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EHV - SUB-STATION

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SUB-STATION PLANNING CRITERIA

 

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The maximum fault level on any new Sub-Station Bus should not exceed 80% of the rated rupturing capacity of the Circuit Breaker. The 20% margin is intended to take care of the increase in short circuit level as the system grows. The rate of breaking current and making currnt including fault clearing time capability of Switch-gear at different voltage levels may be taken as :-

Fault cleaning

Voltage

Operating

Breaking

Acking

Time

level

Time

current

current

150ms

33kV

60-80ms

25KA

62.5KA

120ms

132kV

50ms

25/31.5KA

70KA

100 ms

220kV

50ms

31.5/40KA

100KA

100ms

400kV

40ms

40KA

100KA

 

765kV

40KA

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The capacity of any single sub-station at different voltage levels shall not normally exceed.

 

765

KV.-

2500 MVA.

400

KV.-

1000 MVA.

220

KV.-

320 MVA.

132

KV.-

150 MVA.

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Size and Number of inter-connecting Transformer (ICTs.) shall be planned in such a way that

outage of any single unit would not over load the remaining ICT (s) or the underlying system.

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A stuck breaker condition shall not cause disruption of more-than four feeders for 220 KV.

system and Two Feeders for 400 KV. system and one Feeder for 765 KV. system.

 
 

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EHV SUB-STATION

SYSTEM REQUIREMENT

Sl

No.

Description of Technical Parameter

Unit

System

1.

Nominal system voltage

kVrms

400kV

220kV

132kV

33kV

2.

Maximum system voltage

kVrms

420kV

245kV

145kV

36kV

3.

Power frequency with stand voltage

kVrms

630kV

460kV

275kV

70kV

 

520 kV

4.

Switching surge withstand voltage (for 250/2500ms)

kVp

1. Line to earth

1050kVp

Not

Not

Not

2. Accross isolating gap

900kVp+345kVrms applicable

applicable

applicable

5.

Lightinging impluse withstand voltage

kvp for

 

1.2/50(ms)

 

1. Line to earth

1425 kvp

1050kvp

650kvp

170kvp.

2. Across isolating gap

1425kvp+

1200kvp

750kvp

195kvp.

 

240kvms

6.

One minute power frequency withstand value Dry Wet

 

kVrms

520

460

275

70

kVrms

610

530

315

80

7.

System frequency :

Hz

 

50

8.

Variation in frequency

%

+2.5

9.

Corona extiniction voltage

320kV

156kV

84kV

10.

Radion interference voltage

1000 mV at

1000 mV at 167 kv

1000 mV at

93kv

 
 

266kv

11.

System neutral rating

Solidly earthed

12.

Continous current rating

1600Aor2000A

1600A

800A

600A

13.

Symmetincal short circuit fault current

kA

40

40

31.5

25

14.

Duration of short circuit fault current

Second

1

1

1

3

15.

Dynamic short circuit current rating

kAp

100

100

79

62.5kA

16.

Conductor spacing for AIS layouts Phase to ground Phase to phase

meters

meters

6.5

4.5

3

1.5

meters

7.0

4.5

3

1.5

17.

Design ambient tempertures oC

 

50

18.

Pollution level as per IEC-815 and 71

III

19.

Creepage distance

mm

10500

6125

3625

900

20.

Maximum fault clearing time

ms

<100

<100ms

<150ms

21.

Bay width

meter

27

16.4-18

10.4.12.0

5.5

22.

Height of bus equipment interconnection from ground

meter

8

5.5

5

4

23.

Height of strung busbar

meter

>15

10

8

5.5

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STUDYONSUB-STATIONS

 

1. Nomenclature

2.

