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After knowing how to present data in tables and graphs, we must be able to describe them in terms of a single value, called the measure of central tendency, which gives a summary of the characteristics of a given set of data. The most commonly used measures of central tendency are the arithmetic mean or simply the mean, the median, and the mode. MEAN One of the simplest and the most efficient measures of central tendency, the mean is the sum of all the given values or items in a distribution divided by the number of values or items summed. Mean for Ungrouped Data To compute the mean for ungrouped data, we shall let x be the value of the mean, then by definition, we have: ∑x = sum of all the values in the distribution n = number of values in the distribution

Example: 1. Find the mean of 15, 20, 18, 35, 47, 39, 25, 29, 33, 22 Solution: X=

∑x

n

=

15 + 20 + 18 + 35 + 47 + 39 + 25 + 29 + 33 + 22 283 = 10 10

= 28.3

2. The ages of 12 students in a certain class were taken and shown: 21, 18, 22, 23, 18, 19, 17, 21, 20, 17, 16, and 24. Determine the mean age of the students. Solution: X=

∑x

n

=

21 + 18 + 22 + 23 + 18 + 19 + 17 + 21 + 20 + 17 + 16 + 24 236 = = 19.67 12 12

Weighted Mean In the computation of the mean of a set of data, there are some instances where each value in the distribution is associated with a certain weight or degree of importance called weighted mean. To compute the weighted mean, we have formulas:

x =

f 1 x 1 + f 2 x 2 + ... + x n f 1 + f 2 + ... + f n

or

x=

1 N

f ∑

i =1

n

i

xi

where N =

f ∑

i =1

n

i

Or simply

x =

∑f x N

00 )( 2) = 2.94 51 2..00 3 – unit credit 4 – unit credit 3 – unit credit 3 – unit credit 2 – unit credit x= (1.75 2. Find the mean weight of all students. 7 1 x = = 2. and 40 students reported the mean weights of 60.75 2.24 85 85 .25 )( 4) + ( 2.75 )( 3) + ( 2. A college student was taking six courses during one semester. + x n w 1 + w 2 + . His final grades were : Analytic Geometry : Physics : English : Humanities : Solid mensuration : Find his average grade.where: x = represent each of the items or value f = frequency of each item n = total number of frequency or x = w 1 x 1 + w 2 x 2 + .75 )( 3) + ( 2. Solution : 1.50 )( 3) + (1. 375 = = 63. Solution : x= (20 )( 60 ) + (25 )( 63 ) + ( 40 )( 65 ) 5. x = represent each of the items or value w = frequency of each item n = total number of weight xi 72 65 62 60 56 53 47 36 ∑f x N fi 3 5 2 7 12 8 6 8 fi x i 216 325 124 420 672 424 282 288 N = 51 f 5 ∑ i x i = 2. Three groups consisting of 20. 25.751 = 53 . 63 and 65 kg..25 2.50 1..07 15 3. + w n x= ∑w x N where: Examples : 1..

540 = 42. Compute the mean age. Age 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 60 61 – 70 71 – 80 Number of Vacationers (frequency) 5 7 12 22 8 4 2 Class Mark 15. the mean age of vacationers is 42.33 Coding or Deviation Method of Finding Mean The alternative method of computing the value of mean for grouped data is the Coding or Deviation Method.001.5 25.Mean for Grouped Data For grouped data.5 55. The sample information is organized into the following frequency distribution. in approximating the value of the mean. The next step is to construct the unit deviation column by assigning a deviation value of 0 to assumed class mean and the other class marks with successive integers. For conventional purposes. . a method using unit deviations instead of midpoints. The interval containing the assumed mean shall be referred to as the mean class.33 60 Thus. x = f ∑x n where: x = class mark f = corresponding frequency in each class n = total number of scores or observations Example 1.5 65.5 178.0 1.5 45.5 fx 77.0 151.540 To solve for the mean age : x= ∑f x n = 2.5 75. On arriving in Boracay. The first step in this method is to consider an arbitrary point. however.5 35. a sample of 60 vacationers asked their ages by the tourist Bureau. called midpoint of any class interval.0 n = ∑f = 60 ∑ f x = 2.5 426. the midpoint of the class interval with the highest frequency shall be the arbitrary value and shall be called the assumed mean.0 262. the mean is computed by the formula.0 444.

