can be used to help solve differential equations in order to formulate new equations that compare two variables. t. neglecting any air resistance. so this information and the integral determine the equation d = 0.131t . Acceleration is a rate of velocity. g. vo . v.8 meters per second squared to represent the acceleration due to earth’s gravity. For example.40 INTEGRATION The area between T = 20 cos 18 (20 cos 2π(x−14) 24 10 2π(x−14) 24 + 70 and T = 80. This information can help farmers understand how their crops will be affected over time and take preventative measures. Values that are commonly substituted into this equation are g = – 9. In this case. solving the differential equation will result in a general equation of P = 200e0. and the initial vertical position of the object. of an object based on the time the object has been in motion. so d = (gt + vo )dt. then an integral will help you find an equation that relates the population of rabbits to the amount of time that has passed. The velocity at t = 0 is vo . the initial velocity of the object. The equation d = 0.5gt2 + vo t + do . where t is the number of months that have passed since the rabbits were originally counted. A differential equation is a relationship that describes a pattern for a rate. If there were 200 rabbits in the population seven months ago. so v = gdt. and 500 rabbits in the population right now.5gt2 + vo t + do is commonly used in physics when studying kinematics to describe the vertical position. assuming that changes will not result in the growth rate due to disease or removal. since they will be able to predict future rabbit populations. d. Many volume formulas in geometry can also be proven by integration. In this case. Velocity is a rate of position. the differential equation describing the rate of the growth of a rabbit population is proportional to the amount present and would be represented by the equation dP = kP . do . t is the amount of time. How was this equation determined? Integration can help explain how this expression is derived. where P is dt the population. and k is a constant of proportionality. The acceleration of an object in vertical motion is equal to the constant value. The vertical position at t = 0 is do . the integral serves as an accumulator of small pieces of volume until the . so this information and the integral determines the equation v = gt + vo .

The volume of this cylindrical cross section. cylindrical slice inscribed in a sphere cylindrical slices stacked to form a sphere √ Cylindrical slices with radius y = r2 − x2 and height ∆x are stacked together to form the volume of the sphere. such as y = –0.068x2 − 0. except that an equation would need to be developed to model the perimeter of the fruit. Orange juice manufacturers can use this relationship to estimate the amount of orange juice they will receive from a batch of fresh oranges. if the core of a pear is placed along the x-axis. where r is the radius of the sphere. 4 which simplifies to v = 3 πr3 .132. of a sphere can be represented by the equation v = 4 πr3 . y = r2 − x2 . apples. One really thin cross-sectional slice of the sphere can be represented by a cylinder with radius y and thickness ∆x. is formed when rotating the semicircle √ y = r2 − x2 about the x-axis. This formula tells manufacturers how much metal is needed to create certain ball bearings. r √ Therefore the volume of a sphere can be represented by π −r ( r2 − x2 )2 dx. For example. such as lemons. and pears? The process would be similar to calculating the volume of a sphere. about the x-axis. r. a pencil can trace its perimeter in the first two quadrants. then.094x3 − 0.016x4 − 0. is v = πy 2 ∆x. and then rotated around .242x + 3. as shown in the left-hand diagram below. The integral will accumulate the volume of all of these cylinders that stack up against one another from x = –r to x = r. assuming that they can convert cubic centimeter units to gallons. r. What about predicting the volume needed to juice other fruits that have noncircular curves.INTEGRATION 41 entire solid is formed. The formula is also useful for ice cream store owners to determine how many cones they can serve with each container of ice cream. This equation can 3 √ be determined by revolving a semicircle. For example. A sphere with radius. A fourth-degree function can model the curvature of a pear. the volume.

ca/examples/ary_11_6/ary_11_6.ca/examples/ary_17_6/ary_17_6.umich.edu/education/calc-init/population/> Nuclear medicine <http://www.htm> Tunnel Vision.math. online sources for further exploration BHS calculus student projects <http://www.bcit.htm> Petroleum collection <http://www.math.geom.sci.edu/writing_in_math/murky_well. An integral set up like the volume of a sphere.132 about the x-axis.016x4 − 0.edu/html/hs_math/hd.math.bhs-ms.html> Heating-degree-days <http://www.bcit.org/calculus.lsa.ca/examples/ary_13_6/ary_13_6.068x2 − 0.htm> The case of the murky mell <http://www.bcit.html> CO2 concentrations in a river <http://www.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .edu/education/calc-init/integration/> Flood levels <http://www. <http://panther.umn.edu/idea/current.347 (–0.math.016x4 − 0.ca/examples/ary_15_6/ary_15_6.math. as a result of evaluating 2.bsc.502 π −6.iupui.umn.094x3 − 0.wsu.242x + 3. will approximate the volume of the pear.094x3 − 0.htm> Surveying <http://www.068x2 −0.edu/~bspieler/projects/tunnel.nap.42 INTEGRATION the x-axis to form the solid. Inc.edu/~glarose/courseinfo/calc/calcprojects.html> Internet differential equations activities: Current projects <http://www. and bounded by the x-intercepts of the function.bcit.htm> Gavin’s calculus projects <http://www. A pear can be constructed by rotating the function y = –0.math. as shown below.132)2 dx. This pear has a volume ≈ 352 milliliters.geom.242x + 3.html> Modeling population growth <http://www.

INVERSE ( MULTIPLICATIVE )
INVERSE

43

( MULTIPLICATIVE )

k A relationship in the form y = x , where k is a constant, is called an inverse function. Sometimes you will see this relationship written as “y is inversely proportional to x.” The graph of this function is a hyperbola, but most real-world applications with inverse functions relate only to nonnegative values in the domain.

A graph of the inverse function 4 y = x.

An inverse proportion indicates that the dependent variable decreases as the independent variable increases, or vice versa. In other words, as one factor changes, the other factor will change in the reverse direction. For example, pressure is inversely proportional to the volume of an object. When you dive underwater, the amount of air space in between your ears begins to decrease, causing them to pop, because the pressure gradually increases. If your ears do not pop and release the air inside, then you will feel discomfort or pain, because the pressure becomes too great. Bottling companies use this same principle in packaging their soft drinks. Air and carbon dioxide are compressed in a small volume of space when you first open a container. The built-up pressure inside the small amount of space will cause the container to fizz or make a sound when it is first opened. After the gasses in the container have been released and part of the bottle is emptied, the pressure on the bottle decreases, since the air volume inside has increased. Thus the bottle does not fizz as much when it is opened later on. Size is influenced by a combination of surface area and volume. The ratio of surface area to volume is an inverse relationship, because area units are squared and volume units are cubed. The ratio of squared units to cubic units is equal to inverse units. For example, the surface area of a cube with an edge length equal to 2 cm is 24 cm 2 (6 square faces, each with area of 4 cm 2 ). The volume of this cm2 cube is 8 cm3. The surface-area-to-volume ratio is 3 cm –1 (determined by 24 cm3 ). 8 Notice that the units are a multiplicative inverse, or reciprocal, of cm. Since an organism’s metabolic rate is affected by this ratio, it can be modeled after an inverse proportion. This means that large animals will typically have slower metabolisms than smaller animals, because the ratio of surface area to volume will decrease for larger volumes. Conversely, smaller animals will have higher metabolic rates than larger animals, because this ratio increases for

44

INVERSE ( MULTIPLICATIVE )

smaller volumes. Therefore rodents and dogs are much more likely to lose heat from their bodies than bears and elephants, because they have less heat stored inside. As a result, smaller animals need to be more active to maintain appropriate heat levels within their bodies, causing their metabolism to remain at high levels. Animals and plants have naturally developed parts of their body to help expand their surface area without adding considerable volume so that they can increase their metabolic rate. For example, trees develop leaves from branches, and humans use capillaries to extend their circulatory system. Microvilli, the lining of the small intestine, is an example of a large surface area in the human body with little volume, because it stretches to lengths of over seven meters long! Fuel consumption as a function of gas mileage is an inverse relationship. As automobiles increase their fuel efficiency, or the number of miles per gallon they attain while driving, then the gasoline consumers will purchase less fuel. Smaller compact cars typically obtain better gas mileage, because there is less mass to move when compared to less-fuel-efficient cars such as vans, trucks, and sportutility vehicles. If Americans drive approximately 1012 miles each year, then the fuel consumption of the United States each year can be represented by the func12 tion g = 10 , where m is the average gas mileage of the cars that year. m Production rates also form inverse relationships. The time it takes to complete a task is inversely proportional to the rate at which an item is produced or performed. For example, a grocery store clerk needs to staple price stickers on 5,000 cans. The amount of time needed for the job, t, is dependent on his productivity rate, r, according to the function t = 5000 . If he works at a faster rate, r then the job will take less time to complete. Some people claim that “Murphy’s law” can be described as an inversely proportional relationship. This law maintains that anything can go wrong at the worst possible moment. For example, when constructing a stage, Murphy’s law might strike if the most vital tool to complete the job is missing. Another example is staying up all night to complete a term paper, only to realize that your disk has gone bad or your printer is out of ink. If this law were described as an inverse function, then the availability of an item or luck is inversely proportional to its importance. Thus as an event or object becomes more important, Murphy’s law can strike, indicating that it will likely not occur or be available. Conversely, the object or phenomenon will more likely occur or become available when it is less needed.
online sources for further exploration

Best practices in network security <http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Physics/Main/Image_analysis.html> Boyle’s law <http://library.thinkquest.org/12596/boyles.html> Ears, altitude and airplane travel <http://www.entnet.org/altitude.html>

INVERSE FUNCTION

45

Gear ratios <http://www.meceng.uct.ac.za/~mec104w/projects/legogears/legogears.html> <http://weirdrichard.com/gears.htm> Investigating direct and inverse variation with the telescope <http://jwilson.coe.uga.edu/emt669/Student.Folders/Jeon.Kyungsoon/IU/rational2/T elescope.html> Murphy’s law <http://www.peacockfamily.co.nz/murphys.html> <http://fun.pinknet.cz/wise/m_apl.htm> Weight and distance on a lever <http://www.indiana.edu/~atmat/units/ratio/ratio_t7.htm> <http://collections.ic.gc.ca/science_world/english/exhibits/leverarm/index.html> <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/teachersguide/lostempires/lostempires_sp3.html>

▼ ▲

INVERSE FUNCTION

An inverse is a process, procedure, or operation that is reversed. For example, the inverse of walking up the stairs is walking down the stairs. The inverse of putting on your socks and then your shoes in the morning is taking them off at night. When you are given driving directions to a friend’s house, you have to use the inverse of the original directions to find your way home, because all of the directions will need to be reversed, where left turns will become right turns, and vice versa. Two functions, f (x) and g(x), are inverses if their composites are equal to the independent variable. Symbolically, this is written f (g(x)) = x or g(f (x)) = x. Also, the coordinates on inverse functions are reversed. If f (x) and g(x) are inverses, and f (x) contains the point (4,7), then g(x) contains the point (7,4). So one way to model an inverse of a function is to reverse the coordinates. For example, the exchange rate when traveling from the United States to Australia might be represented by the function a = 1.90u, where u is the number of U.S. dollars, and a is the number of Australian dollars. This means that 1.90 Australian dollars is equivalent to 1 U.S. dollar. In this equation, the coordinates are represented by the ordered pair (u, a). The inverse of this relationship would be to describe the exchange rate when traveling from Australia to the United States. Therefore the coordinates would be reversed, or (a, u). In order to represent this equation as a function that indicates the exchange rate, the equation a = 1.90u needs to be rewritten as a function in terms of a. This can be done by dividing both sides of 1a the equation by 1.90 to obtain 1.90 = 1.90u , which simplifies to approximately 1.90 0.53a = u. This means that the exchange rate on the return to the United States is about $0.53 (U.S.) for every Australian dollar. You can verify that these two func-

b = 2. such as credit card numbers and highly classified material. which equals 0.htm> <http://www.” equivalent to 13.) online sources for further exploration Cryptology <http://www. If an encrypting pattern is used to change the letters in a sentence.cfm> <http://www. are far more complex than this function.htm> Inverse problems in the earth sciences <http://ees-www. 29.90u) and simplifies to equal u. 20.wildnetafrica. then a decrypting pattern is needed to place the letters back in their normal positions. which translates to the letter “m” 2 in the alphabet. Inverses are also used to decode secret messages.net/ucc/> <http://www. where letters had corresponding numbers (e.xe.g. The first num2 ber.53(1. Thus w = e−3 is the inverse operation that will decode the expression. 13 1 20 8. One way to find this inverse is to solve for w in the equation e = 2w + 3 by subtracting 3 from both sides and then dividing by 2. where w represents the original number.html> Universal currency converter <http://www. The word “math” would first translate to a numerical expression.lanl. . . a = 1. see Matrices. However. Encrypted codes that deal with confidential information.46 INVERSE FUNCTION tions are inverses by finding their composite u(a(u)). w(e).jcoffman. z = 26). and e represents the coded number. and 8. you will obtain the word “math” again. If you apply the inverse function to the remaining numbers 5 43 19.fi/tech/crypto/intro. and then be transformed using the function e(w) = 2w + 3. After transforming 1.gov/EES5/inverse_prob.com/Algebra2/ch4_5. the decryption of obscure codes is often performed by computers that use a program that relies on the process of an inverse operation! (For a more secure code. suppose an encryption function of e(w) = 2w + 3 is applied to each letter in a word. would be converted to w = 29−3 = 13.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ . the final coded expression would be 29 5 43 19. would transform to e = 2(13) + 3 = 29. c = 3. For example.ssh. If you receive the secret transmission of an encoded expression 29 5 43 19.com/currencyframe. you will need to decode it using the inverse function.sans. So the letter “m.. .org/infosecFAQ/encryption/mathematics.

Imagine a sphere of radius r containing the light bulb. the proportion of sound or light reaching a specific unit of area. Forty watts fall on the interior surface of the sphere.” If you go out twice as far. this is a direct statement of the inverse square law. A standard formula for light intensity is E = rI2 . The drawing below illustrates the distribution of light from a 40-watt light bulb. Light emerges from a source in all directions. this energy is called “L. such as a square meter. and why the forest reverts to darkness as you move away from a campfire. where k is a constant of proportionality. As a result. The energy falling on 1 square meter is therefore 40 watts divided by 4πr2 . We will use wattage as the measure of pointance and illuminance to show how the inverse square works. why porch lights do a good job of illuminating the front of a house but not the street in front of the house. The surface area of the sphere is given by SA = 4πr2 square meters. Pointance is a measure of the intensity at the source of the light. where E is called the illuminance. The standard equation of an inverse k square function is y = x2 . Graph of the inverse square function 1 y = x2 . varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source. The inverse square law provides information about the likelihood of other planets having life forms similar to those on earth. and I is called the pointance. Imagine the light that hits your . the same energy is distributed over 4 square meters. As you can see. At three times the distance.INVERSE SQUARE FUNCTION INVERSE SQUARE FUNCTION 47 The inverse square law explains why sound drops off so quickly as you move away from a source of noise. Light and sound emerging from single sources can be viewed as increasing spheres whose area increases as the square of the distance from the source. In the drawing. the energy is distributed over 9 square meters. Illuminance is measured in a variety of units such as lux and footcandles. The distribution of light from a light bulb according to the inverse square law.

rather than an inverse square law. A person who is twice as far away will absorb 600/4 = 125 rems. where ǫ0 is the conr 0r stant for the permittivity of free space. reduction in blood platelets and white blood cells.000 miles above the earth? The radius of the earth is about 4. or about four times the distance of a person measuring weight on the surface of the earth. This law is an outcome of the inverse square law. Acoustical engineers design reverberation into auditoriums to focus the sound and overcome the inverse square law. By the inverse square law.48 INVERSE SQUARE FUNCTION neighborhood at noon on a hot summer day. How much lighter will a 160-pound astronaut feel if he or she is in a spaceship 12. The inverse square law means that increasing the distance from a source of nuclear radiation may be the difference between life and death. the astronaut would feel as though his or her weight were 160 = 10 pounds. an amount that will result in a significant. or about 0. but temporary.1 percent of the light it receives on earth. F = kq12q2 = 4πǫq2 2 . 42 even though the mass of the astronaut remains unchanged. It is named in honor of the French scientist Charles Coulomb.000 miles from the center of the earth. so if your L neighborhood were on Mars. would be barely audible to people in the twentieth row. Mars is about one-and-a-half times the distance from the sun as the earth. q1 . who might be audible to people in the tenth row. q2 . then a person twice as far away as the one receiving the fatal dose would get 600/2 = 300 rems. Because radiation follows the inverse square law. The planet Neptune is about thirty times as far from sun as the earth. The lawyer faced the medical examiner and asked suddenly. If the radiation distribution followed an inverse law. “The body wasn’t found in the bedroom. and death in many cases. so the astronaut is 16. The audibility of the speaker (about 70 decibels) to listeners in the first row would drop to 50 decibels (a soft sound) ten rows behind. is given by Coulomb’s law. nausea. Electric force acting on a point charge. The distribution of sound follows the same rule. This wouldn’t be enough to support life as we know it.52 or 44 percent of the light it receives on earth. in the presence of another point q1 charge. In an auditorium. The inverse square law comes up in court cases. hair loss. who established it in 1777 after studying the forces on magnetized needles. Just replace the light bulb in the first illustration by an actor in an auditorium. “Be- . the sound drop due to the inverse square law is usually unacceptable. This dose causes severe blood damage. It would mean that a person standing in front of the first row of seats. being twice the distance from a fatal dose may mean illness rather than death. hemorrhage. Call that amount of light L. That might be enough to sustain life. If your neighborhood were on L Neptune. How can you say that the fatal shots were made there?” The examiner replied. They place hard surfaces at the back of the stage and on the ceiling and walls so that sound that would ordinarily dissipate would bounce back and add to the intensity of that being heard by the audience. Gravity is an example of a force that follows the inverse square law. it would receive 302 .000 miles. it would receive 1. Accidental exposure to radiation that produces 600 rems (a measure of radiation impact on living tissue) is almost certain to cause death within two months.

htm> Darkness outside of a campfire <http://www.htm> Simulated ocean dive <http://illuminations.utk. For example.gov/basics/bsf6-1.gsu.nasa.star.edu/vlab/InverseSquare/index.ac.howstuffworks.com/span/edu/invsquar.html> <http://www. Analysis of droplet angles confirmed our estimate. Measuring the number of splatters in a square meter.com/question441.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.” online sources for further exploration Summary from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory <http://www.LINEAR FUNCTIONS 49 cause we found blood spatters on the wall in the bedroom.public.edu/snacks/inverse_square_law.le.htm> <http://www.htm> <http://www.edu/hbase/forces/isq.html> Basic notions of celestial mechanics <http://www.html> Simple experiments <http://www.phy-astr. x. the value of the dependent variable y in the linear function y = 5x − 2 will always increase by five units for every increase in one unit of the independent variable.le.net/arc/arabic/research/mmar/bncm/bncm1.html> <http://www.uk/edu/solar/edu/invsquar.html> <http://www.nctm.org/imath/912/Light/light2.com/span/edu/invsquar.exploratorium.nasa.html> How light works <http://www.rafed.phys.physicsclassroom.html> Electromagnetic radiation <http://www.gov/basics/bsf6-1.howstuffworks.html> <http://www.html> Physics examples and lessons <http://hyperphysics. This .solarviews.jpl.uk/edu/solar/edu/invsquar.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ LINEAR FUNCTIONS A linear function is a function that has a constant change in the dependent variable for every change in the independent variable.html> Universal law of gravitation <http://csep10.com/Class/circles/U6L3b.jpl.exploratorium.solarviews. we used the inverse square law to determine that a high-velocity bullet passed through the victim 1.html> <http://www.star.7 meters from that wall.iastate.htm> Astrophysics <http://jersey.ac.edu/snacks/inverse_square_law.edu/~javapgmr/homepage.com/question441.uoregon.

or simplified to I = 80t. For example. The current in a circuit is typically held constant.14 gallons could be purchased. Once the principal and interest rates have been determined. a $1. where m is the slope of the line. P is the initial principal. the linear equation is useful when the individual purchasing gasoline would like to know how much gasoline he or she would obtain with the $10 available in his or her pocket. The voltage V. there will be I = 80(5) = $400 net payment in interest. For every one gallon of gas purchased. In this case.40(12) = $16. y = mx + b. In this situation. Linear functions are useful in estimating the amount of time it will take to complete a road trip. A power supply has voltage to create a stream of current through electrical wires. called the slope.80. For example. Every linear function can be written in the slope-intercept form. In this case. to predict the amount of interest over a specific time period. such as at 72 Hz. estimate a highway speed or rate of 65 miles per hour. since this ratio simplifies to 5. and solving the equation would show that approximately 7. For example. If an automobile has a twelve-gallon tank. where I is the amount of interest. since the amount of interest increases at a constant rate over time.50 LINEAR FUNCTIONS means that the ratio of these changes. Banking institutions determine the amount of simple interest accumulated on an account by using the linear equation I = Prt.40g would relate the cost in c dollars to g gallons purchased. the linear equation d = rt (distance equals rate times time) can be used to predict the total distance traveled or time needed to complete the trip. Assuming that traffic conditions are good and the driver is traveling at a constant speed on a highway.40. An awareness of the time needed for the trip would likely help the family plan a time of departure and times for rest stops. and b is in the y-intercept. and t is the time in years in which the interest has been accumulating. Circuits rely on linear relationships in order to operate electrical equipment. then the cost to fill the tank would be c = 1. r is the interest rate. the function is linear. Realistic situations use linear functions to make predictions or draw comparisons that involve constant change. 10 would be substituted for the variable c. and then solve the linear equation d = 65t to estimate the length of their trip. current I.08)t. the cost of gasoline is linearly related to the number of gallons purchased. is also constant. suppose that a family is traveling on vacation by automobile.000 loan with 8 percent simple interest uses the function I = 1000(0. The fact that the gas price per gallon does not change as gas is pumped allows someone to use a linear function to predict the amount of money needed to fill the tank. The family members study a map to determine the distance between the cities. so that there is a constant stream of electricity. the price will increase approximately $1. the function c = 1. slightly more than half a tank in most cars. and resistance R are related with the equation V = IR. the linear relationship V = 72R would help a manufacturer determine the amount of resistance needed in a power . Over five years. For example. In addition. the previous comparison is the same as saying that there will be a change of fifteen units in the dependent variable for every change in three units of the independent variable.

For example. If the correlation coefficient is closer to 0. while in the United States a report of 30° weather means that you might be having snow! Linear functions can be used to form relationships between data that are found in natural events and places. If an individual from the United States travels to Spain.25c + 500 will represent the total cost. If the resistance is too high. is a measure of the strength of the linear relationship. The graph that follows shows that a line can be drawn to approximate the relationship between these two variables. then there will not be enough power reaching the bulb in order for it to light well. (0. t. the linear function t = 0. Suppose production costs for equipment are an extra $500. then the rate ($0. if the resistance in a light circuit is too low. then a temperature of 30° Celsius would feel considerably different from a temperature of 30° Fahrenheit. In general.32) and (100. In this case.25 per cookie) will be the slope. For example. suppose a bakery created cookies at a raw material expense of $0. water boils at 100° Celsius and 212° Fahrenheit. and the starting amount ($500 equipment expense) will be the y-intercept of the equation.LINEAR FUNCTIONS 51 supply so that an electrical object can operate correctly. because he or she will be able to predict the average cost of producing cookies.212). the United States uses a different temperature scale (Fahrenheit) than most of the rest of the world (Celsius). The relationship is stronger as the absolute value of the correlation coefficient approaches the value of 1. Notice that all of the data values do not fall on the line. This information is useful to the owner. The equation that converts the two variables can be determined by using the freezing and boiling points of water. In a business setting.25 per cookie. start-up expenses included. Water freezes at 0° Celsius and 32° Fahrenheit. there is a strong relationship between the winning time of the men’s Olympic 100-meter dash and the year in which it occurs. or the amount of cookies that can be produced based on a fixed budget. but instead cluster around it. especially during years of unusually exceptional performance. 5 where F is the temperature in Fahrenheit. For example. For example. appliances may have different types of resistors so that they can accommodate to the corresponding current levels in a circuit. then a linear relationship does not likely exist. a linear function could be used to relate the total costs needed to sell a product in terms of the number of products produced. r. if a function is modeled by a linear relationship. These two pieces of information represent two ordered pairs on a line. Consequently. the slope formula and y-intercept will lead to the equation F = 9 C + 32. needed to produce c cookies. Resistors are small devices that block or slow down the current so that an object does not receive too much power. Unit conversions are often linearly related. This means that a report of 30° weather in Spain suggests that the day could be spent at the beach. because the electrical circuits may run with different current levels. It is possible for points to be away from the line. The correlation coefficient. then the bulb would receive an overload of power and be destroyed. and C is the temperature in Celsius. These problems can arise with some appliances when they are moved to different countries. Since two points are sufficient information to determine the equation of a line. In the 100-meter dash situa- .

For example.52 LINEAR FUNCTIONS tion. When a complete skeleton cannot be found. there is no time for 1944 because the Olympics were suspended during World War II. The linear equation acts as an approximate prediction of the relationship between time and year. so the variables may not have the same relationship for future Olympics. tibia. humerus. Linear relationships are also common with winning times and championship performances in many other Olympic events.43 seconds. the linear equation s = –0.01119Year + 32.185 by substituting 1944 for Year. The equation t = –0. where f is the length of the femur bone in centimeters.06a + 1.06(a − 30) or s = –0.238f .06(60) + 1. For example. the line should eventually level off. After all. because the runners will never be able to run a time equal to zero! Therefore. The line that models the pattern of the winning times in the men’s Olympic 100-meter dash is Predicted Time = -0.80 cm would be included in the height prediction. This predicted pattern is much more reliable within the range of data. then –0. indicating that the line is a pretty good model for the data.80 is the amount of shrinkage s for individuals of age a greater than 30 that needs to be accounted for in the height of a deceased person. That gives a predicted winning time of 10. Recognizing this relationship helps engineers design heating and cooling systems on the airplanes so that metal alloys can adapt to the changes in temperature and passengers obtain reasonable air . then the height of the deceased person can be predicted by identifying the person’s sex and finding the length of his or her femur. such as estimating the winning times when the Olympics did not occur or when participation was reduced (often due to world conflicts).88.185. this line is most useful to make predictions between 1900 and 2000. the height h in centimeters of a male can be estimated by the linear equation h = 69. the absolute value of r is equal to 0. For example. This information can be useful in identifying missing people and tracing evolutionary patterns in human growth over time.80 = –1.0066a + 15 has been described as a linear model that compares the temperature t (°C) with the altitude a (meters) when the ground temperature is 15°. In addition. or radius.01119Year + 32. Forensic scientists use linear functions to predict the height of a person based on the length of his arm or leg bones. Ever feel cold in an airplane? The outside temperature decreases linearly with an increase in altitude.089 + 2. The time that might have been achieved in the 1944 Olympics could be estimated using the linear model Predicted Time = –0. if the person had an estimated age of 60 at death.

You would not want the wind blowing in your face at high altitudes! The apparel industry uses linear functions when manufacturing dresses. many manatees have been killed or injured by blades of powerboats. since women have different body types.2w − 20. which are very large but docile creatures that live in shallow water. The data can be generalized into a few linear relationships.5 32. Because they swim on the surface and near shore. The table below shows the relationship among these measurements. b ≈ 1. size s bust b waist w hips h 6 23 8 24 10 25 12 25. Lobbyists concerned about the death of the manatees were able to show a strong linear relationship between the number of their deaths and the number of powerboat registrations for the years 1977 to 1990. The designer estimates that a woman’s dress size is s ≈ 1.5 34. including those that are not listed.5 34 32. For example. making the equations a reasonable predictor of all measurements and sizes. where Powerboats is the number of Number of manatees killed in Florida related to the number of powerboat registrations for the years 1977 to 1990.000 meters of altitude. because not only are there changes in air pressure. The equation is Killed = 0. The linear equation also helps pilots understand the limitations as to how high they can fly. waist.LINEAR FUNCTIONS 53 temperatures inside the plane. and hips (dimensions in inches). However. the other measurements can be approximated with the linear relationships. These relationships allow manufacturers to mass produce dresses and provide women with a general reference point for clothing sizes. Dress sizes often reflect a general relationship among a woman’s bust. Furthermore. waist. and hips. Linear models have also been used within political arenas to argue for legislation. the state of Florida had been confronted with the problem of powerboat speeds along its waterways that affect the survival of the manatees. . dresses are sometimes altered or designed in different ways to accommodate the needs of a variety of consumers.5 31.430.1w + 5 and h = b + 2.5 36 A comparison of women’s dress sizes according to bust.5 33.125 Powerboats − 41.5 14 36 28 38 16 38 30 40 18 40 32 42 20 42 34 44 30. but the temperature decreases by 66° for every 10.

ca/examples/ary_8_2/ary_8_2.edu.calpoly.html> <http://java.000 more powerboats.edu/Virtual/Lessons/Mathematics/Functions/FUN0001.html> Voltage circuit simulator <http://jersey.edu/vlab/Voltage/index.edu/html/hs_math/tl.html> The diet problem <http://www-fp.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/size. As a result.calpoly.sun.calpoly.nap. In other words.exploratorium.syr.htm> Size effects on airplane lift <http://www.anl.25 more manatees are killed.125 more manatees are killed.html> Your weight on other worlds <http://www. The data and linear function created a compelling argument that the manatees were at risk of being endangered in a short period of time. online sources for further exploration Battery depletion and piecewise linear graphing <http://daniel.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .html> Cassette tape project <http://ericir.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Pathfinder/Temp/temp.54 LINEAR FUNCTIONS thousands of powerboats registered in Florida. the slope predicts 1.math.bcit.html> Timing traffic lights <http://www.bcit.ca/examples/ary_11_2/ary_11_2. the Florida legislature has made it more difficult and expensive to acquire a powerboat license. 0. for every 10.com/applets/archive/beta/Voltage/index.htm> Olympic statistics <http://www.htm> Nuclear medicine <http://www.au/lin_reg. The slope indicates that for every thousand more powerboats registered.bcit.cqu.gov/otc/Guide/CaseStudies/diet/> Discovering the linear relationship between Celsius and Fahrenheit <http://daniel.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Celsius/celsius. It increased the number of game and fish officers in manatee areas so that “no wake” rules would be strictly enforced. unless action was taken to reduce the number of powerboats and to slow down their speed in shallow waters.ca/examples/ary_17_8/ary_17_8.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Pathfinder/Battery/batt.mcs.uoregon.nasa.edu/ronh/weight/index.htm> Linear regression with human movements <http://exploringdata.math.swishweb.math.com/Sports_and_Games/Olympics/> Plotting temperature and altitude <http://daniel.html> Property lines <http://www.grc.html> Environmental health <http://www.

a logarithmic scale that is easier to use than the sound-energy measurement of watts per square meter. The base e is used in exponential expressions that evaluate continuously compounded interest. Base-2 logarithms emerge from the study of computer algorithms. For example. It is easier to refer to the number 13. Logarithms to the base e are typically written with the abbreviation ln. changes along the scale are not linear.4 than the number 25.69897” is called the mantissa. If you are so close that the music hurts your ears.718281828459. The number e ≈ 2. The brightness of stars was first put on a quantitative scale by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus at around 130 BC. so using base-2 logarithms provides a natural connection with machine operations. A decibel is one-tenth of a bel. Logarithmic scales are used in newspapers. division. and the integer part “2” is called the characteristic. scientists and engineers used base-10 logarithms to simplify computations by changing multiplication of numbers into addition of exponents. He arranged the visible stars in order of apparent brightness on a scale that ran from 1 to 6 magni- . so they are used to reduce very large values into smaller.LOGARITHMS LOGARITHMS 55 Logarithms are exponents. you hear music at 120 decibels. When the rock music moves from very loud (120 decibels) to painful (130 decibels). and automobiles as well as in scientific research.69897 is said to be the base-10 logarithm of 500.21461.69897. the amplifiers are at 130 decibels. because 500 ≈ e 6. Normal conversation is at 60 decibels. People’s perceptions of changes in sound intensity are more aligned to the decibel scale rather than the actual changes in energy level. This is commonly written as log 500 ≈ 2. so 2.000. If you are close to the stage at a rock concert. biology. Other common bases for logarithms are the numbers e and 2.69897. and division of numbers into subtraction of exponents. and finance.118.900. which is approximately equal to 10 13. Until inexpensive calculators made it easy to do multiplication. How loud is a rock concert? Noise is measured in decibels. your ears are receiving 10 times as much sound energy. more manageable numbers. The same goes for the perception of light.000. It can be developed from the compound-interest formula as the limit of (1 + 1/n) n as n increases without bound. A number x is said to be the base b logarithm of a number y. Up until twenty years ago. The difference of 70 decibels between normal conversation (60 decibels) and pain (130 decibels) represents 10 7 more watts per square meter of sound energy. Base-10 logarithms are used to change numbers to powers of 10. The decimal part “. and roots. 500 ≈ 10 2.21461. Because the decibel scale is logarithmic. the main computational device for high school students in advanced math and sciences was based on logarithmic scales—the slide rule.4. inventor of the telephone. a unit named after Alexander Graham Bell (1847–1922). called a natural logarithm. Mathematical functions using e and ln simplify computations with rates and areas that result from situations in physics. if y = b x. A soft whisper is 30 decibels. The corresponding logarithmic equation is x = log b y. medicine. Computers are based on on-off switches. households. ln(500) ≈ 6. Hence e and natural logarithms are often used in the statement of rules and properties in these fields.

