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Chapter 15

## Screw threads and conventional representations

The most common application of the helix is in a screw thread which follows the path of the helix. Screw threads may be either left or right hand and these are shown pictohttp://www.download-it.org/learning-resources.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=19975 rially in Fig. 15.1. Notice the slope of the thread and the position of the index finger on each hand. The left-hand thread is used for special applications and the right-hand thread is the one normally used on nuts and bolts. The thread illustrated has a vee-section. The following terms are associated with screw threads:
Major or outside dia.
*

Pitch 2

Crest

Nut
nk
Depth 3 H 8 H 6 H 4 H 4 H H 8

Pitch P

Bolt

## The terms are illustrated in Fig. 15.2.

Figure 15.3 shows the ISO metric thread form for a nut (internal) and for a bolt (external). In the case of the nut, the root is rounded in practice. For the mating bolt, the crest of the thread may be rounded within the maximum outline, as shown, and the root radiused to the given dimension. Both male and female threads are subject to manufacturing tolerances and for complete information, reference should be made to BS 36431. BS 36432 defines two series of diameters with graded pitches for general use in nuts, bolts and screwed fittings, one series with coarse and the other with fine

Nut

P 8 Pitch line

P 2 P 4

60

Bolt
0.1433P Pitch P

FIGURE 15.1
Manual of Engineering Drawing Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.

FIGURE 15.3 ISO metric thread H = 0.86603P, H/4 = 0.21651P, (3/8)H = 0.32476P, (5/8)H = 0.54127P, where P is the pitch of the thread.

Fla
Root

111

112

## Manual of Engineering Drawing

TABLE 15.1
1 2 3 Basic major diameters Choice 1st 2nd 3rd 1.6 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 1.8 2.2 3.5 4.5 14 18 22 5.5 7 9 11 15 17 4 Coarse series with graded pitches 0.35 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.45 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.75 8.8 1 1 1.25 1.25 1.5 1.5 1.75 2 2 2.5 2.5 2.5 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Fine series with constant pitches 6 4 3 2 1.5 2 2 2 2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

## 1.25 1.25 1.25 1.25

*

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

## 0.2 0.2 0.2

Note: For preference, choose the diameters given in Column 1. If these are not suitable, choose from Column 2, or finally from Column 3. * The pitch of 1.25 mm for 14 mm diameter is to be used only for sparking plugs.

pitches. The extract given in Table 15.1 from the standard gives thread sizes from 1.6 to 24 mm diameter. Note that first, second and third choices of basic diameters are quoted, to limit the number of sizes within each range. On a drawing, a thread will be designated by the letter M followed by the size of the nominal diameter and the pitch required, e.g. M10 1.

If a thread is dimensioned without reference to the pitch, e.g. M16, then it is assumed that the coarse series thread is required.

The Unified system of screw threads was introduced by the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States to provide a

## Chapter | 15 Screw threads and conventional representations

113

Pitch P

Pitch P Rc

H 8

60 P 4

H 5 H 8

Nut Bolt
Rr
1 1 27 2 27 2

H 6

r
H 6

FIGURE 15.4 Unified screw thread H = 0.86603P, Rc = 0.108P and Rr = 0.144P where P is the pitch of the thread.

H 4

## FIGURE 15.6 Basic Whitworth form H = 960491P, h = 0.640327P, r = 0.137329P.

P Nut F
1 1 27 27 2 2

r
17 1 H 18
H 5 H 6
60

90 F

Bolt

4 F 3

FIGURE 15.5 Sellers or American thread H = 0.866P, H0 = 0.6495P, F = 0.1083P = H/8 = H/6.

FIGURE 15.7 Basic Whitworth form of taper pipe thread H = 0.960273P, h = 0.640327P, r = 0.137278P.
P

R
1 47 2

H H

FIGURE 15.8 British Association (BA) thread H = 1.1363P, H = 0.6P (approx.), R = 0.18P, S = 0.268P.

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