General

Reliability:

Substations or switching stations are integral part of the transmission system, and function as a connection or switching point for transmission lines, sub-transmission feeders, generating circuits and step-up and step -down transformers Substations of voltages 66 KV to 40KV are termed as EHV sub-stations.Above 500KV, they come under the terminology of UHV system. Thedesignconsiderationsandproceduresarealmost the same for the sub-stations in the EHV range except that certainfactors becomepredominantat different voltagelevels. Switching surges are very important at 345 KV and above, whereas it can be safely neglected upto 220 KV level.

3. Design Criteria and Studies.

The reliability of a power system means supply of uninterrupted power at the specified voltage and frequency. Thereliability of a substation depends on the reliability of associated equipment such as busbars, circuit breakers, transformers, isolators and controlling devices. Failure Rate :

It is the average number of failures per year. Outage time :

It is the time taken to repair the failed component or restore supply from an alternative source by switching. Switching time It is the time taken from the initiation of outage to restoration of service by switching action. Switching scheme It is the type of arrangement of bus bars and equipments considering cost, flexibility of operation and reliability of the system. Phase to ground clearance The phaseto ground clearanceina substation are, (a) distance between the conductor and the structures. (b) distancebetweentheliveparts oftheequipmentandstructures and (c) distance between the live conductor and ground. Phase to phase clearance The phase to phase clearances ina substationare (a) distance between the live conductors (b) distance between the live conductors and apparatus and (c) distance between the live terminals in equipment like, circuit breakers, isolators etc. Ground clearance

It is definedas theminimum clearancefrom anypoint, wherea person may be required to stand, to the nearest part (which is not at earth potential) of an insulator supporting the live conductor.

Thefollowing studies aretobeperformedtoestablish the design criteria for a substation.

1.

Load flow studies

The purpose of a substation is to provide a path for reliable delivery of power to system loads. Load flow studies establish the current carrying requirements of the new substation or switching station, when all lines are in and when selected lines are out for maintenance.After studying

a

number of load flow cases, the continues and emergency

ratings required for various equipment can be determined.

2.

Short circuit studies.

In addition to the continuous current ratings, the substation equipment must have short time ratings,. These must be adequate to permit theequipment to sustain, without damage, theseverethermal andmechanical stresses ofshort circuit currents. In order to provide adequate interrupting capability in the breakers, strength in post insulators and appropriate setting for protective relays, which sense the fault, the maximum and minimum short circuit currents which will flow for various types and locations of short circuits and for different system configuration must be established.

3.

Under normal conditions, the mechanical input to a generator will be equal to the electrical output plus generator

Transient Stability Studies.

Sectional Clearance

losses.

So long as this is continues, the system generators

It is defined as the minimum clearance from any point, where a person may be required to stand, to the nearest unscreened live conductor. The basis for fixing the sectional clearance is to take the height of a man with stretched hands plus the phase to ground clearance. Safety Clearance

rotateat 50Hz. If this balance is destroyedbyupsettingeither

the mechanical or the electrical flow, the generator speed deviates from 50Hz. and begins to oscillate about a new

equilibriumpoint.

 
 

Themostcommondisturbanceisashortcircuit.When

a

short circuit occurs close to the generator, the terminal

This comprises of ground clearance and sectional clearance. Electro static Field in Substations

voltage drops and the machineaccelerates. When thefault is cleared, the unit will try to revert to its original state by feeding the excess energy into the power system. If the electrical ties are strong, the machine will quickly decelerate and became stable. If theties areweak, themachinewill becomeunstable.

The factors which affect the stability are

An energised conductor or metallic part of the equipment produces electrostatic field. The magnitude of the electrostatic field varies at different points in an EHV sub- station (above 400 KV), depending on the geometry of energised conductor/metallic part and the nearby earthed object or ground.

i. Severity of the fault.

 

ii. Speed with which the fault is cleared.

iii. Ties between the machine and the system after the fault is cleared.

