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Eg: student s academic performance in school, here academic itself suggest in school. May, might should not be followed by seems as it already gives level of uncertainty. Would be should not be used to describe measurable or factual data. Although and yet indicate contrast don t use them together. To be able to do something is redundant try using, to do somthing Being is redundant most of the time Eg- Being excited with her success.. should be Excited with her success Try not to use passive voice, as they make the sentence wordy and awkward. When which or that is the object of the following verb is can be omitted. The school they go to.(The school which they go to ). When the clause gives additional and non essential info rather than identifying the noun it follows ,which should be used. The house, which stands on the hill, is up for sell. The house is up for sell. It happens to be on the hill. When the relative clause identifies the noun it follows with essential information that is used without a comma. The house that stands on the hill is up for sell. The house on the hill is up for sell. Not the house on the valley. **Which can refer to plural noun y Like is used to make comparison where as such as is used in giving examples. Less than/under and more than/over: Less than/more than is the correct expression when making comparison of number and amount. Over/Under is used to describe spatial relationship. Eg: I will host the party if the guest list is less than/more than fifty. We processed more than 1000 letters in an hour.
y y y
Subject-Verb Agreement: y Find the wordy phrases from sentence to get the actual agreement. Even after removing the wordy sentence the sense of the sentence doesn t change. Eg: The houses of the the rich men contain expensive furnitures. Here of the rich men phrase is redundant. Of is another middle man. Eg The discovery of new lands was vital for research. Eliminate the bold letters. The actions of my friends are not helpful.
Prepositional phrases are usually middle man: The number of acres is large. In France, people enjoy snails. The bold letter are prepositional phrases and should be ignored. Of, for, by, in with, at, to, on, from. Subordinate clauses are middle man: My cat, which has fleas, is big. The mouse that roared is gray. Bold letters are subordinate clause. Which that who when where whom. Other modifiers: The bird flying overhead is tiny. Considered a purebred, this horse runs quickly. My dog, a Labrador, is huge. Bold letters are middleman. Comma or commas, participle-ing, participle-ed. Such as a middle man. The acceleration that subatomic particles, such as electron and proton, under go And adds two singular subjects forming a compound plural subject. Eg Ram and Hari are best friends. Eg2: Maths, science and History are required to be studied. Eg: There are a young man and an older woman at the bus stop. Besides And there are other additive phrases that can be added to a subject such as along with, including, in addition to, as well as, accompanied by, together with, including, not to mention. Eg Joe, along with his friends, is going to a party. Eg 2: Maths, in addition to science and history, is a required subject. Some subjects contain disjunctive phrases such as Or,either..or, neither .. nor. In this case which form to be used?? Simple find the subject nearest to the verb and make sure it agrees with this subject. Eg: Neither Joe nor his friends are going to the beach. Eg2 : Neither his friends nor Jon is going to the beach. NOTE** In case either and neither do not contain or and nor in a sentence they are not considered to be in disjunctive phrase and they are considered singular and take singular verbs.
Neither of us like going to the party.
Collective noun takes singular verb. Eg: administration, army, herd, class, faculty orchestra, team. Eg: The crowd is cheering, The army is marching. Usually Indefinite Pronouns take singular verb. Indefinite Pronoun is not specific about the thing it refers to. Eg: All pronouns that end with one, -body,-thing(Anyone, Anybody, Anything, Everyone, Everybody, Everything, Whatever, Whoever, *Either, *Neither, Someone, somebody, something, no one, nobody, nothing, each, every). However there are 5 indefinite pronoun which can either be singular or plural dependin on the context of the sentence. They are SANAM : Some, Any, None, all, Most.
Rule: With words that indicate portions²some, all, none, percent, fraction, part, majority, remainder, and so forth ²look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition) to determine whether to use a singular or plural verb. If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb. If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.
Equal. Eg A number of students in this class are hard workers. plural verb form respectively. These pronoun are precedes of (exception as per earlier rule) look into the number of subject. Minority. Sometimes subject of a sentence is an entire phrase or clause.Imperative(Expresses commands). y y y y y . Eg: Some of the money was stolen. y y y Verb Tense Mood and Voice y 3 moods are tested in Gmat inductive(these verbs deal with real events) and subjunctive(There verbs deals with events that are not necessarily true). use same tense form for all unless they occur at different time. For multiple actions in a sentence. Eg: I told him to quickly run. Plurality can either be singular or plural if they represent individual parts of a totality or the totality respectively. None of the children were hungry. Majority. Eg: She walks to the school in the morning and runs home in the evening. y The Number of and a number of take singular. Correct: I told him to run quickly. In case of multiple action both involving past tense use simple past for recent one and past perfect for the older action. Eg Some teacher thought that Jimmy had cheated on the exam 2)The movie had ended. Eg2 Each dog has his day. 3) She walked to the school in the morning and ran home in the evening. Eg2 ** They each are great tennis players. Eg: The number of hardworking students in this class is quite large. Eg : Each dog has his paws. Infinitive(to +verb): Split infinitive is almost always incorrect. Some of the documents were stolen. Try to use simple tense instead of progressive unless it changes the meaning. equivalent is used for uncountable nouns. Eg: Majority of the students are hard workers. These subjects are always singular and require singular verb.y Examples: None of the pie was eaten. Always prefer active over passive. Eg: Having good friends is a wonderful thing. but we remained in our seats. **If each and every follows a subject it has no bearing on the verb form. 2) She will walk to the school in the morning and run home in the evening. Eg2: The student majority is opposed to the death penalty. Eg2: What ever they want to do is fine with me.
