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I firmly believe that a work of significant proportions cannot be attributed to a single person or a single effort, its overall success depends upon all those individuals who contributed in their unique way to the accomplishment of its broader objectives. I express my deepest and most sincere thanks to Mr. R. K. Kajla, Deputy G.M.-HR for giving me an opportunity to work on this project and extending support to me during my stint with HAVELLS INDIA LTD. I acknowledge my indebtness to Mr S. K. Yadav, for giving me inspiring support, guidance, valuable suggestions and encouragement throughout this project.
Above all I wish to thank my family for being my constant support and source of encouragement during the project.
APROVAL FROM GUIDE
This is to certify that Mr. Sumit Bansal student of NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA has completed project work on “STUDY ON ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM” under my guidance and supervision. I certify that this is an original work and has not been copied from any source.
Signature of Guide Name of Project Guide Mr. S. K. Yadav
I hereby declare that this Project Report entitled “STUDY OF ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM” in HAVELLS INDIA LTD. submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement of B.TECH. of SEEDLING ACADEMY OF DESIGN TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT, Jaipur is based on primary & secondary data found by me in various departments, books, and websites & Collected by me in under guidance of Mr. S. K. Yadav.
SUMIT BANSAL B.TECH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING N.I.T.K.
Motor 3. Motor 3. Electric Generator Or Dynamo 4.C. Electric Motor 3. Transformer 5.6 Audio Transformer 6.5 Universal Motor 4.) .4 Faraday’s Disk 5.1 Power Transformer 5.1 Historic Development 4. Motor 3.C.C.1 History Of A.2 Auto-Transformer 5.4 D. Substation(S.2 Principle 4. Company’s Profile And History 3.4 Oil Cooled Transformer 5.3 Jedlik’s Dynamo 4.D.2 Principle 3.5 Pulse Transformer 5.3 A. Electrical Industry 2.L.3 Polyphase Transformer 5.CONTENTS 1.
Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. his teacher. the Telegraph by Samuel F. stated that would be . and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines. In 1885. In 1882.Bibliography ABOUT ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY The electrical industry contributed and helped reshape the modern technology. In 1888. recognizing the desire for electric lighting similar to existing gas lights. Professor Poeschel. invented in 1879 an Incandescent Lamp that produced light when current passed through a high resistance filament in a vacuum. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept. It all started with Allessandro Volta's development of the battery in 1800 and Joseph Henry's work on electromagnets. He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883. powering the tools and appliances used in daily life. Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force.B. The production of arc light with the help of direct current (DC) generator invented by Charles Brush in 1876 illuminated the 19th century Thomas Edison. Nikola Tesla invented the rotating magnetic field. Michael faraday’s invention of the generator in 1830 marked an era of modern technologies followed with the first commercial application of electricity. Morse.
soon became the industry standard. the Indian electrical equipment industry is seeing a revival in the last couple of years with the growth rate averaging 7 per cent per annum. incandescent lamp manufacture. AFTER BEING in the doldrums towards the end of the 1990s.194. Patent 0. After Edison GE and Thomson Houston merged in 1892 to form the general electric company. and supply indoor and outdoor illumination.416. while Thomson Houston assisted fledgling utilities to fund power stations. Edison general electric. washing machines. Yet consumer demand for electricity increased as they grew more dependent on reliable electric power to heat and cool buildings. control machinery. and the Thomson Houston electric company were the key players. the first hydroelectric power station. and the manufacture of steam turbines to power generators. Nuclear‐power plants proved not only expensive to build but difficult to manage and prone to dangerous accidents. the electrical industry in the 1920s campaigned to increase domestic consumption.S. It advances the nation’s economic growth and productivity. at Niagara Falls delivered abundant electricity to industries demonstrating AC's full potential. Michail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890. Many households in this decade acquired electric stoves. Tesla would later attain U. the Westinghouse electric and manufacturing company founded by George Westinghouse. radios. which could serve more customers over a wider area. AC. Electric Motor (December 1889). This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor. It provides the nation with the most prevalent energy form known in history “electricity”. the new firm dominated in finance. and vacuum cleaners. irons. Seeking lower costs. electrical utilities adopted nuclear reactor technology. After greatly expanding generating capacity. predictions were that electricity would soon be “too cheap to meter” went unfulfilled. In 1896.akin to building a perpetual motion machine. water. Westinghouse aggressively promoted the use of alternating current (AC). promotes business development . which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos. The worldwide electric power industry provides a vital service essential to modern life. By 1890. governments established programs to promote wind. and solar power. however. operate appliances and computers.
electronic equipment manufacturers Power industry restructuring. suppliers.307 258. has a strong impact on Asian power industry as well. since 1991.8 billion at the end of the year 2008.439 1. It is a robust industry that contributes to the progress and prosperity of our nation. The new Electricity Act 2003 provides the provision of competition in several sectors. Today the electric power industry operates in a hybrid model of competition and regulation.201 345. It is felt that the prevailing conditions in the country are good only for wholesale competition and not for the retail competition at this moment. As per the recent surveys.307 258.935 321.221 730.216. dealers.928 330. which is forecasted to reach $ 1.424 11. Indian power industry restructuring with a limited level of competition. retailers.834 248.588 2008 119.131 258.025. around the world. The worldwide electrical and electronics industry is growing at a fast pace which consist of manufacturers.168.307 338. which is forecasted to grow to $ 1.8 billion in 2006.8 billion. OUTLOOK OF THE WORLD'S ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS MARKET Classification Home Use Industrial Use Information Device Communication Device Office Devices Others Electronics Parts Total 2007 116. and provides solid employment opportunities to workers globally in general and India in particular.and expansion.038.201 119.895 . electricians.5 billion in future.735 139.308 1. has already been introduced at generation level by allowing participation of independent power producers (IPPs).051. the global electrical & electronics market is worth $1. the industry accounted for $1. If we talk of electrical & electronics production statistics.216.