 

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(iv) Ability to limit short circuit levels Any arrangement which incorporates means of providing a substation into two separate sections either

and (c) the bus configuration after the fault has been cleared. completely or through reactor coupling, is suitable for limiting The last point has a considerable bearing on the bus short circuit levels. By careful use of circuit breakers in ring arrangement. If a fault is cleared in the primary relaying time, system, a similar facility can be provided.

only one line will be lost. If the fault is cleared in breaker

The aspects of transient stability that are important in substation design are, (a) the type and speed of the line and bus protection relaying, (b) the interrupting time of the breaker

failure (v) Maintenance facilities

relaying time, owing to a stuck breaker, more than one line

will have to be carried out, either planned or emergency. The 4. Transient over-voltage studies. performance of the substation during maintenance is also

dependent on the protection arrangements. (vi) Ease of extension The substation arrangement shall be such that extension of bays for new feeders are possible.As the system expands, there may be need to convert a single bus arrangement to double bus system, or to expand a mesh station to a double bus station. There shall be space and expansion facilities. (vii) Site considerations

or circuit switching . The most reliable means to

During the operation of the substation, maintenance

may be lost which will weaken the tie to the system.

Transient overvoltage may be due to lightning stroke

establish

switching over voltage is through the use of a Transient Network Analyser (TNA) study.

4. Substation Arrangement

The substation arrangement depends on physical and electrical aspects and is influenced by the following factors. (i) System Security. The ideal sub-station is one were each circuit is

controlled by a separate breaker with facilities for replacement The availability of site plays an important role in

planning the substations. When the areas is limited, a station with less flexibility may have to be constructed. The substation which are simple in diagram and use least number of breakers occupy the least site. (vii) Economy A better switching arrangement on technical requirements can be constructed, if the economics are reasonable.

of bus-bar or breaker in the

maintenance. System security may be specified, based on whether complete reliance on the integrity of the substation or a percentage of outage due to periodic faults or maintenance is permissible.

event of a fault or during

Double bus-bar system with double

breaker

arrangement comes to near ideal, but the cost of such a

substation is prohibitively high. (ii) Operational flexibility

5. Substation Layout and Switching arrangement.

For the efficient loading of the generators it is A number of factors are to be considered while

finalizing the layout and switching arrangements of an EHV substation. It must be reliable, safe and must provide a high level of service continuity.

necessary to control the MVA and MVAR loading under all conditions of circuit connections. The grouping of load circuits requires to be capable of being arranged to give the best

control under normal and emergency

(iii) Simplicity of protection arrangements If more than one circuit is to be controlled from

conditions. Normallyusedsubstationschemesaredetailedbelow.

1. Single Bus arrangement This arrangement is a simple scheme adopted in less important substations. A breaker or bus failure can cause total outage. By providing a bus sectionalism scheme, this can be overcome to some extent. Even though the protective relaying is simple, single bus scheme is inflexible (Fig. 1)

one

circuit breaker or greater number of circuit breakers are to be

tripped during fault conditions, the protection

arrangements

are complex. The most advantageous arrangement is single bus-bar with no sectionalising. Ring bus arrangement where each circuit breaker can be in two zones of protection, causes

for complex protection scheme.

Sectionaliser LA E.Sw Trans PT Fig. 1. Single Bus Feeder Arrangement
Sectionaliser
LA
E.Sw
Trans
PT
Fig. 1. Single Bus
Feeder
Arrangement

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2. Main and Transfer Bus

breaker relaying must be so arranged to protect the transmission line or transformer, if the protective relays also are not transferred. As the relaying selectivity is poor this scheme is considered as unsatisfactory. Failure of the main bus can cause for total outage of the substation (Fig-2)

A transfer bus is added to the single bus scheme.