. The scale ranges from 0 to 14. with stars ranked “1” as the brightest. Because the scale is logarithmic. and lower indicate acidic substances.000. the scale was standardized so that a difference of 5 magnitudes corresponds to 100 times greater light intensity. A change in color that represents 2 levels of pH will represent a difference of 100 times the concentration of H + ions. Few plants will survive in soils more acidic than pH = 4 (the acidity of lemon juice) or more alkaline than pH = 8 (baking soda). An earthquake measured as a 7 on the Richter scale is 1000 times more powerful than an earthquake measured at 4. 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 tudes. Battery acid (pH 1) and lye (pH 13) will burn your skin. Acidity or alkalinity of a substance is measured on the logarithmic scale pH = –log(H +). where H + is the concentration of hydrogen ions in moles per liter of the substance. Litmus papers turn different colors depending on the pH of the substance. A scale value of 7 indicates an earthquake that produces ground cracks and causes houses to collapse. These pH units provide a more compact scale than moles per liter. with 7 representing a neutral substance (water). the difference in energy from the earthquake waves is 10 7−4 = 1. Higher pHs indicate alkalinity. The Richter scale is a measure of the strength of earthquakes. In the nineteenth century. Analysis of the quantity of light that reaches the viewer indicates that the star-magnitude scale is logarithmic. An earthquake with a Richter scale value of 4 feels like vibration from a passing train. Astronomers using powerful telescopes have increased this star-magnitude scale to 29.56 sound intensity (watts per square meter) LOGARITHMS relative intensity (decibels) 10 3 10 2 10 1 10 0 10 -1 10 -2 10 -3 10 -4 10 -5 10 -6 10 -7 10 -8 10 -9 10 -10 10 -11 10 -12 Military rifle Jet plane (30 meters away) Pain level Amplified rock music Power tools Noisy kitchen Heavy traffic Traffic noise in a small car Vacuum cleaner Normal conversation Average home Quiet conversation Soft whisper Quiet living room Quiet recording studio Barely audible Decibel levels of common noises.

The effective steam pressure in a cylinder is p = P (1+ln(R)) . R where P is the initial absolute pressure. The logarithms of the sizes of two organs of an animal are related in an allometric equation.com/decibels1. Economists use logarithmic derivatives to compare price changes of different items.math.bcit.htm> National earthquake information center <http://wwwneic.bcit. where M is the maximum charge that the battery can hold. Logarithms appear in a wide range of industrial and technological applications.gov/edu/phdiagram. online sources for further exploration Investigate pH <http://www.com:80/asolve/constant/e/e.mathsoft. The Haugh unit is a measure of egg quality that uses base-10 logarithms.cr.chem.bcit.html> <http://www.coolmath. to determine voltage gains for active or passive filters.htm> . Electrical engineers use Bode plots.math.html> CoolMath’s table of decibel levels at <http://www.ca/examples/table.LOGARITHMS 57 Logarithms can provide an expression of relations that are inverses of exponential situations.ca/examples/ary_1_4/ary_1_4.ca/examples/ary_12_4/ary_12_4. a form of logarithmic graphing. and k is a constant that depends on the battery and charger.tamu. The charge C at any instant t is modeled by the formula C = M (1 − e−kt ).bcit.miamisci.math.htm> <http://www.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Sonic/sonic.water.ca/examples/ary_9_4/ary_9_4. and R is the ratio of expansion.htm> Belt friction <http://www. Statisticians use logarithms to linearize data that appear to lie in certain curvilinear patterns.htm> Sonic booms and logarithms <http://daniel.html> e as the base of natural logarithms at the MathSoft site <http://www.gov/neis/eqlists/eqstats.usgs.html> An excellent list of applications in technical areas is at British Columbia Institute of Technology <http://www.usgs. The number of turns of a rope or pulley about a large cylinder that would be needed to keep the rope from slipping is found with a formula that uses logarithms of tension ratios.edu/class/fyp/mathrev/mr-log.org/ph/> <http://ga.coolmath. It charges fastest when it is most discharged. The formula that gives the time required to charge a bat1 C tery uses the natural logarithm function ln: t = − k ln(1 − M ).com/decibels1.calpoly.htm> Bode plots <http://www.math.html> Sound pressure levels and intensity <http://www. A battery charges at a rate that depends on how close it is to being fully charged.

00). where m is the maximum m 1 value of the dependent variable (in most cases. the spread of rumors.usask. only 9 percent of the students at 400 (in the range of 380– 420) were accepted.ca/examples/table. this will be 1.58 LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS Modeling exponential decay using logarithms (finding half-life) <http://math. the proportions of nerves in the brain that will fire in the presence of different concentrations of stimulating chemicals. The equation for the logistic curve that models the data is 1 A = 1+9128(0. where A is the proportion accepted at an SAT score level. The scatterplot in it shows the percent of applications for admission to a large state university that resulted in acceptances of the candidates. The illustration below shows the shape of a logistic function. The dot at 700 indicates that 95 percent of the applicants who had SAT verbal scores at 700 (that is. in the range of 680–720) were accepted.math. . The values b0 and b1 are very similar to the numbers used in exponential growth models.ca/readin/examples/expdeceg. The groupings of students on the x-axis are by SAT verbal score. They are used to determine proportions of successes in “yes–no” situations from underlying factors.983)SAT . 1 A logistic function takes the form y = 1 +b0 bx . The acceptance rate of high school students into a certain college based on their SAT verbal score.bcit. the probability that a patient with certain symptoms will die or live. the probability of getting an item right on a test depending on underlying knowledge.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS Logistic functions predict proportions or probabilities. However. They can be used to predict the proportions of students admitted to a university from different SAT-score intervals.html> Further examples on logarithms <http://www. University admission rates for students with different SAT verbal scores. and the proportion of consumers that will switch brands or stay with their current one when presented with different saturations of advertising.

where N is the number of people hearing the rumor at t hours. then leveled off at the end. with 95 percent of the schools having Internet connections in 1999. The proportion of schools in the United States that have Internet connections increased exponentially during the first half of the decade (1991–2000). “We are going to dismiss school early today”? If every student passing on the rumor could find someone who had not heard it. if all infected individuals are contagious and circulate freely among the population. Suppose that every hour a person who hears a rumor passes it on to four other people. During the early life of the rumor the equation that represents the spread of the rumor at each hour would be N = 4t. These seem like restrictions that would make it unlikely that logistic models would be good for studying epidemics. because it cannot last. if the duration of the disease is long so that no cures occur during the time period under study. Studies of diseases indicate that the early stages of an epidemic appear to show an exponential growth in infected cases. A logistic function describes this pattern quite well. CDC statisticians adapt the model in a variety of ways for other types of diseases. The logistic growth function carries a warning for companies that introduce new technologies: enjoy exponential growth in early sales. but after a while the number of people infected by the disease does not increase very rapidly. Logistic models describe the number of people infected by a new disease if the entire population is susceptible to it. diseases cannot be easily spread to new victims after much of the population has encountered it. A logistic equation that 1 models the spread of this rumor is N = 1 +0.25t .536 new listeners at the eighth hour. When the market is saturated with the technology. but the federal government’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) make effective use of logistic models for projections of the yearly spread of influenza through urban populations. the remaining curve looks like an exponential curve. Consider the spread of rumors. The exponential growth equation would require 65. However.000-student high school overhearing the principal saying. the proportion of homes with computers. This means that the rate at which new listeners receive the rumor has to decrease as the day goes on. and the number of miles of railroad track in the country from 1850 through 1950. and if each contact with an uninfected person results in transmission of the disease.LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS 59 If you cover up the right side of the curve (SAT verbal scores greater than 550). people spreading the rumor will be telling it to students who already know. new sales are very difficult to make. where N is the number of 1000 students in the high school who have heard the rumor. . then the rumor would pass through the entire student body before five hours were up. This model would predict that half the student body would have heard the rumor by the fifth hour. and t is the number of hours since the rumor started. after four hours. People who learn about the rumor later in the day are not likely to find anybody who hasn’t heard it. Like the spread of rumors. Logistic curves describe the spread of other technologies such as the proportion of families owning cell phones. Logistic models are useful for tracking the spread of new technologies throughout the country. But what if the rumor starts with a student in a 1.

edu/Bi-Logistic/> Blood pressure <http://www. the Digest of Education Statistics 2000 <http://nces.rockefeller.com.60 LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS Logistic models can be used to make population forecasts for anything ranging from humans to ant colonies to bacteria to fermentation levels in beer. Physicists use logistic models to study numbers of excited atoms in lasers.rockefeller.USAPop5.html> Electrical systems <http://phe. Bankers use the models to predict whether a person will default on a loan or credit card.org/master/biomed/physio/cardioweb/application.ed.tpgi.edu/LogletLab/DRAM/> Working less and living longer <http://phe.html> Human population dynamics <http://phe.rockefeller.dartmouth.ac.com.S. the Digest of Education Statistics 2000) <http://nces. online sources for further exploration Logistic simulations/fractals <http://www. Department of Education (National Center for Education Statistics.htm> Airport growth <http://www1.gov/pubs2000/Digest99/chapter7.htm> Biological growth <http://phe.uk/departments/ma/gallery/doubling/> <http://mcasco.edu/Daedalus/Elektron/> Loglet lab <http://phe.edu/~math3f98/csc98/chap5/CSC.rockefeller.html> Population <http://www1.html> U.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .au/users/kpduffy/logistic_t.rockefeller.com/explorin. Agricultural chemists use logistic models to quantify the concentration of salt in soil.ed.edu/poppies/> Logistic model of USA population <http://www.rockefeller.lboro.edu/work_less/index.edu/LogletLab/> National Center for Education Statistics.shodor.au/users/kpduffy/logistic_t.gov/pubs2000/Digest99/chapter7.html> Semiconductor use <http://phe.tpgi.

the same letter encodes to different letters. marketing studies. there are specific operations on some matrices. The problem with these ciphers is that certain letters occur more frequently in languages than do others. multiplication. chicken production. weather forecasting.” This one-to-one correspondence makes it easy to decode secret messages written in replacement ciphers. Recipients who have the encoding matrix. because scientists in fields as widely diverse as astronomy. so it is far more difficult for code breakers to decipher the message. Replacement ciphers (sometimes called Caesar ciphers in honor of the Roman emperor Julius Caesar. The English-language frequency distribution is then destroyed. In addition. but it generalizes the system to a matrix system Ax = b. High school students usually see matrices as a way to rewrite systems of equations. . depending on its position in the message. Inverses of matrices correspond to reciprocals of real numbers. This remains a critical issue for mathematicians and computer analysts. Common geometric movements of figures. This 2x−y=5 2 −1 y 5 change seems very simple. even with high-speed computer processors. Operations that correspond to addition. Matrices are used to solve large systems of simultaneous equations. who used them in his military campaigns) encode a message by replacing each letter with another. If the code is written with numbers that are encoded with multiplication by a matrix. water management. 5 3 x 7 = For example. statistics. can quickly decode the message by multiplication with the inverse of the matrix. investment banking. The problem of accurately computing the inverse A-1 for large matrices is difficult.MATRICES MATRICES 61 A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers. such as those used in game theory and graph theory that transform elements of the matrix to point the way to best decisions. “t. airline travel routes. and powering of real numbers provide rules for combining matrices. such as reflections and rotations can be written as 2 × 2 matrices. economics. Reflection in the y-axis Rotation of 90° counterclockwise Reflection in the line y = x Rotation of 30° counterclockwise −1 0 0 1 0 −1 1 0 0 1 1 0 cos 30 − sin 30 sin 30 cos 30 Common transformations of the coordinate plane. Some matrices describe transformations of the plane. and medical research rely on the efficient reduction of large matrices of information. 5x+3y=7 can be replaced by . which has a solution (if it exists) of x = A–1b. The table below shows some common transformation matrices. weapons races between countries. If “z” and “m” occur most frequently in an English-language coded document. it is likely that the most frequent letter is hiding “e” and the next. Matrix multiplication can provide a more secure secret code than simple replacement ciphers. however. archeology.

They can represent complex situations such as the probabilities of changes in weather. and consumer choices. but that over the long term converge to a specific and stable distribution. so processors in high-end graphic computers embed the matrix operations in their circuits. the rotation that causes the shuttle to roll over. But more effective and comprehensive ratings of the teams use the statistics of opponents as well. The matrix products must be computed very rapidly to give the images realistic motion. and project the three-dimensional image onto the two dimensions of the video screen. Physicists have employed them in the theory of radioactive transformations. Sport statisticians contend that the use of the data make their national ratings more reliable than those that use human judgment. deliberations of trial juries. Ratings of football teams can be done solely on the basis of the team’s statistics. When the probabilities are dependent only on the prior state. the probabilities of rental-car movements among cities. and epidemics. for example. In population biology. molecular genetics. Biologists have used Markov chains to describe population growth. Matrices provide a way of organizing corresponding information on the team and those it has played. such as the probabilities of color shifts in generations of roses. pharmacology. Social scientists have used them to explain voting behavior. tumor growth. the rotation that causes the nose to go up or down. steady state for the situation. Astronomers have used Markov chains to analyze the fluctuations in the brightness of galaxies. Solving the matrix systems that result provides a power rating that integrates information on the strength of the opponents with the information on the team. changes in attitudes. Additional matrices compute light-andshadow patterns that make the image look realistic. is constantly being monitored by matrices that represent rotations in three-space. the matrix represents a Markov chain. mobility and population of towns. and roll. yaw. Matrices such as incidence matrices and path matrices organize connections and distances between points. Airlines use these matrices on a daily basis to determine the most profitable way to assign planes to flights between different cities.62 MATRICES Computer graphics use products of 4 × 4 geometric matrices to model the changes of position of moving objects in space (such as the space shuttle). select the area of vision that would fit on the computer screen. or more simple situations. Albert Einstein used Markov theory to study the Brownian motion of molecules. The space shuttle. The same matrix operations used to provide entertaining graphics are built into medical instruments such as MRI machines and digital X-ray machines. The complexity of handling the different forms of rotation that are encountered in movement requires computers that can process matrix computations very rapidly. Markov chains show how arbitrary proportions of genes in one generation can produce variation in the immediately following generation. the rotation that causes the nose to rotate left or right. . Stochastic matrices are formed from probabilities. These matrix products control pitch. transform them to eye coordinates. for example. High powers of the matrix will converge on a set of probabilities that define a final.

government policies that resulted in effective industrial production during World War II.gatech.cae. In 1973.html> Matrices in chemistry <http://www.sosmath. Leontief’s theories were the basis for U.colorado. Game strategies have been used to analyze competition for food.ca/examples/ary_5_2/ary_5_2. and to Herbert Simon in 1979.colleyrankings. to resolve conflicts in classrooms.bcit. However. Harsanyi.jcoffman.com/matrix/coding/coding.ece. or in a way that avoids worst outcomes.com/#method> David Levine’s Zero Sum Game Solver <http://levine.sscnet.edu/~dwilson/rsfc/rate/zenor. these were not the first Nobel prizes to recognize work with matrices. The 1994 award in economics went to John Nash. The importance of game theory for the study of economic behavior is recognized by the awarding of the Nobel prize.htm> Cryptology and coding <http://www. Other Nobel awards related to game theory have been those in 1996 to William Vickrey and James Mirrlees.htm> Markov chains <http://www. Game theorists have developed mathematical strategies for transforming the matrices in a way that gives each player the best outcome. to determine which students get the last seats in college courses. John C. and Reihard Selten for their contributions to game theory.html> <http://www.com/matrix/markov/markov.edu/education/DMP/activities/matrices/> Stability of structures <http://www. online sources for further exploration Ratings of college football teams <http://www.edu/research/pica/simpil/applications/rotation.bcit.html> Logging <http://www.wisc.bcit.htm> <http://www.math.com/Algebra2/ch4_5.math.ucla. and to select the best choices for potentially warring nations.ca/examples/ary_7_2/ary_7_2. The outcomes can be organized into matrices that use players for rows and options for columns.html> Electronics <http://www.htm> Image rotation <http://www.S.htm> .sosmath.math.MATRICES 63 Linear programming uses algorithms such as the simplex method to compute the most profitable solution from matrices of production. Wassily Leontief won the prize for his prediction of best economic strategies from large input–output matrices. Matrices also structure inquiry into situations that have competing players with multiple choices of action.shodor.ca/examples/ary_15_2/ary_15_2.org/UNChem/math/matrix/> Matrix model activities <http://www.edu/Games/zerosum.

htm> Viewing objects in computer graphics <http://www. or perimeter.ca/examples/ary_16_2/ary_16_2. the unknown dimensions of the length and width can be represented by variables. A graph of this function shows that the area attains a maximum value when the . respectively.bcit. In a rectangular pen. and drywall and ceiling in each room when building a house.ca/examples/ary_6_2/ary_6_2. Ideally. can be represented by the equation a = lw. is used for many purposes. A carpenter or artist uses the concept of perimeter to build frames for pictures and paintings. The equation can be reduced to l + w = 40 by dividing both sides of the equation by 2. Artists use perimeter to determine the amount of material they will need to put a frame around their pictures.math. In an open field.64 PERIMETER Transformation matrices and robotics <http://www.math. Homeowners use perimeter to determine the amount of fencing they would need for their back yard. Thus the farmer needs to determine the dimensions that would produce a maximum area. l and w.bcit. Suppose the farmer has 80 meters of fencing. the farmer would like to build the largest pen so that his animals have the greatest amount of space to move around in. The area. Rectangular pen with length l and width w. the area equation can be rewritten as a = (40 − w)w = 40w − w2 . a.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ PERIMETER The distance around an object. The perimeter of the rectangular pen can be written as 80 = 2l + 2w. The concept is used by construction workers to determine the amount of trim needed to seal the intersection between the drywall and ground. or railroad ties to surround an outdoor patio. Substituting the perimeter relationship l = 40 − w. a farmer can determine that the most ideal arrangement for building a rectangular pen for animals is to place his fencing in the form of a square.

in track and field. suppose there are chickens and pigs in a pen that is evenly divided by a fence line. However.5w)w = 40w − 1.662 π meters. Building a track with these dimensions requires designers and engineers to determine the distance across the track between straightaways. . where c is the π circumference of the semicircle. and l = 40 − 1.5w2 . 3 Equally divided rectangular pen with length l and width w to hold two different animals. which is the 100-meter turn of the track. In this case. The distance across the infield of a track is d = 2•100 . if the farmer wants to build a pen that divides different animals. the circumference of a semicircle is one-half π times its diameter (c = 1 πd). where the turns and straightaways are each one hundred meters. d.5 • 40 ) when the area of the rectangle is a maximum value. The area of this pen is a = (40 − 1. then the length is also 20 meters when the area of the rectangle is a maximum value. the dimensions of the most ideal pen would be determined by the equation 3w +2l = 80 to account for the added divider. The area of a square pen with a perimeter of 40 meters as a function of its width. If the width is 40/3 meters. which is approximately 63. If the width is 20 meters. For example.5w. Therefore the ideal rectangular pen based on an existing amount of fencing is a square. A graph of this function shows that the area attains a maximum value when the width is 40/3 meters. Rearranging the variables in the 2 equation can show that the diameter. then the dimensions will have to be reconsidered. In addition to building fences. Since the circumference of a circle is π times its diameter.PERIMETER 65 width is 20 meters. For example. which represents the diameter of the semicircles. and l = 40 − w. the concept of perimeter is used in building race tracks. a 400-meter track represents the perimeter around two congruent semicircles. of a semicircle is d = 2c . then the length of the fence should be 20 meters (40 − 1.

but the runners in the other lanes would run farther if they all started in the same position and had to stay in their lanes. the runner in lane 1 would run 400 meters.676) = 2.edu/CRPC/GT/sboone/Lessons/Titles/track.729 meters.514 meters apart in this race.tnloghomes.agric.676 meters. the runner in lane 2 should be moved 50 percent ahead of the other arrangement. which would make each turn 64.676 meters around the first turn.662 meters.com/homeplans/index. When staggering this relay.067 meters.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .com/plans.66 PERIMETER The outdoor running track at the Rock Norman Complex. In a 4 × 400 meter relay.edu/ecep/math/n/n.html> Floor plans <http://www. online sources for further exploration Designing a track <http://www.louisiana.html> Starting a new game farm <http://www. contains two semicircles and two sides that are each 100 meters in length.gov. since three of the turns will be run in the same lane instead of two. Marking the starting positions in different lanes uses principles of perimeter. This means that each lane should be staggered by (1.htm> <http://www.rice.crpc. which is the fifth turn overall.shtml> Maximize the area of a rectangular field with fixed perimeter <http://home.dldesigngroup.729π ≈ 101.50)(1.com/~wingkei9/javagsp/maxarea.homebuyerpubs.ca/livestock/elk/gamefarmapp. For example.html> <http://ecep. the second runner can move into the first lane after his or her first turn.com/foorplans/floorplans. The turns require precision marking to ensure that all athletes run the same distance in a race. In one lap around the track. suppose the width of each lane is 1. The runner in lane 2 would be running around a turn with a radius of 64. Therefore the runner in lane 2 should 2 start a 400-meter race ahead of the runner in lane 1 by 1. Since the lanes are of equal width.htm> <http://www. and the inner radius of the turn is 63.netvigator.ab. each runner in sequential lanes should start 1. Clemson University.676 meters around the first turn ahead of the previous runner.

The curve that has been used to approximate the data points is a sine curve.3) • 2π ). Daylight patterns throughout a year are predictable in most cities through sinusoidal modeling. The data points start with January 15th and are plotted for two years. Heart-rate monitors detect electrical pulses in an EKG to check if the heart is beating regularly. where x is the month number: Hours = 12. and ocean waves are periodic.2 + 2. When you press middle A on a piano. Phenomena that are based on circular motion. such as the rotation of the earth around the sun.9 sin((x − 2. will often result in a periodic graph. the piano strings vibrate. . radio. Circular motion can arise from a variety of sources. Gravitational attraction to the moon causes tides. 12 Hours of daylight for Minneapolis over a period of two years. producing sound waves that have a period of 1/440 second. light. As the moon rotates about the earth. An EKG machine in a hospital is an oscilloscope for viewing the periodic electrical patterns from a patient’s heart. The distance above ground of a passenger in a Ferris wheel produces a sine curve as the wheel rotates. An oscilloscope provides a video screen for viewing different electrical patterns. The period for this graph is 1 year. Sound. or 12 months.PERIODIC FUNCTIONS PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 67 Graphs of functions that repeat shapes are called periodic. radar. The graph below shows the hours of daylight on the fifteenth of each month for Minneapolis. the heights of tides will produce a periodic function. Because temperature in a city is dependent on hours of sunshine. The horizontal length of each repetition is called the period. Measures on a pendulum will produce periodic functions. plots of the average monthly temperature of American cities will be in the form of a sine curve. The tilt of the earth and its rotation about the sun cause the sinusoidal pattern in hours of daylight.

For example. but still oscillate near 400°. When this happens. and then stay close to that temperature until the thermostat is changed. it will heat up until reaching that temperature. and then stay at 400° until the temperature is changed or the oven is turned off. This eventual periodic function is shown in below. then there are more rabbits. Commodity prices often follow a cyclical pattern. Since temperature naturally slightly varies in the air. Hire rates for temporaryemployment firms appear to form a sine curve.68 PERIODIC FUNCTIONS New periodic functions can be created by adding or multiplying two or more of them. it is likely that a predator species such as a fox also has a periodic population pattern that mirrors the rabbit pattern. If the road has elevation changes. The populations of the predator and prey do not level off. if there are fewer foxes. then the speed of the automobile in cruise control will vary slightly. If there are more foxes. Fluorescent light bulbs produce a pulsing light that sometimes adds to the cyclical refresh rate on computer screens to produce rapid light bursts that can make it hard for some people to read the computer display. such as an air conditioner or oven. As the car accelerates onto the highway. You can see this when you toss two pebbles into a pond. A thermostat is an instrument used to regulate heating and cooling systems. usually the highway’s speed limit. then there are fewer rabbits. if the oven is set to 400° Fahrenheit. The overlap of the waves will be a new wave. these periodic relationships continue over time. populations of some species of animals such as rabbits in a forest will vary over time in a cyclic pattern. A graph of the temperature of an oven in degrees Fahrenheit as a function of time in minutes when its thermostat is set to 400°. Once a person sets the thermostat on an oven for a certain temperature. they have to be positioned carefully so that the sound waves emerging from them do not cancel one another out or create a beat that competes with the music. . the slight variability in speed will not affect the long-term periodic behavior of the graph describing the automobile’s velocity until the brakes are touched. In biology. similar to a thermostat. When audio speakers are arranged in an auditorium. its velocity will increase and then level off near the speed that is set for the cruise control. it will gradually rise to that level for the first twenty minutes. However. it would also slightly change in the oven. since movement on hills requires different amounts of power on the automobile’s engine. In many environments. The cruise control in an automobile is another device that utilizes periodic behavior for a function that describes the velocity of an automobile on a highway as a function of time.

htm> High and low tides <http://www.com/dampfunction1.html> Play a piano <http://www.utah.html> Sun or moon rise/set table for one year <http://aa.usno.montana.ca/examples/ary_7_3/ary_7_3.com/links_trig1.mbay.net/maxtemp.ac.html> <http://www.uea.uk/ftpdata/tavegl.edu/jhorel/html/wx/climate/maxtemp.coolmath. the mathematical field of Fourier transformations uses sums of trigonometric functions to approximate periodic functions of any shape.netcomuk.math.navy.mil/data/docs/RS_OneYear.150.mmip.4.edu/CRPC/GT/mwies/Lessons/lesson2.html> Temperature data <http://www.ca/heart/egcyhome.nws.uk/~d_swift/biowhat.PERIODIC FUNCTIONS 69 The example of the electrical pulse emitted from your heart displayed on an EKG as shown in the second figure demonstrates that periodic functions do not have to be trigonometric.nws.coolmath.htm> EKG world encyclopedia <http://www.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .dat> <http://www.mbay.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/continuous/heatflow/ learn.co.5/~matscw/trig/trig1.html> Heat flow <http://www.htm> Biorythms <http://www.html> Modeling with a sine function <http://147. However.cru.sineart.bcit. online sources for further exploration Art based on periodic functions <http://www.mcgill.net/maxtemp.crpc.htm> Alternating current <http://www.met.html> Damping functions in music <http://www.math.rice.com/> CoolMath’s links to many sites that show periodic functions <http://www.

70 PLANE PLANE A plane represents any flat two-dimensional surface that has infinite length and width. A saw blade cuts in a straight line. which is directly below the location of the receiver. forms a line. Planes have some useful properties that give people ideas about design and construction. the leg lengths should be close to being the same to help support someone’s mass near the center of the chair. In everyday life. For example. For example. is much easier to wallpaper or to fix when it is damaged. such as the wall and ceiling. and floors are examples of planes. They are created for handicapped people in wheelchairs as an alterna- . because the three ends of the legs lie on the same plane—the floor—regardless of their length. on the other hand. Metal beams are placed on a radio satellite to support its receiver as waves are reflected off the dish. This idea guarantees that walls and containers made from flat surfaces can be sealed. we use only finite versions of planes due to limited space and material. then they will land on the dish at the same distance from the center. because it represents two intersecting planes—the saw and the piece of wood. These items are made flat. assuming that there are no holes in them. Three-legged stools will never wobble. book covers. Another property of planes is that three noncollinear points lie in the same plane. because the end of one of the legs is on a different plane. Inclined planes—planes that are raised at an angle—are used for a variety of purposes. the intersection of two nonidentical planes. A flat wall. For example. A radio antenna uses metal beams of equal length to support the receiver at its focal point. so it will lie on a flat surface. desktops. This method ensures that the beams land on the perimeter of the circle. but expensive to create. Four-legged stools will sometimes wobble if one leg is longer or shorter than the other legs. Ideally though. a triangle has three vertices. since all points on the circle are equidistant from its center. Walls. If a line or segment is perpendicular to a plane. then any congruent segments with an endpoint on that plane and another endpoint at a common point on the line or segment will be equidistant from the foot of the plane. a curved wall may be interesting to look at. because they are easier to produce and convenient to write on or cover. If they are created at the same length and intersect the receiver at the same point.

