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1) Which of the following is (are) unique to animals? A) the structural carbohydrate, chitin B) cells that have mitochondria C) heterotrophy D) nervous conduction and muscular movement E) both A and C 2) The Hox genes came to regulate each of the following in what sequence, from earliest to most recent? 1. identity and position of paired appendages in protostome embryos 2. formation of water channels in sponges 3. anterior-posterior orientation of segments in protostome embryos 4. positioning of tentacles in cnidarians 5. anterior-posterior orientation in vertebrate embryos A) 4 1 3 2 5 B) 4 2 5 3 1 C) 2 4 5 3 1 D) 4 2 3 1 5 E) 2 4 3 1 5 3) The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a A) flagellated protist. B) plant. C) unicellular chytrid. D) unicellular yeast. E) multicellular fungus. 4) Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example of A) mass extinction. B) adaptive radiation. C) evolutionary stasis. D) A and B only E) A, B, and C 5) What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent? 1. tetrapods 2. vertebrates 3. deuterostomes 4. amniotes 5. bilaterians A) 3 5 4 2 1 B) 5 3 2 4 1 C) 5 3 4 2 1 D) 5 3 2 1 4 E) 3 5 2 1 4
C) adaptation to dark environments.6) Cephalization is primarily associated with A) method of reproduction. E) type of digestive system.2A (morphological) and Figure 32. Figure 32. and powerful locomotion 6) 7) The following questions refer to Figure 32. 7) What is characteristic of all ecdysozoans? A) a pseudocoelom B) the deuterostome condition C) the diploblastic condition D) some kind of exoskeleton. B) bilateral symmetry. or hard outer covering E) agile. D) fate of the blastopore.2B (molecular) phylogenetic trees of the animal kingdom.2A: Morphological Phylogeny 2 . speedy.
whereas in the molecular phylogeny (Fig. 32.2B). D) called the Calcarea diverged from the lineage that eventually produced the eumetazoa earlier than did the Silicea. the sponges are considered to be a clade. C) do not all have a common ancestor that is unique only to them.2. sponges A) are polyphyletic. C) polyphyletic. E) both C and D 9) In the traditional phylogeny (Fig. then such a taxon would be A) paraphyletic.2B: Molecular Phylogeny 8) According to both phylogenies depicted in Fig. 32.Figure 32. B) called the Calcarea should actually be included among the eumetazoa. 32. E) called the Silicea are the sole organisms that should be properly called "sponges." 3 8) 9) . B) monophyletic. if one were to create a taxon called "Radiata" that included all animal species whose members have true radial symmetry.2A). D) a clade.
D) to maintain Deuterostomia as a clade. such as those in Fig.2. 32. D) All Platyhelminthes must have a well-developed lophophore as their feeding apparatus.2B). C) scientists having mistakenly identified analogous features as homologous features.10) If the traditional phylogeny (Fig. some phyla had to be removed from it. B) It includes all animals that have body cavities known as pseudocoeloms. E) principles.2A) eventually becomes obsolete. E) It includes all animals that molt at some time during their lives. 32." now having crumbled. the phylum Platyhelminthes is depicted as a sister taxon to the rest of the protostome phyla.2B) that is NOT true in the traditional phylogeny (Fig. D) hypotheses. 12) In the traditional phylogeny (Fig.2A)? A) It is actually a grade. C) Deuterostomia now includes the Acoela. as an instance of A) an evolutionary relationship that modern scientists had "set in stone. 32. In the molecular phylogeny (Fig. 13) What is true of the clade Ecdysozoa? A) It includes all animals that undergo metamorphosis at some time during their lives. C) The removal of the acoel flatworms (Acoela) from the Platyhelminthes allowed the remaining flatworms to be clearly tied to the lophotrochozoa. B) dogmas. E) It diverged from the rest of the Bilateria earlier than did the Acoela. B) lack of objectivity on the parts of arrogant or egotistical scientists. C) laws. D) It includes all animals in the former clade "Protostomia" that truly do have protostome development. 32. are best understood as being scientific A) theories. 14) Phylogenetic trees. B) Platyhelminthes ceased to be recognized as true protostomes. the formerly close relationship depicted between the annelids and arthropods will probably be viewed. D) scientific fraud. Platyhelminthes is depicted as a lophotrochozoan phylum.2A). in retrospect. and as having diverged earlier from the lineage that led to the rest of the protostomes. C) It includes all animals with genetic similarities that are shared with no other animals. What probably led to this change? A) Platyhelminthes' close genetic ties to the arthropods became clear as their Hox gene sequences were studied. E) the inherent invalidity of all evolutionary biology. 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 4 . B) "Deuterostomia" is a clade. rather than a clade. 11) What is true of the deuterostomes in the molecular phylogeny (Fig. 32. 32.