Clauses beginning with if.y y y y y y y y y y y y Present Perfect: Action started in the past and continues till present time. Eg they have been in town for several days. request: Eg It is urgent that she sign the slip. She recommended that john to take a ferry. proposals. If Then: Eg If you study hard. They can play 4 roles in Grammar. Eg: I don t know if I can go there. It uses that + infinitive form of verb without to . (all are wrong ) Correct: She recommended that john take a ferry. If he were tall. would etc. Hopes. desire. 2) We have owned this house since early 19th century. though show untrue condition. Uncertainty: Hopes. I would donate money to poor. 2)I respectfully ask that he be allowed to continue. If if doesn t portray the condition in a sentence rather portrays whether use whether instead of If. as though. 2) You will pass if you study hard. 2)His wife divorced him because he had had an affair. Which guy is my friend? Adverb: I sat at my desk eating a hot dog. She recommended that john had taken a ferry. requests formed with the word that. he would be able to play basket ball. Most of the English sentences are indicative based on truths. Never use was with subjunctive. Verb: I am eating a hot dog? What am I doing? Noun: Eating hot dog is fun. . facts and realities rarely it uses subjunctive Eg: If shows condition contrary to reality.(then is optional). Never use mixture of two sentence as it will break the parallelism Eg Talking him was one thing and kissing him was another. Eg:She recommended that John should take the ferry. Correct: I don t know whether I can go there. (then) you will pass. She recommended that john takes a ferry. The verb to Have: Eg: He has had many affairs. Such as Taking it was the fun part. as if. Eg if I were rich. What is fun? Adjective: The guy eating hot dog is my friend. -ing can be tricky. 3)My advice is that she simply love her for who she is. In if then sentence both if and then should have same tense format if (present) then(present) etc If then sentence If doesn t take could. proposal. How did I sit? Gerund and Infinitive: y y Gerund is verb in ing form it can be the subject of a sentence and act as a noun. desires.
been) It doesn't occur with HAVE (have. What's the difference between a Gerund and a Participle? A Gerund is a verb form used as a noun whilst a Participle is a verb form used as an adjective." or "She was killed by a falling tile. was. past participles are not verbs. eg: "A retired officer lives next door. (Verb: "is". Past tense refers to a verb. Part of a verb: "heated") As a part of a verb. the past participle occurs with the verb HAVE (have. especially : the English verbal noun in -ing that has the function of a substantive and at the same time shows the verbal features of tense. and the -ed ending tells us it's a past tense verb. since it is part of the verb to fall.) EX: The stove heated the room. Right: I asked him to clean the table quickly. were. It is also an adjective. y y y Gerund : a verbal noun in Latin that expresses generalized or uncompleted action : any of several linguistic forms analogous to the Latin gerund in languages other than Latin. been) or it modifies a noun. have) It doesn't modify a noun (argument) "heated" functions all by itself. I asked him to quickly clean the table." Retired is a verb." Retiring is a verb. the past participle occurs after the verb BE (is. 2) part of a verb EX: The stove has heated the room. voice. eg: "I think of retiring soon from business. has. being part of the verb to retire. Falling is a verb. was. :D . y y Participle : a word having the characteristics of both verb and adjective. It's a verb. y y y Difference between past participle and past tense: past participle ends in -ed or -en and it has two functions: 1) adjective EX: This car is heated. because it qualifies the noun 'officer'. Hence a participle may be called a verbal adjective. being part of the verb retire. had). Adjective "heated") EX: We had a heated argument. has. (Please note that. were. especially : an English verbal form that has the function of an adjective and at the same time shows such verbal features as tense and voice and capacity to take an object y y : A Participle is a verb and adjective combined. It is also a noun.y y y Never use a phrase between to and verb. (Adjective "heated") As an adjective. and capacity to take adverbial qualifiers and to govern objects y : A Gerund is a verb and noun combined. am. the word 'heated' doesn't do the following things: It doesn't occur with BE (is. In the example above. am. but it is also an adjective in that it qualifies the noun 'tile'. because it is object to the preposition 'of. (Verb: "has".