However.navy.edu/emt725/Envir/Three.gov/education/learnweb/MpLesson2Act1. the map will have empty spaces. even though the earth is spherical. leaving a distortion between distances near the pole. This transformation gives cartographers the opportunity to produce maps on flat surfaces.com/machines/4a.html> <http://www. a disadvantage is that the regions near the poles illustrate inaccurate areas of the landmasses. An advantage to this technique is that images of maps can be placed into books and read more easily.usgs. For example. However. when the gores unfold.html> <http://liftoff. Screwdrivers have an inclined plane at their tip so that they can firmly fit into the top of a screw.uga.msfc.ualberta.pdf> ▲ ▼ ▲ .ca/~norris/navigation/Mercator. on a Mercator projection map.gov/academy/rocket_sci/orbmech/mercator. Another way to make a plane representation of the earth is to cut along the longitudinal lines and create gores. They are also used in a variety of tools.coe.htm> <http://www.nasa. Screws have an inclined plane that bends around its center so that they can create an angled entry when breaking a wall’s surface.mil/products/web-pdf/tramans/bookchunks/ 14037_ch4.advancement.tpub. a country near the North Pole such as Greenland appears almost fifteen times its actual size.PLANE 71 tive to stairs.html> The three-point problem from geology <http://jwilson.html> The wedge <http://www.Point. online sources for further exploration Mercator projection <http://www.cnet. A screw uses a rotating inclined plane to drill into flat surfaces. A Mercator projection is a method used to transform spherical coordinates into a plane. They are used to exit highways so that cars can gradually change elevation.

In the point P = [r. which is the same as the standard equation of a circle with the center at the origin and radius r. Navigators on ships and airplanes use the language of polar coordinates to specify the direction and speed of travel. the distance r is given first. The following graph of a five-leaf rose would be difficult to express in an equation using only x–y coordinates. While Cartesian graphs are rectangular. Astronomers use polar coordinates to plot paths of planets and the sun with respect to a viewing position on the earth.72 POLAR COORDINATES POLAR COORDINATES Polar coordinates locate a point by indicating a direction and a distance from a central point (the pole). The figure below is a CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) map showing the northern hemisphere. England. This is different from Cartesian or rectangular coordinates in which points are located by distances from two perpendicular axes. polar graphs are circular. this axis would be placed in the same position as the positive ray of the xaxis in Cartesian coordinates. followed by the direction θ expressed as an angle of rotation from a fixed line through the pole called the polar axis. θ]. The polar axis is on the great circle of longitude that goes through Greenwich.and y-coordinates. The North Pole is in the center of the concentric circles of latitude. When the polar axis corresponds to the positive x-axis in a Cartesian plane. y) for P can be computed as x = r cos θ and y = r sin θ. The positions and distances on the globe are represented as a polar coordinate system. Polar coordinates can be used to map the earth. Polar coordinates are useful in mathematics for writing curves that cannot be written as functions or simple relations in x. . the Cartesian coordinates (x. Notice that x2 + y 2 = (r cos θ)2 + (r sin θ)2 = r2 (cos θ)2 + r2 (sin θ)2 = r2 (cos2 θ + sin2 θ) = r2 (1) = r2 . On polar graph paper.

especially if they have rotational symmetry. Although polar coordinates simplify equations for some beautiful curves. Polar coordinates have surprising uses in computer graphics.POLAR COORDINATES 73 Graph of r = 4 cos 5θ for θ = 0 to 2π. The chambered nautilus picture from the previous figure after being distorted with the polar coordinate filter in Adobe Photoshop. For example. Note in the figure below how the shape of the spiral of the form r = abθ mimics the shape of the shell of the chambered nautilus. Some graphs are easier to represent in polar rather than rectangular form. logarithmic spiral r = 5(1. As the creature grows. The polar coordinates distortion filter available for Adobe Photoshop remaps every pixel’s rectangular (Cartesian) coordinates to polar coordinates. the shell compartment expands in a way that allows the nautilus to retain its shape. This makes it easy to make objects circular as well as producing fountain-like effects associated with turning polar coordinates into Cartesian ones. they also make some equations more complicated.3)θ shell of a chambered nautilus A nautilus resembles the polar graph r = abθ . or vice versa. Some spirals that can be graphed with polar coordinates model shapes in nature. . the polar equation for b the line y = mx + b is r = sin θ−m cos θ .

com/polar. θ + φ].world-of-newave.uio.or.phy-astr.html> <http://www. The polar form simplifies the powers and roots of complex numbers. In polar form.univie.blueberry-brain. φ].media.adscape. Then zw = [rs.mit.asahi-net.nasa.tut. nθ].html> <http://www.de/sunpol/index.edu/people/brand/logspiral.) online sources for further exploration Polar plotting and graphing <http://mss.gsu.edu/~pscrooke/MSS/plotpolar.math.com/eyedesign/photoshop/four/filters/polarcoordinates.no/~oyvindha/loga.media/moe/galerie/zeich/zeich.gsfc.bcit.htm> Polar distortion filter <http://www.gov/stargaze/Scelcoor. In many cases. θ] and w = [s.gov/stargaze/Scelcoor.html> Sun position in polar coordinates <http://www.at/future.ac.html> Spherical and cylindrical coordinates <http://hyperphysics.ca/examples/ary_16_1/ary_16_1.htm> Computer graphics <http://www. which is known as DeMoivre’s theorem.vanderbilt.jgiesen.fi/~sahrakor/research/teksti/node8.html> <http://www.html> <http://www-istp.www.gsfc.org/SpecialPlaneCurves_dir/EquiangularSpiral_dir/equiangular Spiral.redmood.adscape.htm> <http://john. z n = [rn . Spherical polar coordinates are useful in simplifying physics equations such as Schrodinger’s equation and the Maxwell speed equation.htm> Polar coordinates in robotics <http://www.html> <http://www.html> Azimuth and elevation <http://www-istp.edu/hbase/sphc.notam.com/fxwavex/help/en/plug-ins/nwfxpic/polar.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ . (See Complex Numbers and Vectors.html> <http://www.htm> <http://www.org/goldmean.htm> Logarithmic spirals <http://brand.html> <http://xahlee.jp/~nj2t-hg/ilpov21e. writing expressions in polar form simplifies the application of calculus and differential equation techniques.math.meru.74 POLAR COORDINATES Log-polar transformations have been developed to embed copyright information in computer-graphic files to preserve the copyright notice from deletion. Multiplication of the complex numbers z = a + bi and w = c + di gives (ac − bd) + (ad + bc)i.com/eyedesign/photoshop/four/filters/polarcoordinates.html> <http://www.iac.nasa.org/syndyn/spirals/figsfrac. The corresponding multiplication in polar form would be of the numbers z = [r. Polar coordinates have another important application in mathematics: They simplify some operations with complex numbers.

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

75

A polynomial function f (x) has a general equation f (x) = a1 xn + a2 xn−1 +a3 xn−2 + . . . + az , where coefficients and constants are associated with a and exponents associated with n are positive integers. Linear functions, such as y = 3x − 5, and quadratic functions, such as r = 3w2 − 5w + 7, are polynomial functions that have numerous applications discussed elsewhere in this book (see Linear Functions and Quadratic Functions). Polynomial functions with degree three or greater are found in applications associated with volume and financial planning. Empty open-faced containers such as crates are put together by attaching a net of five rectangles. A rectangular piece of plastic can be cut so that it can turn into an open-faced rectangular prism when folded at its seams. If a square piece is cut out of each corner of a rectangle, then four folds will form a net with five rectangles that can be formed to develop the prism, as shown below.

Open-faced prism with dimensions x by l − 2x by w − 2x formed by cutting squares with side length x out of the corners of rectangular sheet with dimensions l by w.

A manufacturer is probably interested in finding the location to cut the square from the corners so that the consumers will be able to fill the crate with the most amount of material. In essence, the goal is to maximize the volume based on a fixed amount of material. Suppose that square corners are removed from a rectangular sheet of plastic with dimensions of 6 feet by 4 feet. Each side of the prism can be represented in terms of the edge length, x, of the square that was removed from the corners, as shown below.
Open-faced prism formed by cutting squares with edge length, x, out of the corners of a rectangular sheet with dimensions of 6 feet by 4 feet.

The volume of the crate, v, is the product of its dimensions, so it can be represented by the equation v = x(6 − 2x)(4 − 2x). This equation is a polynomial function, because it is the factored form of v = 4x3 − 20x2 + 24x. A relative maximum of this function on a graph, as shown on the following page, within a domain between 0 and 2 feet occurs when x ≈ 0.78 feet, or about 9.4 inches. This means that the crate with the largest possible volume will occur when squares with an edge length of 9.4 inches are cut from the corners.

76

POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

Graph of the volume of a prism formed by folding a sheet of paper with squares of edge length, x, removed from each of the corners.

Long-term investing uses a polynomial function to account for money that is invested each year. Suppose an account was set up so that you contributed money each year towards your retirement based on a fixed percentage of interest, assuming that you continued to add a minimum amount of money to the account each year and did not withdraw money at any time. The total amount of money, m, in the bank after n years based on an annual interest rate of r percent can be represented by the function
r r m = a1 (1 + 100 )n +a2 (1 + 100 )n−1 r n−2 +a3 (1 + 100 ) + . . . + az ,

where the coefficients, a, are the individual amounts of money deposited into the account after each year. For example, if $500 is deposited at the end of the first year, $700 at the end of the second year, $800 at the end of the third year, and $400 at the end of the fourth year, then the total amount of money in the account at the end of the fourth year is determined by the equation m = 500(1 +
r 3 100 )

+ 700(1 +

r 2 100 )

+ 800(1 +

r 100 )

+ 400.

This means that the initial deposit of $500 will compound three times, the second deposit of $700 will compound two times, and so on. If an employee uses this retirement plan for only four years and wants to know the value of the account 21 years after the first investment, then the equation would be rewritten to m = 500(1 +
r 20 100 )

+ 700(1 +

r 19 100 )

+ 800(1 +

r 19 100 )

+ 400(1 +

r 18 100 ) .

This information is useful for people in their financial planning so that they can learn how to save money for their children’s education and their own retirement.
online sources for further exploration

Antenna pattern correction <http://earth.esa.int/0xc1cce41c_0x00005bfe> Application of polynomial functions <ftp://cq-pan.cqu.edu.au/pub/smad/senior/mathsb/mb_if005.doc>

PROBABILITY

77

Building boxes <http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/mathline/lessonplans/hsmp/buildingboxes/ buildingboxes_procedure.shtm> Drag racing <http://ceee.rice.edu/Books/CS/chapter3/data1.html> Shrimp <http://144.35.21.240/mathdept/labs/shrimp.htm> Toxic waste <http://www.eddept.wa.edu.au/centoff/graphcalc/tasks/ic6pc.pdf>

▼ ▲

PROBABILITY

A probability is a number between 0 and 1 that tells us how likely an event is to happen. Probabilities are expressed as ratios or percents. When probabilities are computed from an analysis of possible outcomes, such as the probability that a sum of 7 will show on the toss of a pair of dice, the probability is sometimes called a theoretical probability. When the probability is computed on the basis of experience or surveys, such as the probability of a randomly selected adult being a smoker, it is called a relative frequency or experimental probability. Gambling probabilities are sometimes expressed as odds. Odds express the ratio of successes to failures, or vice versa. If you hear a bettor on a horse race say, “The odds against Fleetfoot winning are five to two,” that means for every five times Fleetfoot loses, he will win twice. The probability of losing is five out of seven, and the probability of winning is two out of seven. Games that have equal probabilities for all participants are called fair. Most people think that tossing a coin to determine who kicks off a football game is fair, because their life experience with coins indicates that the probability of a head is equal to a probability of a tail. Determining the winning state-lottery ticket by pulling winning ping-pong balls from agitated buckets is felt to be fair, because every number has an equal chance of being selected. This perception has been written into the election laws of many states. Illinois determines the seventh member of its redistricting committee (otherwise evenly divided between Democrats and Republicans) by pulling a name out of a hat. In 1998, the tie in ballots for mayor of Duluth, Minnesota, was broken by the toss of a coin. Kansas once settled a tie for state representative by having the two candidates pull chips from a bag that contained six black and six white backgammon chips. The winner was the first to draw a white chip. New Mexico allows tied candidates to play any game of chance to break a tie. Coin tossing remains the favorite way of breaking

The study data is shown on the following table.071 The results from the aspirin–physician heart study. then the probability of them both happening is the product of the separate probabilities. the chi-square indicated that the ob- .000 doctors.888 21. If so. In this case. the percents are so small that it is possible they were due to chance.034 22. and half were given a neutral pill (placebo). That probability times the number of participants tells how many doctors receiving aspirin would have had heart attacks if heart condition were independent of medication. Using the relative frequencies from the total row and total column gives the following prod11037 293 uct: 22071 • 22071 . New Mexico.037 11. opted to play five-card stud for the job. heart attack aspirin placebo TOTAL no heart attack TOTAL 147 146 293 10.778 11. The statistician conducts a chi-square test to compare the actual frequencies to the expected frequencies.890 10. Doctors didn’t know what kind of pill they received. The formal mathematical definition of independence is given in the equation P (A + B) = P (A) • P (B). and 1. The researchers periodically contacted the participants to find out if the physician had suffered a heart attack.037 11. That frequency is 147. A and B. Statisticians assume that the medication and heart attacks are independent. A key concept from probability is the idea of independence. As you can see from the table below. which tested the effects of aspirin on over 22. The concept of independence is behind investigations such as the Physicians’ Health Study. two candidates who were tied in the election for mayor of Estancia. are independent.933 10. and that heart condition is independent of medication.845 21. then P (aspirin and heart attack) = P (aspirin) • P (heart attack). Half the doctors were given a daily dose of aspirin. If two events.034 22. Although it looks like the percents favor aspirin.9 percent of the participants who received aspirin had heart attacks. The results showed that 0.778 11.7 percent of those with the placebo had heart attacks.78 PROBABILITY ties in the state. but as recently as 1998. This is called a contingency table. Statisticians use probabilities and relative frequencies in determining relationships.071 Expected frequencies for the aspirin–physician heart study The computations assume that the totals represent the population. the almost equal separation of physicians into aspirin and placebo treatments indicates that the expected values for heart attacks should have been separated into almost equal proportions. heart attack aspirin placebo TOTAL no heart attack TOTAL 104 189 293 10.

Aircraft designers use computer simulations of air molecules hitting the surface of an airplane to determine its most efficient shape. Three of these. and a quarter for the third. and GGG.5 percent. shouldn’t the dominant gene eventually “win out” . The term 3p2 q would represent the probability of two boys and one girl. The list is called the sample space. the computation of outcome probabilities can be generated by terms in the expansion of the binomial (p + q)n . and a fixed number of independent trials. or 37. represent two boys and one girl. boy or girl for one birth). The problem of finding how many families would have two boys in three children can be approached through a simulation. So the probability of a family of three children having exactly two boys is three-eights. say a penny for the first child. you can list eight possibilities: BBB. Tossing a coin could represent the birth of a child. How many families with three children have exactly two boys? If boys and girls are equally likely. BGG. the value 3p2 q = 3 agrees with our previous computation. GGB. BGB. this proportion turned out to be 35. a dime for the second child. It makes recommendations for vaccinations and prevention procedures based on the outcomes of its simulations. The probability of two boys would be estimated by the proportion of times the three coins showed exactly two heads. so aspirin reduced heart attacks. and GBB.PROBABILITY 79 served frequencies were not close to the expected values. GBB. Coins and children present examples of binomial probability situations. Families of three children would be modeled by (p + q)3 = p3 + 3p2 q + 3pq 2 + q 3 . BGB. GBG. 8 The binomial probability theorem provides direct solutions for problems that don’t have equal probabilities such as the proportion of recessive genes in a population or how many people should be booked for flights so that there are no empty seats. If you were to determine boys by the head of the coin showing. because each family is equally likely. It is now common to use computers to model complex relationships with simulations. which is a little less than the value computed from the sample space. BBG. BBG. When there are two outcomes of a single trial (heads or tails on one coin. Since 1 p = q = 2 .8 percent. The Defense Department uses simulations to evaluate outcomes of military actions. where n is the number of trials. This experiment can be carried 500 or more times very quickly. In one experiment. you could simulate a family of three children by tossing three coins. and q = 1 − p is the probability of failure. The Centers for Disease Control uses simulations to predict the paths of epidemics. p is the probability of one outcome (called the success). Computers can generate random numbers (or numbers that act randomly) and perform rapid computation of probabilities. In a situation in which there are different percentages of a dominant gene A and a recessive gene a. A simulation replaces the elements of this problem with repeated trials of an experiment using objects that behave like the birth of children. Making careful lists and working from simple examples can determine many probability problems.

Unfortunately. If the plane seats 50. and so on.5 percent of the population is free of the cystic fibrosis recessive gene. This isn’t a big probability. The first term gives the probability that all 52 ticketed passengers will show up. The airlines want to oversell just enough to regularly fill all seats. Computing the proportion of people free from the cystic fibrosis gene gives p2 ≈ 0. the binomial expansion indicates that about one-third of the flights would have to turn away ticketed passengers. (0. Airlines run on small profit margins. In 1908. Airlines attempt to solve this problem by selling more than 50 tickets for the flight. so the airline would be safe in selling 52 seats for flights on this size plane.000463. In Caucasian children. About 92.4 percent of the genes.7 percent are carriers. 90 percent of 50 seats = 45 would be filled. Adding these probabilities gives 0. But there would be times when 51 or 52 people showed up.6 percent. Markov chains can be used to handle the relative frequencies of many species in populations as well as gene pairs. so the airline would have to pay a penalty and incur the wrath of the passengers who had a ticket but did not get a seat. the airline could compute the expected profits on its flights. (See Matrices. 2pq is the proportion of people who do not have cystic fibrosis but are carriers.) Airline scheduling can be considered a binomial probability problem. on average. . The binomial expansion (p + q)52 will give the chances that one or more ticketed customers will lack a seat. About five flights in every thousand will have customers who would not get seats.1) ≈ 0. Some people would not get on the flight.00059. In the situation of cystic fibrosis. a British mathematician and a biologist used binomial probabilities to explain genetic stability. Larger powers . these proportions will remain constant from generation to generation. Taking the square root gives q = 0. which is caused by a recessive gene. q 2 is the incidence rate of 1/1700 or 0.024. . At 55 tickets sold.00417. That is probably too often. for example. 54 tickets. so those five empty seats could make the flight a money loser.9)51 (0. for example.700 Caucasian children is born with cystic fibrosis. 52(0. 47 people would actually show up for the flight. In the absence of mutations and migration.) They would have to repeat the computation for 53 tickets sold. and the dominant gene A accounts for p = 97. and q 2 is the proportion of people who have cystic fibrosis. and the proportion of people who are carriers of the recessive gene is 2pq ≈ 0. but 4.80 PROBABILITY in the population? For example. With these probabilities.0046. p2 is the proportion of people who are pure dominant. that proportion remains the same from generation to generation. The Hardy-Weinberg equation models the genetic distribution with the perfect square binomial (p + q)2 = p2 + 2pq + q 2 . The expansion of (p + q)52 starts out as p52 + 52p51 q + 1326p50 q 2 +. (See Expected Value. where p is the proportion of the dominant gene A. but not to overbook so much that the penalties outweigh the additional ticket income. If they sold 52 seats. The recessive gene a for cystic fibrosis accounts for q = 2. accounting for the penalties paid to the unserved passengers.0468. 1 out of 1. The second term gives the probability that 51 ticketed passengers will show up. Assume that 90 percent of the people who buy tickets actually show up at the airport to board the plane. then on average. and q is the proportion of the recessive gene a.9)52 ≈ 0.9253. .

recommendations from the National Research Council. Courts have based financial awards to patients whose cancer was misdiagnosed by doctors on computations of the patients’ reduced probability of survival. some of the genetic markers that are used in establishing probabilities occur in different proportions in different racial groups.com/lottery1. and other government and legal organizations resulted in standardized laboratory techniques and computations of probabilities.colorado. or hair found at a crime scene matches the accused.uiuc. In the Microsoft antitrust case.edu/~eppstein/junkyard/random.us/odds. Probabilities can be computed from geometry formulas.html> The birthday problem <http://www.5) ≈ 0. Probabilities have been used to determine whether juries were representative in gender and racial composition to the communities they served.ics.mn. By 1996. Winning carnival games is much more difficult than it appears! online sources for further exploration The geometry junkyard shows geometric probability problems <http://www.htm> .mste.montana.PROBABILITY 81 of binomial situations can be estimated with normal distributions.htm> <http://www.alllotto.) Probability arguments are common in court cases.edu/education/DMP/activities/discrete_prob/> Diffusion <http://www.lottery. The proportion of balls that fall through the hole is proportional to the ratio of area of hole to area of the cardboard.com/oddscalc.edu/reese/birthday/> Discrete probability <http://www. Lawyers for Al Gore and George W. the Department of Justice presented probabilities that the Microsoft Corporation would force other companies out of business. The early cases of prosecution based on DNA matching produced lengthy arguments about the accuracy of the techniques and the computation of the probabilities.uci. semen.state. the National Institute of Justice.htm> Lottery odds calculations <http://www.howstuffworks. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) matching gives a probability that blood. (See Standard Deviation.049. This would be com2 puted using the formulas for area of circle and square: π(2.ie/~gerryq/Lotodds/lotodds. so DNA evidence is as well accepted as fingerprint matches.html> <http://www. Consider balls falling uniformly on a square piece of cardboard 20 inches on a side that has a circular hole 5 inches in diameter.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/probability/diffusion/ learn. A ball has 202 about a 5 percent chance of falling through the hole rather than bouncing off the cardboard. For example.math.asp> <http://indigo. Bush used probability arguments before Florida courts to persuade judges that their respective parties should prevail in the contested presidential election of 2000.

no/~nsaa/poker. The shadow produced on the ground at noon at Alexandria based on an angle of elevation of α degrees. he had measured the angles of shadows formed by sticks in the ground and determined that there was not any shadow at Cyrene.world. is the same as the central angle in the earth that determines the sector between the two cities.edu/dr. as shown as follows. because they need to scaledown distances so that large pieces of land can be viewed on a sheet of paper.82 PROPORTIONS Nuclear medicine <http://www.math.2 degrees. Eratosthenes used a proportion to determine the radius of the earth in around 230 BC.bcit. where each stade is about 559 feet. The legend on the map might indicate that 1 cm represents 15 miles. .html> Probability and utility of the real world <http://research.8.prob.8 degrees at Alexandria. Cartographers use proportions to make maps.math/faq/faq. Cross multi370 centimeters plying these quantities helps solve the equation.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ PROPORTIONS Proportions are equations that compare ratios or scaled quantities. He had traveled between the cities of Alexandria and Cyrene and determined that its distance was around 5. a proportion that can be used to on map 1 determine a scale in this situation is s miles miles = 25 cm on map . Eratosthenes argued that the angle formed near the top of the stick.000 stades. as shown below. s = 370/25 = 14. At noon.com/~horvitz/real.microsoft.htm> Poker probabilities <http://www.pvv. 7. since light rays travel parallel to the earth.htm> Probability in the real world <http://forum. the state of Illinois is approximately 370 miles long.ntnu.swarthmore. If the map maker wants to place Illinois on a sheet of paper that is 25 cm long.ca/examples/ary_11_8/ary_11_8. For example. and an angle of elevation of α = 82.

Using the proportion. a proportion comparing the height and width needs to be used so that the correct height of the screen can be accurately determined. Note that figure is not drawn to scale. paleontologists use the ratio length of actual dinosaur3 length of model3 = volume of actual dinosaur . or 139. or 4. because volume is a three-dimensional concept.30 cm. the radius can be determined by using the equation c = 2πr. to place its screen. Since a model is a miniature version of the actual dinosaur.000 stades.2/360 of the earth’s circumference. the volume of a cube is the . r. about 23 feet.750.900 feet. Therefore the distance from Cyrene to Alexandria represented 7. Suppose the width of each film cell is 5.750. h. For example. compared to a one-dimensional concept of length.66 feet.963 miles! Movie screens are designed to be in a similar proportion as the dimensions of film cells.PROPORTIONS 83 Congruent angles formed by the sun’s rays at Cyrene and at the center of earth.48 vertical cm on film Proportions are used to predict the mass of a dinosaur with scaled models. to its radius. volume of model This ratio is cubed. Substituting the value c = 139. since there are 360 degrees in a circle. c. A small movie theater may leave a horizontal length of 7 meters. In order to project the film perfectly on the screen. or 9.214 miles. That’s only 6 percent off the actual distance of 3. 5. 7. Eratosthenes determined that the distance around the earth is about 250.241. The height of the screen.94 meters. An ideal movie screen would show the entire picture without cropping out any of the sides. comparing the circumference. Since the cross section of the earth is approximately a circle. by solving the equation determined by the proportion h vertical meters on screen 2. is equal to approximately 2.000 feet and solving the equation will show that the radius of the earth is about 22. Movie screens are created to handle film with specific dimensions.2 degrees between cities 360 degrees in circle = 5000 stades between cities number of stades around earth .48 cm and the height is 2.000 feet.30 vertical cm on film = 7 horizontal meters on screen .

since the other measurements can be taken from a model and a fossil of the skeleton. or if there is an overpopulation that is affecting an ecosystem. and 18 of them have tags. In this case. For example. a scientist will go to an area such as a forest and temporarily capture animals to tag them. the scientists will recapture a group of animals again to check their health and keep track of the proportion of animals that are tagged. (See Similarity for an example. Every animal in a region cannot be counted.84 PROPORTIONS length of one of its edges raised to the third power. 100 deer are captured. so the mass of the dinosaur can be predicted by estimating the density of a dinosaur as that of a modern-day reptile or mammal. A scaled model of a tyrannosaurus can be used to predict its actual mass with information about its actual length. This method of estimating animal populations is called capture–recapture. the number of deer in the population. The population of wildlife animals is determined by tagging animals and using proportions. because it would be too difficult to find all of them. Consequently. is approximately 277 based on a p 50 solution to the equation 18 = 100 . Two weeks later. The proportion number of tags in population number of tags in second sample = number of deer in population number of deer in second sample can be used to predict the total number of deer in that region of the forest. A capture–recapture method can be used to tag and predict their population without having to count them all.) The density of an object is the ratio of its mass to volume. assuming that the birthrate and death rate are fairly similar during that time period. The ratio is used to find the volume of the actual dinosaur. It is important to know these populations in order to understand if a species is at risk of endangerment. p. after the animals have had a chance to roam around the forest. suppose 50 deer are captured and tagged in a forest. It is difficult to track animals due to their mobility and ability to hide well. A few weeks later. In addition to placing tags on them. the scientist will likely examine their health to understand their potential to reproduce or spread disease. This information will help the scientists determine how many animals are in that region of the forest. . not to mention that it would be distracting and potentially disturbing to the ecosystem if ecologists were constantly roaming around.

Suppose a giant ant were twenty times longer than a tiny ant. because the ERA is determined by the proportion number or runs allowed number of innings pitched = number of runs in an entire game (or ERA) number of innings in a nonextended game . a pitcher hardly lasts that long during a single game. On a good day. Mars is observed in the night sky to have a period of 687 days revolving around the sun. Kepler’s proportional formula can be rewritten as d1 d2 3 = p1 p2 2 because exponents distribute in any expression in- volving a quotient of two numbers. In 1619.45. that planets were from the sun and the period of their revolution. A bad pitcher may give 9 3 up five runs after two-and-two-thirds innings and have an ERA of 16. would increase by a factor of 20 3. (See Inverse Square Function for another explanation. p. or 8. The volume of the ant. it could not maintain its surface area-to-weight ratio.) This information is also helpful for astronomers to predict when a spacecraft can be launched from earth so that its trajectory would come in close contact with a planet. d1 = p1 .PROPORTIONS 85 In baseball.882. Substituting the numbers. This means that Mars is about 50 percent further from the sun than the earth. perhaps one reason in understanding why most of Mars regularly maintains temperatures below 0° Fahrenheit.524. When the Mars-to-earth ratio is substituted into the equation. the ratio of the distances will be approximately 1. For example. an earned run average (ERA) is a statistic that describes how many runs a pitcher would be expected to give up in a nine-inning game. and Neptune in order to take photos that could be sent back to earth for further study. d. as a result of the solution to the equation d1 d2 3 = (1. For example. Uranus. if the pitcher is giving up a lot of runs he will play considerably less. perhaps from one to five innings.88. the Voyager ships launched in 1977 had trajectories that placed them near Jupiter. this information was helpful to astronomers to predict the approximate distance that another planet is from the sun. Regardless of the length of the pitching performance. Saturn. an ERA is used to compare the different pitchers. Johannes Kepler determined a proportion relating the mean distances. d3 p2 This proportion. was determined through data collection. which is proportional to its mass. Since area is related to the square of length in an object. The strength of an animal or object is proportional to its surface–area-toweight ratio. At the time. the proportion is 721 = ERA . Small insects can carry objects much greater than their mass. and is updated after each pitching performance. better pitchers have lower ERAs. Usually. If an ant were to grow in size.000. There are 365 days in an earth year. while humans can only carry small percentages of their mass. Typically. the ant’s surface area would increase by a factor of 20 2.882)2 . a pitcher that gives up two runs in seven-and-a-third innings has an ERA of 2. because volume is related to the cube of an object’s . or 400. However. so the ratio of periods of these orbits is 1. For example. and can be 3 2 2 2 proven using Newton’s theory of gravitation. a major league pitcher will play for about six to nine innings. However. the ERA is a statistic that represents a player’s performance over an entire season.

math.edu/noon-project/> Earned Run Average all-time leaders <http://www. If the original ratio surface area = v for the ant.htm> <http://www.gov/education/resource/f16draw.nasa.com/piera1.baseball-almanac.edu/jmcald/Aristarchus/eratosthenes. there would be close to 90 times (203/2 ) as much pressure on its legs than before.com/sscale.com/scalespeed. then a giant ant could only carry one-half its body weight.americanmodels.ma.html> Understanding scale speed in model airplanes <http://www. online references for further exploration Eratosthenes of Cyrene <http://share2.htm> Orbit simulation <http://observe.sonoma.edu/GIC/Geographica/MapInterp/Scale.cambridge. For example. Hence the relative v 400 strength of a giant ant would be only 8000 or 5 percent as much as a tiny ant.ci.86 PROPORTIONS s length.astroflight.ca/examples/ary_11_1/ary_11_1.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model.html> Scale models <http://www.gov/nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit3. it would probably have slightly different proportions than the smaller ant.esd105.gov/ceisweb1/ceishome/atlas/learngeog/mapping.pbs.html> Map making <http://www.htm> Proportional representation in voting <http://www.wednet.epa.shtml> Nuclear medicine <http://www. which would probably cause the legs to snap.baseball-almanac.html> Build a solar system <http://www.html> <http://w3.html> <http://www. the giant version 20 times volume surface area 400 bigger in each dimension would have volume = 8000 s . If such a giant ant existed.com/piera4. if a regular ant can carry ten times its body weight.html> <http://www.wednet.bcit.ed.edu/ronh/solar_system/> Circumference of earth using techniques by Eratosthenes <http://share2.cambridge.esd105.ci.ma.shtml> <http://www. This proportional understanding of strength helps designers build stronger paper towels. since the crosssectional area of its legs would probably need to be proportionally larger in order to maintain a dramatic increase in mass. and boxes.ivv. and helps engineers build stronger and more durable machines that can withstand pressure such as airplanes and bridges.us/~Election/pr-quota. Otherwise.edu/jmcald/Aristarchus/eratosthenes. bags.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .faa.exploratorium. Ouch! That is why elephants need tree-trunk-style legs in order to support their own weight.us/~Election/ballots.html> <http://www.uiuc.

the pitcher needs to be placed closer to home plate than this intersection. The geometry of rhombuses and the Pythagorean theorem can be used to show that the center of the pitcher’s mound is not in the pathway of the ball when it is thrown from third to first base. . Solving for c will show that the throw is about 127. c2 .” This distance can be determined by solving the equation 52 + 22 = d2 that is determined with the Pythagorean theorem. If the catcher throws a ball at about 70 miles per hour. If the pitcher was placed at the intersection of the diagonals. The Pythagorean theorem illustrates that the sum of the areas of the squares connected to the legs of a right triangle is equal to the area of the square connected to the hypotenuse of a right triangle. The Pythagorean theorem gave the distance between home and second base to be 127. Since the bases are each 90 feet apart in the form of a square. Changes in the earth’s curvature are minimal within short ranges. The Pythagorean theorem is useful on a baseball diamond for several reasons. as shown in the figure below. where the legs of the triangle are the base paths of 90 feet each. The Pythagorean theorem is used to approximate the distance of two nearby towns on a map. Conversely. The right triangle formed would be with half of the infield. so the latitude and longitude positions can serve as points on a coordinate plane. he might get hit by a throw from the third baseman. the theorem helps us find the distance the catcher has to throw the ball to second base when a runner is trying to steal. The actual placement of the center of the pitching mound is 60.5 feet from home plate. The diagonals of the square running-path between the bases are perpendicular bisectors of each other.39 miles away on a map. representing the distance that the “crow flies. There are over 100 proofs of the Pythagorean theorem.6 feet.PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM 87 The Pythagorean theorem states that the sum of the squares of the legs of a right triangle. and the hypotenuse is from home plate to second base. any triangle that has sides that are related by the equation a2 + b2 = c2 must have a right angle opposite the longest side. For example. is the same as the square of its hypotenuse. To avoid contact. The hypotenuse can be found by solving the equation 902 + 902 = c2 .3 feet. The two cities would be 5. many of which show that the sum of the areas of squares on the legs is equal to the area of the square on the hypotenuse. suppose that Smithsville is five miles north and two miles east of Laxtown. This information is useful. because it will give coaches an idea about how hard the catcher needs to be able to throw a ball accurately in order to throw a runner out. then it will only take about one-and-a-quarter seconds for the ball to reach the base.3 feet. The pitcher must be closer to home plate than 63. forming congruent right triangles in the center. a2 + b2 .