An extra bus-tie

transfer buses together. When a circuit breaker is in maintenance, the bus- tie breaker can be used for energising the circuit . Bus-tie

breaker is provided to tie the main and

MAIN BUS Ttrans BI CT CB LA LI E.Sw LA PT TRANSFER BUS BI Feeder
MAIN BUS
Ttrans
BI
CT
CB
LA
LI
E.Sw
LA
PT
TRANSFER BUS
BI
Feeder
Feeder
Feeder

Fig-2 Main and Transfer BusArrangement

3. Double Bus, Single Breaker

This is superior to the single bus and main and transfer bus schemes. There are two main buses and each circuit can

be connected to either of the buses by bus

The circuit may operate all from one bus, of half of the circuit connected in each bus. For a bus fault, only half the no. of circuits will be lost. In some cases the tie breaker is permanently closed and both the buses stand connected.A bus protection scheme will be necessary for opening the tie breaker in the event of a bus fault.

isolators.Abus-tie

breaker connects the two main buses when closed allows the transfer of a circuit from one bus to the other without a

Possibility of operator error is more as two bus break in supply (Fig.3) isolators are involved for every circuit.

BI CT CB LI Bus Coupler E.Sw PT Trans LA Feeder
BI
CT
CB
LI
Bus
Coupler
E.Sw
PT
Trans
LA
Feeder

Fig. 3. Double Bus Arrangement

BUS 1

BUS 2

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4.

Double bus, Double breaker Arrangement This scheme involves two main buses and two circuit

breakers for every circuit. The use of two circuit breakers per circuit makes the arrangement very expensive, but this provides a very high order of reliability (Fig.4)

BUS 1 BI CT CB Feeder LA ESW PT BI
BUS 1
BI
CT
CB
Feeder
LA
ESW
PT
BI

BUS 2 Fig. 4. Double Bus, Double Breaker Arrangement

Trans

5. Breaker - and -a- half-scheme.

In this scheme two main buses are there and three breakers are connected in series between them. Two circuits are connected between the three breakers. Hence this is called 1 breaker scheme (Fig-5) Normally all the 3 breakers are in closed position, and both the buses are energised. When a line trip involves, two breakers open. No additional feeder or source is lost when one circuit is tripped. Any bus or any breaker can be taken out of service for maintenance without loss of service.

1/2

When a source and a line are connected in opposite directions in a 3 breaker series, even when both the buses fails, it is possible to operate and provide some service. It is more expensive then other schemes, except the double bus-double breaker scheme. Protective relaying and automatic reclosing schemes are complex in 1 breaker bus arrangement. But this arrangement is superior in flexibility, reliability and safety.

1/2

BUS 1 BI Line CB LA CT PT ESW Trans Trans
BUS 1
BI
Line
CB
LA
CT
PT
ESW
Trans
Trans

BUS 2 Fig. 5. Breaker and A Half Scheme

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6. Ring Bus arrangement During a breaker maintenance, the ring is broken,

a but the service is fully maintained. The circuits are generally arranged such that sources and loads are alternated.

ring with circuits connected between the breakers. There

are some number of breakers as the number of circuits. For a Where five or six circuits are to be provided, ring

circuit fault, two breakers are tripped. In the event of a breaker failure during a line fault, an additional breaker trips as backup protection. In that case an additional feeder will also be out of service.

bus arrangement is ideal. This scheme is economical and provide good reliability, safety and flexibility. Protective relaying and automatic reclosing schemes are complex in the case of ring bus arrangement.

In this scheme (Fig-7) the breakers are arranged in

Feeder

LA Trans ESW PT BI CT CB LI Trans ESW Feeder LA
LA
Trans
ESW
PT
BI
CT
CB
LI
Trans
ESW
Feeder
LA

Fig. 6. Ring Bus

7. Other Layout Designs bus with bypass arrangement. These arrangements are

mostly used in gas filled substations where more flexibility is ensured.

arrangements, some other layouts are also employed. They are (i) Double bus arrangement with transfer bus (ii) Triple Simple schematics are as given below.All equipment bus arrangement (iii) Double bus with bypass and (iv) Triple are not shown.