that. this. those. But consider this. They didn t go because they were lazy. They didn t go because they were lazy. but then some idiot opened the window and the room is cold again. it was totally false. Period is used to end the sentence but commas are used to show pauses. what. Indefinite: any. Interrogative: who. all . Eg: There was no truth in the accusation . I might say." Punctuation: y Eg: they didn t go. the room is now warm. lead from one idea to its consequences or logical continuation. thanks to the stove. It tells they did go but not they were lazy but for some other reason. these. Here it specifies they didn t go as they were lazy. Fifty-odd people. Approximately 50 people. Hyphen is used to remove ambiguity. which etc. because they were lazy.y y "The stove has heated the room" means that. Receiprocal: Each other. where Relative: who. they went because they were tired. y y y y y Prounoun: y y y y y y y y Types of pronoun: Personal Pronoun: I/we/he/she/it/they/you Possessive Pronoun: My/mine/his/her/its/hers/their/theirs/our/ours Reflexive pronoun: Myself/himself/ourself/him/herself/themselves Demonstrative: That. when. Eg: There was no truth in the accusation : they rejected it utterly. one another. for example: "The stove heated the room. appositive sentences. Colon is used to show list of items. "The stove heated the room" doesn't mean the room is still warm. It follows a complete independent clause. what. why. phrases. Semicolon is used to link parallel sentences. Ficty odd people 50 strange people. The present perfect usually refers to the result of a past action.
** one s can only be used if subject is one .whom. Correct: Joe s room is so messy that his mother calls Joe a pig. Man. Exception one : Eg: One can do only one s best. Eg eva and jasmine jog regularly so that she could stay in shape. Pronoun Agreement: If a pronoun has an antecedent and the pronoun agrees to it with number(singular/plural) then it is right. Pronoun of reference: see the pronoun refers to the correct noun. Their will be replaced by his.her. I smiled at the girl whom I kicked. Eg2: The picnic was attended by Janice and I.we. Here there is no use of word friends which they refer to.he. I kicked her. Wrong: Joe s is a possessive noun so his is possessive pronoun but the subject and object pronoun may not refer back to the possessive noun. Eg: The cookies were Christmas ones unlike The cookies were Christmas. I smiled at the girl. they. Wrong me should be replaced with I as it is subject pronoun.him. Eg: Friendship is something John truly values so he dislikes it when they talk about him behind his back.it. its. Wrong I should be replaced with me as it is object pronoun. So the object pronoun him does not refer back to the possessive noun Joe s. I kicked the girl who tried to still my coat. Implication is not enough. Possessive Pronoun: Eg: Joe s room is so messy that his mother calls him a pig. Object Pronoun. Object pronounme. in all his glory.y y y y y y y y Be careful of objects that contain proper noun + pronoun Eg: The puppy looked across the table at Sarah and me. so you Joe instead of him.you.you. but it is implied. Deadly 4: It. use singular when there is generalization. Eg: Everyone here will need their own pencil. Sometimes the pronoun may not have a true antecedent. Eg3: Who are you going to marry? Wrong: You is subject and who is object so who should be replaced by whom. She tried to still my coat. Eg: Chocolate is yummy.they. In case of doubt remove the proper noun. so their can only refer to plural subject.she. Only true adjectives can be used in such a way . . Possessive pronouns doesn t have apostrophe.it.who. Eg: Janice and me attended the picnic.I. I kicked the girl.else you can use one at the end. there must a stated antecedent for each pronoun. Adjectives: y It can also form a predicate. you can get the correct sense. Be careful while using these words make sure it agrees with the number of antecedent. their. Pronoun Case: Subject Pronoun. Correct: there are Christmas cookies. Don t use his when one is present in subject Its is possessive and It s is It is. Eg: Police work is very important as they enfore Wrong as police work is singular so change they to it. Here she is ambigious. Their is possessive pronoun of plural form they.them.us.