China is becoming the manufacturing region of electronic products on the globe. MAJOR PRODUCTION AND EXPORT CENTERS As electrical manufacturing industry is growing with a fast pace.6% is forecasted to grow even more.e. North & South Korea. With regard to electronics parts and components sector. Krishnakumar. The industrial electrical goods industry size was $651. The Quality Control Order of February 2003. The Indian industry is not afraid of Chinese competition. Western Europe comprising of 16 countries is contributing around 22% of the global market share. Among these Asian countries. China.7 billion i.2% while home electronics was $ 104. For example.7 billion. contributing around 62.7% of the total.SIZE OF THE ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY Top three electrical and electronic goods manufacturing countries in the world are: United States of America. so long as the products from there are conforming to quality standards. If we talk of Asia Pacific region. 27. Japan and Korea respectively.3 billion. Chinese compact fluorescent lamps proved to be a failure in India. President of the Indian Electrical and Electronics Manufacturers Association (IEEMA). Japan. Simultaneously. Western Europe is developing gradually to contribute this industry. has specified that unless a product conforms to the Bureau of Indian . According to Mr. The World's electrical market size was $1038.8 billion in 2006. of India. Eastern Europe is forecasted to grow about $ 24 billion in 2013 from $ 9 billion in 2006. but their quality is suspect. since last year an increase of 10. This figure is supposed to increase in this decade. promulgated by the Govt. USA is at the forefront to have the largest market share with around 29% in the Global market. Singapore and India are the top manufacturer of electrical and electronic products. Furthermore. The United States of America being the largest producer of electronic products worldwide contributes the total share of around 21%. One of the issues often raised is the fear of flood of imports from China. the total market share was around $282. Chinese electrical products certainly are lower in cost.
Standards criteria. which grew upto 56% in 2007. The domestic market in India is itself large. low price products coming from China. it cannot be marketed in India. In 2002. They are manufacturing the product with best quality at reduced cost due to many competitors. This should go a long way in preventing the flood of low quality. FUTURE OUTLOOK OF ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY Today. accessing the international market for exports should not pose a serious challenge. Asia is growing with more speed in comparision to Americas and Europe. the electrical industry is experiencing phenomenal and remarkable changes worldwide. Once we deliver high quality products and services within the domestic market. and one must firstly satisfy this market with products that meet international quality standards. will bring this industry to a position of true leadership. Asia occupied 41% of total electronics market share. Companies indulged in manufacturing electrical products are investing a lot on research and development for the best products to meet the demand of the market. Those days are not far away when Asia will become the market leader globally. Products are heading towards new destination where cost is less than other place with higher costs involved. every international player is now operating in India. With increasing globalization. The worldwide electrical industry is distinguished by fast technological advances and has grown rapidly than most other industries over the past 30 years. The Electrical/Electronics Industry in India is growing to its full potential in the coming years and no doubt that India will soon come to be recognized for quality products and services which in turn. FACTORS GOVERNING THE GROWTH OF ELECTRICAL INDUSTRY . At persent. These places offer the most long term potential for market growth. providing goods and services complying with international quality.
Innovation has played importantly in this industry. Increase in income changed living standards of the common mass. as the markets remain still unbroached. To expand their business. In this connection. it increased the demand of electronics especially consumer electronics products globally. Telecommunications. Foreign investments accelerated growth in production and export as well. It led to a consistent demand for newer and faster products and applications • • . • • Electric & Electrical industry is highly fragmented which comprises of many small and medium size enterprises resulting into a huge industry.Every industry thrives on some supporting factors. there are few factors governing the growth of electrical and electronics industry: • Research & development played an important role to the increased productivity and higher-value added electrical and electronics products. foreign companies have done huge investment which lead developing countries in establishing production units. Industrial & Automotive industries have been cordially supported by electrical & electronics industry. As a result. • • Global industries like Medical. Asia Pacific region is emerging as the most spinning place for the consumer electronics industry.
The Company also entered into a Technical Collaboration with M/s Christian Geyer GmbH & Co. Ltd. The Company was promoted by S/Shri Qimat Rai Gupta and Surjit Kumar Gupta.Havells India YEAR 1983 .The Company was originally incorporated as Havell's India Private Limited on 8th August. Germany. the Company signed another Technical Collaboration with M/s Schiele Industrieworke. 1992 . 1992. Germany for the manufacture of Miniature Circuit Breakers in India.For the manufacture of ELCBs.50.The company amalgamated with itself Elymer Havbell's Pvt. MCB Distribution Boards (DB) and HRC fuses at Samepur Badli.ABOUT HAVELLS Company History .000 pcs. under the Companies Act. Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCB). 1991 . 1989 . 1956 and subsequently the name was changed to Havell's India Limited vide Certificate dated 31st March.. which had facilities for manufacture of HRC fuses with an installed capacity of 2. It has facilities for manufacture of switchgear items viz. .The company undertook addition to its tool room facilities by going in for manufacturing of sheet metal and molding tools in-house. Delhi.