) online sources for further exploration Astronomy connections <http://www. since 122 + 162 = 202 . the hypotenuse. a night watchman or the coast guard may be interested in the distance a ship is from shore when seen at the horizon. and height H.htm> . or any multiple such as {12. forming a right triangle into the center of it.43 inches long. given that the radius of the earth is 6. since the horizon distance is perpendicular to the radius of the earth. a value of over 35 km! A cross-sectional view of earth that illustrates the viewing distance from a lighthouse to the horizon.com/pythagor. The horizontal and vertical distances from the foot of the mountain to its top can be determined on a map. and 10 inches high? According to the three-dimensional Pythagorean theorem. width W .4. the main diagonal has a length given by d2 = L2 + W 2 + H 2 . a carpenter making a cabinet can perfectly align pieces of wood in a right angle with the use of only a tape measure. Using the Pythagorean triple {3. forming the legs of a right triangle that can be drawn in the mountain’s center. the carpenter can place a mark on the bottom after 12 inches. and rotate the intersecting boards at its hinge until the distance between the markings is 20 inches.88 PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM Carpenters use Pythagorean triples to verify that they have right angles in their work. For example. which never has to be physically measured. If a rectangular box has dimensions of length L. as shown below. 16. Note that the diagram is not drawn to scale. The viewing distance inside the top of the lighthouse is then the solution to the equation 63800002 + b2 = 63801002 . The third side of the triangle. 10 inches wide. Construction workers building along the sides of mountains use the Pythagorean theorem to determine the amount of supplies needed to create a railroad track for a funicular or a cable line for a gondola. a mark on the side after 16 inches.kyes-world. Inside a 100-meter-tall lighthouse. represents the walk up the mountain.5}. A triangle with sides of 12. The visible distance to a horizon can be found with the Pythagorean theorem. Yes.380 km. Can a 42-inch-long umbrella be packed into a carton that is 40 inches long. Extensions of the Pythagorean theorem provide distances in three or more dimensions.20}. the diagonal is about 42. it should just barely fit.16. (See Vectors for applications in many dimensions. and 20 inches is a right triangle. This information can be readily found. since it can be found using the Pythagorean theorem.

because they will have a highest or lowest point at their vertex. k) is the vertex.umn.edu/~hipp/app2.html> Latitude and longitude <http://daniel.html> Construction <http://www. Factor the leading coeffib cient.umn. where (h. . For example. and then subtract that value so that nothing is added to the expression: b f (x) = a(x2 + a x + b2 4a2 ) − ab2 4a2 + c.QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 89 Baseball and the Pythagorean Theorem <http://www.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Latitude/pythag.pbs.html> Real-world applications <http://www.org/wgbh/nova/proof/puzzle/baseball.swarthmore. This maximum or minimum point can be found by rewriting the expression into vertex form through a process called completing the square.math/faq/faq. The following symbolic manipulation illustrates how the standard form f (x) = ax2 + bx + c can be manipulated into vertex form. Complete the square of the factored component.pythagorean.edu/dr.edu/~demo5337/Group3/bball.html> When would I use the Pythagorean Theorem? <http://forum. and have graphs that are parabolas.umn.calpoly.edu/~hipp/rwapps. a.geom. from the first two terms: f (x) = a(x2 + a x) + c.geom. a business owner would be interested in the greatest profit his or her company can attain based on the sales of its products.geom. Applications of quadratic functions commonly refer to maximizing or minimizing a quantity. Graph of the quadratic function f (x) = −3x2 + 2x + 5.html> <http://www.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Quadratic functions take on the standard form f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. The vertex form of a quadratic function is f (x) = a(x − h)2 + k.

in an application that uses quadratic functions.05x2 ) − (1.5gt2 + vo t + ho . and simplifies to p = -0.84 seconds is equal to 0 meters.95 so that consumers feel like they are getting a deal by paying less than $100. a reasonable sale price of the “limited edition” ball should be around 200 − 0. The profit.15.05(1997) = $100.5gt2 + vo t + ho to solve for vo . Compare this expression to the vertex form of a quadratic function and notice b b2 that the vertex can be represented as (− 2a . a.05x2 + 199. or r − c. because that is the amount of time it takes for . of an object is determined by the quadratic equation h = –0. as well as paying for the materials.997 balls are sold (x = − 2(−0. This quadratic equation can also be used to measure the initial vertical velocity of an object thrown in the air. such as a ball.05) = 1997. which equals (200x − 0.05. c.90 QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS Rewrite the expanded trinomial as a perfect square and simplify: f (x) = a(x + b 2 2a ) − b2 4a + c. from a new hall-of-famer begins at $200 and declines by five cents. and hence the price. This relationship would be represented by the equation a = 200 − 0. and ho is the initial height of the object. In that case. if a ball thrown at a height of 1. where g is the acceleration due to earth’s gravity (9. r. For example.25x + 1300). Engineers of fireworks can use this type of function so that the rockets explode at a time where optimal height offers safety as well as viewing pleasure. sold.9t2 + 45t + 0. In this case.8 m/sec 2 ). p. − 4a + c).25 for each new ball. Take. such as the cost of each ball. obtained from selling the balls would be the product of the number of balls sold and the price for each ball.75 profit will occur when approximately 1. The vertical height. for every ball. Although. A graph and table of values can also support this sale price as a means of producing almost a maximum possible profit.75x − 1300. then the values can be substituted into the equation h = –0. a maximum 199.84 seconds. The revenue. x. In a quadratic function in the form of f (x) = ax2 + bx + c. is the difference between the revenue and cost. The demand.05x. the height after 3. to appease the human psyche.45 meters is airborne for 3.4. a business setting that sells sport memorabilia. In this case. h. for a baseball player’s autographed ball may decline as more of them become available.300 and the business owner pays $1. that the business assumes in terms of the number of balls sold will be c = 1.25b + 1300.5). Suppose the start-up costs are $1. The business owner will have to pay for general start-up costs such as hiring the baseball player to sign autographs and renting a place to sell the merchandise. or r = x(200 − 0. Suppose that the price of an autographed ball. and lowest point when a > 0.05x) = 200x − 0. assuming that it reaches the ground with minimal air resistance. Therefore an object with an initial vertical velocity of 45 meters per second. for instance. vo is the initial vertical velocity. or $0. can be modeled with the equation h = –4. a more reasonable price might be twenty cents cheaper at $99. thrown at a height of 0. since a < 0. This coordinate will serve as a shortcut to find the highest point when a < 0.05x2 . a b maximum value will occur when x = – 2a .4 meters. Then the cost.

Devising and purchasing tin cans for food are applications of surface area that can be represented by a quadratic function. then the materials cost. In an effort to reconstruct a traffic accident.31. can be modeled with the equation t = 0.003)a = (24)(0. d.5 seconds upon seeing a hazardous condition.5gt2 + ho for objects in freefall because vo = 0 when an object is dropped. then you should expect to be dropping for about 6. A function to represent the price.53576v − 0.5(9. when breaking. which simplifies to t = 0. before it started braking. The equation then becomes 0 = –0. of this type of pizza in terms of its diameter. which has a solution of vo approximately equaling 18.5(9. (Note that the ending position will be 50 meters above the ground. v. the sizes are revealed according to each pizza’s diameter. such as the distance traveled after slamming on the brakes in a car. a. on a pizza menu. to produce each case of twenty-four cans can be represented by the function c = (24)(0.) This general equation could also be used to estimate heights and times for other objects that are released at high heights. a misconception would be to think that the 16-inch one should cost $16.84) + 1. where r is the radius of the can in inches. can also be modeled with a quadratic function.003 per square inch. then the amount of sheet metal in square inches.4 seconds. which simplifies to c ≈ 1. may 2 decide to give a financial incentive for customers to purchase larger pies and reduce this price to somewhere near $20. Substituting this value into the general function will also provide enough information to help you find the maximum height of your throw.24529 + 1. If a 12-inch pie costs $12. The restaurant.5gt2 + vo t + ho can be simplified to h = –0.106π( d )2 .84)2 + vo (3. a law office could use the function d = 0. because area is represented in square units. Therefore a 16inch pizza should cost p = 0. The value 0. t.8)(3.24529 to determine how far a car could travel in feet.106 2 is the price per square inch of pizza in dollars. as shown in the following figure. However. needed for each can would be a = 8πr + 2πr2 .QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 91 the ball to reach the ground.02171v 2 + 0.5v . If the manufacturer determines the height of its cans to be 4 inches tall with a variable radius. is p = 0.02171v 2 +0. d.02171v 2 + 1. Area applications can also be modeled by quadratic functions.03576v − 0. This value comes from substituting for the variables and solving the equation 50 = –0. For example. The law office might also consider the average reaction time of 1.4 meters per second. If tin costs the manufacturer $0. such as the steep drops on some amusement park rides. since the rope is only extending 200 meters. which is examining its area.81r+ . assuming that the 12-inch pie for $12 will have the same unit-cost value as any other size pizza. Since most tin cans are cylindrical. p.003)(8πr + 2πr2 ). or how fast it was moving in feet per second. Therefore if you plan to bungee-jump 200 meters off of a 250-meter-high bridge.45. pizza prices depend on the amount of pizza received. Horizontal distance.8)t2 + 250.24529. because it is a unit cost times the pizza’s area. the surface area can be determined by finding the area of the rectangular lateral area and the sum of the two bases. c.106π( 16 )2 ≈ $21. however.03576v −0. The equation h = –0. So the total stopping distance.

gsfc.Area.us/math/Chimp/Unit3/QUADRT_S. Colorado.html> Optimization and analysis using quadratic functions <http://www.html> Fluid flow <http://www.nasa.com/activities/Activity_page.cfm?ActivityID=19> <http://www. b.edu/emt725/MinSurf/Minimum.html> <http://www. In fact.gov/stargaze/Sfall.org/standards/ex15.exploratorium.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ .nc. and closer to 99° Celsius at about one mile in altitude.html> Profit <http://users.coe.virginia.42.ac. This means that water will boil at 100° Celsius near sea level.html> Projectile motion simulations <http://library. Therefore a case of cans with a radius equal to 1 inch would cost about $2.org/2779/Balloon.edu/cycling/brakes2.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Eject/eject.thinkquest. according to the equation e = 1000(100 − b)2 + 580(100 − b).edu/classes/109N/more_stuff/Applets/ProjectileMotion/ jarapplet.tec.html> The ejection seat and parabolic paths <http://daniel. and a case of cans with a radius equal to 2 inches would cost about $5. the boiling point of water in degrees Celsius. (See Surface Area. online sources for further exploration Braking and stopping distances compared with speed <http://www.45r2 .html> The way things fall <http://www-spof.uk/matacc2/ma12610/mich00b/node3.phys.imacc.html> <http://www.aber.scottsdalelaw. such as near Denver.92 QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS 0.uga.explorescience.26 to produce.html> Minimum surface area of a can <http://jwilson.com/shepston/braking.) Net of a tin can that is used to determine the amount of material needed in manufacturing production.wake. Temperature usually changes according to changes in elevation.calpoly.Surface. e. can approximate the elevation above sea level in meters.

opposite angles are congruent. The illustration shows these common kinds of quadrilaterals: • a convex quadrilateral superimposed on the wing structure of a F-117A Nighthawk. It must have all right angles and diagonals that are the same length. and length and direction of diagonals. • a square traffic sign. • a rectangular flag. Quadrilaterals can be convex or concave. As a result. convex square rectangle isosceles trapezoid kite parallelogram rhombi (diamonds) trapezoid Different types and uses of common quadrilaterals. • an isosceles trapezoid superimposed on the bottom section of the John Hancock Building in Chicago. A parallelogram that has at least one right angle is a rectangle. size of angles. The types of quadrilaterals differ in the number of pairs of parallel sides. • a city lot in the shape of a trapezoid.QUADRILATERALS QUADRILATERALS 93 Four-sided plane figures are called quadrilaterals. and opposite sides are congruent. The wing structure of the B-117A bomber is in the shape of a convex quadrilateral (white outline on the illustration below). Special types of quadrilaterals such as rectangles and squares are used for warning signs and flags. This results in the diagonals of a rhombus being perpendicular. • a kite. • parallelogram faces of a Moissanite-9R CSi crystal structure. If a parallelogram has all four sides of the same length. • diamonds (rhombi) on a playing card. The parallelogram has parallel opposite sides. then it is a rhombus. A square is simultaneously a rec- .

94 QUADRILATERALS tangle and a rhombus. When the frame is in the wall opening. Only a small section could be attached to maybe one hinge. Then the carpenter can be sure that the rectangular window will fit into the frame. Sometimes doorways are rectangular and have an arch at the top. the carpenter will use shims. they will always tessellate perfectly. It is built principally for design or historical significance and is usually more difficult and expensive to construct. An entire side of a door can be well connected to a set of hinges. . If the different angles of a quadrilateral are used around an intersection of four quadrilaterals. because less floor space would be available as compared to the flat edge of a rectangle. If the door were shaped as an oval it would be primarily for design purposes. the carpenter slides the ruler down the board and marks the 4 and 8 inch positions at the other. Floor tiles in the shape of the same quadrilateral will always fit perfectly. After marking the board at the 4 and 8 inch positions at one end. small pieces of wood. Corresponding marks are used to draw long lines down the board as guides for the saw. because the sum of any quadrilateral’s angles is 360 degrees. its diagonals are congruent and perpendicular. or at their edges. This works. because the marks at 4 and 8 inches provide vertices of a parallelogram. Doors are usually shaped like rectangles so that they can seal better at their hinge. Using an inch ruler to divide a board lengthwise into three equal sections. the same measure of degrees in a circle. Even a slight deviation may mean that a rectangular window will not fit into the frame. their interior angles must equal 360 degrees so that they fit neatly around a common center point. and all four sides are of equal length. as well as allow a person to easily walk through. walking through the doorway would be more challenging. The resulting figure is a parallelogram. to adjust the fit of the frame until the diagonals are the same length. it is likely to shear so that the angles are not 90 degrees. A four foot by six foot window frame is made by connecting four-foot pieces to the six-foot pieces so that opposite sides of the frame are equal in length. In addition. which is an architectural style seen in many cultures. There are many uses of parallelograms in carpentry. At the point where multiple tiles intersect. all of the objects must connect perfectly without any gaps or overlaps—what you would expect of tiles in a bathroom or kitchen. since the door would likely be less durable and more expensive. In order to tessellate a plane. The parallelogram frame will be rectangular only when the diagonals have the same length. A carpenter can take a 12-inch ruler and rotate it so that its opposite ends are at the edges of the lumber. Hence it has only right angles. Trisection of a long piece of lumber into thinner strips requires that guide lines be set up for the ripsaw. the carpenter measures the diagonals. affecting its ability to stay well connected to the house. Even though the corners are securely connected. To square the frame.

(See Matrices. or teeth.QUADRILATERALS 95 A pantograph is used to produce a scale drawing. A pantograph being used to magnify a picture of a dinosaur. The diagonal from the origin is the desired vector. The pantograph records the three-dimensional coordinates for the surface of the object. .) Parallelogram law for adding vectors. This corresponds to the point that would be found by the addition of coordinates: (3. The area is 24. car fenders. or carbon composite into a high-precision copy of the original object. the area of the paral3 7 lelogram illustrated above can be computed from the determinant of 3 −1 = 3(−1) − 7(3) = −24. 3) + (7. For example. The parallelogram law indicates that the resultant vector is found by completing the parallelogram defined by the vectors.) Extensions to more dimensions provide measures of strength of association of variables in multivariate statistics. (See Vectors. students around the world are expected to know formulas for the area and perimeter of most common quadrilaterals. 3) and b = (7. Pantographs that handle three dimensions are used to trace solid models of bolts. The picture below of a pantograph shows that the four pivot points that connect the pieces of wood form a parallelogram. they must also know the volume formulas for the threedimensional analogs of some quadrilaterals such as the cube and rectangular solid. Because of the many uses of quadrilaterals. The parallelogram law is used in physics to determine the net result of two forces. 2). The vectors a = (3. Milling machines use the database of coordinates to shape a block of metal.–1) = (10.–1) are shown on the figure below as arrows starting at the origin and ending at the respective coordinates. The ratio of lengths of sides controls the scale of magnification. The resultant vector c = a + b is the diagonal of the parallelogram. Formulas for the multidimensional parallelepipeds are expressed as determinants of matrices formed from the vectors. In addition. plastic.

co. where r is the rate of an object and t is the amount of time traveled.com/homeplans/index.htm> <http://www. In this case. d. . such as meters per second or miles per hour.math.org/16661/simple.non-regular.louisiana.ca/examples/ary_17_2/ary_17_2. the rate would be expressed in units related to speed.edu/ecep/math/n/n.homebuyerpubs. At work.bcit. two hundred bushels of corn are processed by the manufacturing plant each day.org/exhibits/dailymath/decorating. It can usually be identified in an expression by the word “per. Rate can also be used in contexts of production levels for a given time period.ies.com/~wingkei9/javagsp/maxarea. For instance.” Rates are commonly associated with the amount of distance traveled.jp/math/java/geo/panta/panta. html> ▲ ▼ ▲ RATES A rate describes change that is dependent on a variable.learner.” such as in “two dollars per gallon”.htm> <http://www.htm> Tessellation of quadrilaterals <http://library.thinkquest.shtml> Home decorating <http://www.netvigator. such as the change of temperature in a month or the change in price of an item based on the quantity sold.” as “one-half unit of credit earned towards graduation for each required course completed”.html> Surveying <http://www. in the equation d = rt. The concept of rate is studied throughout mathematics in different forms. or “for every.html> Floor plans <http://www.html> <http://ecep. Rate is also associated with accumulating or acquiring something.com/foorplans/floorplans. or twenty copies of the newspaper are sold each hour at the newsstand.polygons/quadrilaterals. For example. or “for each. the thunderstorm is producing rain at a rate of one inch per hour.tnloghomes.dldesigngroup. such as rainfall or a salary. an employee would use a rate to describe his hourly wage by saying that he earns $8 per hour for delivering pizzas.html> Maximize the area of a rectangular field with fixed perimeter <http://home.96 RATES online sources for future exploration Demonstration of a pantograph <http://www.com/plans.” as in “six points for every touchdown scored.of.

100 people per square mile. Rates can also be stated in terms of quantities produced or achieved. In such cases.25 cents per ounce. two hundred additional employees are needed for every 8 percent increase in demand for the company’s products. the equation m = 0. the delivery boy receives five cents for each newspaper he drops off each morning. Density is a weight-per-volume measure such as pounds per cubic foot or grams per cubic centimeter. When driving along a mountain terrain. For example. then the total amount of money. When you read about the speed of an object or a person’s work wages. In a securities exchange. because it provides the lower unit cost. in terms of the number of hours you have worked. are expressed as rates in cycles per second. if you had $4. m.10 is the rate in dollars. such as those associated with musical notes.10c would help you determine the amount of money you would need. the exchange price of Big Hit Co. States can be compared by population density: the number of people per square mile. Mexico had GNP per capita of $8. c. Suppose you wanted to make copies for a class presentation at the local copy shop. For example. In terms of temperature conversion. Since 0. Comparison shopping requires rates. such as tire pressure. the unit cost is 98/8 = 12. such as in stock or currency values. Newsome’s first-grade class receives twenty minutes of extra playtime for every one hundred behavior points earned. there is a change of 1. you make. a rate can be used to illustrate a fair trade.S. it is assumed that there will not be any change in these values. the rate can be represented as the slope of a linear function that describes a total amount. A ten-ounce can that sells for $1. In 1997. The larger can is the better deal.30 in your . in mathematics courses through algebra.110. If the machine charges 10 cents per copy. is often presented as having a constant value.7. h. Rates can also be used to describe changes in an environment or physical setting. Canada had a GNP per capita of $21. while Wyoming has 4. and always earn wages at that rate. e. today ended at $48. In addition. can be represented by the equation e = 8h. if you are earning $8 per hour for delivering pizzas.5 per share. dollar. Comparisons may be dramatic. For example. Air pressure. and human measures are rates. Rate. or the number of copies you could make with a certain amount of money.02 would have a unit cost of 102/10 = 10. Many scientific. For instance. is expressed as pounds per square inch. Notice that the hourly rate is the same as the slope of the linear function. The wealth of countries is compared as the rate of Gross National Product (GNP) per capita. then your total earnings. For example.750. engineering. Sound frequencies. you would expect to receive an exchange rate of about 9. Mrs.RATES 97 The examples described thus far represent rates as values associated with time. When traveling to Mexico. New Jersey has 1. For example. a road sign that mentions a 5 percent grade means that there is a change in elevation of five vertical feet for every one hundred horizontal feet.8° Fahrenheit for every degree Celsius.3 pesos for every U. If an eight-ounce can of corn sells for 98 cents. that you would need would depend on the number of copies.20 cents per ounce.

meaning that they change. If you leave the highway at tollbooth 17 at mile-marker 136 at 1:57 PM. A car on the highway will not always travel 55 miles per hour because of varying road conditions.10c is c = 43. Some highway systems in the United States give a timed ticket for automobiles once they enter on the toll road so that they can pay the fee at the end of their route instead of having to pay along the way. Upon exiting the highway and paying the toll. if the car varies its speed. suppose you enter tollbooth 3 at mile-marker 27 at 12:34 PM. The slope of the dotted line is the automobile’s average speed during that time period. then the total distance traveled as a function of time would be a linear function with a slope of 55. since the solution to 4. For example. If a car travels for three hours on the highway. the car will likely slow down at times. The average (mean) rate can be calculated by finding the slope between beginning and ending points on the graph that represents a total amount. According to the slope between the endpoints in the graph in the figure below. If traffic is heavy due to rush hour or an accident. the highway patrol system can determine the average speed of the vehicles during their travel by dividing the change in distance between the tollbooths and the change in time from the initial starting point to the ending point. Realistically. since the change in distance was 147 miles over three hours. if a car is traveling at a constant speed of 55 miles per hour. However. Therefore the average rate is sometimes stated in reports. as shown below. rates are often variable.30 = 0. The relationship between the distance an automobile travels compared to its time when it travels at a constant rate of 55 miles per hour. For example. the average speed can be determined by finding the slope of the line that time equals 0 and 3 hours. the average speed during the three hours is 49 miles per hour.98 RATES pocket you could make forty-three copies. the total distance function will now look like a curve that does not have a constant slope. you could actually receive a . A distance versus time graph of an automobile with varying rates during a three-hour time period.

and 49 seconds. Therefore the average speed of the car is about 79 miles per hour. This value is different from the average speed determined by the slope of a position function.33 miles per hour. If an arithmetic mean were used to determine this rate. The three times that the car was traveling at 79 miles per hour are indicated with the word “speeding. Since lap time is more easily and commonly tracked continuously throughout the race. The recorded average speed would be the average of these rates. and the change in time between 12:34 PM and 1:57 PM is 1 hour and 23 minutes. even if undetected by radar.” Note that there are many other times that the car was speeding more than 79 miles per hour. The automobile has this rate at three other locations in this interval based on the equivalent slopes of the small thick lines (at the points denoted speeding). much faster than the speed limit! The mean-value theorem in calculus implies that a car constantly in motion with this average speed will have traveled at that rate at least one time during the journey. On a racetrack. with lap times of 46. The mean value theorem from calculus only tells that there is at least one time that the car had to be going the average rate of 79 miles per hour. which is 79 miles per hour. the average lap speed is used instead of the average rate. In this case. 48.38 hours. 235 seconds. then the total distance traveled. For example. 2/47. which is the same as the total distance divided by the total time traveled. 2/46+2/48+2/47+2/45+2/49 5 = 4060879/95344200 miles per second . The dotted line represents the average rate of 79 miles per hour. ten miles. . In addition to tracking speeding drivers. the lap speeds would be 2/46.19 miles per hour. 47. The slope of the dotted line represents the average speed of the car from 12:34 PM to 1:57 PM. Sometimes average speed can use other forms of the word average. would be divided by the total time taken for five laps. suppose a race car circles a two-mile lap five times. Consequently. the average speed of semi-trucks should be lower than other automobiles to account for the rest time. 45. the change in distance between tollbooths 3 and 17 is 109 miles. which is approximately 153. and 2/49 miles per second. the time-stamping method is also helpful in determining the average speed of truck drivers. car speeds are determined by finding the average of the lap rates. or approximately 153. The graph below describes the position of the car for its time on the highway. The average rate associated with the slope on an interval is also an arithmetic mean. may be a more accurate representation of the average speed of the car. This value of 10/235 miles per second. who need to take breaks from the road so as not to fall asleep behind the wheel.RATES 99 speeding ticket without having been tracked by a radar speed-detection device! In this case. or approximately 1. 2/48. 2/45.

