Visual arts

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Van Gogh: The Church at Auvers (1890) The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, and often modern visual arts (photography, video, and filmmaking) and architecture. These definitions should not be taken too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts[1] are the applied arts[2] such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.[3] As indicated above, the current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term artist was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms.[4] Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of art. The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour - in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of "scholar-

inked brushes. pastels. scribbling. crayons. crosshatching. random hatching. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. and blending. (See also art education. or moving a tool across a surface using dry media such as graphite pencils. hatching. and Leonardo da Vinci who sometimes treated drawing as an art in its own right rather than a preparatory stage for painting or sculpture. ink drawings on papyrus.[6] Painting Mosaic of Battle of Issus Main article: Painting .) Drawing Main article: Drawing Drawing is a means of making an image.painting". Visual arts have now become an elective subject in most education systems. initially geometric. and markers. wax color pencils. Raphael. Early history Drawing goes back at least 16. An artist who excels in drawing is referred to as a draftsman or draughtsman". and today most train in art schools at a tertiary level. later developed to the human form with black-figure pottery during the 7th century BC. were used as models for painting or sculpture. drawing was adopted by masters such as Sandro Botticelli. Drawings on Greek vases. Digital tools which simulate the effects of these are also used. Michelangelo. Education and training Training in the visual arts has generally been through variations of the apprentice and workshop system. often depicting people. charcoals.000 years to Paleolithic cave representations of animals such as those at Lascaux in France and Altamira in Spain. stippling. The main techniques used in drawing are: line drawing. In Europe the Renaissance movement to increase the prestige of the artist led to the academy system for training artists. pen and ink.[5] Renaissance With paper becoming common in Europe by the 15th century. In ancient Egypt. at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. It generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool. using any of a wide variety of tools and techniques.

sites of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to The Sistine Chapel to the human body itself. In shades of red. believed by some to be 32. Raphael: Transfiguration (1520) . cattle.000 years old. However. yellow and black. the paintings on the walls and ceilings are of bison. are in the Chauvet and Lascaux caves in southern France. Origins and early history Main article: History of painting Like drawing. composition and other aesthetic considerations in order to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. canvas or a wall. brown. when used in an artistic sense it means the use of this activity in combination with drawing. Painting is also used to express spiritual motifs and ideas. horses and deer.Nefertari with Isis Painting taken literally is the practice of applying pigment suspended in a carrier (or medium) and a binding agent (a glue) to a surface (support) such as paper. The finest examples. painting has its origins in caves and on rock faces.

In the great temple of Ramses II. Greek and Roman art contributed to Byzantine art in the 4th century BC which initiated a tradition in icon painting.Paintings of human figures can be found in the tombs of ancient Egypt.[7] The Greeks contributed to the development of painting but much of their work has been lost. One of the best remaining representations is the mosaic of the Battle of Issus found at Pompeii which was probably based on a Greek painting. They used the glazing technique with oils to achieve depth and luminosity.[8] Rembrandt: The Night Watch Painters in northern Europe too were influenced by the Italian school. is depicted being led by Isis. Claude Monet: Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1866) . Jan van Eyck from Belgium. this was the richest period in Italian art as the chiaroscuro technique was used to create the illusion of 3-D space. Nefertari. the next significant contribution to European art was from Italy's renaissance painters. The Renaissance Main article: Italian Renaissance painting Apart from the illuminated manuscripts produced by monks during the Middle Ages. Pieter Bruegel the Elder from the Netherlands and Hans Holbein the Younger from Germany are among the most successful painters of the times. From Giotto in the 13th century to Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael at the beginning of the 16th century. his queen.