and motor starters for the first time in India which have been well received in the market.Electrical switchgear makers Havell's India has entered into a strategic partnership with Cambridge Technology Partners . Havell's group has signed a new JV agreement with the Deutsche Zahiergesellschaft (DZG).. Germany. 1996 . a group company of the UK Pound 11 Billion Anglo-American conglomerate..K. Hanson Plc. UK. the Company has entered into the manufacture of low tension power cables. is a 25% shareholder had launched Moulded Case Circuit Breakers last year in the Indian market. Havell's group signed a Joint Venture Agreement with Hanson Electrical.Schiele industriwerke. The company decided to enter into the manufacture of Three Phase Energy Meters for industrial applications. relays. The 50:50 JV company Havell's Dorman Smith Ltd. U.The Company has introduced Product Managers and Industrial Teams to emphasize the product mix and to strengthen its presence in all market segments. Oman.1994 .The company successfully launched the latest IEC design contractors. with Electrium Ltd. JV company. wherein Havell's India Ltd is a 25% shareholder. Havell's Dorman Smith Pvt. Ltd.One of the biggest achievements during the year is that the JV partners have tested the MCBs and have entered into an agreement with the Company to exclusively market the MCBs in the worldwide markets. The company has finalized tie-ups in UAE. 1997 . The Company also launched Crabtree brand modular plate switches which is being perceived as the best available product in the market. Havell's group. 1999 . Keeping in view business synergy's with the Cable Industry. one of the top ten Companies of UK. Kuwait and Egypt for marketing its vast range of products in these countries. has signed a new JV agreement with Ampy Automation Digilog Ltd. Germany. have entered into a new technical collaboration with the company for quality up gradation for its products in the control gear division. 1998 . UK with the introduction of state-of-the-art ‘DORMAN SMITH’ brand Moulded Case Circuit Breakers in India. 1995 .. who have been our collaborators for ELCBs.Cable division at Alwar is now ISO-9001 certified. in which Havell's India Ltd.
The Company has been awarded the highest revenue payer award for the year 2000 in the organised sector category.Havell's entered into a technical collaboration with Geyer in 1998 to manufacture miniature circuit-breakers.Havells India Ltd has informed that Ms Sabina Geyer has resigned from the Directorship of the Company with immediate effect. Havell's India Ltd. an un-listed public limited company which was a 100% subsidiary of the Company.f. Havell's India is a company worth US$ 1 billion and is one of the leading companies in India's equipment-power distribution industry. produces and supplies . For MCBs. 2001 .. Havell's India is under the QRG group and was set up in 1958.N Balasubramanian as additional director of the Company who shall hold office up to the date of next Annual General Meeting. Consequently. with its corporate office in Noida. the company has a technical collaboration with Geyer AG of Germany.. 2006 . 2004 . Havell's India Ltd has acquired a 60 per cent stake in Hyderabad-based Duke Arnics Electronics Ltd. an unlisted company. an unlisted company wherein the company hold 60% shareholding.Havells India Limited has appointed Mr. by purchasing balance 40% shareholding of the company. Standard Electricals Limited is no longer a subsidiary of the Company. The company has acquired the entire 100% shareholding of Standard Electricals Ltd. has thus become a 100% subsidiary of company w.e. The Standard Electricals Ltd.2001.Forays into the luxury bathroom fittings and accessories segment under the Crabtree Frattini brand name Havells India Limited has sold out its entire shareholding of Standard Electricals Limited. December 31. 2007 . with effect from such transfer.. with Schiele Industriewerke of Germany for RCCBs and with Peterriens Schaltechik Gmbh for changeover switches.. Havell`s India Ltd has informed BSE that the company had earlier acquired 60% shareholding of Standard Electricals Ltd. The Company has entered into a joint venture agreement with Standard Electricals Ltd. Jalandhar.India for implementing ERP on a fast-track. 2000 . The company has a 50:50 joint venture with DZG of Germany for manufacture of high-end electromechanical and electronic energy meters.
ASTA. Havell's India has become the top-most company in India on the basis of its . The turnover of the Havell's India Ltd. and CSA have been acquired by Havell's India. and switchgears. This has ensured that the wires and cables manufactured by Havell's India are of the best quality. The bath accessories and fittings manufactured by the company are of the best quality and are available in a wide variety. Electrium. 41922. The company entered the fan business in 2003 and offers great variety in order to satisfy client requirements.25 lakh in 2003. amounted to Rs. 29308. Its latest automatic laser controlled machines are also of international standards. It has entered into alliances with electrical companies like DZG. 66538. Rs. wires and cables. had established its cables plant in Alwar in 1996. all the products are of the best quality. A lot many international certifications such as KEMA. and Geyer AG and this has helped the company improve their technical expertise in the segment of electrical products. Havell's India Company has 3 divisions – consumer electrical durables. SEMKO. Havell's India Company designs and produces capacitors by using S3 technology.40 lakh in 2004. It is a unit which has been certified with ISO: 9001-2000 for its standards in manufacturing cables and wires from the best quality of raw materials.46 lakh in 2005. All the manufacturing plants of Havell's India are highly technologically developed and as a result.low-voltage electrical equipments in India. The various products manufactured by the Havell's India are: • • • • • • Cables Fans Switches Capacitor Bath accessories and fittings Lightning solutions Havell's India Ltd. and Rs.
