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GeoLocatingTargetScope

SponsoredbyRaytheon Team3951

Agenda

TeamWaldo(#3951)

TeamSponsor
ProjectSponsor
RaytheonMissileSystems Aspiringtobethemostadmireddefenseandaerospace systemssupplierthroughworldclasspeopleand technology. Raytheonisatechnologyandinnovationleaderspecializing indefense,homelandsecurityandothergovernment marketsthroughouttheworld. Mr.MichaelEaston Sr.SystemsEngineer UAGraduateStudent

CurrentSystem
RaytheonJavelinSystem
Originallyanantitanksystem

CurrentSystemsDeficiencies
Notoriginallybuiltfor surveillance Nodirectionalcues Noncompacttechnology NoGeolocatingabilities

NextEvolution
Integrateeasytousetargetgeolocatingtoadapttonon lethalsurveillancerole.

ProblemStatement

MissionStatement
Alleviatetheneedformultiplestationedpersonnelas itwillenhancetheresponsetimeandaccuracyof informationinthefield.

FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
TopLevelFunctionalRequirements
Calculatetargetsgeolocationwithin10mCEP fromadistanceof500m(10) Exporta320x240JPEGimageofthetarget(8) WirelesslysendtargetimageandGPSlocationto rapidresponseteam(8) Directusertothetargetlocationdescribedbythe UAVdatainput(SlewtoCue)(6)

Each(number)represents thecustomerimportance forthatfunctional requirementwhere10is themostimportant

AdditionalFunctionalRequirements
FieldofViewof4 x6 (5) ReceiveUAVdatawithin100moftargetsgeo locationinstandardform(2)

Constraints
MostImportantConstraints:
Costlessthan$4500(10) Weightlessthan4Lbs(10)

AdditionalConstraints
Poweronwithin30seconds(8) 1Hrbatterylife(7) Sizelessthan(18x18x12)(7) Droppablefrom6ft(3) Operateupto60degreesCelsius(1)

EffectsofConstraints

Methodology
FunctionalRequirements
EachFRformedaseriesof whats CreatingaSubsystemsofFRs thatwereapprovedby customer.
Functional Requirement Whats Distanceto target Calculatethe targetsgeo location to10mCEP from500m Elevation change Azimuth change UsersGeo location Simulate Response Team Weight 10 10 10 10 4

Defineimportance
Discussedcustomerimportanceof eachwhat withsponsorto establishaweight 110scale,with10asthemost important

Wirelesslysend targetdateto Transmitdata responseteam 250m 60stransmit time

8 1

Methodology
Systemsweredividedintosubsystemsby theteamandapprovedbycustomer. Hows weregeneratedforeachwhat throughbrainstorming,similarproducts, competitivesystems,andresearch. Atradestudywasperformedoneach how toevaluatethestrengthsand weaknessesforeachrelevantwhat.
Thismatrixwascreatedtoensurematchingofunderstanding betweenthecustomeranddesignteam.

RANKINGSYSTEM
Eachhow isrankedbasedonhowwellthehow meetstheFRs.
Ranking Value 9 6 3 0 3 6 9 Meaning CannotPerform SignificantNegativeImpact MarginalNegativeImpact DoesNotApply MarginalPositiveImpact SignificantPositiveImpact MustHave

EXAMPLE
Requirements Functions (Whats)
RangeDistancetoTarget

Customer Importance 10 10 10 10 10 8 10

Laser Range Finder (Raytheon) 6 0 0 0 6 3 9

Sonic Range Finder 6 0 0 0 6 3 3

Calculatethe targets Geolocationto10m CEPfrom500m

MeasureElevationChange MeasureAzimuthChange IdentifyUsersGeoLocation CalculateTargetsGeo Location Weight<4Lbs

Constraints

Cost<$4500

TotalWeightedScore:

186

126

Methodology
Theseindividualstudieswere compiledintoonelargedecision matrix. Therelativescoreswere weightedagainstthecustomer requirementstoachieveand overallscore Theseweightedscoresclearlyshowedthetopchoicesfor eachsubsystem.