She said no politely. A good example of how an adverb can often be used in several different places in a sentence. In a transitive sentence. 4b. (is there a difference in meaning?) Both are used and mean the same thing. 4) a) Slowly she drew the curtains. 3) a) The price of computers has gone down significantly. He brilliantly caught the ball in the outfield. c) She drew the curtains slowly.) 5) a) This example perfectly illustrates the problem. Both are used and mean the same thing. you can put an adverb: i. ii. No (between main verb and direct object) 2b He has not reached his goal yet. (All three sentences mean the same thing. IMO. He quickly died after being shot. Yes. (after the direct object) Best. He caught brilliantly the ball in the outfield. He caught the ball brilliantly in the outfield. (possible ?) b) She slowly drew the curtains. He has not yet reached his goal. You can put the adverb straight after the verb in a intransitive sentence. No (between main verb and direct object) 4. Yes 9. (only ? ´wellµ can never precede a verb? ) This one always goes after the verb. 5. b) He speaks English only. OK. No 7. 3. 2) a) He only speaks English. She said politely no. Yes. 1. between the auxillary and main verbs. Yes (between auxillary and main verb) 2. 8. but it is possible that there are slight differences in meaning depending on context.Adverb: The adverb cannot come between the main verb and the direct object. Yes. iii before the main verb if no auxillary. He has not reached yet his goal. b) The price of computers has significantly gone down. She politely said no. He died quickly after being shot. (after the direct object) ("Yet" is not a typical adverb though as far as position goes). Best 6. b) This example illustrates the problem perfectly. after the direct object. . Yes 1) He speaks English well.
6) a) One day. I clearly think. You can put "yet" before or after the verb phrase but not in the middle. I want to join the police. Adjectives and adverbs: Adjective modifies a noun or pronoun. b) I want to join the police one day. Modifiers: y y It describes someone or something in a sentence. Adjectives modify nouns. Here it is a open modifier as it is present in the opening of the sentence and it is separated by comma. Sometimes in SC we must choose which to use according to the meaning. Eg : The smart man y . (why can·t we use ´yetµ elsewhere? Is there a rule?) You could also say: I haven't yet done the washing. chilling sound. Eg: Tired out of playing football. The boy appeared quick. When emphasis is needed place adverb at the beginning . we will leave tomorrow at noon. It is clear what I think. and other adverbs. 9) a) If the weather is good. The boy appeared quickly. phrase another adverb. Modifiers are set off from rest of the sentence by using commas. I think clearly. adverbs modify verbs. preposition. (no comma before ´one dayµ?) 7) a) Do you still work here? b) Do you work here still? (incorrect ? / informal ?) Both are good. Adverb vs Adjective: y y y I heard an odd.(my thinking is clear). This sentence means that we are not sure whether these things are actually Mediterranean. y y y I shouted loudly. I really liked her. [*]supposedly Mediterranean predecessors. Ram decided to take a nap. This sentence means that we are not sure whether these things are actually predecessors. Eg: Never I have seen such an ugly kid. Adverb on the other hand modifies a verb. I heard an oddly chilling sound. [*]supposed Mediterranean predecessors. b) If the weather is good. 8) I haven·t done the washing up yet. adjective. adjectives. we will leave at noon tomorrow.
Eg: the team that wins the game will Rhode island. Here like all her friends modifies lata. Good vs well: Good(adjective) describes a noun. If you don t get it. Here real(adjective) should be replaced by really(adverb) as it modifies an adjective interesting. like all her friends. so modify the sentence appropriately. Eg: We drove test the car having engine problem. Be careful of possessive pronoun in modifier they may introduce dangling modifier. Who: introduces phrases that modifies person or group of persons. it s a dangling modifier. I am doing good (wrong). who never like to loose. is happy to be on a vacation. That: both people or things. Here unskilled in complex math should refer to Bill not his score. Eg2: My friend Katy is a real interesting person. but it never comes into picture. . never liking to loose. Modifying phrases are often introduced buy relative pronoun: which. Sometimes the noun will be there in the sentence. like all her friends to be on vacation. who whose whom. Adverbial Modifiers: The modifier and the modified noun should always touch. Amy writes well. the engineer identified the error quickly. However when the word being modified is not a noun. The Lions. Ambigious sentence. Lata is happy . Amy is well. Well(adjective. the error was identified quickly. but it will be not directly next to the modifying phrase. I feel good about my work.adverb) to describe health or competent respectively. but I Feel well. Eg: Lata is happy. which are very cool. The Lions. Which:things. We drove test the car that had engine problem. Here the noun is probably a technician. practice everyday. Eg Amy is a good person. Bill s score was poor. Modifying Phrase: After finding it find the noun that is modified. where.Use which to introduce middle man by set off by comma. Eg: Using the latest technology. Using the latest technology. Fails to define car or color. Here it seems the modifier acts on the cashier rather it should work on the customer. these modifier are un essential. that. the customer was handed the recieft by the cachier. is a very interesting place to visit. practice everyday. which is a small place. Lata. the modifying phrase is called as adverbial phrase and doesn t need to touch the word being modified. Use that to introduce a modifier that is used to narrow the identity of modified noun and the modifier can t be logically removed . Upon leaving the register. The modifying phrase should not be separated from the noun it modifies. quickly modifies act. Cars come in many colours. the cashier handed the customer a receipt.y y y y y y y y y acts quickly. this is a misplaced modifier. Eg: Unskilled in complex math. Eg: Upon leaving the register. Or Like all her friends. Smart modifies man.
