ISB Borneo Global Issues Conference VII

27 February – 2 March 2009
“The fact that MUN (Model United Nations) exists to uphold the ideas of the United Nations among the young is particularly important since it is from the young that we should draw our energy and inspiration as we strive to make the United Nations effective and responsive to the needs of people worldwide.” Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations

1. 2. 3. 4. Guidelines – Parliamentary Procedures & Lexicon UN Millennium Development Goals Guide – Writing Resolutions / Action Plans (sample given) Topics for each Committee and Forum & Useful Websites

On the final day. this requires a two-thirds majority. On the second day a guest speaker will address the delegates in an opening ceremony. university admission and personal commitment to making this world a better place. this is a defining moment in their development and will play a role in their future career choices. Delegates are also to follow standard policies of official dress and proper methods of address. Delegates must copiously research the countries and topics they have been assigned as well as acquire a good working understanding of Parliamentary procedure. Brunei Darussalam. social. two forums will run in parallel. students will be assigned the roles of Secretaries General. improve and merge these resolutions when they feel it is appropriate. the 4 Secretaries-General will welcome delegates. The ISB BGIC Parliamentary Procedures and Debating Rules 1. Students from The International School of Brunei. A resolution must . They may merge their resolutions with those of other delegates if they wish. and economic system of the country and specific information about their committee topic and the opinion of the country they represent on that topic. Committee Chairs and Country Delegates. The General Assembly will amend and debate resolutions and resolutions passed in the GA. In each forum. This will immediately be followed by resolution debate in committee. passed resolutions will be debated in the General Assembly. Each committee must choose (by passing via a simply majority vote) up to four resolutions (placed in rank order of quality) to take to the General Assembly and amend. Delegates must remember at all times to seriously represent the country they have been assigned. Parliamentarians. On the first day of the conference held at ISB. and will debate some of the world’s most demanding problems/topics assigned to the following committees: • • • • • Political Committee Human Rights Committee ECO/SOC Committee Environment Committee GENERAL GUIDELINES Delegates are assigned countries and committees and must research the countries they have been assigned. For the students who take part in the ISB BGIC. other local schools in Brunei as well as overseas schools in the South East Asian region will attend. looking in particular at which plans are likely to have the biggest impact on the topic. The Secretaries General and Committee Chairs must administer and control the conference and debate. Due to the expected numbers of participants this year.ISB BGIC VII will take place from Friday 27 February – Monday 2 March 2009 at the International Convention Centre in the Bandar Seri Begawan. In the lobbying period delegates must try and gather support for their resolutions. This will be followed by lobbying in which delegates will write and seek support for their resolutions as well as having them passed by the vetting committee. The committees must discuss the pros and cons of each resolution. and provide strong leadership. A delegate should know about the government of the country they represent as well as information on the political. demonstrate a mastery of parliamentary procedure.

2. Debate is set at a minimum of 2 rounds but can be extended upward on the desecration of the chair. After the formal roll call each delegate will be invited to give an opening speech of not more then one minute. Speakers will be invited to speak for or against a resolution. The chair will choose the resolutions to be discussed in committee and draw up a speaker’s list. When a resolution has at least five co-submitters it must be sent to the faculty vetting committee for approval and or rewriting. All debate speeches must be no longer than two minutes. 3. Delegates can only co-submit two resolutions and co-sponsor up to four. If the chair accepts there will be a vote and if a majority of delegates vote for a recess.have at least five co-submitters and/or co-sponsors to present the resolution to committee. which the delegate responds with I raise to a … Point of Order. with a minimum of 5 minutes. 10. Speaking -when ever a delegate wishes to speak they hold up their placard and are addressed by the chair to which point do you rise. 8. If a delegate wishes to take time out to discuss a resolution or amendment they must raise their placards and ask for a Motion for Recess. Follow-ups to Points of Information are limited to one and at discretion of the chairs. If a delegate wishes to amend a resolution. and can respond with no or any and all. The chair has the right to refuse the motion. then caucusing shall be allowed at a time limit set by the chair. chairs will not allow any delegate to speak to the resolution. 4. Each country must respond with present and voting. the amendment must be written clearly on an overhead projector sheet – then sent to the chair who will present amendments at their desecration and at any time during the debate process. 9. If a delegate wishes to ask a question after a speaker has addressed the floor they must raise their placard and when addressed by the chair state that they raise to a point of information. A roll call will be called at the opening of the committees and General Assembly. 6. 5. but can extend debate after the initial rounds if the chair feels additional debate time is needed. Each delegate must make an opening speech. Debate starts with a reading of the operative causes of the resolution followed by Points of Clarification. The chair acknowledges a . Point of information etc … Also delegates are required to use formal language at all times. 7. They will then be invited to state their question to the speaker. In committee the speakers will present their arguments for and against the resolutions. The chair will set rounds according to the number of speakers on their list. 11. Once the resolution has been approved by the vetting committee it must be sent to the Chair of the appropriate committee by the opening of day two. All speakers will be asked if they are open to points of information. The chair then allows debate on the resolution by a set number of debating rounds following the speaker’s list the chairs have arranged. 12.