[9] Paul Gauguin: The Vision After the Sermon (1888) Edvard Munch: The Scream (1893) Post-impressionism Main article: Post-Impressionism Towards the end of the 19th century. often choosing to paint realistic scenes of modern life outside rather than in the studio. Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Paul Cézanne who brought a new freely brushed style to painting. and Vermeer who specialized in interior scenes of Dutch life. Impressionism Main article: Impressionism Impressionism began in France in the 19th century with a loose association of artists including Claude Monet.Dutch masters Main article: Dutch Golden Age painting The 17th century saw the emergence of the great Dutch masters such as the versatile Rembrandt who is especially remembered for his portraits and Bible scenes. unmixed colours and short brush strokes. using geometric forms and unnatural colour to depict emotions while striving for deeper . several young painters took impressionism a stage further. They achieved intense colour vibration by using pure.

remembered for his vivid paintings of night life in the Paris district of Montmartre. a Dutchman who moved to France where he drew on the strong sunlight of the south. In parallel. The Scream (1893). the style known as cubism developed in France as artists focused on the volume and space of sharp structures within a composition. African and Japanese art. and reassembled in an abstracted form. developed his symbolistic approach at the end of the 19th century.[11] Printmaking The Chinese Diamond Sutra.[10] Symbolism. Partly as a result of Munch's influence. the style had developed into surrealism with Dali and Magritte. expressionism and cubism Main article: Modern art Edvard Munch. who was strongly influenced by Asian. Of particular note are Paul Gauguin. and Toulouse-Lautrec. the German expressionist movement originated in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century as artists such as Ernst Kirschner and Erich Heckel began to distort reality for an emotional effect. analyzed. is widely interpreted as representing the universal anxiety of modern man.symbolism. Objects are broken up. By the 1920s. Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque were the leading proponents of the movement. Vincent van Gogh. his most famous work. the world's oldest printed book (868 CE) Ancient Chinese engraving of female instrumentalists Main article: Printmaking . inspired by the French impressionist Manet. a Norwegian artist.

but there are exceptions. the major techniques (also called media) involved are woodcut. from cloth and vellum to modern materials. and Erhard Reuwich. etching. including modern digital techniques. the art of printmaking developed some 1.[14] . Prints in the Western tradition produced before about 1830 are known as old master prints. silkscreening) but there are many others. and screenprinting (serigraphy. a Dutchman. the technique was perfected for both religious and artistic engravings. especially that of Japan (ukiyo-e). was the first to use cross-hatching.[12][13] European history Main article: Old master print In Europe. artists began to cut landscapes. Normally the surface upon which the print is printed is paper. increasing the status of the singleleaf woodcut. Michael Wolgemut improved German woodcut from about 1475. Except in the case of a monotype.100 years ago as illustrations alongside text cut in woodblocks for printing on paper. There are other major printmaking traditions. was used for master prints on paper by using techniques for printing on cloth which had been developed in the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. from around 1400 AD woodcut. line engraving. During the Ming (1368±1644) and Qing (1616±1911) dynasties. At the end of the century Albrecht Dürer brought the Western woodcut to a level that has never been surpassed. lithography. Historically. the same matrix can be used to produce many examples of the print.Printmaking is creating for artistic purposes an image on a matrix which is then transferred to a two-dimensional (flat) surface by means of ink (or another form of pigmentation). Chinese origins Albrecht Dürer: Melancholia I (1541) Main article: Woodblock printing In China. Initially images were mainly religious but in the Song Dynasty.

The process is done through mechanical. editing. (The term image is traditional in geometric optics." Traditionally. from an initial conception and research. chemical or digital devices known as cameras. the product of photography has been called a photograph. sound . The word comes from the Greek words phos ("light"). In digital photography. many people also call them pictures. "paintbrush") or graphê. The term photo is an abbreviation. and graphis ("stylus". shooting and recording. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects are recorded onto a sensitive medium or storage chip through a timed exposure.Photography Main article: Photography Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light.) Filmmaking Main article: Filmmaking Visual arts exhibition in Centre Georges-Pompidou Filmmaking is the process of making a motion-picture. together meaning "drawing with light" or "representation by means of lines" or "drawing. the term image has begun to replace photograph. through scriptwriting. animation or other special effects.