ThreePreliminaryDesigns
DecomposedeachFunctionalRequirement Thethreedesignswerechosenbasedonthree criteria
Minimizeweight Minimizecost Maximumfulfillmentoffunctionalrequirements

Eachsystemcomponentwillhavea(number).Thisnumberisthe totalweightedsumofthatcomponentinourdecisionmatrix.

Design3
MaximumFulfillmentofFunctionRequirements
Calculatetargetsgeolocationwithin10mCEPfroma distanceof500m
RangeFinder RaytheonLaserRangeFinder(186) Elevationdevice inclinometer(297) Azimuthdevice 2axisCompass(297) GPSdevice OEMGPS(SurfacemountModule)(204)

Design3
MaximumFulfillmentofFunctionRequirements
Exporta320x240JPEGimageoftarget
DataProcessing ProcessorCircuit(PCboardDesign)(195) Opticalsystem RefractiveIR(Galilean)(30)

WirelesslysendtargetimageandGPSlocationtorapid responseteam
WirelessSystem XbeeProRF(195)

Design3
MaximumFulfillmentofFunctionRequirements
DirectusertothetargetlocationdescribedbytheUAV datainput(SlewtoCue) Directuser Mapoftargetrelativetouser(105)

Constraints
Onehouroperatingtime NiMHBattery(57) Survivefallfrom6ft Plastic(90)

PreliminaryDesignsSummary
PreliminaryDesign1
MinimizeWeight(3.6lbs) SurfaceMountedElectronics SingleAngleMeasurementSensor ReflectiveVisibleOpticalSystem LowPowerWirelessUnit

PreliminaryDesign2
MinimizeCost($1500) OEMElectronics DualSensorAngleMeasurements RefractiveVisibleOpticalSystem UseofLaptopsWirelessConnection

PreliminaryDesign3
MaximumFulfillmentofFRs(HighestScore) SurfaceMountedElectronics DualSensorAngleMeasurements RefractiveIROpticalSystem LowPowerWirelessUnit

Conclusion
ReIntroducedtheproblemstatement Methodologyanddecisionmakingprocess
TurnedFRsintowhats Performedtradestudiestofindhows Rankhows againstwhats tochoosepossible components

Presentedthreefeasibledesigns,allhighlightingdifferent possiblepaths
MinimizeWeight MinimizeCost MaximizeFulfillmentofFunctionalRequirement

Questions

Optics
AppendixSlides

ChoosingSWIR,MWIR, orLWIR
SWIR
UnlikeLWIRandMWIRimagers,SWIRimagerssee reflectedlight.
NightVision

LaserRangeFinderoperatesintheSWIRband TelecommunicationsoperateintheSWIRband

ChoosingSWIR,MWIR, orLWIR
MWIR
Preferredwheninspectinghightemperatureobjects MajorityoftheMWIRcamerasrequirecooling,using eitherliquidnitrogenoraStirlingcyclecooler
Coolingtoapproximately196C(77K) Expensive

Withoutcooling,thesensorswouldbe"blinded"or floodedbytheirownradiation

ChoosingSWIR,MWIR, orLWIR
LWIR
LWIRbandpreferredwhenworkingwithnearroom temperatureobjects UncooledthermalcamerastypicallyaresensitivetoLWIR radiationanduseadetectorthatoperatesatambient temperature Thus,smallerandlesscostly Effectiveatidentifyingobjectsatdistanceslessthan2miles, withmanyhavingsmallerfocallengthlens(<100 millimeters) However,resolutionandimagequalityarelowerthan cooleddetectors.

ChoosingSWIR,MWIR, orLWIR

AbsorptionSpectrums

Note:Dataistakenfromviewingthroughtheatmosphere; sothetransmittancelossduetoO3 isnegligible.