They may stop or curtail any parliamentary procedure if pressed for time or if they feel debate is being obstructed. A Right to Statement can only be allowed when no other business is being addressed (i.e. If a majority of delegates vote to divide the question each clause or group of clauses shall be voted on separately. the delegate may raise their placard and move to Close the Debate. An amendment is added to a resolution if it receives a simple majority. in between resolutions etc. If a second warning is given the speaker will lose speaking and voting rights for an amount of time to be decided by the chair in consultation with teacher advisors. The chair will ask why the request has been made and if the chair feels the reason warrants the request can allow it. A resolution passes General Assembly only with a 2/3 majority 21. 20. If a delegate is not following parliamentary procedure or being deliberately obstructive they may be given a warning. If a delegate cannot hear or wishes to make a short point about the conduct of the debate the delegate must raise their placard and rise to a Point of Concern. There is no penalty for the first warning. If the chair deems it a sensible reason there will be a placard vote. If a delegate wishes to make a statement they may request a Right to Statement. 16. A Right to Statement will allow a speaker to speak up to a minute on any topic related to their country. Two thirds of delegates in committee or General Assembly must agree to the proposal for debate to be closed. The delegate is then asked to explain their vote and given the option to change their vote. The evening before the General Assembly meets (and altered if needed on the day the General Assemble convenes) the Secretary Generals will draw up a list of resolutions to be debated along with a speaker’s list for each resolution. A delegate may propose to the chair that another delegate explain their vote by rising to a motion to request an explanation. 14. Resolutions passing committee with a simple majority vote are sent on to General Assembly. If a delegate wishes to close a debate at the end of a round. a third warning will cause the delegate to be removed for a set amount of time decided by the chair also in consultation with teacher advisors. The chair will ask the delegate to state their reasons for the motion. all other voting including that for amendments is done by a placard vote. In this instance the delegate may move to Divide the Question. Were the Chairs not to ask the question a delegate at the appropriate time can rise to a point of order and request a Right of Statement.proposed amendment then sets 1 or 2 rounds of debate at their discretion. Statements from the floor and Amendments as they wish.. The delegate will be invited by the chair to address the floor and explain why. The chair will ask them to state their concern. Delegates may abstain from any vote. in which case the floor goes directly to voting procedures. feeling that all the key issues have been covered and further debate would not be useful. 15. All Rights to Statement are allowed at the chair’s discretion. 18. 17. All voting on a resolution is by role call. The chair has the discretionary right to accept as many Points of Information. When debate and amendments on a resolution are completed a delegate may feel they agree with certain clauses in the resolution but not others. Resolutions chosen for debate . 19. 13.) and at the prompting of the chair are their any Rights of Statement on the floor.

