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The most important factor concerning the production of electricity is magnetic flux. Magnetic flux is what causes current flow. I should say that the change of magnetic flux is what causes current flow. The greater the magnetic flux and the faster the change of magnetic flux across a wire or a coil will determine the output. So a good understanding of magnetic flux will determine the success of your Alternator / generator.
Importance of Magnetic Flux Being that the amount of voltage and current your alternator will produce is directly proportional to the gage of the wire (for amps), number of turns in your coil (for voltage), the amount of magnetic flux and the speed your coil cuts across that magnetic flux, you can see that knowing where the poles are located on your magnet is very important because the greatest concentration of magnetic flux in located at the poles. Magnets are made from a variety of materials which determine greatly the strength of the magnet and will greatly effect the output of an alternator. Click here to read about the most common magnetic materials. We will assume that you will be using NEODYMIUM MAGNETS because they are the strongest magnets produced to date. They have an incredible amount of magnetic flux for their size. NEODYMIUM MAGNETS are so strong that great care must be taken because they can crush fingers and even break bones.
The middle of the two magnets would be the best place to pass your wire or coil because of the concentration of magnetic flux. . Above are a few examples of different magnetic shapes to get an idea of where the greatest concentration of magnetic flux.Above is a photo of two halves of a sphere magnet with a gap.
If you have been reading from the beginning there is a common theme you have been hearing over and over and that is that such and such will determine the output of your alternator / generator. The number of windings and the gage of the wire will directly effect your output.The photo above shows two bar magnets next to each other with a gap and you can see the concentration of magnetic flux in the gap between the two. Wiring Your Coil How you wire your coil will determine how much magnetic flux you cut along with the voltage and current your alternator / generator will produce. The problem with this is that any conductor placed in a changing magnetic field will produce a current flow and cause an opposing magnetic field. That's because just about everything talked about is equally important when it comes to output. . This is why unless you are very learned in the design of magnetic circuits it is best to keep your design very simple. How you wire your coil is important because it's the relationship between your coil and the magnet that causes an electrical current flow. Many times metal that attracts magnetic fields like soft iron will be placed behind the coil to attract the magnetic flux through the coil. These are called eddie currents. The more flux involved the greater the effect on the wire or coil. These eddie currents can adversely effect your design.
. These magnetic circuits require a good working understanding of the science involved as well as software to model the design and the ability to have the cores manufactured to be effective. -. But the thicker the wire the farther the outer turns will be from the magnet i. This will involve a lot of experimenting to see what ways can be used in your design to draw more flux through the coil but will increase the output and lower the losses to inefficiency.Large companies have spent millions in R&D to over come these problems by employing magnetic circuits.How to Wire Your Coil The type of wire used in motors and alternators is called magnetic wire.If you have ever seen the windings on a transformer you know what I mean. In the design of your unit it must be taken into account that just an inch from the magnet one looses as much as 90% of the magnetic flux found on the surface of the magnet. That why I'm going for simple but max output on the design.e. This type of wire has a varnish type of isolation. very thin wire can have a greater number of turns per amount of space then thick wire and the closer each winding will be to the magnet. Also the thicker the wire the more amps the wire will produce. Something a home brewer may not have at his disposal. The length and gage of the wire used in your coils will greatly effect your output. But the more thin the wire the less amps you can get from the wire with out cooking it. The closer the windings to the magnet the greater the amount of flux which will be cut. The greater the number of turns in the coil will increase the amount of magnetic flux cut by the coil which will increase the electrical output. less output per wire turns. . But here's what happens. There are ways of increasing the flux that flows through your coil. Soft iron laminates or even other permanent magnets can be used to draw more flux through the magnets. In other words they put a core in their coils that will evenly distribute the magnetic flux to the windings.
This is accomplished by having one side of the coil traveling in one direction and the other side traveling in the other direction.If you notice the diagram above you will notice that the current on one side of the coil is flowing in one direction relative to the magnets and in the opposite direction on the other side of the coil. would push against itself. This allows the current to flow in one direction through the whole coil. If you were to just run the magnet over the coil or vic versa the current. as the magnet passed over the center. So whether the coil will be turned or the .