This function is a parabola. Hence. According to the derivative of the position function. 19. a tangent line with a slope of 70 miles per hour is drawn on the curve at 1:34 PM. the slope of the line tangent to the curve at any time. For example.100 RATES Besides finding the average rate as a means to describe varying speeds.9t2 + 400. such as distance or production levels. The slope of the tangent line will describe the speed of the car at a specific moment in time. where h is equal to 0. It will not have a constant slope. In addition to automobile travel. the motion of falling objects shows variable rates. illustrating the speed of the car at that moment. a derivative is the slope of a line tangent to a curve at a particular point. According to the position function. can be described as a function. then the rate at any moment can be determined by finding the derivative of that function.9t2 + 400. Instead of finding the slope at the endpoints of an interval. they may become less productive again due to fatigue or boredom. the workers may be less productive in the early morning because they are tired. can be predicted by the derivative of this function. it is possible to determine the instantaneous rate of an object using differential calculus. and t is the time in seconds the penny is airborne. If a total amount. In a factory. and then reach an optimal work rate later in the morning when they are more awake. The slope of the dotted line that is tangent to the curve is the automobile’s instantaneous speed of 70 miles per hour at 1:34 PM. or the instantaneous rate. where h is the height of the penny above the ground in meters.6 meters per second after two seconds. and so on.8(9) = –88. fast enough to fall straight through a person’s body. which is h′ = –9.8 meters per second after one second. the penny will reach the ground at approximately t = 9 seconds.2 meters per second. you are not likely to be permitted to drop objects from tall buildings! Human workforce productivity can have varying rates.8 meters per second squared. which means that the penny will not fall at the same rate towards the ground. the velocity of the penny by the time it hit the ground would be h′ = –9. Knowing the change in work rates would provide information to make smart decisions .8t. Since the earth pulls objects at a rate of 9. This means that the penny will be falling at a rate of 9. However. Later in the afternoon. falling objects are constantly accelerating. in the above figure. h = –4. The position of a penny dropped off of a 400-meter-tall skyscraper can be represented by the function h = –4. Understanding the varying working rates of employees may help management determine an optimal time to take a break or to change work shifts.

suppose the price per cup of lemonade. An ideal production level would be to determine the moment when the change of profit. because the company would lose money on excess inventory.mil/MathDept/cdp/relatedrates/rates.nadn. or the rate at which profit is changed. The graph of the profit function is a parabola.01n.00.navy.14n + 12. Notice that the maximum profit of the function occurs when ninety-three cups are sold—the moment when the rate of profit is equal to zero or where the slope of tangent line equals zero.edu/education/DMP/activities/fair_division/> . r.01n2 . The revenue. the company would like to produce the appropriate amount of products in order to meet consumer demand. for the company to make lemonade can be represented by the equation c = 0. the profit from a business is often dependent on the number of products sold.00n − 0. According to supply-and-demand principles. The cost to make the lemonade depends on start-up expenses and the quantity of lemonade sold. The profit.00 if none were sold. because the graph is nonlinear. obtained for selling lemonade would be the product of the price per cup and the number of cups purchased.00. depended on the number of cups.00) = –0. then the cost.86n − 12. but the price will decline by one penny for every cup sold.14n + 12.01n)n = 2. begins to level off to zero.00 to set up and each cup costs $0. l. obtained by selling lemonade is the difference between the revenue and costs. In consumer sales.00 − 0. p.html> Fair division activities <http://www. n.00n − 0. which is p = r − c = (2. as well as to support the economic benefits of the company.14 to produce. but not end up with a surplus in inventory.01n2 + 1.RATES 101 on behalf of the safety of the employees. Therefore the total revenue would be equivalent to r = lc = (2. as shown in the figure below. If the lemonade stand costs $12.colorado. online sources for further exploration Designing a speedometer <http://barzilai. This equation suggests that the price of a cup of lemonade would be $2. If too many goods are produced the rate of profit declines. For example. c. A maximum value of a quadratic function can be found by locating the horizontal tangent line. purchased according to the equation l = 2. illustrating that the rate of profit changes.00 − 0.01n2 ) − (0.org/archive/lc/speedometer.html> Distance between two ships <http://www.

html> <http://webphysics.us/3025.ca/examples/ary_8_3/ary_8_3. Some examples of ratios that are given here are really rates.asp> Slope use permit <http://www.economagic. A ratio does not have any units of measurement. the . The costs are usually expressed as a multiple of 100. In 2001. so that the number represents the current cost of purchasing goods and services that would have cost $100 during 1982–1984.math.ci.bcit. the ratio of circumference of a circle to the diameter.html> Stressed out: slope as a rate of change <http://math.bcit. The federal government maintains the Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Cost of Living Index (COL). One of the most famous ratios in mathematics is π ≈ 3.net/past/march00/qa.exe/fedstl/gnp+1> Motion <http://www. A ratio is different from a rate.math.com/currencyframe.edu/jc/library/2-6/index.mste. in that the units for the numerator and denominator in a ratio are the same.edu/murphy/MovingMan/MovingMan.html> Motion of a piston <http://www. There are many statistics dealing with money that are ratios.wildnetafrica.bcit.msstate.rice.uiuc.ca/examples/ary_16_5/ary_16_5.html> Universal currency converter <http://www. unlike rates that have units such as miles per hour or dollars per pound.htm> Occupational health and safety <http://www. but it is common practice in particular occupations and sciences to call them ratios.edu/~lanius/Algebra/stress.htm> Pipe flow <http://www.htm> Roofing <http://www.larkspur.math.x-rates.ca/examples/ary_12_1/ary_12_1.com/em-cgi/data.html> Exchange rates for world currencies <http://www. The CPI is the ratio of costs of common items in the current year to the costs of the same items during 1982–1984.xe.14159.net/ucc/> <http://www.102 RATIO Gross national product data <http://www.ph.ca.com/> ▲ ▼ ▲ RATIO A ratio is a quotient of two numbers.professionalroofing.

while a human does quite well with three meals per day. if any at all. and for Houston. so the mouse has to eat almost all day long to maintain its body heat.000 on an income of $20.8. BMI values from 20 to 25 are associated with the lowest health risks. Most stocks traded on the major exchanges have P/E ratios between 15 and 25. Stockbrokers use the price-earnings ratio (P/E) as a way of evaluating stocks.) A mouse has a surface-area-to-body ratio that is about ten times that of a human. The COL is expressed as a percent. 95.77 times as high as the costs for the same items during 1982–1984. The modern musical scale is based on a consistent ratio of frequencies from note to next note for the twelve notes of an octave. If a taxpayer pays $3. Middle C-sharp (275 cycles . Weight carried around the middle (higher ratio) is associated with more health problems. Therefore the percentile rank is a ratio of counts of students. the units are not reported and are not used in computations of other health measures. you express the change as a percent per year.8. It reflects the ratio of costs of goods and services in a specific area to the average for the country as a whole. Test scores are often reported as percentile ranks. Body mass index (BMI) is the quotient of your weight in kilograms divided by your squared height. If a company has stock valued at $40 per share. the percent increase is the ratio of absolute change to starting value. When you specify how long it took for this increase.RATIO 103 CPI was 177.8 percent of the national average to live in Houston. If an investment of $500 is now worth $550. or interest rate. Although this measure is a rate (kilograms/m2 ). The ratio of an animal’s surface area to its volume measures how much energy the animal has to produce to counter the heat lost through the skin. the COL for San Francisco was 179.S. and has earned a net of $2 per share over the last year. At the beginning of 2001. but 95. then the tax ratio is 3000/20000 = 15 percent. This ratio is defined as the market value per share divided by the earnings per share.000. A student with a percentile rank of 60 on a college placement test achieved a score that was equal to or higher than the scores of 60 percent of the students taking the test. average to live in San Francisco. The P/E ratio is only one of many ratios routinely reported for stocks. Percents are based on ratios. then its P/E ratio is reported as 0. Riskier stocks that have potential for rapid growth are likely to have P/E ratios above 25. people invest their money in companies that they think will have low P/E ratios or a high demand in the future.) In these circumstances. Many ratios developed for human physiology are applied to other animals. This means that the ratio of costs for goods and services in 2000 was 1. or 50/500 = 10 percent. the P/E ratio for the company would be $40/$2 = 20. The COL is computed for almost two hundred metropolitan areas. values above 30 are associated with the highest. Weightto-hip ratio (WHR) is a true ratio that indicates whether an adult carries weight around the waist or hips.798 times the U. Those ratios mean that it costs 1. where height is measured in meters. (If a company has not produced any earnings. (See Inverse (Multiplicative) for an additional explanation. The federal government refers to this as a tax rate.

A fertilizer that is labeled as 25-5-5 represents the percents of nitrogen.5). (See Fibonacci Sequence for more information about applications of the golden ratio. Gear ratios tell how rotational motion changes when you connect gears with different numbers of teeth. Windup and pendulum clocks use gears. and one part perlite for the soil mixture in a window box. When a gardening expert recommends two parts of sand. The gear ratio can be used to compute how many times the larger gear will rotate compared to the smaller gear. Pythagoras (as later corrected by Galileo) tried to identify simple integer ratios for what would correspond to the white keys of a piano. and a quarter note (1/4) 4 receives one beat. The ancient Greeks believed that this rectangle embodied the most satisfying proportions.) The golden ratio or golden section is based on a rectangle that can be split into a square and a smaller rectangle that is similar to√ original rectangle. The the 1+ 5 ratio of length to width of the original rectangle is 2 ≈ 1. In aviation. A wedding punch is two parts orange juice. and potassium. They represent beat patterns for the measure.059 times middle C (260 cps). Almost all mechanical objects in your house use gears. (See Proportions and Similarity for additional applications of ratios in this form.61803. The golden ratio expresses many patterns in plant and animal structures. A fertilizer with a lower ratio of nitrogen like 10-2020 would be good for a garden. Directions for recipes and household products are often given in ratios of parts.) Ratios that express mixtures are often written with a colon. Bicycles use gears. two parts lemonade. which is twice the frequency of middle C. five parts of potting soil. (See Rotations for additional information about gears.104 RATIO per second [cps]) is about 1. a plane pushes air aside like a boat traveling through . When a small gear with forty-seven 47 teeth connects with a larger gear with seventy teeth. D (292 cps) is about 1. Some sociologists have argued that people who have certain facial features close to the golden ratio are judged by others as being more beautiful or handsome.) Measures in science and engineering that produce extremely large numbers are simplified by ratio measures. The high ratio of nitrogen to the other substances means that this fertilizer is probably for the quick development of lawns. and one part grapefruit juice. The notation 3 means that there are three beats per measure.059 times C-sharp. which need nitrogen. phosphate. the Mach number indicates the ratio of the plane’s speed to the speed of sound. The Pythagorean scale uses 9/8 for the ratio that would compute D from middle C (9/8 of 260 = 292. Below the speed of sound. This sets the ratio of note values to measures for the piece of music. Mach 1 is a critical value for airplanes. the gear ratio is 60 . This sequence continues to high C (520 cps). A videotape machine uses gears to control tape motion. The Parthenon in Athens fits the golden ratio. the ratios can be written in one expression as 2:5:1. Time signatures found at the beginning of a piece of music look like fractions without the fraction bar. one part pineapple juice. The juices are in ratio of 2:2:1:1.

and hence his weight.46 × 1017 cm).000 light years in diameter. and about 664 miles per hour at 35. A jet traveling at 1. By measuring angles and shorter distances. If k is the ratio of a length in the object to the corresponding length in the model. (See Triangle Trigonometry for an explanation. astronomers use ratio measures based on light years.440 pounds—which couldn’t be supported by human bone structures. It is about 762 miles per hour at sea level. 180-pound human were to double in size so that his relative proportions were maintained. the airwaves can’t move out of the way of the plane. One light year is the distance traveled by light in one year (about 9. would be eight times as much. The build up at the front of the plane causes a shock wave that creates stress on the plane and is often audible to people on the ground as a “sonic boom. An 8.) .000 feet above sea level would be traveling at 1400/664 ≈ Mach 2. This law explains the limits on human and animal growth.960. but his volume. such as the mass of a dinosaur. The giant’s weight would be 1.000 kilometers.1. he would be twelve feet tall. toasters. k2 is the ratio of surface areas.” The speed of sound varies according to temperature and other factors. scale models that are larger than real life are important in many fields.) Scale models use ratios to indicate how the lengths of an object compare to corresponding measures in the model.000. Its speed was 763 miles per hour.64-inch model of an 18-foot-long automobile (216 inches) would be at the scale of 1:25. It would be 1/29th of the size of a real train. Manufacturers of computer chips make scale drawings much larger than the actual chip to show the packed circuitry. (See Similarity. Trigonometric ratios are used to find unusual or inaccessible heights and lengths. The fundamental law of similarity uses scaling to indicate how surface area and volume of the model relate to the actual object. an engineer can calculate the height of skyscrapers by creating diagrams with right triangles and using these ratios.) Although the design of buildings. and k3 is the ratio of volumes. A 1:29 scale-model train would be large enough for children to ride outdoors on top of the cars.02 on the Bonneville Salt Flats on a day when the speed of sound was 748 mph. kiloparsecs (1. about 14. An AU of 1 represents the average distance of the earth to the sun. If a six-foot-tall. Medical researchers make large-scale models of viruses and cell structures to determine how shapes affect resistance to disease.RATIO 105 water. and megaparsecs (1 million parsec) are used to measure distances across many galaxies. Scale models can also help provide information to calculate unknown information. Astronomers measure solar-system distances with a ratio measure called an astronomical unit (AU). (See Proportions for an alternate explanation. Our galaxy is about 100.400 miles per hour 35.26 light years). Parsecs (3. A jet-propelled wheeled vehicle achieved Mach 1. cars. For even larger distances than the solar system (which is about 80 AU in diameter).000 feet. An HO-gauge tabletop train is at a scale of about 1:87.000 parsecs). and furniture may involve drawings and models that are smaller than the final version. But when the plane hits the speed of sound.

htm> The P/E ratio and other stock ratios are discussed at the Motley Fool page <http://www.htm> <http://www.phy-astr.com/School/EarningsBasedValuations.106 RATIO online sources for further exploration Consumer price index (CPI) <http://stats.html> How to compute baseball standings <http://www.gsu.30f.jsc.pbs.com/~jbarrm/cycal/cycal.fool.bls.edu/~doug/hwp.bced.html> Scale models <http://www.com/ratio.com/activities/activity_page.faa.html> Cooking by numbers <http://www.html> FAA instructions on making a scale drawing of an F-16 <http://www.premierstudios.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/baseball.cfm?activityID=29> <http://www.bc.nasa.ca/careers/aa/lessons/aom15.com/sscale.htm> Compute gear ratios for a bicycle <http://home.edu/hbase/music/pythag.html> Density lab <http://www.30f.net/~dwolfe/gerz/howto1.gov/qfd/> Body-mass calculator <http://cc.math.html> Tuning in <http://www.gov/education/resource/f16draw.gov.html> <http://www.html> Screen ratios <http://www.html> U.com/~jbarrm/cycal/cycal.toronto.gov/bu2/inflateCPI.panix.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ .htm> Musical scales <http://hyperphysics.americanmodels.learner.i1.html> <http://www. S. Census Bureau QuickFacts on States (Rates and Ratios) <http://quickfacts.cgi> <http://www.org/exhibits/dailymath/cooking.explorescience.gov/cpihome.gov/education/resource/f16draw.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model.panix.ysu.faa.census.

ac. the tiny objects inside it move around and consequently change the symmetrical pattern one sees when looking through the cylinder. Photo by Dror Bar-Natan.html>. making it difficult to determine the correct pathway to the exit. The reflection is so good that when you turn the picture upside down. sunny day. Many restaurants have large mirrors on one wall so that the room will appear twice as large. then there will be 360 repetitions of the object caused by reflections. Source: Adobe Stock Photos. Your size in the mirror will be the same as your actual size. Reflections of objects are naturally visible in water. . The reflections at the base repeat themselves as a function of the angle n between the mirrors. In an amusement park. Each time the n kaleidoscope rotates. Reflections are sometimes used to create illusions or expand the size of an object. a house of mirrors creates multiple images of anyone walking through. Boats and buildings reflected in a canal in Holland. So if your hair is parted to the left. A kaleidoscope uses mirrors to produce multiple reflections and create colorful patterns. it will appear to be parted to the right in a reflection. If you walk up to a pond on a still. For example. In the picture below.il/~drorbn/Gallery/Symmetry /Tilings/S333/Kaleidoscope. online at <http:// www.REFLECTIONS REFLECTIONS 107 A reflection is a transformation that produces an image of equal size by flipping an object over a line. allowing someone such as a hair stylist to show you the back of your head after a haircut while you look straight ahead. Since there are 360 degrees in a circle. Using two mirrors can create double reflections. you will see an image of yourself on the surface of the water. it looks almost the same. A kaleidoscope is a cylindrical toy that creates colorful patterns by using tiny objects situated at its base and in between two intersecting mirrors. you will see a reflection of yourself when you look in the mirror. Another example of using reflections to replicate an object is to create designs with a kaleidoscope.ma. buildings and boats on a Holland canal are reflected in the surface of the canal.huji. but all of your features will be reversed.

certain sections of the concert hall would not receive adequate sound. One of the reasons that a diamond is precious is its ability to bend light so that it stays inside the gem longer.) Knowing this theorem can help you become skilled at various games that use reflections. Therefore an easier way to utilize the reflection is to predict the location on the wall where the angle of incidence will equal the angle of reflection. however. it gives light an opportunity to reflect many times once it is captured inside. the player is usually at an advantage if he or she can find ways to maneuver the ball by bouncing it off of a wall.108 REFLECTIONS Reflections can be used to trap light in an object. dissipate. Another way. is the angle at which a beam of light touches a wall. Light rays reflect from walls at congruent angles. They are angled and curved in order to reflect sound waves so that everyone in the theater can hear the performance. thus making it sparkle. which increase the volume of microphones and electric guitars at rock concerts. creating multiple beams throughout that room. . β. and the angle of reflection. The angle of incidence. notice the special plates built in or attached to the ceiling. (See Inverse Square Function. has the same measure as the angle of reflection. is to aim the remote at a reflection of the sensor. Many motion-based security systems operate in a similar fashion. For example. similar to directing a remote control. Sound waves reflect in a theater to amplify music. (See Angle for more explanation. If you aim the remote at the reflection of the sensor. α. Without this special attention to reflecting sound waves. Prior to electronic amplifiers. If the beam of light does not pass through the material. In both of these activities. such as billiards and miniature golf. the light beam will bounce off of the wall and land directly on the sensor. The angle of incidence. When a gem such as a diamond is cut into the shape of a polyhedron. β. An invisible beam reflects off of all walls in a room. Next time you watch a performance or a symphony in an indoor theater. special attention was paid to acoustical architecture in concert halls. Imagine that one of the walls in your home was a reflecting mirror. One way is to aim the remote so that its ray will land directly on the sensor on the television set. α. then the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. The alarm system is signaled if the beam at any point in the room is disturbed. In order to accurately place a ball on a target or in a hole. or create destructive interference patterns. is the angle at which the beam leaves the wall. the player needs to aim the ball towards the reflection of the hole. and determine the location of the television sensor behind the wall. because the sound would either be absorbed by a surface. there are several ways that you can change your television station using a remote control.) Reflections are also used in remote sensors to detect a signal.

it may be difficult to predict where the ball will eventually land after it has been struck. he or she will need to locate the reflection of the hole on the back wall. A strategy to obtain a hole-in-one on a miniature golf course that uses reflections for a ball to hit two walls. Instead. the player imagines hitting two walls. because the point of contact with your line of sight and the mirror is at the midpoint of your body. In such a fast game. However. the reflection of light from your eye level to your waistline will angle down towards your toes (see the following figure). in situations where a ball needs to bounce off two walls. The process can get even more complicated with more reflections. The player then aims towards the side wall at the double reflection of the hole. The same relationships regarding reflections exist in these circumstances. because the ball will be blocked by the left wall. suppose the player realizes that he or she cannot get a hole-inone by hitting just one wall. however. The relationship between the angle of incidence and angle of reflection also informs product designers that full-length mirrors should only be one-half a person’s height. For example. but the player will need to focus on reflections of reflections in order to utilize multiple walls in the attempt. and then land in the hole. a general knowledge of reflections can give a player a sense of what direction the ball will head once it hits the first wall. and then the location of the reflection of the reflection. H ′ .REFLECTIONS 109 Using reflections in games becomes more complicated. In this type of mirror. where the angle of incidence is congruent . and the ball should follow a path towards the first reflection by hitting the back wall. as indicated in the above figure. H ′′ . as shown below. In order to sink the shot. such as what takes place in games like racketball. the side wall first and then the back wall. A failed attempt to obtain a hole-inone on a miniature golf course using reflections. H ′′ . This relationship is true.

This would be merely a chemical curiosity were it not that the reflection images of molecules in medications can produce catastrophically different results. the ship will still be traveling along a line. Even though the ship will not use a reflection. leaving only the beneficial mirror images. The ship will be most fuel efficient if it angles its navigation towards the shore to refuel. Unfortunately. which is the shortest path between two points. Suppose a cruise liner was departing a port and headed towards a series of remote islands. The mirror image of the L-dopa molecule. The drug L-dopa counteracts symptoms of Parkinson’s disease such as tremors and muscle rigidity. mirror images of each other. Along the way.110 REFLECTIONS to the angle of reflection. caused limb deformities in thousands of infants before its effects were recognized. moving along this path allows it to travel the smallest distance. as shown in the figure below. looking at the bottom of a mirror that is half your size will allow you to look directly at your feet. the mirror image of the good molecule. A reflection of the final destination is used to determine the shortest path for a ship when a fuel stop is needed on a journey. The . the drug thalidomide was given to pregnant women to reduce nausea. This path will be equivalent in distance to a direct route between the starting point and destination. The concepts behind reflections can also be used to optimize fuel consumption in water travel. A mirror needs to be only one-half your height in order to see your entire body. because the ship will be directed towards the reflection of the destination. the other form of thalidomide. The production of thalidomide and L-dopa produces both forms in equal amounts. During the 1960s. One of the forms of the thalidomide molecule worked well for that task. is toxic. D-dopa. A significant task for scientists was to determine how to remove the toxic form of the molecules from medications. it may need to refuel near a mainland to ensure that it can travel the entire distance. Most molecules come in two forms. so that its angle of incidence is equal to its angle of reflection. Since reflections preserve congruence. That way.

which is 120 degrees.il.html> <http://www.ROTATIONS 111 2001 Nobel prize in chemistry was awarded to scientists who developed catalysts that would determine the twists in the molecules and either remove the malignant forms or change their orientation to the beneficial version.com/tn6.ucs. For example.edu/primer/lightandcolor/reflection.newtrier.magnet.ca/~mathed/Geometry/Transformations/frieze.html> Total internal reflection <http://www.il.com/pr/minitext/escher/> Measurement microphones <http://www. in a tiling pattern.sciencejoywagon.mathacademy.html> Diamond design <http://www.glenbrook.ulg.enviroscan.k12.edu/chaos/home.html> Reflectors <http://nths. C. htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ ROTATIONS Rotations allow the same object to reappear along a circular path.html> Seismic reflection <http://www. Rotations are used in circular motion.com/techapps/22.us/gbssci/phys/Class/refrn/u14l3c.brynmawr.fsu.ru/cut/english/tolkow/_tolk1. or fit neatly into each others’ grooves.gemology. such as the rotation of a wheel caused . htm> Road coatings <http://www.us/academics/math/Connections/reflection/REFLECT. the angle of rotation must be one-third of the degree measure of a circle. as shown in the following figure.html> Mathematical art of M. online sources for further exploration The billiards simulation <http://serendip.be/services/acous/eclair/reflecten. Since there are three congruent lizards in a circle centered around the intersection of the lizard’s knees.mun.k12.sciencejoywagon. lizards can be rotated so that they tessellate. Escher <http://www.com/physicszone/lesson/09waves/totint/> <http://www.htm> Frieze patterns <http://www.com/physicszone/lesson/09waves/totint/internal.montefiore.ac.josephson.txt> Reflection of light <http://micro.

By shifting the chain to a higher gear with a greater radius when the bicycle increases speed. If his or her arm radius decreases so that the arms are closer to the body. a bicycle uses gears to change the amount of force needed to move the pedals. The rotation of the wheels and the friction between the wheels and the road enable a car to move forward. making it easier to maintain a higher speed. skaters can slow down their spinning motion by spreading their arms out from their bodies. In this situation. skaters will spin faster when they move their arms closer to their bodies.112 ROTATIONS by movement in the axle of a car. Gears with a smaller radius require less force. Tessellation of lizard tiles based on rotations for an outdoor patio. Rotational motion with ice skaters changes. the object has to travel a further distance around a circle than an object closer to the center. but also during the same time period. Angular momentum is determined by the product of the radius of the arm length and the skater’s angular velocity. When the person on the bicycle slows down. his or her angular velocity will increase. the gears rotate more quickly. the gears should be shifted down to a smaller radius so that pedaling becomes easier. Several amusement-park rides rotate to create a spinning effect. its teeth grab onto the chain and move it forward in order to spin the wheels on the bicycle. Conversely. making it more difficult to pedal in lower gears.963 miles. The gears of a bicycle rotate and latch onto the chain to help propel the bicycle forward when force is applied to the pedals. since the chain has a greater distance to move. For example. Circular gears with wedges help support rotation in engines and machines. the pedals will slow down. The radius of the earth is 3. since the chains move a smaller distance. As the bicycle builds speed. Therefore every object at the equator is moving at a . As the gear rotates. As a result. because angular momentum is conserved. An object will feel like it is moving more quickly around a circle if it sits further away from its center of rotation. The earth rotates around an axis that passes through the two poles.

Then this person will only be moving half as fast around the earth.ROTATIONS 113 rate of approximately 1.S.com/pr/minitext/escher/> Relative motion—rotation and the motion of the moon <http://www.html> Image rotation <http://www. online sources for further exploration Applications of rotations <http://www.ece. The angular rate of objects in circular motion is the circular distance divided by the time to travel that distance.spacesciencegroup. A person is half as far from the earth’s axis of rotation when he or she is standing at 60° latitude because cos 60° = 1/2.exploratorium. C.963) miles in twenty-four hours.edu/cycling/gears3. Also. If a person is standing away from the equator. the earth’s rotation will be more supportive at that location by giving it almost the best possible additional speed as it leaves the earth’s atmosphere.html> <http://www.037 miles per hour. Relative distance away from the earth’s axis of rotation based on latitudinal position.mathacademy. Rocket launches take advantage of the earth’s rotational velocity.nsula.htm> .html> Rotations on a sphere <http://www. For example. Since it is farther from the earth’s axis of rotation than many other U. Escher <http://www.edu/cycling/gears1. then he or she will only be half as far from the earth’s axis of rotation.uwgb. if a person is standing at 60°N latitude. The launched aircraft takes off towards the east—the same direction as the rotation of the earth—giving it an extra boost once it is airborne. because these objects travel 2π(3.html> Mathematical art of M. You feel differences in motion when something else is moving faster or slower than your motion. then his or her angular rate is 2π•3963•cos θ .edu/sotw/newlessons/application.edu/research/pica/simpil/applications/rotation. launches in the United States are at Cape Canaveral.org/vol1-2/modules/macmatc4/moon. cities.gatech. which is closer to the equator than most other cities in the country.edu/dutchs/mathalgo/sphere0. People actually do not feel like they are moving faster at different parts of the world because everything else is moving at the same rate. where θ 24 is the latitudinal angle of the city.asp?Theme= astronomy&PageName=rotation> Bicycle gears <http://www.joma. because cos 60° is one-half.exploratorium. Florida.

32. 1. Standard f-stops on cameras permit the photographer to select how much light passes through the lens. where consecutive terms have a constant ratio.80)n−1 .25. –2. 3. 2. Sequences exist in applications that have discrete and predictable patterns. 1.80.6.htm> X-ray diffractometry <http://www. 5. .8. 16. For example. Notice that the car loses its greatest amount of value during the first year. 2. 8. music notes. and $12. A geometric sequence with an initial value equal to 4 and constant ratio of –0. . –0. g1 is the initial value of the car during the first year. 13. Another type of sequence based on a constant difference between terms is called an arithmetic sequence. In this case. such as the value of an automobile. . . .114 SEQUENCES Satellite reception <http://repairfaq. . 3.) A different pattern occurs in the terms in a geometric sequence. .800 the year after that.com/XRAYwebsite. a car’s yearly prices can be determined using a geometric sequence. 1.upenn. Since the depreciation is fairly constant for a particular model.5. depreciation rate. 2. An arithmetic sequence with an initial value equal to 4 and a constant difference of –0.5 would be 4. 2. 0. or using the explicit formula for a geometric sequence.000 the next year. is determined by the sum of every two previous consecutive integers in its sequence and has many real-world applications. The sequence is 1. The consecutive f-stops are in geometric sequence with the √ common ratio 2. 21. The constant ratio in this case is 0. camera aperture. the explicit equation for the sequence is gn = 20. These values can be determined by multiplying each successive term by 0. Each of the f-stop numbers on a standard lens represents half the light of the number before it. 4. the Fibonacci sequence in the form 1.000 new that depreciates 20 percent each year will be worth $16. 11. 2.4.optra.5. 8. . 3. Automobile value is based on its original price. gn = g1 rn−1 .edu/sam/icets/satellte.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ SEQUENCES Sequences are sets of numbers that often share a recursive or explicit relationship.80. or predicting the timing of an eruption. since the car maintains 80 percent of its value after each year.cis.5. (See Fibonacci Sequence for several examples. 5. since a percentage of the total value is reduced from the original price. The table on the next page represents a sample blue-book listing of the value of a vehicle for different years based on this equation. . and r is the constant ratio. 22.5 would be 4. 000(0. . A car selling for $20. where gn is the value of the car after the nth year. and age.

88 4194. The twelve tones in an octave form a geometric sequence so that the end of an octave has a frequency twice that of its low tone.35 The estimated values of an automobile with a new price of $20.00 16. Source: National Park Service photograph.30 3355. The multiplication of frequencies is a constant ratio across the octave.00 12. This pattern continues based on a constant difference of Old Faithful is a popular attraction at Yellowstone National Park. If an eruption lasts two minutes.44 2684. will be 440 •1. B-flat.00 6553. When tourists visit Old Faithful.000. they will see a sign that indicates an estimated time that the geyser will next erupt. the next key. then the next eruption will occur in approximately forty-six minutes (plus or minus ten minutes).00 10. . The time between eruptions is based on the length of the previous eruption.00 8192.800.000 and depreciating 20 percent each year. High C (512 cps) is twice middle C (256 cps). Instead. because the geyser produces long eruptions that are fairly predictable.SEQUENCES 115 nth year value ($) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20.60 5242. or about 1. No one controls the geyser like an amusement park ride. (See Ratio. its patterns over time have caused park rangers to develop predictable eruption times using an arithmetic sequence.059.059 ≈ 466 cps. then the next eruption will occur in approximately fifty-eight minutes. because it is a very large geyser and quite predictable.) Old Faithful is a popular attraction at Yellowstone National Park.000.240. so each multiplication must be the twelfth root of 2. If an eruption lasts one minute. So if A is 440 cps.

An eruption of n minutes will indicate that the next eruption.116 SEQUENCES twelve minutes.kbb. . electricity.mathematik. then a string a half meter long will sound a middle C. .edu/~eppstein/gina/align.kc. 70.html> Biological sequence alignment <http://www. forming an arithmetic sequence of 46.dll/kw.html> Used car prices <http://www. In this particular situation.gov/collab/> Intensity.1409&> ▲ ▼ ▲ . 1 . high C. you will hear the four other tones. 94. an .midicode. 82.bz?kbb&&688&zip_ucr. if the previous eruption was n minutes long. and d is the constant difference of waiting time among eruptions that are a oneminute difference in time.com/used/> <http://www. Any sequence that is formed from reciprocals of terms of an arithmetic sequence is called harmonic.edu/area-ai. a one-third meter string would give middle G. If the string for low C is one meter long. exposure.edu/frankw/ccp/modeling/discrete/linear/learn. 1 .demon.shtml> Predicting Old Faithful <http://www.tromba. .nlm. .uk/scales. online sources for further exploration A demonstration that the harmonic series doesn’t converge <http://www.montana.com/kb/ki. where a1 is the length after a one-minute eruption. which is called a harmonic 2 3 4 5 sequence.edmunds.uci.edu/arch569/content/lectures/lec-03/> Iteration and recursion activities <http://www. high C would be one-fourth meter. 58. 1 .ics.html> DNA sequence database <http://www. and high E. . the next eruption will occur in an = 46 + (n − 1)12 minutes. and time in photography <http://www.html> <http://www.com/Harmonic/> Artificial intelligence <http://www.wustl. middle G.cs.nih.org/expeditions/jason8/yellowstone/oldfait1. Harmonic sequences are important in the study of magnetism.virginia. Cosmologists studying the origins of the universe look for harmonic patterns in microwave traces received from space.ncbi. Harmonious chords produce another type of sequence. If you depress piano keys for middle C. and high E would be one-fifth meter.edu/education/DMP/activities/iteration_recursion/> Linear models <http://www. and the design of electric motors.arch.htm> Musical scales <http://www.math. 1 .jason. will occur in an = a1 + (n − 1)d minutes. then play low C. The list of overtones is the sequence 1.colorado.co. .com/tunings/greek.

a 200 mg pill each day is far too large a dose to maintain a 200 mg level in the bloodstream. A pharmacist can model this situation by using a spreadsheet or table of values. That leaves the drug effectiveness at 60 percent of what it was twenty-four hours earlier.000 235. so the doctor needs to determine an ideal dosage that will allow only 200 mg to remain in the bloodstream at any given time.672 286. One way to determine the total amount of a drug that will eventually end up in the bloodstream is to take the initial amount and add the amount that remains from yesterday. Surprisingly.120 276. Therefore the doctor has the patient take a pill each day. In other words. and then adding that value to the amount at the beginning of the next day.120 476. only 120 mg will remain. Some illnesses. If the doctor prescribes 200 mg each day.000 192. At the end of one day. If the amount of drug that remains in the bloodstream is a predictable pattern each day. This overdose can potentially be very harmful for the patient.672 120. and so on. then an equation can be used to compare dosages and accumulating amounts in the bloodstream. making sure that the amount in the bloodstream at the end of the day is 60 percent the amount at the beginning of the day. making the total amount 320 mg. The following table illustrates how much of the drug would remain in the bloodstream during the first twenty days if 200 mg were taken each day.200 461.000 320. Suppose that the kidneys remove 40 percent of the drug each day.000 392. can be treated with regular medication. Suppose a doctor knows that 200 mg of a drug is the amount of medication needed to maintain the patient’s health. the patient will have 200 mg in the bloodstream on the first day. from two days ago. three days ago. amounts of the drug are removed as the blood is cleaned by the kidneys. because the total amount of drug accumulates in the bloodstream each day.SERIES SERIES 117 Many applications that are based on the sum of predictable discrete patterns can be examined with series.200 261. the sum of the remaining amounts of the drug in the bloodstream is added to a new amount everyday. For example. Prescriptions are based on a mathematical series. such as high blood pressure or thyroid deficiency. days start of day end of day 1 2 3 4 5 6 200. Notice that eventually the amount of drug in the bloodstream will level off near 500 mg after about ten days.003 . but another 200 mg will be added.000 435. because he or she knows that the patient’s bloodstream will be able to maintain a certain level of the medication over time. Because most drugs circulate in the bloodstream. a doctor may prescribe an amount of medication to take each day.