“affirming”. If a delegate feels they or the country they represent has been insulted they may raise to have there grievances noted. Resolutions passed in committee are debated in GA but must have a 2/3rd majority to pass GA. “condemns” etc. 22. Each resolution must consist of the following: (i) State the audience to whom the resolution is addressed. There are four committees. Committees meet during the first day of the conference where Resolutions are presented by submitters and debate ensues.g. therefore they should be specific and accurate in reflecting the policies of the nation they represent. If a delegate feels parliamentary procedure has been breached they may rise to a point of order. Resolution A document prepared by delegates which addresses the issues of their respective committees.are at the discretion of the Secretary Generals. “suggests”. (ii) State the problem being addressed (iii) State co-submitters and co-sponsors separately (VI) Perambulatory clauses – defines the problem and the need for action. delegates may converse with the chair and amongst themselves in note form. Delegates wishing to pass a note should hold the note up and floor secretaries will pick up and pass them on. Delegates must refrain from note passing or tearing note paper during speeches or during voting. followed by voting on the resolution. Rules of procedure apply as in committee. Note-passing In both committee and GA. Resolutions are the material that the debate will be based on. Frivolous notes include all content which has no relevance to debate. each debating on different issues. The General Secretariat chairs debate in GA. Resolutions pass a committee with a simple majority. e.e. i. Must begin with verbs. Must begin with present or past participle. “alarmed by” etc. Points of order can be entertained at the discretion of the chair. The delegate can at any time rise to a grievance by standing silently but can only speak when addressed by the chair. The ISB BGIC – Lexicon Committee Each delegate is assigned to a committee. their rulings are considered final and can only be overruled by the Secretary Generals. General Assembly (GA) All Committees congregate in the General Assembly (also know as GA) on the final day of the conference. e. (v) Operative clauses – state the plan of action or recommendations. Two Parliamentarians will serve as arbitrators and interpreters of the procedures set for ISB BGIC. . Chairs can either request an explanation of the grievance or simply state your grievances have been noted the delegate may please sit down. committee name.g. Notepaper will be provided. 24. except all delegates can debate on all topics. All rules for debate in committee apply also to General Assembly with the exception that a resolution requires a 2/3 majority to pass. Floor secretaries will forward all frivolous notes to the chair which may result in a warning for the delegate. 23.

delegates will be given the opportunity to lobby or caucus. co-sponsors can still request to be removed from the co-sponsor’s list by sending a note to inform the chairs. Authors of resolutions must gain the support of at least 5 co-submitters and or co-sponsors. They provide and introduction to their nation. If debate on the resolution has commenced. Each delegate may only cosubmit up to 2 resolutions. The number of points of clarification to be entertained will be determined at the discretion of the chair. s/he can be added to the co-sponsor’s list. Caucusing/Lobbying On the first day of the conference. This is considered one round of speakers. A delegate may rise to a point of clarification when s/he wishes for any words or phrases in the resolution to be defined or clarified. Point of Clarification These will be entertained after the main submitter of a resolution has read out the operative clauses. Each delegate may only co-sponsor up to 4 resolutions. to discuss amendments etc. At least two rounds must be completed before a motion to close debate may be made. for example. Speaker’s List The chairs will draw up a list of speakers who wish to speak for or against a resolution. . discuss different views. then s/he should motion to recess. A delegate can only be considered a co-submitter if s/he has contributed to the resolution. This speech for the resolution will be followed by a speech against. Co-sponsor If a delegate supports a resolution but has not made any contributions to it. merge resolutions and gain support for their resolution. The perambulatory clauses should refer to the United Nations and NGO resolutions and national and international legislation that relates to the issue being addressed in the action plan. Vetting Committee/Approval Panel This is a group of teachers and advisors who approve resolutions for debate. They should take this time to collaborate with other delegates. All resolutions must be approved and stamped by the vetting committee before it can be debated. Should a delegate require time to break for caucus. Opening Speech Opening speeches must not exceed one minute in length. Draft Action Plan The action plans should broadly follow the format of the United Nations resolution and be split into two sections. including their nation’s perspective and policies in relation to the committee issues. Co-submitter When resolutions are merged. Delegates may not challenge the content of a resolution in a point of clarification. the submitters become co-submitters. The operative clause should appeal to NGO’s/governments/UN to deal with the issue in a manner that corresponds to the perambulatory causes. the perambulatory clauses and the operative clauses. The main submitter of a resolution must speak for the resolution after s/he has read out the operative clauses and responded to points of clarification.(vi) All lines numbered Resolutions passed in committee will proceed to be debated upon in general assembly. The speaker’s list will continue to alternate between for and against.