The products are added and the sum is divided by the sample size. Hence the formula will be: ∑fd x = xo + •c n Where: observations d = unit deviation Using Example 1. The result is then multiplied by the size of the class interval.5 + •10 60 ∑fd x = xo + •c n .5 35.5 65.5 45.5 25.5 n = 60 xo d -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 f d x0 = assumed mean C = size of the class interval ( class size ) f = frequency of each class n = total number of scores or -15 -14 -12 0 8 8 6 ∑f d = −19 −19 x = 45 .5 55. The final step is to determine the sum of the assumed mean and the product of the class interval and summation of the frequency multiplied by the unit deviation divided by n. Age 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 60 61 – 70 71 – 80 Number of Vacationers (frequency) 5 7 12 22 8 4 2 Class Mark (x) 15.The third step is to multiply the frequency by their corresponding unit deviations.5 75.

24.5 ∑f x n 2.5 .5 6.18.5 6. we usually arrange the data in increasing or decreasing order.5 Frequency 7 10 23 37 33 27 18 5 n =160 = Class Mark 29 26 23 20 17 14 11 8 fx 203 260 529 740 561 378 198 40 2909 x = 8 .5 18.5 12.5 .5 12.5 21.5 .21.15.5 24.9. then the median is the data value exactly in the middle of .18 160 Frequency 7 10 23 37 xo 33 27 18 5 160 Class Mark 29 26 23 20 17 14 11 8 d 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 fd 21 20 23 0 -33 -54 -54 -20 -97 − 97 x = 20 + •3 160 x = 8 .21.15.5 .5 .5 15.5 .24.1 1 8 x= Solution : Scores 27.x =4 .5 .5 15.5 .5 .5 .5 .5 24.5 .5 .30.9.12.1 1 8 ∑fd x = xo + •c n MEDIAN To determine the median.30.5 21.909 = 18.5 9.5 .18.5 .27. If the number of values of data is odd.5 9.12.5 .27.5 18.3 2 3 Example 2: Solve for the mean score of the given distribution Solution 1 : Scores 27.

then the median is the mean of the two middle values in the ordered list. 30. Example 1. 2. 82. therefore the median in this group is 82. 88. 2. 94 Since the number of values is odd the middle score is 82. 94.the ordered list. If the number of values of data is even. 35. 20 Solution : Arrange the scores in ascending order : 20. 85. 88 Solution : Arrange the scores in ascending order : 78. Example: 1. 80. we shall follow the steps below. Median far Grouped Data For grouped data. Find the median of the following values :23. 26. 29. the formula used to find the median is: n − ∑ f m −1 2 •C Median = L m + fm Where: Lm = refers to the lower boundary of the median class = cumulative frequency before that of the median class = frequency of the median class n = total number of scores or observations C = size of the class interval ( class size ) ∑ f m −1 fm To be able to apply the formula. 82. 78. 26. 79. 29. Find the: median of the following scores obtain by seven students in statistics if their scores were 79. 27. 80. in the form of a frequency distribution. Determine the lower boundary and the frequency of the median class and the size of the class interval. Find the median of the given distribution table. . 1. Determine the median class. 27. 85. Get ½ of the total number of value. 34. 30. 4. 23. Determine the value of cumulative frequency 3. 35 27 + 29 = 28 2 The median is 28. 34.

5 – 70.5 2.000 – 7.5 – 50.000 – 5.999.999.999.999. Compute the median sale of Aling Miling’s Store in a given month with the following frequency distribution : Sales P 1.5 70.23 Example 2 .999 P 7.999.999.5 4.5 <cf 2 5 11 19 26 28 30 Median class .5 – 5.000 – 4.5 50.000 – 2.999 P 4.5 – 3.5 – 2. the 30th of the data is in the fourth class with interval 40 – 50 2 2 L m = 40 .5 – 60.5 20.999 Number of Days ( f) 2 3 6 8 7 2 2 Class Boundaries 999.5 1.5 5.5 40.5 3.999 P 2.5 – 30.5 – 7.5 – 20.999.000 – 3.999 P 6.5 <cf 5 12 24 46 median class 54 58 60 Determine the median class : n 60 = = 30 .000 – 1.5 – 1.999.Age 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 51 – 60 61 – 70 71 – 80 Solution : Frequency 5 7 12 22 8 4 2 Class Boundaries 10.999.5 60.5 6.999.999 P 5.5 – 6.5 ∑ f m −1 = 24 f m = 22 C = 10 n − ∑ f m −1 2 •C Median = L m + fm 30 − 24 Median = 40 .5 + • ( 10 ) 22 M edian = 43 .5 – 40.000 – 6.999.5 – 4.999 P 3.999.999.5 – 80.5 30.