Figure 32.1 shows a chart of the animal kingdom set up as a modified phylogenetic tree.1 Figure 32. 15) Which group consists of deuterostomes? A) I B) II C) III D) IV E) V 15) 16) Which group includes both ecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans? A) I B) II C) III D) IV 17) Which two groups are most clearly represented in the Ediacaran fauna? A) I and II B) I and III C) II and IV D) IV and V 18) Which of these is the basal group of the Eumetazoa? A) I B) II C) III 19) Which two groups have members that undergo ecdysis? A) III and IV B) IV and V C) I and II E) V 16) E) II and V 17) D) IV E) V 18) D) III and V E) II and III 19) 20) Which cells in a sponge are primarily responsible for trapping and removing food particles from circulating water? A) pore cells (porocytes) B) mesoglea cells C) epidermal cells D) choanocytes 21) A radially symmetrical animal that has two embryonic tissue layers probably belongs to which phylum? A) Porifera B) Cnidaria C) Echinodermata D) Nematoda E) Platyhelminthes 20) 21) 5 . Use the diagram to answer the following questions.
C) millipede." 23) The larvae of many common tapeworm species that infect humans are usually found A) crawling in the intestines of cows and pigs. segmented animal with two pairs of jointed legs per segment. E) centipede. which make castings that are agriculturally important? A) Polychaeta B) Oligochaeta C) Hirudinea (leeches) D) all three of these E) two of these 27) The heartworms that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom. you discover a worm-like. such as a cow or pig. 26) 27) 28) 6 . The animal is probably a A) caterpillar. 24) If a lung were to be found in a mollusc.22) Which class of the phylum Cnidaria includes "jellies" with rounded (as opposed to boxlike) medusae? A) Cubozoa B) Anthozoa C) Scyphozoa D) Hydrozoa E) Both A and C are referred to as "jellies. C) encysted in freshwater snails. B) polychaete worm. where would it be located? A) visceral mass B) coelom C) excurrent siphon D) foot E) mantle cavity 25) A terrestrial mollusc without a shell belongs to which class? A) bivalves B) cephalopods C) gastropods 22) 23) 24) D) chitons 25) 26) Of the annelid classes below. an alimentary canal. D) encysted in the muscles of an animal. E) crawling in the abdominal blood vessels of cows and pigs. and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. D) sow bug. B) encysted in the human brain. To which phylum does the heartworm belong? A) Platyhelminthes B) Acoela C) Arthropoda D) Nematoda E) Annelida 28) While working in your garden.
Observing the pond. spiracles. has plenty of water and aquatic pond life during the summer. A) 2 and 3 B) 1 only C) 1. polychaete. Next. One summer. 29) A farm pond. flexible arms? A) class Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) B) class Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) C) class Asteroidea (sea stars) D) class Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) E) class Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) The following questions refer to the paragraph below. a shrimp. 32) Had the teacher wanted to point out organisms that belong to the most successful animal phylum. tracheae. Watching further. a few coral species. seemingly "jet" through the water. including a polychaete. She arranged for daily feedings of copepods and feeder fish. the teacher decided to stock the tank with various marine invertebrates. First. an ectoproct. 5. and 3 D) 3 only E) 1 and 3 31) Protostomes that have a closed circulatory system and obvious segmentation are part of which phylum? A) Annelida B) Echinodermata C) Arthropoda D) Mollusca E) Cnidaria The following questions refer to the paragraph below. and their prey includes everything from insects to small fish and tadpoles. Lastly.29) Which of the following have distinct central disks and long. bivalves. several bivalves. she should find 1. a siliceous sponge. Sarah returns to the family farm from college. Knowing that salt-water aquaria can be quite a hassle. she is able to conclude that the "mystery organisms" are ambush predators. some vertebrates–a parrotfish and a clownfish–were added. 2. shrimp. perhaps dissecting the organism. the teacher conditioned the water. the teacher should have chosen the 1. 2. 4. she is fascinated by some six-legged organisms that can crawl about on submerged surfaces or. when disturbed. sea anemones. several sea anemones of different types. 2. a colonial hydra. 3. A) 4 only B) 3 and 5 C) 1 only D) 4 and 5 E) 1. 2. usually dry during winter. copepods. and several gastropod varieties. 30) Sarah observed that the mystery pond organisms never come up to the pond's surface. 30) 31) An elementary school science teacher decided to liven up the classroom with a salt-water aquarium. a sea star. the teacher proceeded stepwise. gills. If she catches one of these organisms and observes closely. and 3 32) 7 . 3.