In additional to the above mentioned common

bus

BUS 1 BUS 2 TRANSFER BUS CT CB Feeder Coupler
BUS 1
BUS 2
TRANSFER BUS
CT
CB
Feeder
Coupler

Fig. 7. Double Bus with Transfer Bus

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7. Switchyard Structures Structures are required to support and install buses, electrical equipment and to
7. Switchyard Structures Structures are required to support and install buses, electrical equipment and to

7. Switchyard Structures

Structures are required to support and install buses, electrical equipment and to terminate transmission line conductors. The structures may be of steel, wood, RCC or PSC. They need foundations according to the soil conditions of the side. Generally, fabricated steel structures are used in the substations due to various advantages. The design of the structures is affected by the phase clearance, ground clearance, types of insulators, length and weight of buses and other equipment. Steel beams and girders shall be designed to prevent failure by bending, flange buckling vertical and horizontal shear and web crippling. The depth of the lattice box girders shall be about 1/10 to 1/15 of the span and square in section. Maximum beam defluxion shall not normally exceed 1/250 of the span length. All bolts and nuts for structures shall be not less than 16 mm diameter, except in light loaded section, where they may be 12 mm dia. The design load on columns and girders shall include (i) Conductor tension (ii) Earth wire tension (iii) Wt. of insulators and hardwares (iv) Fraction load (about 350 kg) (v) Weight of man & tools to works on them (about 200 kg) (vi) Wind load

and (vii) Impact load, if any, during operation of

The substation gantry structures shall be designed to terminate the overhead line download span. Which may enter + 30 degrees horizontally and +15 degrees vertically.

equipment.

The yard structures may be hot dip galvanized or painted. Galvanized structures require less maintenance. But in some highly polluted locations, painted structures provided more corrosion resistance.

Normally adopted phase spacings

11 KV 1.3 m 33 KV 1.5 m 66 KV 2.0 to 2.2 m 110
11
KV
1.3 m
33
KV
1.5 m
66
KV
2.0 to 2.2 m
110
KV
2.4 to 3 m
220
KV
4.5 m
400
KV
7.0 m

8. Bus Design

The present day trend is to use rigid bus rather than strainbusduetovariousreasons.Rigid buscanbeconstructed atalowerprofileandareaestheticallypleasing.Increasedcapacity for the bus can be provided and corona level is lower.

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8.1 Rigid Bus

Aluminium bus materials used for rigidbus maybe of

different shapes. They mayberoundtubings, squaretubings,

channels, angles or integral web designs.

Round tubing is used in all voltages, whereas

square tubing is used only at lower voltages. Channel

bus is the same as square tubings except that they

provide more capacity. Angle bus is used only at

distribution voltages. Integral web bus is structurally

strong and is used for high current and long spans-

generally at lower voltage.

8.2 Capacity

The rigid bus must be able to carry the excepted

maximum load current without exceeding the temperature

limit. The capacity of the bus shall also be checked for

maximum temperature under short circuit conditions using

the equation.

I

= K.A.

1 / t x10 4

Where I = Symmetrical rms current in amps.

A = Cross sectional area in inches

t = Time in seconds

K = Coefficient for alloy bus at maximum temp.

specified.

Maximum

Temperature

Value of K for various

aluminimumAlloys

200 0 C

5.50 to 5.71

250 0 C

6.28 to 6.52

300 0 C

6.94 to 7.18

The general practice is to limit the temperature of rigid

aluminium bus to 100 0 C for emergencyratings and 250 0 Cfor

short circuit duty.

8.3 Vibration

A span of rigid bus has a natural frequency expressed as follows :

f =

K 2

Ei

24L 2 ( M )

1

2

Where f = Natural frequency of span in Hertz

L=

Span length in feet

E=

Modulus of elasticity PSI

= Moment of inertia of cross sectional area (in 4 )

i

M = Mass per unit length

(Mass = Wt./32.2)

K

= Constant (1.0 for pinned ends and

1.5056 for fixed ends)

Assuming there will be spans with pinned ends

where K = I

f = 2.153 x 10 3

OD 2 +ID 2

Where r =

4

r

OD

ID

r

L 2

= radius of gyration (inches)

=Outside dia. of tubing (inches)

= Inside dia. of tubing (inches)

L=Span length (feet)

As vibration may be induced in the bus by the action

of 50 Hz. current, a natural frequency of 50 or 100 may be

avoided.