Age 11 – 20 21 – 30 31 – 40 41 – 50 Number of Vacationers (frequency) 5 7 12 22 . 24. 34. x: 13. The mode may or may not exist. 20. 17. 29. it can be more than one value. The mode obtained in the manner is called a crude mode because a rough approximation of the actual mode. 28 y: 15.50 fm = 8 ∑ f m −1 = 11 = n C = 1. the mode is the midpoint or class mark of the interval with the highest frequency. Mode for Ungrouped Data In the case of ungrouped data. the value of the mode can be obtained through inspection. 18. 20.999 .999 2 2 Lm = 3. If it exists. 19.000 ) 8 Median = P 4.Solution : Determine the median class : 30 = 15. 29. find the mode. the 15th of the data is in the fourth class with interval P 4.999 . 18. sets of measurements. 30.5 + • (1. Example: Consider the following. 23. 29 Mode of Grouped Data For grouped data.000 – 4. 14. 17. To improve the computation. 21. 499. 25 z: 22. 22 mode = 28 mode = 18 mode = 22.5. 33. Find the mode of each set.000 15 −11 Median = 3. 27. This class interval is called the modal class. we use the formula: fmo − f1 Mo = L mo + 2f − f − f mo 1 2 •C Where: L mo = l ower boundary of the modal class fmo = frequency of the modal class f1 = frequency of the class preceding the modal class f2 = frequency of the class following the modal class C = class size of the modal class Example : Using the frequency distribution in example 1. 15. MODE The mode of a set observations is the value that occurs most often or with the greatest frequency.

5 + 2 ( 22 ) − 12 − 8 • (10 ) M = 44 .000 – 5.999 Number of Days ( f) 2 3 6 8 7 2 2 Solution : fmo = 8 f1 =6 f2 =7 fmo − f1 Mo = L mo + 2f − f − f mo 1 2 •C 8 −6 Mo = 3. find the mode. refers to three-fourths (3/4) of the distribution.51 – 60 61 – 70 71 – 80 Solution : fmo = 22 8 4 2 f1 =12 f2 =8 fmo − f1 Mo = L mo + 2f − f − f mo 1 2 •C 22 − 12 Mo = 40 .000 – 1. and the percentiles or centiles.999 P 7. Other types of quantiles included in this section are the quartiles.Quantiles are value which divide the distribution into a given number of equal parts.999 P 5.999 P 2.000 – 4. Q2 and Q3.999 . Sales P 1. deciles.000 – 3. Quartiles The quartiles divide the distribution into four equal parts. Q3.000 – 7.17 o QUANTILES The idea of the median can be extended to the discussion of quantiles. These are 3 quartiles represented as Q1.999 P 4. Q 2 value corresponds to the median.67 o Example 2: Using Example 2 on page 14.5 + .999 P 3. . The last. consider the given frequency distribution table. 666 .999 P 6.000 – 2.000 – 6. 2 ( 8 ) − 6 − 7 • (1000 ) M = P 4. The value of Q1 refers to the value in the distribution that falls on the first one-fourth (1/4) of the distribution arranged based on magnitude.