982 299.739 119.669 114.949 299.977 498.984 118.765 299.859 499.000 156.915 299.186 298. as shown below.791 119.274 119.982 291.565 199.565 119.843 .800 174.602 294.961 496.989 The amount of drug (in milligrams) in a person’s bloodstream when 60 percent remains from the previous day and an additional 200 mg are added each day.602 494.669 194.000 128.448 190.791 199.765 499.000 76.949 499.859 299.641 117.118 days SERIES start of day end of day 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 486.641 197.984 198.608 299.912 499.608 499.274 199.739 48.401 196. A pharmacist can modify this initial amount on the first day and observe changes in the limit of this sum to determine that 80 mg is an appropriate daily dosage to maintain 200 mg in the bloodstream over time. days start of day end of day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 80.970 299.448 110.186 498.970 499.977 298.961 296.800 94.080 184.402 116.080 104.912 299.003 491.915 499.347 299.347 499.

This means that the forest ranger wants to maintain 99.00625.60. If 500 new trees are planted each year.980 199. you will get g1 200 = 1−0. .988 199.000 trees in the forest. pharmacists need to examine situations in which the drug is taken indefinitely. . In this case.988 119. n The sum. forest rangers plant seeds for new trees to account for those chopped down and lost to forest fires.60)3 + 80(0. Suppose a fire destroys 35 percent of the trees in the forest.980 119. s.906 119.SERIES 119 end of day days start of day 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 199. r is 60 percent or 0. This situation is an example of a geometric series.996 The amount of drug (in milligrams) in a person’s bloodstream when 60 percent remains from the previous day and an additional 80 mg are added each day. Each year. Suppose the ranger wants to know what proportion of trees they can afford to lose or remove each year if they plant 500 new trees and want to consistently maintain 80.993 119.000 trees. Geometric series are also used to predict the amount of lumber that can be cut down each year in a forest to ensure that the number of trees remain at a stable level. Since the number of days that the drug is taken is unknown.906 199.375 percent of the trees each year. an interesting phenomenon is to notice that the forest can recover from a disaster such as a fire in a reasonably short period of time.60)1 + 80(0. r is the constant ratio. since the amount remaining in the bloodstream is affected by a constant ratio of 60 percent.60 .60) 2 + 80(0. and g1 is unknown.966 119. Thus the doctor needs to make prescriptions of 80 mg each day in order to maintain the desired dosage of 200 mg. Substituting the values into the equation. After subg1 stituting s and g1 in the formula s = 1−r .60)4 + . s.625 percent of the total number of . the unknown value for r is 0. where g1 is the 1−r initial dosage. can be determined by the equation s = g1 (1−r ) . leaving 52. and 0. and a solution of g1 = 80 mg. Therefore the n g1 g1 lim sum of an infinite geometric series is s = 1−r because n→∞ g1 (1−r ) = 1−r 1−r when |r| < 1.993 119. and n is the number of days the dosage is taken.843 199. However. the desired sum.944 119. The sum can be rewritten as days since last dosage 1 2 3 4 80 + 80(0. is 200 mg.966 199.944 199.

since 500(1−0. the sum 2 2 of the first one hundred positive integers is generated by the series 1 + 2 + 3 + .nz/cma/IdeasTeach/hypnotic.htm> Loan or investment formulas <http://oakroadsystems.math. a1 = 1. then the forest will reach its ideal level of 7 80.com/math/loan.120 SERIES trees is used for wood each year. the number of 1−0. online sources for further exploration Buying on credit <http://www.org/cr/med-dosage.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/series/geometric/learn.nap. Drilling 2 and mining operations use arithmetic series to determine the total distance their machines will need to drill when excavating rock from the earth.html> <http://www. + 100. Therefore the first drilling attempt will be 2 meters deep.9375 ) > 28.9375 trees lost in the fire. and then stops to allow workers to remove the 20 cubic meters of loose dirt. 050.nap.school. Suppose that the drilling machine moves 2 feet downward when digging in the earth’s surface. .html> Geometric series applications <http://www. . s100 = (1 + 100) 100 = 5.html> Drug dosage <http://www. is determined by the equation sn = (a1 + an ) n or sn = (2a1 + (n − 1)d) n . the third drilling attempt will be 6 meters deep. In this situation. Suppose a construction team is hired to dig a hole that has a cross-sectional area of 10 square meters and will be 50 meters deep. the second drilling attempt will be 4 meters deep. and so on for a total of 25 trips. Arithmetic series are used when consecutive values have a constant difference. 000. sn . The sum of the first n terms of the series. the drilling machine and the dirt from the ground will need to be moved a total of 650 meters in order to dig a 50 meter hole. The mining or construction company can then use this 2 information to determine its fees based on the total distance it will need to move dirt out of the hole.000 trees in about seven years.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ . For example.edu/html/hs_math/drd.edu/html/hs_math/bc. Therefore the sum of this series. and a100 = 100.htm> <http://barzilai. This is an arithmetic series with n = 100 terms. since (2 • 2 + (25 − 1)2) 25 = 650.montana.chch.

most rectangular television screens are similar. and diagonals of every standard television set to be a multiple of the {3. The development of pictures from a camera also uses similarity principles. they expand uniformly in size. and a television screen with a 40 inch diagonal will have dimensions of 32 inches by 24 inches. the images would appear distorted. Using the 4-to-3 aspect ratio. but in the same proportion. or 9/7. and the diagonal to width ratio is 5 to 3. making them easier to see while preserving the shape of the original object. then the ratio of the corresponding sides between the negative and the poster need to be identical. length. a book cover with dimensions of 6 inches by 3. they are only similar if their side lengths are proportional. a television screen that has a 25 inch diagonal will have dimensions of 16 inches by 9 inches. but not necessarily the same size.SIMILARITY SIMILARITY 121 Two figures are similar if they have the same shape. Notice that the diagonal-to-length ratio is 5 to 4. The corresponding ratios of 7/6 and 4. The diagonal length of the television screen is often the reported number in advertisements. Similarity is used for many real-world purposes. engineers in Thomas Edison’s laboratory established that the 4:3 ratio was the best one for movie screens. An overhead projector serves the same purpose.5 inches. since they have a 4-to-3 aspect ratio. The film on a movie reel is projected onto a big screen so that the images appear larger.4.5} Pythagorean triple. For example. This means that if the different sizes of photo paper are not similar. If a picture needs to be enlarged into a poster. allowing images such as a teacher’s handwriting to appear larger on a screen so that it is easier to read. being either too fat or too long (see Proportions for a more detailed explanation). A telescope and microscope also change the size of images. causing the width. all of the corresponding sides between two similar shapes are proportional and all of the corresponding angles are congruent.5. In 1889. Dimensions of a standard television screen with a 4-to-3 aspect ratio. . then some cropping will occur. If the screen images were not similar to the slides on the reel. More specifically. Book covers are examples of two objects that are often not similar.5/3. For example. Even though two books may have rectangular covers with congruent angles.5 inches is not similar to a book cover with dimensions of 7 inches by 4. It is now being challenged by the 16:9 ratio for high-definition TV sets (HDTV) that use a wider screen than the traditional one to mimic the wide screens in theaters. As negatives are processed onto photo paper. That means that conventional television screens are produced so that the length is 4/3 times the width. are not equal.

suppose two similar squares have respective lengths of 2 and 100 cm.or three-dimensional model that is a replica of a future building is often put together during a design phase.38 = 1. respectively.122 SIMILARITY Similarity can be used to approximate lengths and distances. the corresponding dimensions between the real structure and the model are proportional.3 meters is used to determine its mass. such as dinosaurs. Once the ideas behind the design of the house are negotiated.000/4 or 2. so careful attention to size and detail is important in model-making.500. f 1. For example. because area is a measurement of two dimensions. the proportion 5+1. and your shadow length corresponds to the flagpole’s shadow length. your distance from the flagpole. For instance. and you measure your shadow to be 1. on a sunny day you can use similarity to determine the height of a tall object such as a flagpole by using just a tape measure. It is easier and less expensive to make changes to a miniature replica of an object than to the object itself. the ratio of their areas is 10. Similar triangles can be used to show that your height corresponds to the flagpole height. A miniature two. Architects and designers use similarity to create and visualize new buildings. Even though the ratio of their lengths is 100/2 or 50. and the length of your shadow. such as a flagpole. assuming that the ratio comparing the actual length to the model length is available. This area proportion of similar figures is squared. For example. . Carpenters can use this information to determine the amount of wood and carpeting needed for the floors if they are not given the actual dimensions of the house.500 (which is 50 2 ) larger than the floor plan.38 meters long (see the figure below). Similarity can also be used to predict the mass of unusually large or even extinct animals. you are 1. suppose you are standing 5 meters away from the flagpole. the floor plans are passed on to the builders to replicate the model on a larger scale. then you will be able to set up a proportion to find the height of the flagpole. based on smaller measurements and principles of similarity.63 meters (close to 25 feet). For example. if the house is 50 times larger than the floor plan. which is the same as 50 2.000 cm 2. A scale model of a dinosaur can be used to predict the actual volume of it. The area of the squares would be 4 cm 2 and 10. A method to find the height of a tall object. However. which equals approximately 7.65 meters tall.64 In this case. Since the actual floor space of the house is similar to the paper mock-up of the floor plan.38 can be used to find the height of the flagpole. f . the area comparing the house’s floor space to the floor-plan area is proportional to the square of the ratio of the dimensions. then the area of the house is 2. If you measure your height. Suppose that an accurately scaled model of a tyrannosaurus with a length of 0.

Since m density equals mass divided by volume. the equation 0. so the mass of the tyrannosaurus can be calculated v once the volume is found.000 times 61. have diameters that are about ten times larger than the earth. Use the density ratio of mass volume to determine the mass of the tyrannosaurus.95 = m . if an accurate scale model of the planets in the solar system were used in a classroom with the sun at the center of the room. which is about 16. because the planet sizes vary tremendously and are spread apart by vastly different distances. because volume is a measure of three dimensions. then the first four planets would be within 227 cm of the center. This means that the volume of the actual tyrannosaurus was about 125. This volume should be the same as the volume of the dinosaur model. Note that the units of density are kilograms per liter. by submersing it in a bucket of water. m. Therefore the volume of the actual Tyrannosaurus will be 50 3. which as a result can cause misconceptions about length and size. Most models of the solar system are inaccurately proportioned so that they can be easily stored. The solution to the equation predicts the tyrannosaurus’s mass to equal approximately 7. and students need to see all of them. so volume units are in liters and calculated mass units are in kilograms. Furthermore. Large planets. and the remaining planets would be stretched out to almost 6 meters away! The large variability in distances among the planets would make it difficult to build a movable model that illustrates rotation around the sun. The cube of the ratio is used. like Jupiter and Saturn. The volume of the actual tyrannosaurus can be calculated by using the cube of the ratio of the lengths of the actual dinosaur to the model. or 7. or 125. because 15/0.625. Most football coaches would like to recruit a tyrannosaurus for their teams! Similarity is sometimes not used in models. of the tyrannosaurus.243 kilograms. the volumes of the planets vary considerably. Most animals and reptiles have a density near 0. he or she needs to be able to move the planets around fairly easily.000 pounds.3 = 50.000 milliliters. Drop the dinosaur model into the bucket of water. because the model replaced the same amount of space in the bucket as the excess water. If a teacher wants to illustrate planetary motion on a solar-system model. and viewed within a reasonable amount of space. You can measure the volume of an irregular object. Place a bucket of water filled to the brim (and larger than the dinosaur model) inside a larger empty bucket. and the excess water will spill over the sides into the empty bucket. Pour the excess water into a graduated cylinder. or 7.SIMILARITY 123 Since an actual tyrannosaurus was about 15 meters long.625 liters.95 = 7. Suppose that the volume of the model is 61 milliliters. For example. this type of model is inaccurate. because the ratio of volumes between similar figures is . such as a dinosaur model. the ratio of the actual dinosaur to the model is 50 to 1. however. carried. which is a tool to measure the volume of water. If the planets were built to scale. That is the same as 100 people that have an average mass of 160 pounds.625 can be used to predict the mass. Realistically.000 times the volume of the dinosaur model. these giant planets would have to be a thousand times larger than the earth.

is equal to 7.htm> Nuclear medicine <http://www.htm> <http://www.org/opb/crashcourse/aspect_ratio/> Understanding scale speed in model airplanes <http://www. For example.com/scalespeed.pbs. because the presence . RATES ▲ ▼ ▲ SQUARE ROOTS A square root is the inverse of a squared number.premierstudios.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model. this would be difficult to create in a hand-held model.astroflight.pbs. online sources for further exploration Map making <http://www.html> <http://www. It unfortunately provides misconceptions about the relative sizes and distances among planets in our solar system. writ√ ten as 49 or 491/2 .ca/examples/ary_11_1/ary_11_1.pbs.sonoma.americanmodels.html> <http://www. S EE LINEAR FUNCTIONS .bcit.com/ratio.epa.124 SLOPE equal to the ratio of the cubes of their lengths. Many real-world relationships involve square roots.gov/education/resource/f16draw.com/sscale.math.html> <http://www. because 72 equals 49. The square root of 49.edu/GIC/Geographica/MapInterp/Scale.faa.org/wgbh/nova/pyramid/geometry/model. For visualization and instructional purposes.gov/ceisweb1/ceishome/atlas/learngeog/mapping.html> Scale models <http://www.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ SLOPE .htm> Scale model of a pyramid <http://www. the height of liquid wax in a candle is directly proportional to the square root of the amount of time a candle has been burning. This information is useful in the design of candles.html> Screen ratios <http://www.

period. The viewing distance from an airplane to the horizon is perpendicular to the radius of the earth. horizon. that relate to circular motion and the pendulum’s length. The Pythagorean theorem can be a used to compare the distances. The variable f describes the coefficient of friction of the road. where t is the time in seconds. since commercial airplanes do not fly much higher than 10. because all objects will fall at the same rate. If t = 2 is substituted into the equation. Measuring the length of the skids will help determine if the offender’s speed was a factor that contributed to the accident. Note: this drawing is not to scale.SQUARE ROOTS 125 of liquid will slow down the burning of the wick. and center of the earth (see the figure below). from an airplane on a clear day. l is its length in meters. from the bottom of the picture to the top is greatest.56 a. and in wet conditions.8 meters/second 2 ). as shown in the following figure. On dry concrete.000 meters. that skidded d feet is s = 30f d. d. The viewing distance in kilometers. to stand . The square-root version of the equation is approximately equal to this format. forming a right triangle between the airplane. d. √ depending on its altitude in meters. or the time it takes to move back and forth. can be estimated by the equation v = 3. An ideal distance. a pilot has in an airplane compared with its altitude.4. Police investigators use square roots at the scenes of auto accidents. The period of a pendulum. or two seconds to swing back and forth. and ant gular velocity w. The pendulum equation is useful for clockmakers. f is about 0. s. using the fact that the radius of the earth is 6. Notice that the mass of the object at the end of pendulum is not included in the equation. can l be determined by the equation t = 2π g . This equation is actually a combination of a couple of equations. Using square roots can help a person become a better consumer of art. Pilots of airplanes and hot-air balloons use square roots to estimate viewing distances. They can estimate the speed of a car by the length of the tire skids and the conditions of the √ road.380 km. fatter candles do not need very long wicks. The Pythagorean theorem can be used to determine the maximum viewing distance. this value is about 0. α. because a grandfather clock is designed so that its pendulum arm takes one second to swing in one direction. The speed of a car in miles per hour. Hence. regardless of their mass. then the pendulum arm length l will be approximately 1 meter long. and g is the acceleration due to gravity (9. because they will likely form a pool of liquid as they burn. a. v. a. v 2 + 63802 = (6380 + 1000 )2 .8. The best view of a picture is when the angle. g = lw2 and w = 2π .

is greatest when the distance a person stands from the painting.nadn.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/baseball.coe. Therefore a reasonable place to draw a viewing line would be about 14 inches away from the wall based on evaluating √ d = 3 · 63 ≈ 13.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ . If the average human is about 67 inches tall. This formula can be applied to similar venues.edu/mathnet/questionCorner/miter.sosmath.html> Latitude and longitude <http://daniel.math. b. d. according to the equation d = bt.navy.html> The square root law of inventory <http://logistics.toronto.math.html> Bouncing ball <http://www.View/Angle. and the bottom is placed about 70 inches from the ground.toronto.mil/MathDept/cdp/relatedrates/rates.126 SQUARE ROOTS from a painting is based on how much higher the bottom of the painting is from a person’s eye level. is equal to the square root of the product of the distances from the edges of √ painting to the eyethe level height (d = bt).com/industry/logistics/library/blsqrootlaw.about.view.html> Calculating angles in a pyramid <http://www. online sources for further exploration Best angle of view <http://jwilson. and a large painting is 60 inches tall. and t = 3 + 60 = 63.uga.com/calculus/geoser/bounce/bounce.7 inches.edu/emt725/Angle.calpoly. such as helping you find the best seat in a movie theater.edu/~dfrc/Robin/Latitude/distance. t. α. then b = 70 − 67 = 3.html> Distance between two ships <http://www.html> How to compute baseball standings <http://www. and how much higher the top of the painting is from a per√ son’s eye level. The optimum viewing angle of a painting.

15 and Brett. The standardized score can compare different measures of the same person. It is a measure of the dispersion of data in a sample or population. because she had a greater standardized z score. Suppose a student had a score of 540 on the SAT-Math and 24 on the ACT Mathematics.STANDARD DEVIATION STANDARD DEVIATION 127 The standard deviation is a number that indicates the variability in a set of data. If you use the standard scores based on means and standard deviations of baseball players in their respective eras. There are two formulas for standard deviation. which gives no overall information about the spread of the data. The start of the computation of standard deviation is the deviation about the mean.7 ≈ 0. The concept of standard deviation provides the basis for widely used statistical techniques. One form 2 assumes that the data set is the entire population of cases: σ = Σ(X−µ) .23. The average squared deviation is called the variance. Deviations are negative when the score is below the mean. statisticians choose to square each deviation.7. the deviation is 138. 4. the sum of deviations is always zero. If a college-placement test has a national mean of 512.390 in 1980? It has been argued that it is difficult for a player today to hit over . The standard deviation has a different symbol in this case. then the mean and standard deviations would represent estimates of the entire season’s scores. The 113 national mean for ACT Mathematics is 20. As a ratio. Z scores have been used to compare baseball players from different eras. Cobb has a z score of about 4. with a standard deviation of 113. and n is the sample size. because the general quality of players is much higher than it was in the early days of professional baseball.0 matics. So zSATM = 540−514 ≈ 0.0. it has σ no units. and N is the number of pieces of data. Then they average the squared deviations to produce a number that indicates how the data is spread out around the mean. The two stars were equally outstanding in performance during their respective eras. The square root of the variance is the standard deviation. Does Ty Cobb’s batting average of . where N µ is the mean of the data. Therefore she did relatively better on the ACT Mathe5. SAT and ACT scores are normally distributed. So zACTM = 24−20. n−1 The standard deviation is used to compute standardized scores for the comparison of data from different sets and measures. A standardized score is computed as z = X−µ .420 in 1922 represent better batting than George Brett’s . Standard deviations are used in quality control in business and industry and in the computation of standard test scores (such as the SAT and ACT). and a slightly different formula: 2 s = Σ(X−X) . with a standard deviation of 5. To make sure negative deviations do not cancel with positive.07. which means that a frequency . and a student has a score of 650. or the deviation divided by the standard deviation. Even though each deviation tells something about the spread of data.400.66. On which did he or she do better? The national mean for SAT-Math is 514. the difference of the actual score and mean score. where X is the mean of the sample. If the numbers could be considered a sample from the population.

They think that only a five-sigma result. 95 percent within two standard deviations.7 percent within three standard deviations. or 6σ. then the rule of thumb says that the seat would be appropriate for 95 percent of the women. In a normally distributed set of data. If that proportion represents defect-free products. about 68 percent of it is contained within one standard deviation of the mean (as shown in the figure below). unless the company is dealing with personal health and safety issues. The rules of thumb for a normal distribution stop at ±3 standard deviations from the mean. Reducing the standards to 99. is chosen because 99. but at a high cost when an inspection fails. is trustworthy and can survive the test of time. About 68 percent of the area under a normal distribution curve is between -1 and 1 standard deviations (z scores).99995 percent chance that the result can be reproduced. there are some handy “rules of thumb” that use standard deviation to describe the spread of data. The six sigma. For example. indicating a 99. the goal is to have fewer than 3.128 STANDARD DEVIATION chart or histogram will appear to be bell-shaped. In this type of distribution. These are located at ±1 standard deviation units. and 99.7 percent defect-free products will likely save the company money in the long run. the seat must be as standard as possible. The normal curve has two points of inflection where the curve changes from concave-downward. In such cases. because almost all of the data is trapped by those limits. The heights of American women are normally distributed with a mean of 64 inches. because many medical measurements such as blood . Physicists use a five-sigma criterion in determining whether a subatomic particle has been revealed. The rules of thumb are often used by manufacturers to design clothing and furniture that will sell to the broadest audience.5 inches. represent defects. 0. with a standard deviation of 2. Such high-quality control standards at six sigma will likely reduce the number of defects in a product. If the manufacturer has its designers work on a seat that will be comfortable for women from 59 to 69 inches tall (two standard deviations above and below the mean).99966 percent of the cases in a normal distribution fall within six standard deviations of the mean. The point of inflection at +1 standard deviation is shown in the figure.00034 percent. In medical quality-control testing it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of a medical instrument. to concave-upward.4 defects per million products. an automobile manufacturer developing an automobile for potential female customers might design the driver’s seat to fit the heights of most women. To make the greatest profit. then the remainder. That is not enough for the management goal of “six sigma” quality adopted by many American businesses.

the instrument will sound a tone. The sampling of voters as they leave polling booths is a method that television networks have used to make predictions of winners on their news programming shortly after the polls close. whether consumers really like the flavor of a new. and whether the candidate has a clear lead. Although the numbers in an entire population might not follow a normal distribution. . whether students in a school are not doing well on a state test. the branch of statistics that is used to determine whether a new drug is better than older treatments. the standard deviation of the sample means (standard error of the mean) is the standard deviation of the population divided by the square root of the sample size. improved toothpaste. Pollsters use the central limit theorem to determine how large their samples must be to reach a desired level of accuracy. the standard deviation is called a standard error. Had the networks followed the cautious recommendations of statisticians. and cholesterol in blood can have different distributions based on sex or age. they would not have had to make their embarrassing switches of victory reports from George Bush to Al Gore based on the controversial voting reports from the state of Florida. alerting nurse or doctor to the critical value. such as in “our survey of 250 randomly selected adults showed that 62 percent of the residents oppose the new highway. the margin of error for a reported statistic is two standard errors. “If the entire population of residents had been surveyed.” This gives a range of values that is likely (95 percent certain) to trap the percentage that would have been obtained had the entire population been surveyed. The margin of error was 6 percent. So the newspaper would be saying. If candidates are separated by two standard errors. Survey statistics in newspapers are often reported as a range of values. glucose content in urine. it is necessary that samples be carefully designed to be representative of the population. the newspaper would project a winner. When the standard deviation is computed from statistics on many samples. and when a stock price is stabilizing. Statistics computed on samples establish the close connection between standard deviation and the normal curve. you will read about polls that indicate which candidate is ahead in the race. when an assembly line is producing too many defects. However.” In most cases. The report of the survey results would be “62% ± 2•Standard Error. Some electronic sensors have the statistics for different population groups in memory. as the networks found out in the November 2000 presidential election. When a reading for a particular type of patient is more than two standard deviations from the mean for his or her group. A dynamic instrument that accounts for patient’s variables establishes a more precise diagnosis of medical problems.STANDARD DEVIATION 129 pressure.” In the weeks prior to national and state elections. the central limit theorem states that means of samples from the population will be normally distributed. The central limit theorem is the foundation for inferential statistics. such as a standard deviation of ACT composite school averages for many schools. there is a 95 percent chance that the true proportion is between 56 percent and 68 percent. Further.

com/> <http://www. or 4.com/> Indiana custom rates <http://www.math. can be determined by the function p = 0.html> Standard deviation in spreadsheets <http://www.isixsigma.gov/nps/bioretention.math. the function has the same output for multiple input values.0 minute call will be charged 48 cents.edu/extensio/pubs/custom_rates.epa. because the phone rate rounds up for every fraction of a minute beyond a whole value.ca/examples/ary_1_8/ary_1_8. 3.htm> Bioretention applications <http://www.edu/~st350_info/reiland/350hw3.htm> Mining <http://www.bcit.com/tips016. a telephone company may charge you 12 cents a minute for a long-distance call.com/election.purdue.pollingreport. This type of step function is called a ceiling function and is sometimes represented by the expression ceil(t).gallup.ncsu.math.12⌈t⌉.gov/pub/ferminews/ferminews01-03-16/p1.130 STEP FUNCTIONS online sources for further exploration Baseball <http://www.3 minute. A 3.stat.agecon.math.ca/examples/ary_15_8/ary_15_8.htm> Gallup polls <http://www. As a result.fnal.htm> Food technology <http://www.shtml> ▲ ▼ ▲ STEP FUNCTIONS A step function is a mathematical relationship that has a graph that looks like steps. or the price of a four-minute phone call. where t is the length of the phone call in minutes.ca/examples/ary_10_8/ary_10_8.ca/examples/ary_2_8/ary_2_8.bcit. p. There- .pdf> Election polls <http://www.bcit. The ⌈t⌉ indicates that the value for t should be rounded up to the nearest integer. In this case. For example.bcit.htm> Petroleum technology <http://www.htm> Six sigma <http://www.htm> Estimating trees <http://www. the price of the phone call in dollars.ca/examples/ary_13_8/ary_13_8.math.7 minute.htm> Biomedical electronics <http://www.beyondtechnology.bcit.

That means that a car that has been repaired for an hour and 13 minutes will be charged for 1.70. in most cases involving fees or costs paid by the consumer. and make charges to the next one-half hour. The cost of a taxicab ride also relates to a step function in terms of the distance traveled.34 describes the total price in dollars. p. then the function p = 0.3⌉. as a function of the mass in ounces. for every block or fraction of a block traveled. and the 40 represents the half-hour rate of $40. A visit to an attorney’s office might be $100 for making an appointment. The 2h in the equation describes the number of halfhours of labor. m. r. or fraction thereof. The figure below illustrates the price of a phone call as a function of its time.30.00 minutes will result in the same charge. meaning that nothing additional to 34 cents will be added to the cost of postage for mail that is between 0 and 1 ounces. The ⌈m − 1⌉ portion of the equation accounts for the additional price of any mass above one ounce. since there is not a specific fee for 0. The price to mail a package is dependent on its mass according to a step function. Notice that the distance traveled would be equivalent to 10 blocks.01 and 4. That means that an hour-and-a-half appointment would be equivalent to a $400 fee—$100 for showing up and $300 for two hours of work.70 + 0. Other rates that use discrete values for pricing can often be modeled with step functions. Often there is an initial amount charged for getting in the cab. and so on.12ceil(t). or $5.3-block cab ride would cost 2. h. and then an additional fee.STEP FUNCTIONS 131 fore the phone-call function can also be written as p = 0. or $120. Any phone call between 3.23⌈m − 1⌉ + 0. In this case. In fact. in terms of the number of hours of labor. rates are usually rounded up with a ceiling function. If the cost to deliver a letter is 34 cents for the first ounce and 23 cents for each additional ounce.30⌈9. because there is a different rate for the first ounce. Some auto shops may charge $80 per hour.5 hours of labor. Consulting and repair rates are often represented by step functions. since the overall charge is rounded to the nearest half-hour. . You can determine this relationship in the equation because any value of m between 0 and 1 will cause the quantity ⌈m − 1⌉ to equal 0. Sometimes rates are divided into smaller increments of time.01 and 5. and then an additional $150 per hour. As a step function.70. This equation needs to consider the number of half-hour intervals. the repair cost in dollars. like $2. This equation is slightly different than the one for the price of a phone call. or any phone call between 4.00 minutes will result in the same charge. like $0. is represented by the equation r = 40⌈2h⌉. such as with automobile repair. The total price of a long-distance phone call as a function of its length when the fee is 12 cents per minute or any fraction thereof. a 9.3 blocks.

geocities.htm> Postage rate calculators <http://postcalc. A step function is used.smart.com/lgscalc.net/~mmontes/ushols.com/servlet/QCCServlet [updated 4/26/01]> <http://www.html> Find hourly rates <http://www. February by 14. A floor function has also been used to identify the day of the week for any date on the calendar since 1582.com/WallStreet/5395/ratecalc.allfreelance.usps.edu/~lhuber/leaphist. The remainder of the division in the equation w= d+2m+ 3(m+1) 5 +y+ 7 y 4 − y 100 + y 400 +2 is used to predict the day of the week. then he or she might only get paid for 40 hours time. online sources for further exploration Calendars <http://astro.nmsu.federalexpress. the step function that rounds down is called a floor function.energydotsys. since she did not put in a full 41 hours. where Sunday is the first day of the week and Saturday is the seventh or zero day. m represents the number of the month.gov/> <http://wwwapps. If the employee earns $12 per hour. as well as to encourage employees to follow a tight schedule. The variable d represents the day of the month.132 STEP FUNCTIONS It is easier to charge someone for partial time or expense than to give that person an added bonus. because it is easier to pay employees at an hourly rate than a minute rate. which in essence rounds the value down to the nearest integer. w. If an employee works 40. A case in which expense is rounded down is in the payment of hourly wages.ups. and y = 1918 are substituted into the equation. m = 16. February 16. For example. In this situation. March by 3. is s = 12[h].com/> Houston Lighting and Power calculator <http://www. An exception to the value of m is in January and February. s.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .7 hours in a week. or the greatest integer function.html> <http://www. and y represents the year.com/us/rates/> Telephone rate calculator <http://www. 1918 occurred on a Tuesday. That means that January is represented by 13. which are the month numbers according to the previous year. April by 4. then his or her weekly salary payment in dollars. The [h] is the symbol to represent the greatest integer value of h. h. This equation can equivalently be written as s = 12⌊h⌋ or s = 12 floor (h) so that they include symbols describing the floor function. and so on. because the remainder is equal to 3 when d = 14. as a function of the number of hours worked.