It seemed as if he liked me. whether baked or mashed. Correct: I prefer to hire employees who are work hard to those who don t. look like: He seemed like a nice guy.(I ate nothing else) Only I ate some peas yesterday.(I didn t do anything) I ate only some peas yesterday. Participle at the start of the sentence must modify the subject. almost) must be used immediately before what they modify. It looks like a nice cake. hardly. Whether baked or mashed. Modified Nouns: Positive attitude can lead to both practical success and spiritual fulfillment. there is not question Correct: having read the book. Ask question How? If you get the answer then it is a adverbial phrase I ate some peas only yesterday. Verb infinitive: I decided to swim across the river rather than (to) sail around the world Adverbs: I notice he howls angrily after he cowers fearfully Adverbial phrases: I notice you howl in anger you cower in fear. Limiting modifiers(just. The Republic will likely fall(wrong).(nobody else) Likely is adjective not adverb. Parallelism with pronoun: which. that. I have no doubt . Seem like . Correct: People develop knee problem if they jog frequently. else it is a dangling participle. Tom loves potatoes. Correct: Tom loves potatoes. The bold letter modifies the verb ran. Parallelism: y y y y y y y y y Parallel Structures Noun: Trever collects stamps. who etc signal parallel structure Eg: I prefer to hire employees who are work hard to those that don t. coins and cards. Misplaced modifying clause. It seemed like he liked me(w) Here comparison is with clause not with noun. ate all evening. slept all night. Adjective: The soldier was fast. Verbs: We worked all day. Ambiguous modifying clause: People who jog frequently develop knee problem.(I don t wana have it today) I only ate some peas yesterday.y y y y y y y y y y y Eg the running back ran towards the end zone. only. Eg: having read the book. faster and harder than he had ever before. powerful and agile. those. The Republic is likely to fall(correct). .
The more X the greater Y. Range from X to Y. Idiom with built in parallel structure:: I prefer eating ice cream in summer to coffee. Neither X nor Y. To Estimate X to be Dated at No less remarkable than X is considered y. Claims to verb(infinitive) Persuade x to do y. X instead of Y. Prefer X to Y. X regarded as Y. Not only X but also Y. Credit X with: You credit him with accomplishment Credit for: You give Joe credit for his article Not just because of x but because of y Whether X. To think of X as Y. and z. Either X or Y. As X to Y. Both X and Y. from x to y. Parallel markers: x and y. both x and y. .y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Make sure both sides of the sentence are logically and structurally parallel. Correct I prefer eating ice cream to drinking coffee in summer. Think X as Y With a aim of verb+ing Aim at somthing Believe X to be Y. Eg: More X than Y. don t use whether or not Not x. Claims that + subordinate clause. The same to X as to Y. not x but Y. but rather y. y. No less was X than was Y. x rather than y. x. either x or y. Except in. Mistake X for Y.
adverbial phrases etc. Its not incorrect as Travelled is the main verb and rest give additional info which are parallel. Eg: The flower bouquet was the husband s giving of love to his wife. are. noun. being. The extra expenses were eliminated and reduced. to issue x with y with the hope of y Except for Noun. Y will happens unless y happens// with future there should be a present tense. they can change the meaning too. y y y y y y Whereas clause. Eg : Ken travelled around the world. So gradual as to be indistinguishable. Careful with verbs of being: Usually we think of verbs are action done by subjects but sometimes they also represent the state or condition of the subject called as being verb eg : to be. So X [adjective] as to verb. and should be replaced with or as any one of them is possible(eliminate or reduce). For example: The soil erosion was so gradual as to be destructive for the nearby forest land.y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Not by X but by Y As an adolecent In danger of something. Correct: The flower bouquet was the husband s loving gift to his wife. been. Eg.appear seem become smell feel sound grow stay look taste remain turn. were.verb. clause both clause should begin with same style parallelism. Be careful to small words also. preposition. do so Superficial vs Actual Parallelsism:Pay attention to grammatical structures. . so secretly installed that even Rivalry between x and y. so gradual as to be indistinguishable Aid in X Except in X So X that Y.is. Both sides of was are not parallel Up to vs as big as vs to be. Here it makes sense. eating native foods and learning about new cultures. it can grow as big as 30 mt long. am. visiting new places. Although accounting for Owed restitution to x for y Conceive of X as Y So Adjective as to Verb. : As big as don t use for length. Other form of being or condition. Eg: this shampoo is useful for dry and damaged hair. Do it: is wrong as it refers to a thing not action so instead use.