the first decile or D1 is the value at or below one-tenth (1/10) of all items in the distribution. the computing formula for the kth quartile where k = 1. … up to D9. D2.Take note of the following corresponding values : Q1 = 25 P D1 = 10 P D 2 = 20 P Q 2 =P50 =D 5 D 3 = 30 P Q 3 =P75 D 8 = 80 P For grouped data. D3. 3 is given by: N − cf <Q1 4 •C Q1 = L Q1 + f Q1 Where L Q1 = lower boundary containing the quartile class cf <Q1 = cumulative frequency preceding the class containing the quartile fQ1 = frequency of the class where the C = class size 3N − cf <Q3 Q 3 = L Q3 + 4 f Q3 Where n 4 th item is found •C L Q3 = lower boundary containing the quartile class cf <Q3 = cumulative frequency preceding the class containing the quartile f Q3 = frequency of the class where the C = class size 3n 4 th item is found Deciles If a given set of data is divided into ten equal parts. the computing formula for deciles Where : n ( N) − cf <D n D n = L D + 10 n fD n •C C= L D n = lower boundary containing the decile class class size . then we have nine points of division known as deciles. For grouped data. 2. The nine points of division are denoted as D1.

n (N) −cf <Pn •C Pn = L P n + 100 fP n L P n = lower boundary containing the percentile class cf <Pn = cumulative frequency preceding the class containing the percentile fP n = frequency of the class where the C = class size N = total number of observations Example : Compute the Q1. The computing formula for percentile is similar to that of the median.60 61 . quartile.80 frequency 5 7 12 22 8 4 2 n = 60 < cf 5 12 24 46 54 58 60 n 100 th item is found a. P12. fQ1 = 12.50 51 . Q3. up to P99. There’s a 99 percentiles represented as P1. we compute Q1 is in the n 60 = = 15 . or decile. 12 Q1 = 33 . D7. P3 ….30 31 . P2.40 41 . then the class containing 4 4 interval 31 – 40 . LQ1 = 30. To determine the class containing Q1.20 21 .70 71 .fDn = frequency of the class where the number of observations n 1 0 th item is found N = total cf <Dn = cumulative frequency preceding the class containing the quartile Percentiles Percentiles refer to those values that divide a distribution into one hundred equal parts.5 + (10 ) . P35 Age 11 . cf <Q1 = 12. C = 10 N − cf <Q1 4 •C Q1 = L Q1 + f Q1 15 − 12 Q1 = 30 . D1.5.

C = 10 Dn = L D n n (N) − cf <Dn + 10 fD n •C 42 − 24 D 7 = 40 . we compute containing D1 is 21 – 30.5. To determine the class containing D1 . C = 10 Dn = L D n n (N) − cf <Dn 10 + fD n •C 1 ( 60 ) − 5 10 (10 ) D1 = 20 .5 + (10 ) 22 Q3 = 50 . we compute containing D7 is 41 – 50.5 + 7 6 −5 D1 = 20 . fD7 = 22.5. fQ3 = 22 •C 3N − cf <Q3 + 4 f Q3 45 − 24 Q 3 = 40 . To determine the class containing Q3.b. L Q 3 = 40. c f < D 7 =24. n (N) = 7 ( 60 ) = 42 .5 + (10 ) 22 D7 7 ( 60 ) −24 = 40 .68 .5 + (10 ) 7 D1 = 21.5 + 10 22 (10 ) D7 = 48. n (N) = 1 ( 60 ) = 6 . cf <Q Q 3 = L Q3 3 = 24. To determine the class containing D7.5. c f < D 1 = 5. fD1 = 7. we compute 3n 3( 60 ) = = 45 . then the class 4 4 containing Q3 is 41 – 50. then the class 10 10 L D1 = 20.05 c.93 d. then the class 10 10 L D12 = 40.

To determine the class containing P12. n (N) = 35 ( 60 ) = 21 . C = 10. c f < P 1 2 = 5. c < f P 3 5 = 12.5 + (10 ) 12 P35 = 38 MEASURES OF VARIATION .64 e.2 . then the 100 100 L P 12 = 20. fP35 = 12. •C Pn = L P n n (N) −cf <Pn + 100 fP n P12 12 = 20 .d. To determine the class containing P35.5 + 100 (60 ) −12 12 (10 ) 21 − 12 P35 = 30 . C = 10 Pn = L P n n (N) −cf <Pn + 100 fP n •C P35 35 = 30 .5. then the 100 100 L P 35 = 30. fP12 = 7.5. n (N) = 12 ( 60 ) = 7.5 + 100 ( 60 ) −5 (10 ) 7 P12 = 23. we compute class containing P12 is 21 – 30. we compute class containing P35 is 31 – 40.

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