Two important mathematics questions about surface area are: “What shapes make surface area a minimum for a specific volume?” and “For the same shape. and how animal metabolism relates to size. Many of these cartons must be cut from large pieces of glazed cardboard. Finally. This last result shows up in soap bubbles or oil drops. inefficient way of cutting circles (18 circles) cutting circles with less waste (22 circles) pattern for cutting a bandage box Cutting shapes from sheets of material that will be used in packaging. each cell is a regular hexagonal prism. The mathematics of surface area determines how objects retain heat. how cells exchange fluids. then additional surface is needed for the glued regions. then it has to have standard dimensions. Packaging companies have additional minimization issues to handle when they determine how a package such as a cereal box or a soda can should be constructed from raw materials. The middle diagram shows that stacking the circles like the cells in a beehive would produce four more lids from the same sheet of material. In the absence of other forces.SURFACE AREA SURFACE AREA 133 There are more uses of surface area than determining how much paint to buy to paint a house. most packaging is cut from one piece of flat material. The complexity of cutting single cartons is shown by a flattened box of bandages in the last illustration. the first illustration in the figure below shows a wasteful method of cutting circular-can lids from sheets of aluminum. If the product is going to grocery stores. Some of the issues have natural solutions. It is believed that this shape developed because it is strong and because it uses the least amount of . these will be spheres. so the engineer has to decide how the cuts will be made to minimize waste. For example. The cube is the solid that minimizes surface area for a specific volume in a prism. In a beehive. open on one end and with a trihedral angle at the other. The shape of the product may determine or restrict the dimensions of the package. how cans are cut from sheets of metal. The desired volume is not the only issue they must consider. how do volume and surface area change as the figure is scaled up or down?” The first question has some simple results for common figures. Nature has solved the minimization issue in remarkable ways. The trihedral angle must have a consistent geometry. The sphere is the solid that minimizes surface area for any volume. because the bees build identical cells on the other side of one wall of cells. If the carton is glued together.

starting with 1 cm on a side through 1 meter on a side. then the weight scale would match volume. where S is the surface area.400 60.000 ≈ 8. The interiors of your lungs are networked with air sacs (alveoli). Measurements of the actual angles in hives rarely differ from this value by more than 2°. you scale up the surface area by k2 and the volume by k3 . larger animals have an easier time maintaining their metabolism levels than do smaller ones. that means you are multiplying each dimension of the car by 1/24. Nature sometimes needs to maximize surface area. crush an ice cube into the beverage rather than dropping a solid cube into it.000 ≈ 16.67 125. If the model and the real car were made from the same materials. The surface area would be changed by a factor of (1/24) 2. If you want to dry wet clothes. Similarly.000 38. s is the length of the sides of the hexagon. The sacs are formed from very thin membranes that allow oxygen to pass from the air in the lungs to your blood. the angle that requires the least volume of wax for cells has a size of 55° regardless of s and h. . fish have gills that offer substantial surface membranes between the water and the bloodstream so that they can quickly exchange the carbon dioxide in blood for oxygen from the water.000/38.000/600 ≈ 1.000 512. If you build a car model that is a 1:24 scale model of a real car.33 1. but the total surface area of the alveoli is about 100 square meters! The massive surface area is needed to provide sufficient exchange of the two gasses within the time of one breath. (See Ratio. side (cm) area (cm2) volume (cm3) ratio of volume to area 1 3 10 50 80 100 6 54 600 15. and carbon dioxide to move from your blood to the air that will be exhaled.67 Ratio of volume to area for different cubes. Weight would be scaled down by (1/24) 3. This can be shown by examining the ratio of volume to surface area for a series of cubes.) Because scaling has such a dramatic influence on surface area and volume.33 512. The surface area covered by a human’s skin is about 2 square meters.000.000/15.000 125.400 ≈ 13.134 SURFACE AREA wax (surface area) for the necessary storage area (volume of √ cell).000/60.17 27/54 ≈ 0. and h is the height.5 1. Some common household tasks favor larger areas.000 1 27 1. The surthe 2 3 face area of the cell is given by S = 6sh − 2 s2 cot(θ) + 3s 2 3 csc(θ).000 1/6 ≈ 0. Using calculus. The fundamental law of similarity asserts that when you scale up (or down) a solid figure by a scale factor k. you should spread them out rather than rolling them into a ball. The values of s and h are constant for specific species of bees.000 1. If you want to cool a drink fast. and the volume by (1/24) 3.000.

gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/size. We can expect small animals to have rapid heartbeats and daily food requirements that may be multiples of the animals’ weight.edu/16. Perhaps that is one of the reasons that there are no hummingbirds in the Arctic.nasa.html> Minimum surface area of a can <http://jwilson.shtml> Figuring out how many rolls of wall covering you need <http://www.com/scripts/hrw.fsu.edu/emt725/MinSurf/Minimum. small ratios are an advantage.exploratorium.edu/ronh/bubbles/bubbles. An animal that has a small volume compared with surface area will have to work hard to replace the heat lost.html> Theory of flight <http://web.micromeritics. Of course. We have hands that are very useful.html> Painting <http://www.edu/~oa/winter/wintcamp.homerepairworkshop.html> . An animal that has a large volume with respect to its surface area will have an easier time maintaining its metabolism.edu/featuredmicroscopist/deckart/index.html> <http://micro. A polar bear is compact: Its large bulk means that it will have a large volume-to-area ratio. A human being is not packaged like a polar bear.mv?ACTN=DSPLY&ART=146> Lead paint concentrations <http://www. while small plant cells are close to spherical.resene.grc.mit.5. animals aren’t cubes. The energy needed for basic metabolism is roughly proportional to the volume of the animal.cpsc. A hummingbird has a volume-to-surface-area ratio close to 0.coe. The volume-to-surface-area ratio is a factor at the microscopic level. but in winter they provide more surface area proportional to the volume they contain.magnet. Since energy must come through the cell membrane.html> Medicinal tablet surface area <http://www.SURFACE AREA 135 An animal loses heat through external surface area. so the wise person will wear mittens instead of gloves to reduce the heat loss.princeton. the larger cells maintain an advantageous volume-to-surface-area ratio.00/www/aec/flight.html> Size effects on airplane lift <http://www.co.htm> Soap bubbles <http://www. With a less spherical shape. A large animal will have a lower heart rate and food requirements that are a fraction of its weight.gov/cpscpub/pubs/lead/leadapp2.com/sa_gem_a91.uga. The compensation made by plant cells is that larger plant cells maintain less of a spherical shape (more cylindrical).Surface.nz/archspec/datashts/olsurf.Area. online sources for further exploration Camping (wearing gloves) <http://www. Cells cannot benefit from larger volume-to-surface-area ratios. It loses heat rapidly and hence must have a rapid heartbeat and relatively large food intake to maintain its metabolism.

Since Amy misses one criterion. For example. she should be excluded from the final set. Amy Redfox (female) from Arizona would be evaluated as FALSE AND TRUE.htm> ▲ ▼ ▲ SYMBOLIC LOGIC The nineteenth-century mathematician George Boole is the acknowledged founder of modern symbolic logic. and OR for these four cases. The last column gives truth values of an expression that uses of all of the Boolean operations. Each case has been evaluated with the spreadsheet’s functions for logic. If a market analyst had to select all of the California residents who were female from a computer database of customers in the United States. The fundamental operations are NOT. library searches. He recognized that an algebra of logic could be developed following the model of the algebra of real numbers. p q NOT p p AND q p OR q (p AND q) OR (NOT q) True True False False True False True False False False True True True False False False True True True False True True False True Truth tables from Microsoft Excel.B2). multiplication.136 SYMBOLIC LOGIC Ultracapacitors <http://www. The formula in cell E4 is = OR(A4.com/drmatrix/sciences/math. . all possible cases of statements p and q are listed using the words TRUE and FALSE. each one falls into only one of four categories of logic. In the table below. Hence the value for Amy should be FALSE AND TRUE = FALSE. and addition. and OR. The algebra of logic underlies decision-making. modern electronics. AND. If you use a spreadsheet program.” Sarah Jones (female) from San Francisco would evaluate as TRUE for both parts. the status of each person in the database would be evaluated with an expression such as “this person is from California and this person is a women. AND.powercache. you can build truth tables that show the relationships among NOT. Although there may be millions of people in the database. as opposed to the number operations of opposite.B4). The variables of the algebra are statements that have one of two values: TRUE (1) or FALSE (0).com/products/technical. Computer software is built on logical structures. the spreadsheet formula in cell D2 is = AND(A2. and branching in computer programs.html> Unfolding the human brain <http://scientium.

and NOT connectors that act on the current as though it were a logic statement. The first form would require a circuit with three logic switches. The circuits pass through AND. in set theory. 1. Computers represent numbers in binary form. An electrical circuit using logic switches. whereby the numbers 0. 1. The result is usually combined in a switch called a NAND switch. OR. The example of the light circuit assumes that electricity flows through a circuit instantaneously. Although this complicates the operations. Circuits called “half-adders” perform the addition of two bits to produce a sum bit and a carry bit. The algorithms for fuzzy logic related to the binary logic shown here. Applications have in- . Two Boolean expressions that yield the same truth tables are equivalent. One of DeMorgan’s laws is that (NOT p) OR (NOT q) is equivalent to NOT(p AND q). The third case requires a “carry”: 1 + 1 = 10. When will the light bulb be on? The logical expression corresponding to the circuit is in the last column of the spreadsheet in the previous table. Inquiries on such databases are called “Boolean searches. When complex circuits are expressed as Boolean algebra statements. Addition rules for three cases of digit pairs are easy: 0 + 0 = 0. The result is lower cost. 10. In the late 1960s his idea was formalized in the field called fuzzy logic. 3. 6 look like 0.SYMBOLIC LOGIC 137 Each of these has a representation in an electrical circuit. All other situations result in the light being ON. 5. a time parameter makes the Boolean operators effective for describing neural nets in the brain and spinal cord. The diagram below is a circuit showing two ON–OFF switches p and q. 1 + 0 = 1. as well as simplifying computer circuits that require timed pulses of electricity. The addition of multidigit numbers requires many half-adders. Some circuits are used so frequently that they are designed as “new” Boolean operations. The digits in a base 2 number can be stored as a sequence of memory positions (bits) that are on (1) or off (0). 2. but have been more successful in providing answers to problems that start with vague or contradictory information. The light is off when p is FALSE (OFF) and q is TRUE (ON). 11. There is also a NOR switch that computes NOT(p OR q). 4. Boole suggested that the truth values of 1 and 0 could be extended to probabilities of a statement being correct. respectively. the rules of logic can be used to simplify the circuit to one that is logically equivalent. Circuits that represent sequential firing of switches require that the algebra include a parameter for time. 0 + 1 = 1. with ON represented by TRUE.” The set operations of union and intersection are used in place of OR and AND. and OFF by FALSE. 100. 101. Boolean operators are the fundamental connectors in written commands that perform searches on the Internet or in computer-based library card-catalogs. The second requires only two.

ic.org/news/atheism/sn-python.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ SYMMETRY Many everyday objects are symmetrical. Numerous types of insects are reflection-symmetric.com/boolean. online sources for further exploration The DOIT Information Science online course (select “hardware”) <http://doit.138 SYMMETRY cluded the computer recognition of handwritten Japanese Kanji characters.html> Logic in rhetoric <http://www.htm> Logic in humor: Monty Python’s argument clinic <http://www. such as butterflies and ants.sjsu. home-use blood-pressure indicators. deciding where to drill for oil.ca/eguides/boolean. detecting insurance fraud. The folding line is called the line of symmetry.library.doc.htm> Boolean search vocabulary <http://www.htm> Logic in the computer language C <http://www. and is also a reflecting line. The wings of butterflies are reflectionsymmetric with their bodies.health.html> Fuzzy logic <http://www.ac.com/search/logic. and recognition of trends in masses of information on stock prices.mcgill.infidels.ort. Fuzzy logic procedures appear in such diverse applications as determining the length of hospital stays.learn-c. Human faces are nearly reflection-symmetric. Something is reflection-symmetric if it is divided into two equal pieces so that one piece can fold directly over the other piece.org/course/intro.edu/depts/itl/graphics/main.html> <http://www. and selecting the television slot time that would be the best for an advertiser.uk/~nd/surprise_96/journal/vol1/sbaa/article1. since one foot is typically slightly larger . but no one is perfect! Seldom are human feet perfectly symmetrical.netstrider.

. Many kites are reflection-symmetric. as shown below. For instance. A left-handed person will find it more difficult cutting with a right-handed pair of scissors. Some objects are designed to be reflection-symmetric so that they can balance and have more support. some flowers are rotation-symmetric. However. as shown in the following figure. For example. because their pedals are uniformly distributed. An object is rotation-symmetric if one of its pieces can be rotated around a point so that it is congruent with its other piece(s).SYMMETRY 139 than the other. Hence. one foot may have a tighter fit in one of the shoes. The size and shape of the soles of each shoe match when they are placed on top of each other. Shoes are reflection-symmetric. airplane engines and wheels are placed equidistant from the fuselage to divide equally their mass and power. The pedals of a flower are rotated around its center and are evenly spaced apart. For example. scissors are made especially for right-handed or left-handed people. The perpendicular bisector then becomes a line of symmetry that divides the kite into two equal pieces. The cross beams in a kite divide it in equal pieces and provide support when the kite is in the air. because they have a cross beam that is a perpendicular bisector of the other cross beam. Certain merchandise might be intentionally built not to be reflection-symmetric if it is customized to meet a person’s needs. shoes are manufactured to be symmetrical because the same foot is not larger on every person nor is the larger foot uniformly larger among people.

com/symmetry/> Oriental carpets <http://mathforum. such as that it can only be used in one position or does not want its mass distributed equally. For example.bc.au/stkierans-manly/Classes/Yr6/6B/Symmetry/> Symmetry.trussnet. online sources for further exploration Frieze patterns <http://www.html> Occupations <http://www.k12.edu/dutchs/symmetry/symmetry.pvt.ash.uwgb.clarku.com/> Symmetry point groups <http://newton.kitezh.ucs.org/geometry/rugs/> Symmetry activities <http://www.us/StLeosSite/classes/Seventh/realworldgeometry/ SYMMETRY/symindex. A quarterback can throw a smooth spiral to optimize the distance of a throw because a football is shaped symmetrically.htm> Symmetry in physics <http://www.ca/~jbritton/jbsymteslk.ca/~mathed/Geometry/Transformations/frieze.edu/~djoyce/wallpaper/> ▲ ▼ ▲ . a knife is intended to be held by its handle. crystals.mun.schools.edu/~cgstraus/symmetry.ca. An eggbeater is equally productive at all of its angles when mixing cookie batter. The blade at the bottom of the lawn mower cuts the grass evenly.uk/people/goss/symmetry/> Symmetry project <http://www.140 SYMMETRY Some items are constructed to be rotation-symmetric so that they can be useful at multiple angles. or provide an equal distribution.org.camosun. wrenches can turn bolts at many different positions.html> Types of trusses <http://www. Playing cards can be held either rightside up or upside down. and polyhedra <http://www.ac.htm> Symmetry and the shape of space <http://comp. a gun can only be fired in one direction.unit/> Symmetry around the world project <http://www.com/Resources/Basics/types. A fan helps circulate air continuously and equally. An object that is intentionally produced so that it is not rotation-symmetric sometimes serves a unique purpose. and a pitcher of water has a handle and lip to provide more support and smoother pouring.cfm> Wallpaper groups <http://www. For example. and screwdrivers can twist screws continuously.emmynoether.ex.uark.stleos.

the difference of 1 second from 12:00 PM will be measured as 1/3600.000556 ≈ 2. Since there are 3. where h is the number of hours past 8:00 AM. h = 4 at 12:00 PM. Using the slope formula.999722 ≈ . The slope of a tangent line represents the derivative of a function at a point. The production rate at noon can be approximated by the slope of the line between 11:59:59 and 12:00:01. the slope of 1 the tangent is m≈ b(4. A geometric tangent is a segment or line that locally touches a curve or figure at one point.9 bushels per hour. For example. A line tangent to the function y = x3 – 3x2 + 2x – 7 at (2. A line tangent to a circle at point C. Without the derivative. b. y = x3 − 3x2 + 2x − 7 has a tangent of y = 2x − 11 at the point (2. as shown below. from h = 4. . the number of bushels. including geometric shapes and functions. as shown in the figure below. These times should be converted into decimals so that they can be substituted into the equation. or approximately y2 −y 0.000278)−b(3. of corn removed in a field can be modeled with the function b = 50 − 50e−0. but does not pass through the curve at that location.000278−3. For example.999722) 4.001615 . m = x2 −x1 . The rate of productivity during any hour of the day can be determined by evaluating the derivative with a specific value of h.08h .–7). This value is the same as the instantaneous rate of change of an object with varying rate.–7) A line can be tangent to many types of curves.TANGENT TANGENT 141 The term tangent can be used to describe a function (see Periodic Functions) or a ratio in trigonometry applications (see Triangle Trigonometry).000278 hours. For example. The slope of the tangent line can predict the productivity rate at a particular moment in time. which is the same as the slope of the line tangent to the curve at that point. the slope of the tangent line can be approximated by finding the slope of a secant line that contains two points that are extremely close to the point of tangency.600 seconds in an hour.

An object released from a circular-motion path will leave in a straight-line tangent to the circle at the point of release. s. A discus thrower rotates rapidly to add momentum to a throw. The visible sight to the horizon represents the point of tangency. Besides worker productivity. the moment when ticket sales for a particular movie have declined rapidly. Tangents are also used in applications related to circles. Since the radius of the earth is approximately 6. the location where business profits are at a maximum. Even though the thrower is rotating as she releases the discus.380 km. 380.22 is used to find the signal radius. it would seem appropriate to take a break so that workers can rejuvenate for the afternoon. radio signals will reach a distance from the antenna on the tower to the horizon. 3802 = 6. Note that the diagram is not drawn to scale. as shown below. the rope will travel in a straight path towards the calf that he is trying to capture. based on the geometric representation depicted below. For example. a discus thrower spinning in a circle will throw the disc out towards the open field in a straight path after she releases the weight from her hand. and many other applications about rates that can be modeled with functions (see Rates). the slope of a tangent line can help determine the speed of an object. Since a line tangent to a circle is perpendicular to its radius. When a cowboy spins a lasso in a circular path. .142 TANGENT At this rate. this distance can be determined using the Pythagorean theorem. A cross-sectional view of the earth that illustrates the broadcasting distance of a radio antenna—the distance from the top of the tower to the horizon. where no other parts of the earth can be seen. the hourly rate for business consulting. For example. and then releases his grip. the equation s2 + 6. the projectile will be along a straight path. A radio antenna that is 200 meters tall can have a signal that reaches a distance of approximately 50 km.

TANGENT 143 The smoothness in sidewalk curves is designed using common tangents from arcs on different circles.org/Regents/physics/phys06/bcentrif/default.sas. Since the belts are tangent to both circles.il.us/gbssci/phys/Class/circles/u6l1c.edu/chem/gallery/phys/rappe.k12. because they are tangent to both circles at both locations. Moving belts remain tightly on spinning wheels.math.html> Introducing the ellipse (flashlight) <http://www.jp/math/java/calc/doukan/doukan.edu/frankw/ccp/calculus/deriv/mirror/learn.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/3550/ellipse.htm> Curved mirrors <http://www.ies.html> Surfing <http://www.rocktoroad.geocities. online sources for further exploration Centripetal force <http://www.com/selection. Without the use of tangents. they can smoothly cycle around the wheels without jumping or falling off.html> <http://regentsprep. Belts that operate machinery.montana.com/snubhead. as shown in the figure below.htm> Ferroelectric complex oxides <http://www. sidewalk curves with nontangent arcs of circles sidewalk curves with tangent arcs of circles Smooth curves in sidewalks are created with tangent arcs of circles.upenn. curved sidewalk paths would have jagged corners.mineconveyor.glenbrook.htm> Eliminating the discharge snub pulley <http://www.htm> Selection and installation of conveyer belt scales <http://www.co. as depicted as follows. are wrapped around circular wheels that keep the belts in motion as they rotate.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .

Applied to the vertex (-5. y ′ ) in the image triangle. A home run in baseball represents the hitter’s four translations: home plate to first base.–2). If a graph of a function y = f (x) is translated by (h. first to second. 1) + (6. the resulting graph has the equation y − (-2) = (x − 3)2.-2) = (1. . When you slide a checker piece across a game board from one square to another. or y = x2 − 6x + 7. 2) as shown. The translation (slide) of a triangle by 6 right and 2 down. Translations that represent moves of chess pieces can be indicated by the column or rank (labeled with letters in the picture below) and rows or files (labeled with numbers).-2) = (x′ . Musicians who transpose a piece of music down to the range of a singer are performing a translation. Translations change equations of functions in a systematic fashion.-2) = (x′ . k). y) + (6. Translations in the coordinate plane can be expressed by the addition of coordinates. The carpet design that is produced in hundreds of yards of a carpet roll represents many translations of a single design. the resulting graph will be the function y − k = f (x − h). second to third.144 TRANSLATIONS TRANSLATIONS A translation is a shift of points over the same distance and in the same direction.-1). and third to home. Coordinate system in chess. Translations apply to three-dimensional figures and functions in the same way as they do in two dimensions. y) + (6.-2). and the transformation by addition of ordered pairs. (x. 1) gives (-5. 4) + (6. The following figure shows the translation of the plane by the translation 6 right and 2 down. you are performing a translation. 4) gives (-3.-2) = (3. If you translate a parabola y = x2 by (3. y) in the preimage of the triangle will be translated 6 right and 2 down to a corresponding point (x′ . Every point (x. This is shown on the drawing as the movement of a triangle. The translation can be expressed as an ordered pair (6. The language of translations depends on the application. Applying this to the vertex (-3. 1). This gives the equation (x. y ′ ). y ′ ). The picture shows that the corresponding vertex in the image triangle is (-1.

The shift is a translation in time. When it finishes the first line.” the second group will start singing. When you sing “Frere Jacques” or “Row. Translations have been used to build patterns in painting. is the basis of periodic functions. architecture. Shown below is a four-note theme from a Mozart symphony in C major transposed down to G major. row my boat. Meanwhile. This is called a glide reflection (right figure. gently down the stream. of the knight. A seed. Left: A translation pattern from Pueblo pottery. Each note has been shifted six piano notes down.halifax. This represents the translation. Chess players keep track of games and communicate with distant players using this coordinate system or the similar algebraic system. row. When the first group finishes the line “Row. and ceramics from ancient Greeks to medieval Celts to contemporary Acoma Pueblo potters in New Mexico. the third group will start. Right: A glide reflection— a translation alternated with a reflection.TRANSLATIONS 145 Coordinate notation indicates the starting square for the piece and the ending square. weaving. Row. Row My Boat” with other people. Another design is based on translating the basic figure. or move. The simple translation of a simple seed figure. Translations.musictheory.htm> Music <http://www.ns. Songs that are melodious when the start is shifted by line are called rounds. below). The basic ribbon pattern is based on repeated translations of a simple design (see the left figure below). such as the two nodes of the sine function from 0° to 360° can be translated in 360° moves to create the full periodic function of the sine.ca/20key_trans. as in the left illustration. and reflections of “seed” patterns are fundamental in designing quilt patterns. rotations. the first two groups continue singing.html> ▼ ▲ ▲ . (See Periodic Functions.com/Cyrion7/celtic/index.) online sources for further exploration Art <http://hometown. Transposition from C major to G major. Shifts in musical keys are called transpositions. it is likely that you separate into groups. The white knight can move B1-C3. then reflecting it.aol.

Therefore the height of the flagpole. the height of the transit will need to be added to this calculation in order to obtain the same answer calculated earlier. tan 35◦ = length above transit .5 meters off of the ground. Suppose you measure a distance 10 meters away from a flagpole along the ground. such as a flagpole.4 meters. Sometimes the angle of elevation is recorded from an object above the ground. If the angle measurement is not taken from the ground. . such as a transit sitting on a tripod.9 meters. as illustrated. tan θ (pronounced tangent) should be used. only a side length and an angle measurement are needed to determine the length of an object. because they can find large or hard-to-measure distances without having to measure them. 10 Engineers use transits to measure angles of tall or hard-to-reach objects. if the transit is 1. after setting up an equation using the tangent function. approximately 8. the height of a flagpole or a tall building can be determined using a measured distance from the pole and an angle of elevation from the ground (see below). In this case. one of the following three ratios can be used to find the flag height of the poll: sin θ = opposite hypotenuse cos θ = adjacent hypotenuse tan θ = opposite adjacent . In right-triangle trigonometry. The missing length will be approximately 6. For example. because the opposite side from the angle of elevation θ is unknown (the height of the flagpole). then the angle of elevation would be approximately 35° (see the following figure). This information is useful to engineers. You record an angle of elevation at that point equal to 40°. and the adjacent side is the distance along the ground of 10 meters. The height of a tall object. can be found by solving the equation tan 40◦ = flagpole . as depicted. To find the 10 complete flagpole length. then the height of the tripod will need to be included in the final calculation. In a situation involving right triangles.146 TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY Trigonometry can be used to find unknown lengths or angle measurements. can be determined with trigonometry by measuring a distance along the ground and an angle of elevation. In this case.

the ship’s navigator can determine the angle in which to rotate the boat so that it does not move off course. such as a flagpole. it will actually veer off course by 17.8° can be found by solving the equation cos θ = 42 .8°.TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY 147 A transit can be used to measure the angle of elevation to help determine the height of a tall object. Boats need to turn an angle by θ against the current in order to account for the force of it so that they can head in the most direct path towards the shore. the navigator of a ship will try to minimize the traveling distance by adjusting the direction of the boat to account for the water’s current. the unknown 40 angle of 17. If the current is moving parallel to the waterfront. To find an angle measurement. This means that if the boat moves straight towards its journey. For example. it will veer almost one-third of a mile off course for every mile traveled. the ship’s navigator will have to turn the boat 17. or cos−1 (40/42). To avoid this problem. If the boat is still headed straight without accounting for the current. Substituting the given values in this relationship. Right-triangle trigonometry can be used to determine an unknown angle based on two lengths. The current will push the boat off course if it is trying to reach a destination directly across the river. Air-traffic control at small airports must establish the cloud height in the evening to determine if there is enough visibility for pilots to safely land their planes. Suppose that the ship is moving perpendicular to the shore at 40 feet per second and is recording a land speed of 42 feet per second. Using the cosine of the angle cos θ. and the observer’s angle of ele- . A light source directed at a constant angle of 70° towards the clouds situated 1. The sum of the height of the transit and the leg of the right triangle along the flagpole represents the total height of the flagpole. the inverse cosine of the ratio. Applications of right-triangle trigonometry also exist in areas outside of surveying and navigation. The cosine function is used in this case.8° away from the perpendicular path and against the current in order to travel directly across the river. then the speed of the boat observed from land will be greater due to the push from the current. needs to be entered on the calculator. because the two measurements known are the adjacent (the boat speed) and hypotenuse (the land speed) sides of the right triangle.000 feet from an observer.

In these cases. In this situation. with horizontal ground visibility of at least three miles. and x + y = 1. the equations tan θ = h . The law of sines states that the ratio of the sine of an angle to the side length of its opposite side is proportional for all opposite angle and side pairs. probably less than 5°. All triangle applications finding unknown sides or angles. in triangle ABC. suppose an office needs to install a ramp that is inclined at most 5° from the ground. The pilot can also use right-triangle trigonometry to determine the moment when a plane needs to descend towards the airport. assuming that the plane descends at the same a angle until it reaches the ground. the pilot tries to anticipate the opportunity to descend towards the airport at a small angle. In addition to wheelchair ramps. 000 y x can be used to find the cloud height. are sufficient information to determine the cloud height (see below).000 feet. tan 70° = h . Based on the plane’s altitude. are not always situated in settings where a right triangle is used. a similar equation can be set up to determine the angle by which to pave a driveway so that an automobile does not scrape its bumper on the curb upon entering and leaving. as shown in the following figure. If the plane descends at a large angle. Based on this information. either the law of sines or law of cosines can be applied. it would be difficult for handicapped people to move up the ramp on their own. sin A = sin B = sin C . That is. however. Determining the cloud height. since it is unlikely that one will be able to find the distance from the base of a hill or mountain to its center. With a descent angle of 3° and altitude a. the plane should start its approach at a distance of tan 3◦ feet away from the airport. If the incline is too great. For example.148 TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY vation θ to the spotlight in the clouds. Consequently. Construction workers can determine the length of a wheelchair ramp based on restrictions for its angle of elevation. h. the architect and construction workers can determine the number of turns needed in the ramp so that it will fit on the property and stay within the angle-of-elevation regulations. air-traffic control at the airport can determine the point at which the plane should begin to descend. Planes can safely land if the cloud height is above 1. If a person measures an angle of elevaa b c . One example of applying the law of sines is to find the height of a hill or a mountain. the passengers may feel uneasy due to a quick drop in altitude and also may not adjust well to changes in pressure.