Another force which creates vibration in the bus is the wind flowing across the tubing. The maximum aeolian frequency f in Hertz will be

f

=

3.26V

OD

Where V = maximum wind speed (mph)

OD =Conductor out side dia. in inches

8.4 Short Circuit Force

Short circuit force produced between two parallel conductors,intheeventofalinetolinefault canbeexpressed as follows.

f

=

43.2.I sc

2

10 7 (D)

Where f =short circuit force (Ib/ft.)

I sc = Symmetrical rms short circuit current (amps)

D = Conductor spacing centre to centre (in)

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For a 3 phase fault, the maximum instantaneous

force will be

F

=

37.4.I sc

2

10 7 (D)

8.5 Bus support system

The bus support system must be capable of taking the following weights.

i. Weight of the tubing

ii. Weight of dampingmaterials

iii. Wind on the tubing

iv. Short circuit force calculated

The resultant load establishes minimum strength of tubing material, span length and expected deflection, the bus deflection shall not generally exceed 1/200 of the span length without ice loading.

8.6 Corona

For HV and EHV substations, the diameter of the bus should be checked for corona discharge. Bus tubing can be considered satisfactory, if the voltage gradient at the surface does not exceed 2 KV/cm. The voltage gradient can be determinedby

g =

E

r. In D / r

Where g = voltage gradient (KV/cm)

E =Line to neutral voltage (KV)

r =Bus outside radius (inches)

D = Bus spacing (feet)

8.7 Strain Bus

Strain Bus is widelyinuse in most of the stations dueto

the ease of construction. Even in stations where rigid buses

are predominant, some spans will be invariably of strain bus

construction . The design is followed based on simple sag-

tension calculations.

The down drops from the strain bus appear as a

concentrated load and depending on the length and weight of

the dropper, tension on the bus will vary considerable.

Where bundled conductors are used in strain bus, the

types of spacers used may have an influence on the resulting

tension. If rigid spacers are used, then during short circuit,

the two conductors will attempt to draw together and can

cause for increase tension in the strain bus.

8.8 Substation Bus Accessories

(i) Tubular bus conductor

System

Voltage KV

Nominal Diameter

External(mm)

Internal(mm)

72.5

42

35

145

60

52

60

49.25

89

78

89

74

101.6

90.1

245

101.6

85.4

114.3

102.3

114.3

97.2

114.3

102.3

114.3

97.2

420

127

114.5

127

109.0

For rigid bus arrangement 7000mm spacing between phases are given for 400 KV and 4500mm for 220KV.

(ii) ACSR Conductor for strain bus.

SuitableACSRconductors havingthedesiredcapacity shall be used for bus stringing. According to requirement, quadruple Moose, Twin Kundah and Single KundahACSR Conductors are used for strain bus.

Some Commonly used conductor for Bus Stringing

System

Voltage (KV)

72.5

Bus Conductor

LynxACSR, KundahACSR

19/3.53AAC

145 PantherACSR,KundahACSR

19/4.22AAC

245 KundahACSR,MooseACSR

400

19/5.36AAC, 37/5.23AAC

MooseACSR

a. Conductor tension

The followingconductor tensions are generallytaken for designing the switchyard structures for bus arrangement.

Details

400KV yard 220 KV yard 132/110 KV yard (Kgs/conductor) (Kgs/conductor) (Kgs/conductor

Line termination

2000

1000

1000

Main Bus/Sub Bus

1000

900

800

Interconnections

1000

900

800

between yards

Earth wire

800

600

600

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