If the chair accepts this motion. Motion to Close Debate If a delegate feels that all points of debate have been covered. If the delegate consents. “against” or “abstain”. After the speaker has responded. In GA. This motion may be denied at the discretion of the chair. A delegate may also ask a leading question. The delegate may respond with “no” or “any and all”. In committee and GA. The time limit of the recess will be decided by the chair but must be a minimum of 5 minutes. If passed. s/he must write these amendments clearly on an overhead projector sheet and send this to the chairs. s/he may suggest an end of debate on that particular resolution by motioning to close debate. against or abstain. All voting procedures will be done by placard where delegates must raise their placards when the chair asks for either for. If passed. This requires a simple majority to pass. such as “Does the delegate not think that…”. Delegates rising to a point of information can then challenge the competence of the resolution by asking the speaker a question. A delegate may abstain if s/he is neutral on the issue at hand. s/he may motion to recess. s/he may rise to a point of order.Point of Information After a delegate has made a speech. there will be a vote that requires a two-third majority to pass. Point of Order If at any point a delegate feels that parliamentary procedure has been breeched. If the chair accepts the explanation for this motion. The chair will call out each delegation and the delegate must respond with “for”. there will be a vote on the motion to recess. The chair will request for an explanation. For example. s/he may motion to divide the question. The amendment will be entertained at the discretion of the chair. the chair will ask if s/he is open to points of information. if the delegate feels that s/he has not sufficiently answered the question. Motion to Divide the Question After debate and voting on a resolution. amendment must be written on paper and sent to the chairs. Amendments If a delegate wishes to change any part of a resolution. a delegate may vote for. If this explanation is accepted then the floor will then move to vote on the motion to divide the . s/he should rise to a point of concern. the floor will be open to points of information. if the delegate wishes for the speaker to speak louder. the committee will move directly into voting procedures. against or abstain. Point of Concern Delegates may rise to a point of concern if s/he is experiencing discomfort which impairs his or her ability to follow the proceedings. the chair may declare this question “out of order” if the chair feels that it does not enhance debate. the committee will vote on the resolution. followed by a vote that requires a simple majority to pass. The only exception is final voting on a resolution which will be done by a roll-call vote. At the end of debate. It is at the discretion of the chair whether or not to entertain a point of order. However. Motion to Recess If a delegate feels s/he needs time to caucus or discuss amendments. final voting on a resolution and a motion to close debate requires a two-third majority to pass. Debate on the amendment will then ensue. The chair holds the authority to deny this follow-up. Voting When voting. the delegate may then “request for a follow-up”. if a delegate agrees with certain clauses of the resolution but not others. the amendment is added to the resolution. All other voting procedures only require a simple majority to pass.

Delegates wishing to make a right to statement can then raise their placards. This requires a simple majority to pass. Grievances At any point of time. each clause in the resolution will be voted on separately. Once acknowledged by the chair. Following this the chair will declare that the delegate’s grievances have been noted.question. The number of right to statements entertained is at the desecration of the chair. the delegate should request for a “right to reply”. the delegate will be given 30 seconds to explain why his nation’s integrity has been insulted. The chairs will entertain right to statements before and in between debate on resolutions. If the chair feels this is a sound reason. The chairs will ask if there are any right to statements on the floor. If passed. Right to Statement A right to statement is a speech on any topic relating to the delegate’s nation. The chair will ask on what grounds the delegate wishes a right to reply. should a delegate feel that his or her nation’s integrity has been challenged by another delegate. It does not have to relate to any resolution or the committee topic. s/he may stand up but may not speak until recognized by the chair. .

4. 7.1. 3. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. 8. Combat HIV/AIDS. Develop a global partnership for development. Promote gender equality and empower women. 5. Ensure environmental sustainability. 2. 6. Reduce child mortality. Achieve universal primary education. . Improve maternal health. malaria and other diseases.