BlackbodyCurves

Humanskinemission peaksat10.6m

http://www.varmekilden.eu/Estero/Documento_Tecnico_UK.htm

http://www.creatic.fr/cic/B111Doc.htm

UserInterface
Allison
DirectusertothelocationdescribedbytheUAVdatainput(Slewtocue)

SlewtoCueDirectionalDisplay
TwoArrows(18)
Providesbasicdirection

Compass(27)
Providesmoreaccuratedirection

Mapwithtargetanduser(6)
Providesmostinformationand accuracy

InterfaceNavigation
TouchScreen(27) Externalinput(s)(6)
Lowaesthetics Slightlydifficult

DirectionalButtons(21)
Mediumaesthetics Slightlydifficult

FormatandInformationDisplay
3DMap(12)
Highaesthetics Difficulttointegrate

Menu(9)
Mediumaesthetics Mediumtointegrate

Digitallog(s)(30)
Lowaesthetics Easytointegrate

GPS&NavigationCalculation
NateCook
Calculatetargetgeolocationfrom500mwithin10mCEP

GPS
OEMGPSModule(45)
Easytointegrate AdvancedOptionsLeadingto increasedAccuracy(GNSSS)

GPSBuiltfromParts(24)
SmallFormFactor Eliminateunnecessaryfunctions Lotsoftimetodevelop

OrientationCalculation
(Azimuth&Elevation)
3AxisdigitalCompass(45)
Onedeviceperformsbothmeasurements Notasaccurate Moreexpensive

DigitalCompass&Inclinometer(48)
CostLess MoreAccurate MoreIntegrationtime

OpticalSystem
EricStratton
4x6FieldofView 4xMagnification RecognizetoV50Criterionat500m CaptureImageofTarget

Visiblevs.Infrared
Visible(27)
Easytodistingueterrainobjects fromtarget AestheticallyPleasing Onlyworksduringtheday Cannotseethroughobjects

Infrared(IR)(12)
Seethroughnon/lowheat emittingobjects Worksduringthedayandnight Hardertodistinguishobjectsin picture

OpticalSystemConfiguration
Telescope
Bringsdistantobjectstoafocus Usedtoincreaseapparentangularsizeofobject
Magnification

2typesoftelescopeconfigurations

Refractive

Reflective

Refractivevs.Reflective
Refractive(Lenses)(27) Easiertoalignandmount Betterstability Longerpathlength moreaberrations Reflective(Mirrors)(9) Lighter,collapsiblepathlength Bigapertureforcollectinglight Hardtomountsecondarymirror, notasruggedaslenses

NetworkSystem
MattGiardina

ReceiveGeneralTargetLocation CalculateTargetsDirectionalData CalculateTargetsGeoLocation Transmitdata250mtoRapidResponseTeamwithin60s

WirelessDataTransmission
RadioFrequency(RF)(24)
Longrange(e.g.Xtend) LowPowerModules(e.g.XbeePro) Cheap&Light

DirectlyConnectedtoaLaptop(27)
UseLaptopsWirelessConnection Allowsforinfinite transmissiondistance Notaestheticallypleasing

LowScoringOptions
Infrared(21) DirectlyConnectedtoaCellPhone(21)

DataProcessingTasks
CalculateDirectionalDataforUser Interface Receivedatafromlaserrangefinderand targetlocationdevices Calculatepotentialtargetsgeolocation usingsensordata Process/ExportImagefromOptical System Sendgeolocationdataandimageto wirelesstransmitter

DataProcessingOptions
DesignProcessingCircuit(6)
SmallFormFactor LongDevelopmentTime LongManufacturingTime

GeneralPurposeDevelopmentBoard(12)
RelativelyEasytoprogram Unnecessarycircuitcomponents Heavy&Oversized

Power&Materials
JohnBloom

ContinuousOperatingforupto1hour Droppablefrom6feet(withoutbreaking)

BatteryOptions
LithiumIon(LiIon)(6)
Bestpowertoweightratio Fragile LongLastingCharge

NickelMetalHydrate(12)
Highercapacity(23x)thanNiCd FewerlifecyclesthanNiCd LighterthanNiCd

NickelCadmium(3)
Mostdurable Fastchargeanddischargerates Heavy

LeadAcid(6)
Poorenergytoweightratio Limitednumberoflifecycles

MaterialOptions
Steel(27)
Heaviest/Strongest EasiesttoMachine/weld Cheapest

Aluminum(12)
Lighterthansteel Moreexpensivethansteel Moredifficulttomachine Durableenoughtosurvive6ft.fall

Plastic(6)
Lightest Mostdifficulttomachine Maynotsurvive6ft.fall Expensive