contributing approximately 40 per cent to its total revenues.quality of products which are of the world class standards and its pricing which is accessible by the common man. Havell’s exports its products to approximately 55 countries across the globe and has marketing offices in the EU. Geyer AG. Its consolidated revenues amounted to EUR 207 million in 2005. etc. It also aims to leverage its established brand presence in these segments. FACTORS FOR SUCCESS STRATEGIC ALLIANCES The company has formed strategic alliances and partnerships with many leading players operating in the end-to-end solutions in the power distribution equipment industry. Havell’s is taking initiatives to tap potential markets in the EU. Havell’s has plans to diversify its product portfolio by venturing into the electrical motors and power capacitors space. The company has identified the housing and power sectors as future growth drivers and plans to tap these spheres.The company has developed a strong brand presence through alliances with and the acquisition of leading electrical equipment manufacturers in the region. FUTURE PLANS As a part of its growth strategy. the Middle East and the USA. generated by exports in 2005. The company expects to increase its exports by approximately 100 per cent from 2005-07. Havell’s also plans to increase its capacity to ward off cost pressures and reduce development costs. Havell’s has entered manufacturing alliances with several leading electrical companies such as Electrium.The company has plans to increase its brand presence and reach in the EU through strong acquisitions. It has plans to expand its operations in the EU inorganically and enhance its international presence. It has also initiated various segment-wise growth plans to drive growth in its overall operations.The company is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange.Europe is critical to the company’s business. DZG. which has assisted the company to leverage the technical ..
among many other applications. Electric motors are found in myriad uses such as industrial fans. machine tools. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. thereby facilitating sharing of technology. household appliances. The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interaction of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. and by application. It has also entered into alliances with several companies.The company has developed efficient partnerships to increase its market penetration in the EU. power tools. .expertise and developing quality products in the electrical products segment. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power. blowers and pumps. Havell’s has efficiently leveraged alliances to gain an entry into global markets. at the same time. which has enabled it to penetrate the market ELECTRIC MOTOR An electric motor is a device using electrical energy to produce mechanical energy. by their internal construction. and computer disk drives. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. nearly always by the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. LEADING THE WAY THROUGH INNOVATION Havell’s has focussed on research and development to produce novel products. reducing cost and upgrading the quality of its products. It has developed a good brand name by introducing innovative products in the market. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century. developing a strong product portfolio to capture them. but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.The company has a skilled workforce that works on its R&D projects.
AC Motors In 1882. 2). the wire rotated around the magnet.S. stated that would be akin to building a perpetual motion machine. Universal Motor ( DC motors that runs on AC power). Direct Current (DC) types. Ferraris published his research in a paper to the Royal Academy of Sciences in Turin. Tesla had suggested that the commutators from a machine could be removed and the device could operate on a rotary field of force. Galileo Ferraris independently researched the concept.416. He exploited the principle to design a unique two-phase induction motor in 1883.194. showing that the current gave rise to a circular magnetic field around the wire. A permanent magnet was placed in the middle of the pool of mercury. Michail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky later invented a three-phase "cage-rotor" in 1890. and pioneered the use of a rotary field of force to operate machines. which resembles the motor seen in many of Tesla's photos. 3). A typical AC motor consists of two parts: . In 1888. Nikola Tesla invented the rotating magnetic field.Principle The principle of conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy by electromagnetic means was demonstrated by the British scientist Michael Faraday in 1821 and consisted of a free-hanging wire dipping into a pool of mercury. Tesla would later attain U. Professor Poeschel. This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications. When a current was passed through the wire. Alternating Current (AC) types. Electric Motor (December 1889). his teacher. In 1885. Categorization Of Electric Motors The classic division of electric motors is:1). Patent 0. This classic alternating current electro-magnetic motor was an induction motor.
The name derives from the fact that it may use AC or DC supply current. The principle is that in a wound field DC motor the current in both the field and the armature (and hence the resultant magnetic fields) will alternate (reverse polarity) at the same time.An outside stationary stator having coils supplied with AC current to produce a rotating magnetic field. DC Motors A DC motor is designed to run on DC electric power.There are four types of DC motor: • • • • DC series motor DC shunt motor Permanent Magnet DC Motor DC compound motor DC compound motor . the motor must be specially designed to cope with the AC (impedance must be taken into account. which use internal and external commutation respectively to create an oscillating AC current from the DC source—so they are not purely DC machines in a strict sense. An inside rotor attached to the output shaft that is given a torque by the rotating field. as must the pulsating force). By far the most common DC motor types are the brushed and brushless types. and hence the mechanical force generated is always in the same direction.there are also two types: o o Cumulative compound Differentially compounded Universal Motors A variant of the wound field DC motor is the universal motor. . Two examples of pure DC designs are Michael Faraday's homopolar motor (which is uncommon). and the ball bearing motor. In practice. which is (so far) a novelty. and. although in practice they are nearly always used with AC supplies. and the resultant motor is generally less efficient than an equivalent pure DC motor.