A better design can be found in the photo below. Above is an example with the magnet rotating with a stationary coil. .magnets it must be setup so as to have one side of the coil cutting the flux in one direction and the other side of the coil cutting the flux in the opposite direction.
In a perfect generator the force applied to the shaft to turn the rotor of the generator would be met with equal & opposite force from the magnetic field created by the current in the coil's winding . I have found it a common question. The direction of the field is the magnetic flux from north to south poles.With the design above you could ether have the coil on the inside turning as displayed or have the magnets on the inside rotating with the coil on the outside and stationary. At most I've found is that you can get a ball park figure. Faraday's Law It's Faraday's Law that you need to employ when trying to determine how big your coil needs to be for a certain voltage from your Alternator / Generator. but you will soon find that getting the data needed for Faraday to answer your question will be very difficult because getting exact numbers will be next to impossible. The same would hold true for a motor. Both forces are in play whether it's a motor or a generator. These hand rules will help you determine the direction of current in a generator and the direction of force in a motor. We just don't live in a perfect world. But a ball park figure will cut that down a bit. Theoretically no force would be great enough to turn the shaft. how big does my coil need to be. Faraday's Law will answer that question. The biggest part of inventing is trial and error. . once an initial current was applied to the windings of a motor it would spin for ever without needing additional current.
how close your coils are to the magnets. the higher the RPM's of your alternator the less the number of turns needed there by allowing a heaver gage of wire that can be used giving higher Amperage output. The Formula for output is below: Faraday's Law V = -N * change in (( tesla * area meters squared)/ seconds) I use the TI-89 Graphing Calculator for all my calculations which has symbolic manipulation ability. . A question not easily answered.). and how fast your coils are cutting the magnetic flux. and that was with mathematics. I can tell you this.Formula for Output of a Coil In the forums there is a common question. asking how many turns does my coil need to produce X amount of output. Or we can do it the way Tesla would do it. You really have to experiment to find what works best for you(The way Thomas Alva Edison did it. how strong your magnets are. That depends on your design. what size of wire your using.
00129 meters squared (more or less) Meters squared = . I'm cutting this value in half because the 6325 Gauss figure is taken very close to the magnet. My magnet is 2" by 1". Now lets figure the tesla. 5 turns per second gives us one turn every . that gives us 300 RPM. So I need to convert meters square to inches square. One square meter is 1.0031 = .550.00129 Lets figure 5 turns per second.Lets change this formula so we can use it to determine the number of turns we need for our coil.2 This gives us the formula . that winding will be cutting through. 1.3162 Now lets figure the meters squared.3162 tesla Tesla = . V = 14. N = -1 * (-V/ change in (( tesla * area meters squared)/ seconds)) Now lets plug in the numbers.550. My magnet is 2 inches square. on average. The shape of the magnet plus the design of your coil and what your using to draw the flux through the coil will all determine the average gauss or tesla you will use in this formula.2 seconds seconds = .0031 = one meter square 2/1.0031 inches square.550. 10. So with the use of a little algebra we get. This will give you something to work with because each winding will have a distance from the magnet that will determine the gauss or tesla that. You will need to know how much Gauss or tesla you permanent magnet is rated for. I have a rare earth magnet rated for 6325 Gauss so I'm going to cut that in half and use the number 3162 Gauss just to get an idea of how many windings I'm going to need to get my 14 volts. We will change the 14 volts to a negative 14 volts to account for Lenz's law. If we do a good blade design we might be able to get 300 RPM in 3 to 5 mile winds. the windings of my coil will.000 gauss = 1 tesla 3162/10000 = . be farther from the coil. We know we are going to need around 14 volts to charge 12 volt batteries.