The PERAMBULATORY CLAUSES. Each Operative e Clause begins with a verb. Resolutions must follow a standard format explained below. Grammar .g. 7. i. This is the ultimate goal of a delegate at BGIC: to write. The Operative e clauses are the heart of the Resolution. 6. in this case. Headings (1stline is the name of the Committee which will debate the Resolution. with the most prominent authors being at the beginning of the list. 1-53. and if you have more to say than can fit on two sheets. i.e. or background information to the Question.RESOLUTIONS (ACTION PLANS) A resolution is a plan of action to be taken on an issue. Line 7 begins the 1st Operative e Clause. Each Operative e Clause is numbered to the right of the line numbers (e. This verb is often ‘diplomatic’. The second line is the Question that is being debated. 7.e. This is what is debated.please note that the whole Resolution is one long sentence. The Third line is the list of countries that have written and support the Resolution. The font on the sample Resolution shown here is too small. requests. Delegates should have a resolution prepared for BGIC and work toward merging your resolution with others when you can.) 2. which is underlined. such as suggests. Environmental. List of some appropriate Perambulatory phases follows. Length of the Resolution? One to two single sided pages. co-submit and co-sponsor a resolution and see that it is passed in both Committee and the GA. then prioritize. The only period. The Perambulatory should include relevant agreements. 6. or urges. A comprehensive e Resolution is should have 10 or more Operative e Clauses. Use size 12 font. meetings. are lines 1-6 of this Resolution. the CoSubmitters and Co-Sponsors. 4. Only the Security Council has the power to demand action. . treaties which pre-date this Resolution. is on line 53 at the very end of the Resolution. and drop the less important "stuff'. Please read this and look at examples of Perambulatory and Operative e phases as well as the sample resolution on Iraq. are lines 7-53 of this Resolution. 1. and Line 16 begins the 2nd Operative e Clause). All lines are numbered in left-hand margin. 5. The Perambulatory is just background. and since BGIC III does not include a Security Council then no resolution should have demand as an operative e cause. Pandemics etc… 3. Be reasonable. and which calls for action. 8. Human Rights etc. The OPERATVI E CLAUSES. though there is no set rule here. and semi-colons after each Operative e Clause. or "full stop". punctuated with commas after Perambulatory Clauses. or calls for action / change. so the verb demand should be reserved solely for Security Council Resolutions.

12 SAMPLE PERAMBULATORY PHRASES: Affirming Alarmed by Approving Aware of Believing Bearing in mind Confident Contemplating Convinced Declaring Deeply concerned Deeply conscious Deeply convinced Deeply disturbed Deeply regretting Desiring Emphasizing Expecting Expressing its appreciation Expressing its satisfaction Fulfilling Fully aware Fully alarmed Fully believing Further deploring Further recalling Guided by Having adopted Having considered Having considered further Having devoted attention Having examined Having studied Having heard Having received Keeping in mind Noting with regrets Noting with satisfaction Noting with deep concern Noting further Noting with approval Observing Realizing Reaffirming Recalling Recognizing Referring Seeking Taking into account Taking into consideration Taking note Viewing with Appreciation Welcoming SAMPLE OPERATVI E CLAUSES Accepts Affirms Approves Authorizes Calls Calls upon Condemns Congratulates Confirms Considers Declares accordingly Deplores Designates Emphasizes Encourages Endorses Expresses its appreciation Expresses its hope Further invites Further proclaims Further reminds Further recommends Further resolves Further requests Have resolved Notes Proclaims Reaffirms Recommends Reminds Regrets Requests Solemnly affirms Strongly condemns Supports Trusts Takes notes of Transmits Urges .