Household blenders that advertise many speeds frequently combine a field coil with several taps and a diode that can be inserted in series with the motor (causing the motor to run on half-wave rectified AC). Uses Electric motors are used in many. drills. in many vibrating or oscillsting machines.The advantage of the universal motor is that AC supplies may be used on motors which have the typical characteristics of DC motors. . and conveyor belts. The negative aspect is the maintenance and short life problems caused by the commutator. while stepped speed control can be accomplished using multiple taps on the field coil. As a result such motors are usually used in AC devices such as food mixers and power tools which are used only intermittently. Blenders use electric motors to mix liquids. In flying robots. Obvious uses would be in rotating machines such as fans. allowing vertical motion. and microwave ovens use motors to turn the tray food sits on. In industrial and manufacturing businesses. an electric motor spins an irregular figure with more area on one side of the axle than the other. specifically high starting torque and very compact design if high running speeds are used. Linear motors are often used to push products into containers horizontally. Also. Electric motors are also popular in robotics. electric motors are used to turn saws and blades in cutting and slicing processes. causing it to appear to be moving up and down. They are used to turn the wheels of vehicular robots. the wheels on electric cars. and servo motors are used to turn arms and legs in humanoid robots. flat blades to spin and create drag force. Toaster ovens also use electric motors to turn a conveyor in order to move food over heating elements. Food processors and grinders spin blades to chop and break up foods. along with helicopters. Continuous speed control of a universal motor running on AC is easily obtained by use of a thyristor circuit. turbines. modern machines. a motor causes a propellor or wide. and to spin gears and mixers (the latter very common in food manufacturing). if not most. Many kitchen appliances also use electric motors to accomlish various jobs.
It is somewhat analogous to a water pump. plates and disks to carry charge to a high potential electrode. The charge was generated using either of two mechanisms: • • Electrostatic induction The turboelectric effect. The source of mechanical energy may be a reciprocating or turbine steam engine. an electrical generator is a device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. which creates a flow of water but does not create the water inside. The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by a motor. electrostatic generators had low power ratings and were never used for generation of commercially-significant quantities of electric power. . but it does not create electricity or charge. They operated by using moving electrically charged belts.ELECTRICAL GENERATOR In electricity generation. The Wimshurst machine and Van de Graaff generator are examples of these machines that have survived. which is already present in the wire of its windings. a hand crank. electrostatic generators were invented that used electrostatic principles. generally using electromagnetic induction. where the contact between two insulators leaves them charged. water falling through a turbine or waterwheel. compressed air or any other source of mechanical energy. These generated very high voltages and low currents. Because of their inefficiency and the difficulty of insulating machines producing very high voltages. Historic Developments Before the connection between magnetism and electricity was discovered. motors and generators have many similarities. A generator forces electric charges to move through an external electrical circuit. an internal combustion engine. a wind turbine.
using a copper disc rotating between the poles of a horseshoe magnet. This design was inefficient due to self-cancelling counter flows of current in regions not under the influence of the magnetic field. In essence the concept is that instead of permanent magnets. In the prototype of the single-pole electric starter (finished between 1852 and 1854) both the stationary and the revolving parts were electromagnetic. generators could be easily designed to produce any desired voltage by varying the number of turns. and induces waste heating of the copper disc. Faraday Disk In 1831-1832 Michael Faraday discovered the operating principle of electromagnetic generators. Hungarian Anyos Jedlik started experimenting with electromagnetic rotating devices which he called electromagnetic self-rotors. Wire windings became a basic feature of all subsequent generator designs. While current flow was induced directly underneath the magnet. Since the output voltage is proportional to the number of turns. This counter flow limits the power output to the pickup wires. It produced a small DC voltage. called the 'Faraday disc'. Jedlik's invention was decades ahead of its time. due to the single current path through the magnetic flux. He formulated the concept of the dynamo at least 6 years before Siemens and Wheatstone but didn't patent it as he thought he wasn't the first to realize this. is that a potential difference is generated between the ends of an electrical conductor that moves perpendicular to a magnetic field. two electromagnets opposite to each other induce the magnetic field around the rotor. He also built the first electromagnetic generator. The first Turbo generator Designed by the Hungarian engineer Ottó Bláthy in 1903 . The principle. and large amounts of current. Experimenters found that using multiple turns of wire in a coil could produce higher more useful voltages. later called Faraday's law. Another disadvantage was that the output voltage was very low. the current would circulate backwards in regions outside the influence of the magnetic field.Jedlik's Dynamo In 1827.
The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. On small machines the constant magnetic field may be provided by one or more permanent magnets. generator. dynamo or motor. dynamo or motor. the dynamo became the source of many later inventions. and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. the AC synchronous motor. But before the principles of AC were discovered. the AC alternator. Through a series of accidental discoveries. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into a pulsing direct electric current through the use of a commutator. which provides a constant magnetic field. generator. including the DC electric motor. Electrical: • Armature: The power-producing component of an alternator. which are usually called field coils. larger machines have the constant magnetic field provided by one or more electromagnets. or dynamo the armature windings generate the electrical current. and the rotary converter. In a generator. The first dynamo was built by Hippolyte Pixii in 1832. dynamo or motor. Now power generation dynamos are mostly a curiosity. generator. Large power generation dynamos are now rarely seen due to the now nearly universal use of alternating current for power distribution and solid state electronic AC to DC power conversion. alternator. . Mechanical: • • Rotor: The rotating part of an alternator. Stator: The stationary part of an alternator. Terminology The two main parts of a generator or motor can be described in either mechanical or electrical terms. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure. very large direct-current dynamos were the only means of power generation and distribution.