33) 34) 35) 36) While on an intersession course in tropical ecology. Kris pulls a large. Shaun suggests it is a legless amphibian. it will probably have which of the following characteristics? A) endothermy B) legs C) no jaws D) an amniotic egg 35) In which of these extant classes did jaws occur earliest? A) ray-finned fishes B) lungfishes C) placoderms D) lampreys E) chondrichthyans 36) To which of these are the scales of chondrichthyans most closely related in a structural sense? A) osteichthyan scales B) mammalian scales C) chondrichthyan teeth D) reptilian scales E) bird scales The following questions refer to the description below. Kris brings it back to the lab at the field station. hollow nerve cord B) scales C) jaws D) vertebrae E) four-chambered heart 34) A new species of aquatic chordate is discovered that closely resembles an ancient form. 37) Which characteristic should permit the class to conclude that it is probably not a snake? A) its presence in a burrow B) the absence of scales on its surface C) its length D) the number of eyes E) the size and condition of its eyes 38) The class decided to humanely euthanize the organism and subsequently dissect it. Having decided that it was probably not a reptile. and a suspension-feeding mode of nutrition. no paired lateral fins. if observed. Kelly proposes it belongs to a snake species that is purely fossorial (lives in a burrow). In addition to these. Kris says that it is a giant oligochaete worm. two of their original hypotheses regarding its identity remained. where it is a source of puzzlement to the class. which appears to be segmented. snakelike organism from a burrow (the class was granted a collecting permit). It has two tiny eyes that are hard to see because they seem to be covered by skin. Which of the following. The 1-m-long organism has smooth skin.33) Which of the following is a shared characteristic of all chordates? A) dorsal. highly vascularized skin 37) 38) 8 . It has the following characteristics: external armor of bony plates. should help them arrive at a conclusive answer? A) presence of a closed circulatory system B) presence of a nerve chord C) presence of lungs D) presence of a digestive system with two openings E) presence of moist.
though its ancestors moved about on the surface. erectus B) H. result of having identical Hox genes. homoplasy. ergaster E) H. E) sharks. the same condition exists.39) The organism was found to have two lungs. D) reptiles. 3. A) 1 and 5 B) 1. example of homologous structures. 43) Which of these hominin traits seems to have occurred before the others? A) tool use B) language C) symbolic thought D) increased brain size E) bipedalism 44) Which of these species was the first to craft stone tools? A) H. reduced or absent pelvic and/or pectoral girdles 2. metanephridia 3. 2. 4. and 5 E) 3 only 40) The adaptation of snakes to their body shape has resulted in one of their lungs having become vestigial. hydrostatic skeleton A) 1 and 3 B) 2 and 3 C) 1 and 2 D) 1 only E) 1. and 5 D) 2. 3. Another adaptation (to a fossorial lifestyle) is snakes' absence of limbs. If the "mystery organism" has also become adapted to a fossorial lifestyle. 5. then which structures should one expect to find upon dissecting the organism? 1. 3. C) mammals. then its existence in this organism is explained as a(n) 1. Kelly added that the herpetology instructor had said that in most snakes. but the left lung was much smaller than the right lung. similar adaptation to a shared lifestyle or body-plan. heidelbergensis 39) 40) 41) 42) 43) 44) 9 . If the size difference between the lungs in this organism is not a shared ancestral characteristic with its occurrence in snakes. and 3 41) Which of these is not considered an amniote? A) nonbird reptiles B) placental mammals C) amphibians D) birds E) egg-laying mammals 42) Differentiation of teeth is observed in A) bony fishes. result of convergent evolution. 2. sapiens C) H. habilis D) H. 4. and 5 C) 3. B) amphibians.