A similar type of investigation would also be needed for bridge designers or tunnel developers. can help engineers determine the amount of railway needed to build a funicular to transport materials. and the location of the intersection of the other two roads in order to predict the distance of the new road. but straight up in the air! The law of cosines is a theorem used in triangle trigonometry to find the measurement of a side when two sides and an included angle are given. the contractor needs to determine the angle formed between the existing roads. where a. m C. and then right-triangle trigonometry can be used to find the hill’s height. This length of a. and c are sides of the triangle (the length of the roads). a surveyor takes measurements c = 1. 1. and then repeats the measurement at a given distance away. tion from the base of the hill to its peak. . That is a length equal to about four football fields. or to find the measurement of an angle when three sides are given. Actually. which is approximately 1. given the length of two adjacent roads and angle C—the angle between the existing road. In this case.000 The 32° angle opposite the 1. h. In this case. The length of a newly paved road can be determined using the law of cosines. Since the distance traveled is proportional to the amount of cement used.TRIANGLE TRIGONOMETRY 149 The height of a hill can be determined using the law of sines and right-triangle trigonometry by measuring the angles of elevation at points A and B.243 feet. it can first be used to find the length along the side of the hill.000 foot distance can be found by using the fact that the sum of the angles in a triangle is equal to 180°.287 feet. and the distance between points A and B. the formula c2 = a2 + b2 − 2ab cos C will help determine the amount of cement needed to connect the roads. Solve the equation sin 75° = h 1. approximately 1. b. 000 feet apart and measures angles of elevation to the tip of the hill equal to m < B = 75° and m < A = 43°. For example. Since a right triangle is in the diagram. a. a publicworks contractor can determine the amount of cement needed to pave a new road that intersects two other intersecting roads in town (to form a triangle). the law of sines can be used to find the height of the hill. or the amount of cable needed to build a gondola line for skiing. and C is the angle included between the existing roads a and b. as shown below. can be set up using the ◦ 43◦ law of sines: sin 32 = sina .287 to determine the height of the hill. The following equation to find the length alongside the hill. right-triangle trigonometry can be used to find the hill’s height.

bcit. and televisions have ideal viewing distances in order to create the greatest possible image from the eye. can be found by identifying their angles from the horizon during an eclipse. we say they are directly related.htm> Civil engineering and navigation <http://www. and using distance information about the earth and sun.html> <http://www.html> Cable television <http://www.htm> Pipe flow <http://www.coe.htm> Inclined ramp <http://www. The constant of variation is π.html> Height of a tree <http://jwilson.amtsgym-sdbg.bcit.math.math. paintings.uga.wake. The formula for circumference c of a circle in terms of radius r is c = 2πr. The area of a circle is directly related to the square of the radius. motion pictures. online sources for further exploration Astronomy and geography <http://www.edu/projects/k12-fall98/14545/Group1/app.ece.math. Astronomers use triangle trigonometry to determine distances and sizes of objects. Mathematically.math. For instance. The independent variable can be a power.bcit. The triangle is formed between the view and the top and bottom (or the sides) of the viewing object.utexas.com/trig/trig13.nc. A = πr2 .edu/emt725/Kite/kite. the distance from the earth to the moon.tec. and earth to the sun.ca/examples/ary_12_3/ary_12_3.geocities. The height of a solar flare can also be determined by measuring the angle from the sun to the tip of the flare. where k is a nonzero constant called the constant of variation.ca/examples/ary_8_3/ary_8_3.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ VARIATION When two quantities increase proportionally.us/math/Projects/Raychem/deb-raychem_trig.htm> Saturn’s mass and distance from earth <http://www.com/Hollywood/Academy/8245/trigonometry.ca/examples/ary_15_3/ary_15_3.bcit. Kepler’s .dk/as/AOL-SAT/SATURN.150 VARIATION Triangle trigonometry has many other applications that help find unknown lengths or angle measurements.ca/examples/ary_17_3/ary_17_3.HTM> Surveying <http://www. For example.htm> <http://catcode. The constant of variation is 2π. the two quantities x and y must be related as y = kx.

where c is the change in the number of organisms. In this equation. where A is the surface area and s is the length of an edge. it follows that s = A . the semimajor axis provides the measure of distance. If you must travel 200 miles at a constant rate. Biologists and medical scientists have provided formulas for the surface area of a human-being’s skin. The constant of variation is 3 π. Since the area of a cube is A = 6s2 . The volume V varies 3 1 jointly as the radius r squared and the height h. s = V 3 .2 people. The change formula for Mexico would be the direct variation formula.425 H 0. V = LW H . Using the formula to predict the change in population for 1995 to 1996 gives.1 million people.725 power of height in centimeters. and height H is expressed in the formula. Many geometry formulas are in joint variation. width W . c = 0. A = 71. The DuBois formula relates area in square centimeters jointly to the 0. c = 1.725 . and height. t r varies inversely as r.6 square meters. (See Inverse Square Function. The volume of a cylinder is V = 1 πr2 h. P is the population count before change.) Inverse variation occurs when the variables are related through a reciprocal.02P . The volume varies jointly as length. and for the average adult female.8 square meters.822 million people. Because Kepler’s first law stated that planets circle the sun in elliptical paths.VARIATION 151 third law of planetary motion uses a fractional power. The constant of variation is 200. Mexico’s population was 91. about 1.84W 0. and r is the rate of change. It was increasing at a rate of 2. The change in a population undergoing rapid growth (see Exponential Growth ) is c = rP . The length of the edge varies directly as the cube root √ of the volume V . the distance-rate-time formula says that 200 = rt.) The law of the lever is an inverse variation. The distance d from the fulcrum in feet needed to stabilize the seesaw with a person who weights w pounds is . The formula estimates the surface area for the average adult male to be about 1.425 power of weight in kilograms and the 0. The constant of variation is 1. say M people. Many geometry formulas can be expressed as direct variation. The independent variable can be a power. Change in a population varies jointly as the current population and the available capacity for people. The period T of a planet’s orbit around the sun is proportional to the 3/2 power of its distance R from the sun. The length of an edge varies directly as the square root 6 of surface area of the cube. This leads to a more complex pattern of growth. If there is a limit to the population of a country. then the change formula would be c = kP (M − P ). For example. T = kR3/2 . Joint variation occurs when the dependent variable varies directly as the product of two or more independent variables. width. The change for the following year would be based on 92. the intensity I of light falling on an object varies k inversely as the square of the distance d from the light. (See Logistic Functions. In 1995. Population biologists use different kinds of variation to express rates of change. The volume of a rectangular solid having length L. Solving for t gives the equation t = 200 . The formula is I = d2 .0 percent per year.

It may seem strange that both masses have disappeared.000.000 miles above the surface of the earth. and inversely as the square of the distance between them: F = Gm1 m2 . then the force applied varies inversely with the number of pulleys used. W ≈ 16. The formula works if one of the planets is the earth and the other “planet” is a person high above the earth’s surface. are related with the equation. the length of the board L. r is the distance in meters between the centers of two planets. 170 = 4. w. such as in feet rather than meters and pounds rather than kilograms. and m1 and m2 are the mass of each planet in kilograms. If the weight is constant. The constant of variation would be different if measurements are made in different units. Solving for k yields. needed to move an object. a four-pulley system needs a 25 pound force to move the 100 pound weight. and k is a constant. Compound variation combines direct and indirect variation with two or more independent variables. Consider a 170 pound astronaut who is 9.72 × 109 .000 . the amount of force needed to move the object decreases proportionally. because half the weight is distributed at the other pulleys. The gravitational force between two planets varies directly as the product of the masses of the planets. where W is the weight above the planet. f = w/p.09. the value of k would change. As the number of pulleys in the system increases.720. p. The astronaut would weigh about 16 pounds. d is the distance between the person and the center of the earth. f .000 miles from the center of the earth gives.33-pound force to move the 100 pound weight. where F is the force in newtons. how far away will Juan. the weight of the object. Using this formula with the distance d = d2 13.0002 . How much does he weigh at that altitude? First write the equation for his weight at the surface of the earth.33. It simplifies to an inverse-variation formula for the weight of a body above the k earth: W = d2 . Since the radius of the earth is about 4. The inverse-square formula is therefore W = 2. and movers use pulleys to transport cumbersome or heavy objects such as pianos into tall buildings. G d2 is a gravitational constant (6. so k = 500. The deflection D of a diving board is a function of the weight W of the diver.67 × 10−11 newton-meters per square kilogram). and so on. Elevator shafts rely on pulleys to move the cabin. have to sit in order to balance Jane? Use Jane’s data to find the constant of variation k: 5 = k/100. the number of pulleys needed in a system. but they are handled by the constant. If Jane weighs 100 pounds and sits 5 feet from the fulcrum.000 k miles. . k = 2.152 VARIATION k d = w . Juan would have to sit 3 feet 4 inches from the fulcrum in order to balance Jane. Now solve for Juan’s distance: d = 500/150 = 3. the elasticity E of the material making up the board. A 100 pound weight can feel like a 50 pound weight when it is moved by a two-pulley system. If she were to change position or be replaced by someone else. The force. Note that the constant k was computed from Jane’s statistics. who weighs 150 pounds. Therefore a three-pulley system needs a 33. Pulley systems are a series of ropes and wheels that help lift and support heavy objects by distributing weight in multiple locations.

use that constant to . The three-dimensional graph below shows the resistance (vertical axis) of copper wire wrapped into a coil. which is measured in ohms. 108 .002 to 0. and is inversely related to viscosity and the length of tube. because the radius is squared in the formula. right to left. L is the length of the tube. and R is the resistance in a particular conductor. However. The simple form of Poiseuille’s law states that the speed S at which blood moves through arteries and veins varies directly with the blood pressure P and the fourth power of the radius r of the blood vessel: S = kP r4 . For example. The coefficient of variation. and k is a constant of variation. 3EI Ohm’s law is a direct variation statement V = IR. where V is voltage. would be the resistivity divided by π. If resistance in a wire must be reduced. and inversely as its cross-sectional area A: R = ρL . carbon. The axis runs. electrical resistance R in a wire varies directly as its length L.01 m. The length does not appear to affect results.35 × 10−8 . radii under 5 mm send the resistance soaring. The axis on the right shows how long the wire would be if it were unwrapped. or you could use a wire with a larger radius. Resistance of coiled copper wire for wire diameters from 0. In this version. Some laws appear in different forms of variation depending on the situation. and wood. Resistance is measured in ohms and will vary across different wires. R. In general. where ∆P is nL the change in pressure from the beginning of a tube to the end. and second.VARIATION 153 and the moment of inertia I of the cross section of the board. from 0 to 1. which relates to flow F rather than speed 4 (flow is speed times cross-section area of the tube): F = k∆P r . then the variation is R = kL . The constant of variA ation is called resistivity and has been computed for many materials: gold has a resistivity of 2. and lengths from 0 to 1200 m. flow is directly related to the change in pressure and fourth power of tube radius. r is the radius of the tube. r2 k. which is used to determine the flow of oil through pipes and also fluids through tubes in an automobile. The lower-left axis shows the radius in meters of wire running from 2 mm up to 1 cm (0.50 × 10−5 . is constant of variation for the particular conductor. solving variation problems involves two steps: first. The latter might have the most payoff. where ρ is the constant of variation. solve for the constant of variation in a known situation. there are two routes: you could shorten the wire. I is current. This is derived from Poiseuille’s law for the flow of fluids. 3. If one assumes that the wire is round. n is a measure of viscosity of the fluid.200 meters. The variation for3 mula is D = k W L .01 meter).

apco1650.arizona.ivv. Turn left at the stop sign. Go another two blocks to the stoplight. Many people use vectors to give directions.jcoffman. “Go down this street six blocks.cs.html &e=747> Population growth described in Annenberg Math in Everyday Life <http://www.sasked.gov.org/science/kepler.html> Fan laws <http://www.html> Kepler’s laws <http://www.gov/nasa/education/reference/orbits/orbit3.edu/ES/humsoc/Galileo/Student_Work/Experiment95/galileo_pendulum.google. (See Proportions.sk.jfbdtp.htm> <http://observe. distance.L31.htm> Diving <http://library.uk/fdr.html> Ventilation <http://human.htm> Galilieo’s pendulum experiments <http://es.nasa.com/> ▲ ▼ ▲ VECTORS Vectors emerged from the study of physical situations in which two or more forces were applied to an object.154 VECTORS rewrite the formula and evaluate the dependent value for the unknown situation. Turn left at the stoplight at Maple .physiol.com/Murphy.) online sources for further exploration Applications of variation <http://www.demon. and interference <http://www.com/url?sa=U&start=7&q=http://www. Variation problems can also be solved with proportions.org/exhibits/dailymath/population.htm> Financial hedging <http://www. or force being measured.rice.ca/docs/physics/u5c42phy.xrefer. html> Formulas that show different variation can be found in XREF <http://www. A vector is a directed line segment whose length is proportional to the time.org/28170/34.edu/~rjensen/000overview/mp3/138intro.co.iln.thinkquest.asp> <http://www.html> Murphy’s law of locksmithing <http://www. resonance.cvc.html> Harmonics.trinity.net/html_p/c/72782/62079/53795/53836/58708_58712.com/Algebra2/ch9_2.edu/SCHED/Respiration/Morgan31/Morgan.learner.

Its vector a is drawn 45° clockwise from north. airplane design.43 pounds. and statistics. The three units represent 15 pounds of force. Sarah pulls with 25 pounds of force.5°. The plane will be blown somewhat off course. computer graphics. but they come close. Complete the resultant vector r and compute its length and direction. r2 = s2 + j 2 − 2sj cos θ r2 = 252 + 152 − 2(25)(15) cos 160°. The vector for Sarah. Vectors showing James j and Sarah s pulling on a wagon.) The obtuse angle in the triangle is formed by two sides and the diagonal is 160°. From the Vector diagram for an airplane headed northeast that is blown off course by a wind 10° south of east. The parallelogram law in physics states that the resultant vector r is the diagonal of the parallelogram that is formed with sides parallel to the vectors. the forces don’t add to the total possible for Sarah and James (40 pounds of force). Using the law of sines computes the angle between r and j to be about 12. The next figure shows an airplane pointed due northeast at 400 miles per hour. A 90-mile-per-hour wind is blowing 10° south of east. What is the net direction and force on the wagon? The James vector j is drawn along the x-axis of the grid.VECTORS 155 Street. The wind vector w is shown at 10° clockwise from east. What is its direction and ground speed? The situation depicted indicates directions in degrees according to navigation conventions.” Applications of vectors appear in physics. The angle between the plane vector and the wind vector is 55°. It is drawn 20° from j. The same kind of analysis applies to paths of airplanes. Go southwest eight blocks on Maple. navigation. representing 25 pounds of force. Because they are pulling at an angle. is 5 units long. Sarah and James are pulling a wagon. They are pulling at an angle of 20°. (See Quadrilaterals. s. Solving for r yields a force of 39. indicated by the diagonal of the parallelogram. . and James with 15 pounds. By the law of cosines (see Triangle Trigonometry). In the illustration below. Their resultant force is r.

The length of Sarah’s vector would be |s| = 25. The lengths of the vectors are written with the absolute value sign. use the formulas x = d cos θ and y = d sin θ. (See Angle for computations of the path of a projectile. 30◦ ]. To convert a vector in polar form v = [d.–4. an easy-to-remember extension of the two-component model. d). However. The effectiveness of component-form vecw| tors comes when vectors operate in more dimensions. and the angle second. use the Pythagorean theorem: |s| = (25 cos 20◦ )2 + (25 sin 20◦ )2 = 25. v2 w2 . The length of r is about 458 miles per hour. The addition of vectors in component form is done by the addition of coordinates. This is called the component form. Algebra can be used to determine how far the ball has traveled horizontally when it hits the ground. 8. 25 sin 20◦ ) ≈ (23. Lengthening a vector by a scale factor k is given by kv = (ka. the parallelogram law requires that the vector sum be v + w = (a + c. b + d).y). The component form is b = (70t cos 30◦ . 70t sin 30◦ − 4. 70t sin 30◦ ). v2 . bd). Component form makes it easier to handle problems involving gravity. θ] to component form.3°.50. (See Triangle Trigonometry. The dot product is used in the formula for the cosine of an angle v• between two vectors: cos θ = |v||w . Further. the dot product of v = (v1 . . So the direction would be about 45◦ − 9. If a golf ball is hit with an impact of 70 meters/second at a 30° angle. v3 w3 ). The angle between a and r is about 9.) Vector descriptions of motions and forces are used to describe the collisions of atomic particles. b) and w = (c. James’ vector would be j = [15. gravity provides a force vector that reduces vertical distance as g = (0. v3 ) and w = (w1 .) When vectors are written as an ordered pair. and the movements of stars and galaxies. kb). w2 . Even though the airplane would be pointed northeast. where time t is given in seconds.3◦ north of east.156 VECTORS law of cosines r2 = 4002 + 902 − 2(400)(90) cos 125◦ . w3 ) is v • w = (v1 w1 . but the algebra of vectors is easier to work with in Cartesian-coordinate form (x. For three-dimensional space. Component form has operations that are somewhat like multiplication. the equation for the cosine of the angle between two vectors looks exactly the same. A graph would show the golf ball traveling upwards into space at an angle of 30° from the ground.3◦ = 35. Sarah’s polar vector would be s = (25 cos 20◦ . 20◦ ].9t2 ). The vector addition of the ball and gravity gives a parabolic path produced by b + g = (70t cos 30◦ . the length is written first. even though there is an additional dimension.To reconstruct the length of Sarah’s vector from component form. If v = (a.9t2 ). The dot product of two vectors is given by v • w = (ac. Polar form is a natural way of presenting force vectors. d). The brackets indicate that the vector is written in polar-coordinate form.) Sarah’s vector would be written as s = [25. where v = (a. b) and w = (c. the distance of the ball (ignoring wind resistance and gravity) is given by the vector b = [70t. but yet different. the interaction of chemical substances. 0◦ ]. (See Polar Coordinates.55). from the ground it would appear to be traveling only 35.3° north of east.

dot product.70. Our correlation coefficient for science and math tests (r = 0. students who scored high on science also scored high on math. The science vector is s = (5. The deviation scores form vectors with five components. Because it is a cosine. science raw score X math raw score Y science math deviation score deviation score x y student Albert Manuel Bonnie Sharon Elena average (mean) 85 80 81 79 75 80 25 17 23 18 17 20 5 0 1 -1 -5 5 -3 3 -2 -3 Test data on five students.22 for s and 3. but they are also measuring something that is the same for all students. 1. In a space of five dimensions. Deviation scores are computed by taking the test score minus the mean (e. 0.83 with math scores.. These are about 3. the computation produces the standard deviation for each vector. Computations with the vectors give the lengths to be √ √ |s| = 52 + 02 + 12 + (−1)2 + (−5)2 = 52 and |m| = 56.-2. We say that for this group of students. and angle between vectors scale up to many dimensions. Correlations at +1 (angle θ = 0◦ ) and -1 (angle θ = 180◦ ) indicate that the vectors are collinear. This coefficient of determination is r2 = 0. Generally. The square of the cosine provides a measure of overlap. 3.34 for m. they are opposites. The math vector is m = (5. When each of these lengths is scaled by the reciprocal of the square root of 1 dimensions. This is called the correlation coefficient for the two vectors and is commonly designated with the letter r.. the correlation coefficient r ranges from -1 to +1. In the second case (r = -1). xBonnie = 81 − 80 = 1.-3. Consider the test-score data on five students shown in the table below. these vectors are separate enough that each one is measuring some underlying skills that are different for different students. (See Standard Deviation for uses and formulas. It . vector mathematics adapts well to statistical computations.5°.-3).) The cosine of the angle between the two vectors is cos θ = s•m |s ||m| = 5(5)+0(−3)+1(3)+(−1)(−2)+(−5)(−3) √ √ 52 56 ≈ 0.VECTORS 157 Since the concepts of addition. In the first case (r = 1). Correlations close to 0 (angle θ = 90◦ ) indicate that the vectors are going in different directions. the vectors are pulling in the same direction.g. √5 . -5).-1. science scores correlate 0.83) corresponds to an angle between the vectors of about 33. yElena = 17 − 20 = -3).832 ≈ 0.83 .

v3 ) and w = (w1 . If close to 90°. The cross product is a vector. This is the raster graphic phase. The vector computations (the vector-graphic phase) are then transferred into the display device as light intensity and color for the different points (pixels) that would be visible. w3 ) is defined as v × w = (v2 w3 − v3 w2 . they examine the correlations among all the variables to determine how the number of dimensions of the original space can be reduced to fewer. A spinning wheel. If you ride a bike very fast. The cross-product vector v × w is perpendicular to the plane formed by the vectors v and w. v2 . produces a force called torque. Sketches in the notebooks of the Wright brothers one hundred years ago show computation of vector forces on the different wings they tried before achieving the first airplane flight. This is a force that is perpendicular to the plane of rotation. Its relationship to the plane formed by v and w is shown in the figure. v3 w1 − v1 w3 . like the disk in a gyroscope. stronger.158 VECTORS indicates that 70 percent of the variability in math scores is accounted for by the variability in science scores. the torque isn’t very strong. Computer-graphic programmers use orthogonal vectors to determine how light sources would hit surfaces visible in a computer game or architectural image. The cross product is said to be orthogonal to the plane. you will feel resistance as you try to tilt the bicycle to the left or right. The cross product of v = (v1 . The cross product is computed for surfaces of airplanes or boat hulls. so you must use some pressure to produce a tilt. Some computer files store images as vectors (the rules that create the image). and more interpretable dimensions. When statisticians work with many scores. If the angles are close to 0°. computer-graphic designers present realistic scenes to the viewer. so it is easy to tilt the bike and fall. making for a smoother ride for passengers. then the light will be shown at full intensity. The angles between the light rays from an external source to orthogonal vectors on the surface are computed. v1 w2 − v2 w1 ). The torque produces a force that counters the movement from waves. w2 . In the case of three dimensions. By controlling the brilliance of pixels on the screen according to vector computations. The torque produced by the spinning wheels will try to maintain its direction. the operation of cross product provides a way to compute perpendiculars to planes. Large cruise ships have gyroscopes with heavy wheels that spin rapidly. and some files keep the bitmap of the image (a snapshot of the pixel intensity). This is not a recent concept. The direction of air or water currents across the surfaces is modeled by the angles that the currents make with vectors that are orthogonal to the surface. then the light is reaching the surface with minimal intensity. Postscript files contain . If you are traveling slowly.

edu/~obonfim/Phys100. Even a sheet of paper has volume.html> <http://www.html> Vectors in text <http://www.html> <http://www.k12.cis.rit.net/~zona/mstm/physics/mechanics/vectors/components/vector Components.html> <http://www.au/envis/hidden.html> Computer graphics <http://www.uk/~jenolive/homevec.html> <http://forum.il.explorescience.wdvl.edu/~klotz/Vectors/vectors. for descriptions of protein structures. then it could be stacked indefinitely without having any height.JPG are raster files.netcomuk. If an object.GIF or . such as paper.ati.edu/htbooks/mri/> Parachute vectors <http://www. although the high speed of modern processors makes this a negligible difference to the ordinary computer user.html> <http://id.reed.swarthmore. Graphics files on your computer that end in . Raster files display faster than vector files.enginemonitoring.de/ecalc3d.html> <http://www.glenbrook. because it has thickness. Almost every object we use has volume.html> <http://www. due to having depth.html> Magnetic Resonance Imaging (medical visualization) <http://www. does not have volume.sli.VOLUME 159 rules for generating graphics on printers and computer screens. Vector files (geometric files) are easier to modify than raster files.co. You can estimate the thickness of a sheet of . online sources for further exploration Animations of vector operations <http://www.greuer.edu.com/> Vector properties <http://www. Vector descriptions of images are used for computer identification of faces.com/Authoring/Graphics/Tools/PSP7/Text_Path/> ▲ ▼ ▲ VOLUME Volume describes the amount of space contained in a three-dimensional object.mind. and for the location of tumors in medical CAT scans.org/illum/illum.net/~imaging/vector_calculator.frontiernet. although a very thin one.com/na/pages/resource_centre/dev_rel/sdk/RadeonSDK/Html/ Tutorials/RadeonBumpMap. and use vector concepts in drawing letters as well as pictures. for translating handwriting into computer text.unimelb.us/gbssci/phys/Class/vectors/u3l1a.

160 VOLUME paper by measuring the height of a ream of paper and then dividing by 500 sheets. the spherical scoops lie on top of a cone that is empty inside. and volume. since density. you would divide the volume of the prism formed by the ream by the number of sheets of paper in the ream.53 . the cola will need to be emptied into cans for distribution. since it is not exposed to the outside air temperature. Canned and boxed foods are often sold by their mass. When a driveway for a new house is planned. because the contents will have settled and filled air pockets. Construction workers who use concrete consider the amount of cement needed to complete a job. Cola companies need large tanks. The cone keeps the ice cream inside it from melting more quickly. In addition to packaging food. companies that produce fragile items need to consider the volume of additional materials that are needed. If each gallon is equivalent to 128 fluid ounces.333/24 ≈ 2. v. whose ratio 3 is approximately 0.333). is the ratio of mass.200 (53. m.5 cm. or packing bubbles.512. sphere. If the item being shipped is in the form of a geometric solid. Knowing the density of the substance can help determine the amount of volume it will use in a container. Once created. Hence. or cylinder. to find the volume of the sheet of paper. shredded paper. An ice cream cone with a height of 8 cm and base radius of 2 cm can hold close to half of a scoop of ice cream with radius 2. suppose a crystal ball with a radius of 2 inches is shipped in a cubical container with an edge length of 6 inches. The volume of ice cream inside the cone will gradually increase as the temperature of the ice cream rises and pressure is applied at the top of the cone. Nonuniform products that contain air pockets such as potato chips and v cereal will often have additional empty volume when a package is opened.000 soft drinks (128. In terms of an equation. such as Styrofoam. such as a prism. Manufactures think about volume as they build containers for their products. and over 2. d = m .222) cases for distribution. then 5.000 ounces of cola are available to produce a little more than 53. Ice cream cones are constructed so that the ice cream drips inside of the cone as it melts. usually cylindrical.000/12 ≈ 53. The volume of packaging material needed to surround the crystal ball would be: the volume of the cube 4 minus the volume of the sphere = 63 − 3 π • 23 ≈ 182 cubic inches. its . That is almost 85 percent of the space in the box! Beverage production and distillation centers use the concept of volume to determine how many containers can be filled based on their available raw materials. The amount of insulated packaging needed would be equal to the difference between the volume of the box and the volume of the item. Suppose a 5. to mix the raw ingredients needed to create soft drinks. This is determined by dividing the volume of 1 the cone 3 π • 22 • 8 by the volume of the spherical scoop 4 π • 2. For example. pyramid. d. then the volume can be predicted with an equation. When ice cream is served.000 gallon tank of cola is ready to be dispersed into 12 ounce cans.000 × 128 = 128. or the amount of wood needed to make the paper.

541.bcit. Suppose a driveway 12 feet wide and 30 feet long is needed for a new home. the spill could have covered nearly 2.000.000 ⋆ 1/100) square inches of the surface of the water.math. There are 5.000. Alaska.5 billion (254.ca/examples/ary_8_1/ary_8_1. and 12 inches in a foot. If a bag of cement mixture prepares 0. There are 231 cubic inches in a gallon.html> . and the cement poured needs to be 1. online sources for further exploration Aluminum tanks <http://www. Benjamin Franklin was one of the first to determine that very little oil will spread out over a huge area of water. The dispersion of an oil spill can be predicted based on the amount of oil that is lost.VOLUME 161 dimensions need to be measured so that an appropriate amount of cement is brought to the site.com/gear/tankspecs.000. multiple trucks will be needed to carry the 60. Therefore the amount of cement needed is (12)(30)(1. so the spill had an approximate volume of 254 billion (231 × 11. 1989. The volume of cement needed to complete this job can be determined by the product of its dimensions. at the beaches. If the path of the oil dispersed in the shape of a circle. the spill will disperse in nearly a circular region. The direction of the spill is influenced by the placement of the spill and the direction of the ocean’s current.75 cubic feet of concrete.100.000) cubic inches of oil. and then converting the inch units to miles. even though no one in Franklin’s time knew about molecules.com/volume.280 feet in one mile. Since each bag is about a hundred pounds. Assuming that the floor is flat.280 × 12 = 63. since the cement will fill into a rectangular prism.overflite.25) = 450 cubic feet.htm> Balloon volumes <http://www.360 inches for every mile. What if the spill had happened in the middle of the ocean? Imagine the effect of spilling water in an open space on the floor. Thousands of marine animals and fish were killed by the oil that contaminated the water. On March 24. then it could have spread in a radius of close to half a mile.000 pound load. it typically leaves a layer that is 1/100 inch thick on the surface of the water. This information can be determined by solving for r in the equation πr2 = 2. His work actually gave one of the first estimates of the thickness of a molecule of oil.000. then the cement truck will need to contain 600 bags of mixture in order to create the driveway.100.000. As oil spreads.html> Application to environmental health <http://www.fifthd. Therefore the conversion is 5. the oil tanker Exxon Valdez struck Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound. much of the oil had brushed on shore.25 feet deep so that it will not break apart under pressure from automobiles or extreme temperatures. If the oil had spilled in the middle of the ocean without land interference. In this circumstance. spilling more than 11 million gallons of oil.000 = 254.

grapl.com/tn6.edu/flaky.html> Measurement microphones <http://www.edu/cara/southpole.htm> Unit converter <http://www. ice.shodor.josephson.html> How big are your lungs? <http://www.sierrahome.162 VOLUME Blood pressure <http://www.ac.htm> Volume of an irregular solid <http://jwilson.html> Tank volume <http://www.org/master/biomed/physio/cardioweb/application.ex.troy.phys.coe.edu/emt725/Envir/Volume.jsp> Density of water.html> ▲ ▼ ▲ .com/tools/landscaping/volumeandcost_calc.lsu.txt> Spherical polytropes <http://www.html> <http://www.uga.k12.html> Cost for landscaping <http://gardening. and snow <http://astro.webcom.uchicago.com/legacysy/convert2/volume.edu/students/valencic/approject1.uk/cimt/dictunit/ccvol.us/schools/ths/ths_biology/labs_online/school_labs/print_ versions/lung_lab_school_print.com/vmlnotes/examples/tank_volume.ny.

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S. A. Z. D. et al. M. et al. Feldman. H. Foresman. IL: Scott. Census Bureau. Foresman. W. F. A. Usiskin.. (1999). Freeman. Glenview. Neff. New York: W. IL: Scott. Zitzewitz. 2nd ed. York. (1992).S. Situated Cognition and the Learning of Mathematics. S.).. DC: U. H. Watson. Census Bureau. Coxford. Hirschhorn. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 119th Edition.. S. New York: Glencoe. UCSMP Geometry. C. and R.BIBLIOGRAPHY 165 U. McCabe. Physics Principles and Problems. Moore. (Ed. Washington. (1998). Davis. P. Z. Glenview. (1995). (1998). . D. P. D. UCSMP Transition Mathematics. Davids. UK: QED. Usiskin. and G. The Practice of Statistics. 2nd ed. Yates.S. (1999)..

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he was instructional supervisor of mathematics at Glenbrook South High School in Glenview. for twenty-seven years. candidate at the University of Georgia in the Department of Instructional Technology.D. He has written in the mathematics and technology areas. Using Internet Primary Sources to Teach Critical Thinking Skills in Mathematics. . Before his retirement. GLAZER is a Ph. Illinois. He has written many publications in the field of K–12 mathematics. JOHN W. His book. was published in 2001 by Greenwood Press. Illinois. earning his doctorate in mathematics education from Northwestern University. and a former mathematics teacher at Glenbrook South High School in Glenview. including three textbooks in the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project. MCCONNELL is a lecturer at North Park University.About the Authors EVAN M.

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