so the armature winding is on the rotor of the machine. using slip rings.) Because power transferred into the field circuit is much less than in the armature circuit. Despite their design differences. giving a high level of insulation between the windings Rectangular core Core laminate stampings are usually in EI shape pairs. Mumetal shields can be fitted to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference) A screen winding is occasionally used between the 2 power windings Small appliance and electronics transformers may have a thermal cut out built in Occasionally seen in low profile format for use in restricted spaces • • • • • • .• Field: The magnetic field component of an alternator. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either electromagnets or permanent magnets mounted on either the rotor or the stator. • Power Transformers This is the most common type of transformer. (For a more technical discussion. Other shape pairs are sometimes used. refer to the Field coil article. AC generators nearly always have the field winding on the rotor and the stator as the armature winding. dynamo or motor. Direct current machines necessarily have the commutator on the rotating shaft. Only a small amount of field current must be transferred to the moving rotor. TRANSFORMER A variety of types of electrical transformer are made for different purposes. generator. widely used in appliances to convert mains voltage to low voltage to power electronics • • • Widely available in power ratings ranging from mW to MW Insulated laminations minimize eddy current losses Small appliance and electronic transformers may use a split bobbin. the various types employ the same basic principle as discovered in 1831 by Michael Faraday. and share several key functional parts.
Delta-Y. A . The higher voltage will be connected to the ends of the winding. It can be connected to a 230-volt supply to drive 115-volt equipment. lighter cheaper and more efficient. Large three-phase autotransformers are used in electric power distribution systems. For voltage ratios not exceeding about 3:1. If a winding is connected to earth (grounded). This is true of isolated winding transformers too. If the secondary is a Delta winding. Since the current in the windings is lower. In practice. or all three phases can be connected to a single polyphase transformer. Delta-Delta and Y-Y. lighter. for example. and the lower voltage from one end to a tap. The difference is usually slight enough to allow reversal where the actual voltage level is not critical. The most common connections are Y-Delta. the ground may be connected to a center tap on one winding (high leg delta) or one phase may be grounded (corner grounded delta). For example. AC or pulsed voltage is applied across a portion of the winding. three separate single-phase transformers can be used. which is tapped at some point along the winding. transformer losses mean that autotransformers are not perfectly reversible. to interconnect 33 kV and 66 kV sub-transmission networks. and a higher (or lower) voltage is produced across another portion of the same winding. and 115 volts between one end and the tap. A vector group indicates the configuration of the windings and the phase angle difference between them. the earth connection point is usually the center point of a Y winding. the transformer is smaller. a transformer with a tap at the center of the winding can be used with 230 volts across the entire winding. The three primary windings are connected together and the three secondary windings are connected together. an autotransformer is cheaper. smaller and more efficient than an isolating (two-winding) transformer of the same rating. or reversed to drive 230-volt equipment from 115 volts.• laminated core made with silicon steel with high permeability Auto-Transformer An autotransformer has only a single winding. one designed for stepping down a voltage will deliver slightly less voltage than required if used to step up. Polyphase Transformers For three-phase power.
In powertype pulse transformers. a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. substitute fire-resistant liquids such as silicone oils are instead used. and a high open-circuit inductance. or where the transformer is used in a building or underground. often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. To minimise distortion of the pulse shape. since these are now banned. because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors. or other high energy pulsed power applications. For the same reason.special purpose polyphase transformer is the zigzag transformer. indoor transformers required to be fire-resistant used PCB liquids. and in larger ratings an air-cooled radiator is used. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the highvoltage gates of power semiconductors. Formerly. . Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar. a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance. Where a higher rating is required. particle accelerators. There are many possible configurations that may involve more or fewer than six windings and various tap connections. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary. oil pumps are used to circulate the oil and an oil-to-water heat exchanger may also be used. Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits. The oil is cooled by the outside of the tank in small ratings. pulses with fast rise and fall times and a relatively constant amplitude). moved by convection. • Oil Cooled Transformer For large transformers used in power distribution or electrical substations. Pulse Transformers A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimised for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is. the core and coils of the transformer are immersed in oil which cools and insulates. Oil circulates through ducts in the coil and around the coil and core assembly. high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required.
the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterise pulse transformers. the larger this product. The power supply toroidal transformer is on right. For good low-frequency response a relatively large iron core is required. Audio transformers are usually the factor which limit sound quality when used. Pulse transformers by definition have a duty cycle of less than 1. Good high-frequency response requires carefully designed and implemented windings without excessive leakage inductance or stray capacitance. Output transformers are on the left. Valve circuits for quality reproduction have long been produced with no other (inter-stage) audio transformers. the larger and more expensive the transformer. All this makes for an expensive component. high power handling increases the required core size. Early transistor audio power amplifiers often had output transformers. electronic circuits with wide frequency response and low distortion are relatively simple to design. Generally speaking. A particularly critical component is the output transformer of an audio power amplifier. Transformers are also used in DI boxes to convert high-impedance instrument signals (e. (The valves can deliver a low current at a high voltage.) Most solid-state power amplifiers need no output transformer at all. . Audio Transformers Transformers in a tube amplifier.The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately. the speakers require high current at low voltage. whatever energy stored in the coil during the pulse must be "dumped" out before the pulse is fired again. bass guitar) to low impedance signals to enable them to be connected to a microphone input on the mixing console.g. but an output transformer is needed to couple the relatively high impedance (up to a few hundred ohms depending upon configuration) of the output valve(s) to the low impedance of a loudspeaker. but they were eliminated as designers discovered how to design amplifiers without them.
O.) Gang Operated Switch (G.C.S.E.B or V.O) With Earthing Drop Out Fuse (33KV) Lightning Arrester (33KV) M.B.C.SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM HT SIDE 33 KV Supply (R.B (33KV) Current Transformer (5 A ) .