(3) Believing that the International Community and the neighbouring Arab countries should participate in the reconstruction and administration of Iraq. Registering voters. Suggests regular international conferences held under US auspices to recognize the (24) international community’s role by: (25) a. Requests the United Nations Electoral Assistance Division (EAD) in Iraq to ensure the (39) nationwide elections may take place by the January 31st. (34) d.) Improve water and sanitation sector by supporting the rehabilitation of sewage (29) treatment plants. Finland. (45) ii. (47) VI . (35) as well as improve public health and environmental conditions around hospital areas. 2005 deadline by: (40) a. (20) b. Urges the coalition authority and Iraqi governing council to allow a greater role for the UN (17) and the international community in the following areas: (18) a. (31) b. Budgeting funds provided for the election. (16) 2. Improving infrastructure such as polling stations to ensure that (49) voting is fair.) Aiding with funds raised by the League of Arab States to assist the formation of (14) Iraqi government in terms of elections. Mexico. (1) Reminding that the United Nations has a vital responsibility in the reconstruction and administration of Iraq. Requesting direct support from the League of Arab States and the United Nations for (9) helping Iraq’s sovereignty by: (10) a.) Guaranteeing that all candidates are not to be intimidated and that the elections ( 41) will remain free and fair.) Revising and updating the current electoral framework. Co-SUBMITTERS: Germany. especially in (19) the area of engineering. (13) b. and effective e (50) e.13 Sample Resolution COMMITTEE/FORUM: The General Assembly QUESTION OF: The role of the UN in Rebuilding Iraq.) Providing humanitarian aid by raising funds. Decides to remain actively seized of the matter.) Seeking investment opportunities in Iraq to expand foreign money reserves. (48) v. especially the advertisement of education of (15) elections. Egypt Co-SPONSORS: South Africa. Iran. Reminds of the importance of rebuilding the Iraqi Civilian police force by the donation of funds (37) efficiently used for Iraqi police training. f. Urges the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) to continue to: (28) a. (38) 6.) Providing technical assistance to the Iraqis by: (44) i. Brazil THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY. (23) 3. (41) b. and government body from becoming biased. designated by the UN. and distributing it to meet Civilian needs. (43) d. (6) Approving the work undertaken to establish a permanent Iraqi constitution.) Governing council be given to Arab observers designated by the delegates of the (11) League of Arab States to protect the administration process.) Publicizing information about registering and the elections through the means of but 7. (5) Aware of the need for rehabilitation of public services.) Building and improving water distillation plants.) Control over all international funds by a special committee designated by the UN to (22) insure the proper distribution of funds. (7) 1. (26) b. Reviewing the electoral framework.) Encourage hospital rehabilitation by improving hospital facilities and equipment.) More multinational forces for reconstruction. (32) c. accurate. repairing pumping stations and assisting in the clearance of (30) wastes and cleaning of the sewage system.) Ensuring all nominations are receive ed by the new Iraqi election commission.) Improve electricity sector by rebuilding and maintaining power services in major (33) cities of Iraq. (36) 5. Training election officials. (42) c.) Screening all candidates to avoid the selection of candidates that will invoke violence (51) (52) (53) and turmoil in Iraq. .) To secure and to enhance the situation of Iraq’s stagnant domestic economy. (27) 4. (21) c. especially elections. (46) iii. (12) constitution.

What should the world be doing to re-address this imbalance and how can it be achieved? Devise an action plan. Yet the move to biomass has huge environmental implications. political uncertainty continues to intensify due to a constellation of unrelated factors. with recent deadly air strikes exacerbating the problem and fuelling a public backlash. about 0. What is now the way forward for the Annapolis peace process? Devise an action plan. in particular the destruction of the rainforests and the removal of land for food crops.  ECOSOC . In contrast.” This daily tragedy. Forum 1:  Human Rights–Civilian deaths in Afghanistan from US and NATO air strikes nearly tripled from 2006 to 2007. The latest World Bank figures for world poverty reveals a higher number of people live in poverty than previously thought. over 26. Prime Minister Ehud Olmert told Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas that he desired a peace agreement "by the end of the year" However. which may be followed by elections in the Palestinian Authority in 2009.  Political Committee .500 children died around the world. How can this realistically be achieved? Forum 1:  ECOSOC– “Today. Nowadays it is regularly over $100 a barrel and any fall below this causes OPEC to cut supply.In developing countries.13% of the world’s population controlled 25% of the world’s assets in 2004 and the wealthiest 20% of the world’s population consumes 76. Are they genuinely concerned about international demand for oil or are they just protecting their profits? Devise an action plan for the continued use of oil globally and the sustainability of future energy. all of which would enhance the community’s ability to develop economic activity designed to reduce poverty and enhance food security. . from poverty and other preventable causes. They include the growing Hamas threat within Palestinian society and leadership transitions in Israel and the US. given that one of the tactics of the Taliban is to use civilians as human shields? Devise an action plan.6% of the world’s goods while 80% of humanity gets the remainder. How can the US and NATO reduce these numbers. Human Rights Watch said in September 2008. rarely makes headline news.Indian security forces and Naxalite rebels should immediately end the use of children in the conflict in Chhattisgarh state in central India.14 ISB BGIC VII 2009 – Topics Forum 1:  Political Committee – In September 2008. Using children under age 18 in armed operations places them at risk of injury and death and violates international law. So what is the way forward? Devise an action plan.Less than 1 year ago the world was concerned about Oil Prices hitting $90 a barrel.  Human Rights . the production of mass biomass energy in line with sustainable food production and the sustainable use of local resources could result in higher incomes for farmers and added energy services for the community.