greater than. W. R Like swimming. R I enjoy such sports as baseball and cricket. Correct. W Skiing is a great way to burn calories. (Both live in small house) w Joe lives in a small house like Mary. is broad and muscular. shorter than. like his brother has a broad and muscular build. Just like swimming is a good exercise. Like should be used to compare to things people(nouns). Frank s build like his brother. and they should be logically parallel. Nouns are compared. are extremely small. As is used to compare clause. like Mary. skiing is a great way to burn calories. Correct: Bella and rose. (Both live in small house) R Skiing is a great way to burn calories. as their bro. y Don t use like when you want to give example. (Both live in small house) R Joe lives in a small house. As is used as comparison involving phrases. (Mary is a small house) W Joe lives in a small house. likening. Eg: Joe. R Just as swimming is a great exercise. like Mary s. Frank. lives in a small house. y y Eg: Bella and rose. like their bro. like Mary.Comparision: y Comparision signals: like unlike. R Keep comparison parallel. R y y y Odds and Ends: . I enjoy sports such as baseball and cricket. more than. Comparing the clauses. Like vs As: Like is used to compare nouns. less than. (the houses are similar) R Joe lives in a small house. as short as . ** Different that is not comparison be careful. skiing is a great way to burn calories. instead use such as. as swimming is. I enjoy sports like baseball and cricket. as Mary does. A clause must contain a verb in a tense. skiing is a great way to burn calories. are extremely small. like swimming is. different from** as (adj) as : as many as. Correct: Just as swimming is a good exercise. swimming is a great way to burn calories.
rock jazz // wrong as 1st sentence is hanging.(by the side). little/ less talent. A number of dogs are chasing away the cats. Useful topics y y y Kind of . Price of gold is greater than price of silver. Numbers of is incorrect. Besides his sbi account he has many others in austria (in addition to). X has the most. sort of should be avoided. Decrease and increase show down and up respectively show don t use fell. few hats. grow with these word as they will be redundant. The number or number of vs a number or numbers of: The number is singular. Eg: Many hats. Increase and decrease vs Greater and less: Increase and decrease show a change of one thing over time where as greater and less than compare between 2 things. so 1st sentence should be complete. X has less than Y. . Eg: I was sort of hurt by that. X is better than Y. little talent. Beside vs besides: He sits beside me. X has more than Y. much talent. . Z. As many hat as. Relating 3 or more things: among X. As much talent as intelligence. The expression those(these) kind of things is wrong as kind and sort are singular and should be preceded by this or that. I love listening to : classical. s ending should be used in compound of ways : sideways. y and z). As many hats as shirts. Y. Words used B to relate 2 things vs words used to relate 3 or more things: Relating 2 things: between X and Y. Eg: I love listening to all kinds of music: classical. jazz and rap. number of hats. A number is plural. -s ending should not be used in compounds of where : somewhere. : semicolon is used to join 2 independent sentence together such as Andy and Lisa are inseparable. they do everything together. Eg: Price of silver has increased by 10 rupees. Preposition: y y They occur before the thing they refer to.y y y y y y y y Quantity: Many for countable things and much for uncountable. Colon is used to show a list of things. //doing everything together: wrong. Eg: The number of dogs is greater than the number of cats. rise. X has the least(among x. amount of talent . X is the best. I thought I saw you with some kind of food. Conjunction Punctuation: .
Michele = the subjects. Wrong. such as participle phrases. Diane = the subject. Without a main clause. I hate all of you. A giant spider has made its home behind the shampoo bottle in Neil's bathroom. prepositional phrases. are skipping = the verb. I hate all those people. Sima. a major error in writing. Sima and Michele are skipping their chemistry class to sit by the lake and watch the sun sparkle on the water. The Main Clause Recognize a main clause when you see one. Go to meaning intend. All should not be followed by of unless a pronoun follows. etc. Use at all in place of any Non standard expression : cant seem to for seem unable to. appositives.(unless) On account for because: I liked him on account he made me toys and things. Eg: We agreed on the specifics some(use somewhat). Take a look at the example below: . It must. A sentence can contain any number of other grammatical units. kicked = the verb. A main clause²sometimes called an independent clause²must contain a subject and a verb as well as express a complete thought. Adjectives should not be used as adverbs. a group of words is a fragment. subordinate clauses. Eg: I don t think I hurt him any. Spider = the subject. contain at least one main clause. I thought my plan would sure succeed(surely). however. Look at the examples below: Diane kicked the soda machine.(because). A main clause is the essential component. Without for unless: I wont come along without you apologize. Remember this important point: You must have at least one main clause in every sentence. has made = the verb.y y y y y y Any should not be used adverbally.