because with that many windings we are going to have to in crease the average distance the windings are from the magnet.N = -1 * (-14/ (( . Of course with that many windings we are going to have to lower our estimated value of tesla we have.5 windings we need for our generator to give us 14 volts. Here's the problem I was having. We need to get closer to 100 % efficiency so as not to need to waist so much natural resources to create the power we need to run the thing that give us pleasure. Do you see anything that causes you concern? . the flower. Relationship of coil and magnet Now we get to the meat of my problem. You can have everything needed.3162 * .2)) N = -1 * (-14/.5 N = 6864. To make this thing work we are going to have to increase the RPM's or the number of magnets.2)) N = -1 * (-14/(. We will looking at how wires and magnets interact to create power. This is where one has to do a bit of reading and learning.5 We get 6864. With the higher cost of energy. Take a look at these photos below. I've got the coils now what do I do? It's like making bread. I've got the magnets. Now lets put coils and magnets together. But to make a good tasting bread that doesn't come out like a brick? I've yet to be able to do it. both mechanical and electrical.6864. So this number divided up between a number of coils and magnets can become more manageable. It is the interaction between these two forces that need an over hall to counter the effects of global warming and pollution. which will mean that we need even more windings.00203949) N = -1 * . A painful process for us "no brains scientists". Motors and Generators This lesson explains how coils and magnets are used to create Motors and Generators / Alternators. the yeast. the efficiency of these devices need to be tuned. the water. You will probably have more then one magnet in your design and more then one coil.000407898/.00129)/ .
And this is where I had to do some learning about magnets and coils. And what I found out was that when the magnet passes over the coil. as it first approaches the coil the current in the coil begins to flow in one particular direction. current begins to move in the opposite direction of when the magnet approached the coil.The coils in the photo above on the left are going to be fixed and placed on top of the magnets in the photo on the right which will rotate. Here is a larger photo of the coils. As the magnet begins to pass over the coil. . half of the coil's current is trying to move in one direction and in the other half of the coil. Nothings going no ware. Now the magnets are placed with alternating north and south poles facing up which will create alternating current in the output of the alternator. Now as the magnet exist the coil. current is trying to move in the other direction. but I intuitively felt there was a problem. Sounds great.
Lets start from the beginning. But don't take my word for it. As it passes directly over the coil. . The photo above describes a wire with a current flowing through it. lets look at how magnets and coil relate to each other. Check out the photo below. when the magnet is entering or exiting the coil. If the coils were rotating then you would need some kind of a comutator. Which for the home brewer would be difficult to manufacture.This means you only have current flow. when max output would be expected. close to zero output would be realized. Now lets look at the magnet. and only a little at that. Doesn't seem too important now but later you'll find out that this magnetic field is what keeps us all in chains. Many of the more popular alternative energy sites on the net are using this particular design. Check out photos below. The wire develops a rotating non polar magnetic field that has direction. The reason I suppose is that the magnets are rotating rather then the coils.
Not a good design because you don't get much net power. The way the coils above were cutting the magnetic flux you had current attempting to flow in both directions at once. The first thing we need to understand is that depending on how the magnetic flux is cut will depend on how much power is developed and in what direction current will flow. But we also need to understand what happens when it does. .This is how the so important magnetic flux is in relation to the magnet. Now to create electrical power we need that wire or coil to cut threw those lines of flux.
Here the magnet is inside the coil with the north pole effecting one half of the coil and the south pole effecting the other half of the coil.Above is an example of what I'm talking about. Normally the coil would have a core of some kind which would further draw the magnetic flux threw the coil. which would require greater torque to turn the alternator. Here. This is a great design because the magnetic flux is drown from the north pole threw the coil to the south pole. in the photos below. which would cause magnetic cogging between the magnets and the core. is an example of coils rotating inside a magnetic field. .
. This is called the left hand rule. So if you were attempting to create current flow you would move the wire in an upward fashion(for this example) which would cause current to flow counter to the direction of your middle finger. For a generator. This is for a motor where a voltage is applied to the wire.Now lets look at the interaction between the wire and the magnetic flux a little closer. the current flow created would flow in the opposite direction. Below is a photo that shows what's going on in a motor.