Threats include the illegal wildlife trade. Devise an action plan that will save the tiger Forum 2:  Environment – Critical food shortages and growing demand for bio-fuels and hydro-electricity due to high fossil fuel prices rank among the greatest threats today to the preservation of precious wetlands worldwide as farmers and developers look for new areas for agriculture.000 in the early 20th century to only a few thousand today.  . Devise an action plan that can save the wetlands. increased areas of tree growth in the Arctic could serve to take up carbon dioxide (CO2.411 left in the wild. The latest official tiger census in India released in 2008 put the figure at a mere 1. This in turn is leading to shallow wetlands being swamped and some species of mangrove trees being submerged and drowned.  Forum 2:  ECOSOC . ECOSOC . Devise an action plan that finds a sustainable balance between the conflicting pressures and demands. or destroyed in just 30 years. In addition. with particular reference to the Philippines. Intensive breeding of livestock and poultry for such restaurants leads to deforestation. the principal greenhouse gas emitted by human activities) and supply more wood products and related employment. are under attack from major environmental groups in the United States and other developed countries because of their environmental impact. Global warming is causing polar ice to melt and sea levels to rise. providing local and global benefits. expanding opportunities for shipping and possibly for offshore oil extraction. including KFC and Pizza Hut. Some scientists forecast that climate change will lead to the disappearance of entire nations.15 FORUM 1  Environment – Half of the world's wetlands have been destroyed over the last 100 years and in the Philippines alone a staggering 80% of coastal wetlands have been drained. land being lost for projects sponsored by the World Bank. reduced sea ice in the Arctic is likely to increase marine access to the region’s resources.Junk-food chains. So why should we be concerned and how can the threats to the Arctic be reduced? Devise an action plan. encroachment of human populations in tiger habitats and traditional Chinese medicine. Environment – – As global warming accelerates.  Environment . degraded. yet allow for sustainable development.Tiger populations have plummeted from an estimated 100. energy crop plantations and hydro dams.How can the development of educational opportunities for indigenous peoples be expanded whilst maintaining an appreciation of the cultures and customs? Devise an action plan.

or ten times what a normal Indian family is supposed to use in one http://www.A record number of floods. Forum 2:  Human Rights . (Specific examples to consider could be the aboriginal people in Australia or Barrack Obama’s Sovereignty. if it gets water at all.. women use up to 150 different species of plants as medicine.. abject poverty in Rivers State ranks among the worst in the world. contributing to spiralling world oil .. Sir John Holmes. poultry. animal farms use nearly 40 percent of the world’s total grain production. Yet in Indian Agriculture. For every pound of red meat.  Useful Web sites.aboriginalaustralia. What should be done by governments to ensure that basic human rights are granted to maids and how can they be enforced? Devise an action plan. "We are seeing the effects of climate change.this is here and now. farm fields lose about five pounds of irreplaceable top soil. eggs. Forum 2:  Political – How can an increasing awareness of political issues discriminating against native peoples and encouraging indigenous people to be more politically active be achieved without further social and racial discrimination against them? Devise an action plan. sabotage and oil theft have cut production in the world's eighth-largest oil exporter to its lowest level in 20 years. has warned. Whilst the government reaps the rewards. nearly 70 percent of grain production is fed to livestock. The water necessary for meat breeding comes to about 190 gallons per animal per day. For the poorest.16 land degradation. the United Nation's emergency relief coordinator and under-secretary-general for humanitarian affairs.globalissues. In the Niger Delta the rampant violence against the local people is a symptom of the rampant corruption that exits within the country. What should the world be doing to help Nigeria address the spiralling violence in the Delta and ensure better governance country-wide? Devise an action plan. droughts and storms around the world in 2007 amounted to a climate change "mega disaster". this is with us already." Devise an action plan that requires countries to reduce their carbon footprint with immediate effect and not over the next 15 years as many advocate they may try to do.  Human Rights: In Nigeria. Devise an action plan that meets the world’s demand for food yet sustains the needs of the poor and their biodiverse environment. this biodiversity is the most important resource for survival.Domestic workers are dying in Lebanon at a rate of more than one per week and more generally. Overall. In the United States. Any year can be a freak but the pattern looks pretty clear to be honest. Tribal-Federal Relations and the Trust Responsibility Plan ) Political . or fodder. and contamination of water sources and other natural resources. maid abuse is on the increase around the world. http://www. and milk produced. food. http://www.nsw.php http://www.globalissues.environment.cfm http://www.panda.17 ypes/ http://www.htm http://www.html

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