C) divide. B) cambium cells. B) produce flowers. (A) the thickness of the cell wall of sclerenchyma (B) the thickness of the cell wall of parenchyma A) Item (A) is greater than item (B). D) absorb ions. choose the option that best describes their relationship. 49) Gas exchange. necessary for photosynthesis. E) photosynthesize. B) Item (A) is less than item (B). Which of the following adaptations is least likely to have evolved in response to water shortages? A) closing the stomata during the hottest time of the day B) a thick waxy cuticle on the epidermis C) development of large leaf surfaces to absorb water D) mycorrhizae associated with the root system E) formation of a fibrous root system spread over a large area 47) Vascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except A) companion cells. 46) You are studying a plant from the arid southwestern United States. D) vessel elements.45) For this pair of items. 48) Plants contain meristems whose only function is to A) attract pollinators. C) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B). E) tracheids. can occur most easily in which leaf tissue? A) palisade mesophyll B) bundle sheath C) vascular tissue D) spongy mesophyll E) epidermis 45) 46) 47) 48) 49) 10 . C) sieve cells. D) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
C) stomata. 52) A woody eudicot is represented by A) I only. C) I only. E) both I and III. 53) Pores on the leaf surface that function in gas exchange are called A) xylem cells. E) sclereids. 51) A plant that is at least 3 years old is represented by A) II only. D) III only. E) both I and III.2. B) I only. B) IV only. B) phloem cells. 50) 51) 52) 53) 11 .The following questions are based on the drawing of root or stem cross sections shown in Figure 35. E) both I and III. B) III only. Figure 35. C) IV only.2 50) A monocot stem is represented by A) IV only. D) III only. D) II only. D) hairs. C) II only.
B) It has both stamens and carpels. and periderm. C) the secondary xylem. you would cross. 58) Location of the microsporangia: A) petals B) sepals 54) 55) 56) E) eggs. and newest xylem. B) gametes.54) If you were able to walk into an opening cut into the center of a large redwood tree. D) sperm. D) the secondary xylem. D) It has fused carpels. and bark. 55) Additional vascular tissue produced as secondary growth in a root originates from which cells? A) apical meristem B) vascular cambium C) endodermis D) xylem E) phloem 56) For this pair of items. bark. E) the annual rings. phloem. C) Item (A) is greater than item (B). B) Item (A) may stand in more than one of the above relations to item (B). when you exit from the middle of the trunk (stem) outward. (A) The number of cells within the embryo sac (B) The number of nuclei within the embryo sac A) Item (A) is less than item (B). oldest xylem. D) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B). E) It is on a dioecious plant. 57) C) receptacle D) carpel E) stamen 58) 59) Which of the following correctly describes a complete flower? A) It has no sepals. 57) At the conclusion of meiosis in plants the end products are always four haploid A) seeds. secondary phloem. B) the vascular cambium. A) the summer wood. and vascular cambium. phloem. C) It has no endosperm. and phloem. choose the option that best describes their relationship. C) spores. in order. cork cambium. 60) In which of the following pairs are the two terms equivalent? A) ovule egg B) embryo sac female gametophyte C) seed zygote D) microspore pollen grain E) endosperm male gametophyte 59) 60) 12 .
D) microsporangia. 62) What is the first organ to emerge from a germinating eudicot seed? A) hypocotyl B) epicotyl C) radicle D) shoot 63) Which of the following "vegetables" is botanically a fruit? A) potato B) green beans C) celery D) lettuce E) radish 64) Fruits develop from A) ovules. The following questions refer to the diagram of an embryo sac of an angiosperm. give(s) rise to the embryo plant? 61) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.SHORT ANSWER. after fertilization. B) receptacles. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. E) fertilized eggs. Figure 38. 65) Under which conditions would asexual plants have the greatest advantage over sexual plants? A) a fire-maintained ecosystem B) an environment that varies on a regular. C) ovaries. predictable basis C) an environment with many seed predators D) an environment with irregular fluctuations of conditions E) a relatively constant environment with infrequent disturbances E) plumule 62) 63) 64) 65) 13 .1 61) Which cell(s).
Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. The following questions refer to the diagram of an embryo sac of an angiosperm. Figure 38.1 66) Which cell(s) become(s) the triploid endosperm? 67) Which cell(s) guide(s) the pollen tube to the egg cell? 66) 67) 14 .SHORT ANSWER.
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