you no longer have a main clause. Because a giant spider has made its home behind the shampoo bottle in Neil's bathroom . Even though Sima and Michele are skipping their chemistry class. That a cheeseburger was no longer appetizing = subordinate clause.. her favorite lunch. leaves the idea unfinished. The group of words becomes a subordinate clause.While dissecting a cow heart in her anatomy and physiology class.. crushing her underneath? Did quarters start shooting out of the coin return slot? Because you no longer have a complete thought. was no longer appetizing.. . Her favorite lunch = appositive. Do not confuse a main clause with a subordinate clause. Even though Sima and Michele are skipping their chemistry class to sit by the lake and watch the sun sparkle on the water .. Because the giant spider lives there now. a subordinate conjunction.. Shenicka realized that a cheeseburger. what happened? Did the soda machine cough up her drink? Did the soda machine fall on top of poor Diane. While dissecting a cow heart = participle phrase. what else are they doing? Are they also studying their notes? Are they contemplating how the water in the lake is composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms? Are they gossiping about their teacher? The addition of even though makes a subordinate clause The Subordinate Clause Recognize a subordinate clause when you see one. you will no longer have a complete thought. When Diane kicked it. When you place a subordinate conjunction in front of a subject and verb. what has happened? Did Neil buy a can of insecticide? Does Neil now refuse to bathe? Is the spider starving because there are not enough insects for her to eat? The word because. so you no longer have a main clause. like these examples: When Diane kicked the soda machine . Shenicka realized = the essential main clause. In her anatomy and physiology class = prepositional phrase..
Once Adam smashed the spider Once = subordinate conjunction. Adam = subject. Amy = subject. Until Mr. Sanchez has his first cup of coffee Until = subordinate conjunction. Sanchez = subject.A subordinate clause²also called a dependent clause²will begin with a subordinate conjunction or a relative pronoun and will contain both a subject and a verb. Here is a list of subordinate conjunctions: after although as because before even if even though if in order that once provided that rather than since so that than that though unless until when whenever where whereas wherever whether while why Here are your relative pronouns: that which whichever who whoever whom whose whosever whomever Now take a look at these examples: After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad After = subordinate conjunction. smashed = verb. Mr. This combination of words will not form a complete sentence. has = verb. sneezed = verb. Who ate handfuls of Cheerios with his bare hands . It will instead make a reader want additional information to finish the thought.
Unless Christine finishes her calculus homework. Until Mr. or did they ask him to pass the box so that they could do the same? No complete thought = fragment. Who ate handfuls of Cheerios with his bare hands. like this: . So what happened? Were the roommates shocked. After Amy sneezed all over the tuna salad. So what happens? Is he too sleepy to work. When you attach a subordinate clause at the end of a main clause. like this: SUBORDINAT subordinate clause + . or does he have a grumpy disposition? No complete thought = fragment. Correctly attach a subordinate clause to a main clause. a major error. use a comma.Who = relative pronoun. ate = verb. Remember this important point: A subordinate clause cannot stand alone as a sentence because it does not provide a complete thought. you will have written a fragment. gnawed on the leg of the coffee table. you will generally use no punctuation. the family dog. Emily refused to eat it. Once Adam smashed the spider. Who = subject. So what happened? Did Belinda cheer him for his bravery or lecture him on animal rights? No complete thought = fragment. The reader is left wondering. So what happened? Did Amy throw it down the garbage disposal or serve it on toast to her friends? No complete thought = fragment. Sanchez has his first cup of coffee. + main clauseM A I N CLAUSE. Nguyen's wrath in class tomorrow. "So what happened?" A word group that begins with a capital letter and ends with a period must contain at least one main clause. Otherwise. she will have to suffer Mr. While Bailey slept on the sofa in front of the television. Even though the broccoli was covered in cheddar cheese. When you attach a subordinate clause in front of a main clause. Samson.
the clause is essential and will follow the same pattern that you saw above: MAIN CLM AINM A main + Ø + suboU B O R D I N A T E ESSENTIAL RELAT IVE CLAUSE. The information in the relative clause is no longer important and needs to be separated from the main clause with a comma. When the information in the relative clause clarifies an otherwise general noun. Subordinate clauses can begin with relative pronouns [and thus are called relative clauses. Nonessential clauses require you to use commas to connect them. and the clause becomes nonessential. Nick gave a handful of potato chips to the dog Ø who was sniffing around the picnic tables. MAIN CLM AINM A main + Ø + non essential relative clauseU B O R D I N A T E NONESSENT IAL RELAT IVE CLAUSE. punctuation changes. the name of a unique dog. Which one are we talking about? The relative clause who was sniffing around the picnic tables clarifies the animal that we mean. . depending on whether the clause is essential or nonessential. The clause is thus essential and requires no punctuation. When a relative clause follows a specific noun. or which. a type of subordinate clause]. whose. The information in the relative clause is no longer as important. and sometimes you won't. Punctuate carefully when the subordinate clause begins with a relative pronoun. Nick gave a handful of potato chips to Button . When a subordinate clause starts with who. who was sniffing around the picnic tables. punctuation gets a little bit trickier. Tanya did poorly on her history exam Ø because her best friend Giselle insisted on gossiping during their study session the night before.MAIN CLM AINM A main + Ø + suboU B O R D I N A T E CLAUSE. Diane decided to plant tomatoes in the back of the yard Ø where the sun blazed the longest during the day. Dog is a general noun. Sometimes you will need a comma. for example. Jonathon spent his class time reading comic books Ø since his average was a 45 one week before final exams. lets us know which animal we mean. Button.