sound. and poetic or experimental practices. website. and is often used to refer to video-based processes as well. DVD. Computers have been used as an ever more common tool in the visual art since the 1960s. animation. Many traditional disciplines are now integrating digital technologies and. Such art can be an image. photographers. defining computer art by its end product can thus be difficult. though it has yet to prove its legitimacy as a form unto itself and this technology is widely seen in contemporary art more as a tool rather than a form as with painting. 3D modelers. the lines between traditional works of art and new media works created using computers have been blurred. an artist may combine traditional painting with algorithmic art and other digital techniques. video. video game. For instance.and music work and finally distribution to an audience. Sophisticated rendering and editing software has led to multi- . As a result. the editing of those images and forms (including exploring multiple compositions) and then the final rendering and/or printing (including 3D printing). photo editors. Computer art is any art in which computers played a role in production or display of the artwork. Uses for computers in the visual arts include the capturing or creating of images and forms. algorithm. it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films. as a result. this type of art is beginning to appear in art museum exhibits. Computer usage has blurred the distinctions between illustrators. and handicraft artists. Nevertheless. performance or gallery installation. embracing documentary. CD-ROM. Computer art Main article: Computer art Picture produced by Drawing Machine 2 Visual artists are no longer limited to traditional art media. strains of theatre and literature in film.

text and light. or they may be assembled such as by welding . such as stone or wood. Illustrators may become animators. Film." Thus even the narrower definition could include Architecture. Mosaic. non-musical) arts. Materials may be worked by removal such as carving. plastics. concrete or steel. The Plastic arts Plastic arts is a term. the use of plastics within the arts or as an art form itself. "Neoplasticism. New media art. Ceramics.[15] Sculpture has been described as one of the plastic arts because it can involve the use of materials that can be moulded or modulated. Collage. have also been included in the narrower definition. . Found objects may be presented as sculptures. Woodworking. textiles. Conceptual art.[citation needed] This use of the term "plastic" in the arts should not be confused with Piet Mondrian's use. especially to the unskilled observer.or metal. Printmaking. Sculpture Main article: Sculpture The following is a copy of the introductory summary on the Sculpture page Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials typically stone such as marble . hardened such as by firing. Welding. Painting.skilled image developers. Computer clip art usage has also made the clear distinction between visual arts and page layout less obvious due to the easy access and editing of clip art in the process of paginating a document. or molded or cast. The term has also been applied to all the visual (non-literary. Surface decoration such as paint may be applied. Land art. Softer ("plastic") materials can also be used. Sculpture is an important form of public art. encompassing art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. now largely forgotten. Photographers may become digital artists. polymers and softer metals. Film Photography. such as clay. Paper art.[16][17] Materials that can be carved or shaped. with appropriate tools. such materials are also capable of modulation. or wood. Glass art. Handicraft may be computer-aided or use computer-generated imagery as a template. Textile art. Sculpture. The term has been extended to works including sound. glass. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting may be referred to as a sculpture garden. in French and English. Drawing. Metalworking. since. nor with the movement he termed.

covering. in multiple cast. (B) any work made for hire. existing in a single copy. or similar publication. (iii) any portion or part of any item described in clause (i) or (ii). or fabricated sculptures of 200 or fewer that are consecutively numbered by the author and bear the signature or other identifying mark of the author. motion picture or other audiovisual work. book.Chapter 1:[18] A ³work of visual art´ is ² (1) a painting. the law protecting the copyright over a piece of visual art gives a more restrictive definition of "visual art". A work of visual art does not include ² (A)(i) any poster. (ii) any merchandising item or advertising. or in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author. diagram. or (C) any work not subject to copyright protection under this title. globe. print or sculpture. magazine. applied art. in the case of a sculpture. carved. or (2) a still photographic image produced for exhibition purposes only. model. . descriptive. periodical. map. or. existing in a single copy that is signed by the author. technical drawing. or packaging material or container. electronic publication. chart.Copyright definition of visual art In the United States. drawing. electronic information service. The following quote is from the Copyright Law of the United States of America. data base. in a limited edition of 200 copies or fewer that are signed and consecutively numbered by the author. promotional. newspaper.

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