The brush type phosphor bronze contacts provide positive high pressure multilane connection and wiping and cleaning action on closing. The most commonly used switch in small to medium substations is a GANG-OPERATED SWITCH. "Gang-operated" because the three separate switches for each phase are operated as a group from a single control. Drop out fuse are complete with fuse carrier of fiber glass tube with both end heavily tinned non ferrous metal parts. It can only break. These fuses stop the flow of current in the event of an internal fault or short-circuit in the transformer. The next device encountered in a substation is the HIGH VOLTAGE POWER FUSES / DROP OUT FUSE. Depending on the line voltage. Side . L.7 A) The first device encountered in a substation is typically a disconnect switch.At No Load (433 V / 2666. The pressure exerted by the contacts initiates the . It is like a large safety switch with no load breaking capability.Potential Transformer (33KV / 110 V) Three Phase Step Down Transformer (Delta . Overloads due to faults or short circuits on the distribution side of the substation are prevented by low voltage protective equipment.) A substation must first be disconnected from its secondary or load side before the primary or high voltage side can be disconnected using the disconnect switch. (This is the small amount of current needed to set up the magnetic field in the transformer core. The purpose of this switch is to disconnect the substation from the incoming line. they may be up to six feet long. not to disconnect the transformer from the load.V.Star) 2000 KVA. or "interrupt" the relatively small "magnetizing current" of the substation transformer.
The operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker gives the necessary energy for opening and closing of contacts of the Circuit Breakers. The interrupters are mounted on support insulators. The Circuit Breakers are automatic Switches which can interrupt fault currents. Fuse units are manufactured up to and including 33kv system.opening movement of the fuse carrier copper & copper alloys high pressure heavily tinned metal contacts for fix top contacts assembly and bottom contact assembly. The typical lightning arrester also known as surge arrester has a high voltage terminal and a ground terminal. The Fault Clearing Process .O. The next device encountered in a substation is LIGHTNING ARRESTER A lightning arrester is a device used on electrical power systems to protect the insulation on the system from the damaging effect of lightning. the current from the surge is diverted around the protected insulation in most cases to earth. When a lightning surge or switching surge travels down the power system to the arrester. They also may be used in place of high voltage power fuses. The interrupter encloses a set of fixed and moving contact's The moving contacts can be drawn apart by means of the operating links of the operating mechanism. They are utilized when there is a need to remotely switch the incoming or outgoing transmission circuits in a substation. Each pole of the Circuit Breaker comprises one or more interrupter or arc-extinguishing chambers. The part of the Circuit Breakers connected in one phase is called the pole. The arc produced by the separation of current carrying contacts is interrupted by a suitable medium and by adopting suitable techniques for arc extinction. A Circuit Breaker suitable for three phase system is called a ‘triple-pole Circuit Breaker. The D. The Circuit Breaker can be classified on the basis of the arc extinction medium. Metal oxide varistors (movs) have been used for power system protection since the mid 1970s. The next device encountered in a substation is TRANSMISSION LEVEL CIRCUIT BREAKERS OR CIRCUIT SWITCHERS / MINIMUM OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER are some of the last devices found in a substation.
The arc is extinguished at some natural current zero of A. The relay takes some time to close its contacts. The process of fault clearing has the following sequence: 1. Thereafter the Circuit Breaker opens. wave. During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays sense the fault and close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker. the trip circuit is closed and the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker starts the opening operation. The classification of the Circuit Breakers based on the medium of arc extinction is as follows: (1) Air break' Circuit Breaker.The operating mechanism starts operating for the opening operation. The Circuit Breaker has two working positions. The Circuit Breaker contacts separate. .Fault Occurs. 2 . As the fault occurs. The type of the Circuit Breaker is usually identified according to the medium of arc extinction. The current reaches final zero as the arc is extinguished and does not restrict again. The operation of automatic opening and closing the contacts is achieved by means of the operating mechanism of the Circuit Breaker.Relay contacts close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker closes and trip coil is energized. The moving part of the relay move because of the increase in the operating torque. the currents increase and the relay gets actuated. 4 . As the relay contacts close. The arc is extinguished in the Circuit Breaker by suitable techniques.C. The process of current interruption is completed when the arc is extinguished and the current reaches final zero value. the fault impedance being low. The fault is said to be cleared. These correspond to open Circuit Breaker contacts and closed Circuit Breaker contacts respectively. 3 . (4) Air blast Circuit Breaker. The contacts of the Circuit Breaker open and an arc is draw between them. (2) Oil Circuit Breaker (tank type of bulk oil) (3) Minimum oil Circuit Breaker. open and closed.During the normal operating condition the Circuit Breaker can be opened or closed by a station operator for the purpose of Switching and maintenance.Arc is drawn between the breaker contacts. (Miniature Circuit Breaker).
a current transformer has a primary winding. a magnetic core. Current transformers are also known as instrument transformers. 4 – Minimum Oil CB. 1000 MVA 36 KV .(5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker. Medium Voltage. 5 – Air Blast CB.6 . Breaking Capacity Air at atmospheric pressure (430 – 600) V– (5-15)MVA (3. The alternating current flowing in the primary produces a magnetic field in the core. Design Like any other transformer. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments. a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit. Current Transformer & Potential Transformer In electrical engineering. 10000 MVA 36 KV. and a secondary winding. A current transformer also isolates the measuring instruments from what may be very high voltage in the primary circuit. Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry. 750 MVA 500 KV DC The next device encountered in a substation is INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS i. Vacuum Vacuum . 6 – SF6 CB. 50000 MVA 12 KV. which then induces current flow in the secondary winding circuit. a current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. 2000 MVA 145 KV. SF6 Gas 245 KV . (Single pressure or Double Pressure).145 )KV Compressed Air 245 KV. 35000 MVA (20 – 40 ) bar SF6 Gas up to 1100 KV.DC CB.6 – 12) KV Dielectric oil (3. A primary .e. 7500 MVA 7 – Vacuum CB. (6) Sulphur hexafluoride Circuit Breaker.V. 3 – Tank Type oil CB. Type 1 – Air break Circuit Breaker 2 – Miniature CB.500 MVA Air at atmospheric pressure (430-600 ) V Dielectric oil (3. which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments. 8 – H.6-12) KV .
When conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular (or oval) opening. with a heavy copper bar to carry current through the magnetic core. and every residence with greater than 200 amp service. Window-type current transformers are also common. This will produce a high voltage across the open secondary (into the range of several kilovolts in some cases). The CT is typically described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. multiple CTs are installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example. Often. revenue-grade CTs drive the electrical utility's watt-hour meter on virtually every building with three-phase service.objective of current transformer design is to ensure that the primary and secondary circuits are efficiently coupled. The high voltage produced will compromise operator and equipment safety and permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. as the transformer secondary will attempt to continue driving current across the effectively infinite impedance. The CT's primary circuit therefore consists of a single 'turn' of conductor. The primary winding may be a permanent part of the current transformer. Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply Usage Current transformers are used extensively for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid. The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped many times around a silicon steel ring passed over the circuit being measured. Along with voltage leads. . Similarly potential transformers are used for measuring voltage and monitoring the operation of the power grid. Safety Precautions Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary. slight inaccuracies may occur. protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). with a secondary of many hundreds of turns. so that the secondary current bears an accurate relationship to the primary current. which may cause arcing. which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single-turn primary winding.
Y2. for multi-ratio CT's Voltage Transformers Voltage transformers (VTs) or potential transformers (PTs) are another type of instrument transformer. The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69 or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage. VTs are typically used in circuits . Y1. Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The terminal identifications (H1. This applies to current transformers as well. used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits.) are often referred to as polarity. etc. H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1. X1. While VTs were formerly used for all voltages greater than 240V primary. and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is essential for proper operation of metering and protection relays. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.Accuracy The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including: • • • • • • • • Burden Burden class/saturation class Rating factor Load External electromagnetic fields Temperature and Physical configuration. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. The selected tap. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. to match the input ratings of protection relays. modern meters eliminate the need VTs for most secondary service voltages. X2. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase.
This is only partially true.where the system voltage level is above 600 V. Essentially it looks like three single Phase transformers sharing a joined core as in Figure below. Modern meters eliminate the need of VT's since the voltage remains constant and it is measured in the incoming supply. A Three-Phase Transformer is made of three sets of primary and secondary windings. Potential Transformer is designed for monitoring single phase and three phase power line voltages in power metering applications The primary terminal can be connected either in line to line or in line to neutral configuration. However. Fused Transformer models are designated by a suffix of “F” for one fuse or “FF” for two fuses. eliminating the requirement for a special Three-Phase transformer. and less weight than their modular counterparts. A Potential Transformer is a special type of transformer that allows meters to take readings from electrical service connections with higher voltage (potential) than the meter is normally capable of handling without at Potential Transformer. as regular single-phase transformers can be ganged together to transform power between two three-Phase systems in a variety of configurations. less size. it makes sense that we would need Three-Phase transformers to be able to step voltages up or down. special Three-Phase transformers are built for those tasks. . each set wound around one leg of an iron core assembly. Three-Phase Transformer Circuits Since Three-Phase is used so often for power distribution systems. and are able to perform with less material requirement.
while Δ connections enjoy a higher level of reliability (if one winding fails open. the other two can still maintain full line voltages to the load).Three-Phase Transformer core has three set of windings. Those sets of primary and secondary windings will be connected in either Δ or Y configurations to form a complete unit.. The various combinations of ways that these windings can be connected together in will be the focus of this section. Whether the winding sets share a common core assembly or each winding pair is a separate Transformer. Probably the most important aspect of connecting three sets of primary and secondary windings together to form a Three-Phase Transformer bank is paying attention to proper winding phasing (the dots used to denote “polarity” of windings). Remember the proper phase relationships between the phase windings of Δ and Y: (Figure below) .Secondary Y Δ Y Δ Y Y Δ Δ The reasons for choosing a Y or Δ configuration for Transformer winding connections are the same as for any other Three-Phase application: Y connections provide the opportunity for multiple voltages. the winding connection options are the same: • Primary • • • • .
Three individual transformers are to be connected together to transform power from one Three Phase system to another.(Y) The center point of the “Y” must tie either all the “-” or all the “+” winding points together. A3 may be wired either “Δ” or “Y”. starting with Figure below. Getting this phasing correct when the windings aren't shown in regular Y or Δ configuration can be tricky. B2. First. as may outputs B1. (Δ) The winding polarities must stack together in a complementary manner ( + to -). B3. Inputs A1. . Let me illustrate. I'll show the wiring connections for a Δ -Y configuration: Figure below. A2.
from a source power system having no neutral.Phase wiring for “Δ-Y”Transformer. Such a configuration (Figure above) would allow for the provision of multiple voltages (lineto-line or line-to-neutral) in the second power system. .
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