separate it with a comma in front and a comma behind. A reader is less concerned with Rhonda's reaction than the presence of a giant snake on the sidewalk! The Appositive Recognize an appositive when you see one. a cockroach. Look at these examples: The insect. use no punctuation for an essential clause. When this happens. is crawling across the kitchen table. A six-foot snake slithered across the sidewalk. who was wearing a red shirt. Rhonda gasped. If the two ideas have unequal importance. wished that he had instead chosen ketchup for his hotdog. An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. If the clause is nonessential. Use subordination to combine ideas effectively. Writers use subordination to combine two ideas in a single sentence. After dripping mustard all over his chest.Relative clauses can also interrupt a main clause. save the most important one for the end of the sentence so that your reader remembers it best. . Since the two simple sentences are related. If we rewrite the example above so that the two ideas are flipped. is crawling across the kitchen table. Take a look at these examples: After dripping mustard all over his chest. you can combine them to express the action more effectively: Rhonda gasped when a six-foot snake slithered across the sidewalk. Read these two simple sentences: Rhonda gasped. a large cockroach. the man Ø who was wearing a red shirt Ø wished that he had instead chosen ketchup for his hotdog. the wrong point gets emphasized: When a six-foot snake slithered across the side walk. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words. Charles. The insect.
is crawling across the kitchen table. The important point to remember is that a nonessential appositive is always separated from the rest of the sentence with comma(s). and empty potato chip bags. Clifford. My 286 computer. it looks like this: Robbie. is a collection of overdue library books.The insect. Diane's eleven-year-old beagle. When the appositive begins the sentence. dirty plates. computer components. it looks like this: . Reliable. old mail. Robbie charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket. charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket. it looks like this: A hot-tempered tennis player. is crawling across the kitchen table. When the appositive interrupts the sentence. chews holes in the living room carpeting as if he were still a puppy. a modern-day dinosaur. a large. Punctuate the appositive correctly. hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal. And when the appositive ends the sentence. Genette's bedroom desk. The insect. the biggest disaster area in the house. the messiest eater at the table. a hot-tempered tennis player. Here are more examples: During the dinner conversation. chews floppy disks as noisily as my brother does peanut brittle. a large cockroach with hairy legs. spewed mashed potatoes like an erupting volcano. cat hair.
( No change/stopping of action ) John sleeps until sunrise.Upset by the bad call.For the whole duration when it is dark. ( Change/stopping of action ) Explaining the examples that you shared. that's not an issue. Think . Think . The sale will continue until customers stop coming in. the issue is whether max's grandmother is irish. The sale will continue until 9 pm. and the sale stops.Moment Customers stop coming in. so she is clearly his ancestor. you want "supposed .For the whole duration supply lasts. The sale will continue as long as the supply lasts Think . Adj+Adj+noun format and Adv+Adj+noun with examples Wrong:James Joyce is Max's SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor.The moment sunrise occurs. Right:Max's grandmother is his SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor. the crowd cheered Robbie."supposed(ly)" has to modify whatever is actually in doubt. John sleeps. and Wrong:Max's grandmother is his SUPPOSED Irish ancestor. the issue is whether james joyce is actually max's ancestor at all. Think . (she is his grandmother.M. sale stops..) therefore. Can some one explain clearly when 2 use the adverb and when to use the adjective? it's a meaning issue -.Moment 9 P. Think . ancestor". a hot-tempered tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man's skull with a racket. .. you want "supposedly irish".) therefore. sale continues. in the first group of sentences. The difference as I see between "until" and "as long as" can be put in the two examples John sleeps as long as it is dark. Right:James Joyce is Max's SUPPOSED Irish ancestor. John stops sleeping. (james joyce was definitely irish. in the second group of sentences.
here are two other examples (both correct): the gallery featured only four paintings.. .What follows "until" is the cause that changes the inertia of the action being performed before until. so it makes sense. each a definitive masterwork of its creator. the gallery featured only four paintings. One of the differences is that "as a result of" is preceded by phrase/clause and "resulting from" is preceded by noun or noun phrase.. all art-deco pieces on canvas. this construction equates the two. each style of cooking (singular) is a product of. blah blah blah.A definition that I just made up .
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