But what if you just want to understand the basics of electricity? Well. More torque would always be required then you are applying to turn the shaft to turn the generator. An understanding of Ohm's Law is necessary for any understanding of electricity. alternative energy. Ohm's Law Equations The equations for ohm's law is the basic equation for electricity. So the more efficient the motor. Current = I.As a motor. here we will explain electricity in a manner that doesn't require one to have a degree in physics. the wire is forced up by the interaction between the magnetic field created by the current flow in the wire and the magnetic field of the permanent magnets. as the generator turns it creates current flow in the wire. the motor get hot and begins to smoke. the greater the opposing force and the greater the torque for less power used. which is in side the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet as in figure 9.R = V/ I Any thing that has to do with electricity has these three components.I = V/R ------. If you had a 100% efficient generator and attempted to draw 100% of the current created by the generator the shaft would not turn because an equal and opposite force would be created. As it is forced up a counter current is created which opposes the current flow in the wire. This is why if you stop a motor from turning while current is flowing. batteries. This is the problem with the generation of electricity. Ohm's Law the Formula V = IR ------. Resistance = R ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ . Ohm's Law is very simple to understand if it is explained in basic terms. your light bill. Voltage = V. a voltage is applied to the wire. This is why you cannot get over unity. With out the rotation of the magnetic fields in the motor there is no counter force to the current flow and current flows freely and heats up the windings in the motor. as current begins to flow. which in turn creates a magnetic field in the wire that opposes the movement of the wire. Most study in any field of science starts out with the understanding that one is going on to be a scientist so very highly technical term and concepts are presented to the student assuming he or she has the back ground to understand these terms and concepts.
Not how much water in the hose but the pressure pushing on the water in the hose. Current is measured in Amperes.What is Voltage? Voltage can best be explained by referring to a water hose. Everything that an . is the amount of juice in the hose. It knocked me over and I was shaken up but nothing more. your wall socket is around 120 volts. Say you have that same fire hose with all the high pressure but you had foam mostly filled with air coming out. It's like the the wall socket in your house powered by a power plant. Your car battery is most likely 12 volts. This is how an incandescent light bulb works. There was just a tiny amount of current. It reduces the voltage or pressure on the current. We have all seen movies where a fire hose is used to push people back. Current is what kills you when you get shocked. It slows the flow of current down. An example would be when you rub your hands together the heat from the friction causes your hands to heat up. I once got shock with 25 thousand volts from a TV picture tube. A fire hose has a great amount of pressure on it. lets say. people would be laughing and having fun as they were sprayed. The symbol for Volts is " V " -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- What is current? Current. Voltage is measured in Volts. Your garden hose is not going to knock any one over it's like the battery in your car. But say you had rocks spewing out of the hose. Touch it and your going to get knocked over. A current is passed threw a filament wire and the heat caused by the resistance of the filament causes the wire to glow. or Amps for short. Voltage is the pressure of the water in the hose. that would be a different story. The symbol for current is " I " --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What is Resistance? Resistance is the friction opposing the flow of current. But there are videos of people being burned up because they came in contact with the high voltage lines from a power plant.
Watts are measured in Watts. You calculate Watts by multiplying the volts time the current. For example. The formula for Watts is W = V x I That reads Watts = Volts multiplied by Amps.electrical current flows through has resistance. V = W / I ----.833 amps . I = 100 / 120 = .I = W / V So if you had a 100 Watt light bulb in your house and 120 volts you now can figure the amps it is using. The symbol for Ohms is " " ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------And last but not least is " Watts " What are Watts? Watts are a unit of measurement that is used to calculate the total power available or used by a system or item in the circuit. Resistance is measured in Ohms. The symbol for Watts is " W ". This resistance needs to be taken into account when building your alternative energy system at home. if your system is 12 volts and it is using 3 amps that would be 36 watts.
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