Group members:
Anum Tariq Ayesha Jamshed Bina Ahtisham Ayesha Butt


4 may, 2010

Presented to:

democracy in its simplest and basic form is about giving people the right to elect their government.DEMOCRACY: Democracy is derived from the Greek words demos which means the people and kratos which means the rule. Secondly.A defined as the government of the people for the people and by the people. Definitions: l Aristotle defines democracy as that form of government in which supreme Power is vested in the hands of the many instead of one or few persons.S. public approval of a political party to form government gives it political legitimacy and social support to manage public affairs. political equality and individual freedoms. Third. Dicey democracy is that form of government in which the governing body is comparitively large and fraction of the entire nation. and formulate and implement policies. l l l WHAT REALLY DEMOCRACY MEAN?     Firstly. . President Lincoln of U. therefore means the rule of the people.Democracy. At the centre of this system is the idea of fundamental rights.But he called it a policy if good and democracy if bad or corrupt. Seeley government in which everybody has a state. through this system the aim is to create stability and certainty in society by establishing a system under which a government can be created and changed peacefully.

in politics and civic life. STRUCTURE OF DEMOCRACY Structure consisit of four basic elements: A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections. The active participation of the people.this kind of democracy can exist only in a state with small territory. A rule of law. in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens. Indirect democracy or representative government: J.They assmble in a public place where they decide public affairs determine government policyadopt new laaws for the country. Modren democratic states are of the indirect or representativ type. Protection of the human rights of all citizens. The Limits and Requirements for Democracy.TYPES OF DEMOCRACY: Direct democracy Indirect democracy or representative government Direct democracy: It is directly ruled by people.Mill defines democracy as the whole people or numerous portions of them. as citizens. decided the expenditure of the state and appoint public officials.S. exercise the governing powers throng s deputies periodically elected by themselves. .

each citizen should listen to the views of the different parties and candidates. Laws and policies require majority support in parliament. they have to be administered by a neutral. to present their proposals to the voters both directly and through the mass media. nongovernmental organizations. and then make his or her own decision on whom to support. It is important that women participate fully both in politics and in civil society. For elections to be free and fair.Democracy as a Political System of Competition for Power i i i i i i i The people decide who will represent them in parliament. as prescribed by law. . Participation: The Role of the Citizen in a Democracy Citizens have an obligation to become informed about public issues. All parties and candidates must have the right to campaign freely. Elected representatives at the national and local levels should listen to the people and respond to their needs and suggestions. free and fair elections. fair. and to express their own opinions and interests. and professional body that treats all political parties and candidates equally. and who will head the government at the national and local levels. A vital form of participation comes through active membership in independent. what we call civil society. The people are free to criticize their elected leaders and representatives. Those in power cannot extend their terms in office without asking for the consent of the people again in an election. They do so by choosing between competing parties in regular. to watch carefully how their political leaders and representatives use their powers. and to observe how they conduct the business of government. Elections have to occur at regular intervals. To vote wisely.

you should also listen to the views of other people. the rule of law protects the rights of citizens. Every citizen must respect the rights of his or her fellow citizens. No one should denounce a political opponent as evil and illegitimate. ethnic group. No government official may violate these limits. or gender. Everyone has a right to be heard. imprisoned. The Limits and Requirements for Democracy      If democracy is to work. People should question the decisions of the government. even people you disagree with. speedy. No one may be discriminated against on the basis of their race. or exiled arbitrarily.The Rule of Law            Democracy is a system of rule by laws. religion. and limits the power of government. The law is fairly. All citizens are equal under the law. or political party can tell a judge how to decide a case. . When you express your opinions. No ruler. Independent courts and commissions punish corruption. no matter who is guilty. impartially. and public trial by an impartial court. Office holders cannot use their power to enrich themselves. minister. just because they have different views. by courts that are independent of the other branches of government. citizens must not only participate and exercise their rights. maintains order. No one may be taxed or prosecuted except by a law established in advance. Torture and cruel and inhumane treatment are absolutely forbidden. Anyone charged with a crime has the right to a fair. not by individuals. They must also observe certain principles and rules of democratic conduct. and their dignity as human beings. The rule of law places limits on the power of government. but not reject the government s authority. and consistently enforced. In a democracy. No one may be arrested.

Groups with different interests and opinions must be willing to sit down with one another and negotiate. no civilian government after 1985 were able to compete its tenure. within political parties as well and the stability of elected government increases too. The freedom of media and emergence of civil society and restoration of deposed judges are signs of democratic change in Pakistan. elected leaders need to ally with the middle and professional classes. but the urban landscapes may have a different set of representatives. The Pakistan middle class may not be seen as yet in elected assemblies but it occupies alternative spaces of influence. alienation of the smaller provinces and the concentration of the wealth and privilege among the class co-opted by the dictators Thus. looking at Pakistan.   Democracy requires compromise. promote economic progress and social stability are much higher than other forms of government. in the civil movements. and to out perform rituals and predecessors. everyone wins something. for example from Karachi or some urban centres of Punjab. Over time. it is always the aristocratic classes that dominate the electoral process. questions about democracy are more about what it could and must have done than its weakness as a system. Different combinations of groups win on different issues. To meet popular expectations. including ethnic fragmentation. If one group is always excluded and fails to be heard. In many countries this has become political necessity rather than a choice. During the first phases of democratic development. We also cannot ignore the distributive efforts of economic growth and investment in social projects. Naturally popular expectations of elected government to deliver services maintain law and order. which were emphaszed more during democratic periods than during dictatorships. . it may turn against democracy in anger and frustration. PAKISTAN POLITICAL SYSTEM: DO WE HAVE DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN? Rasul Riaz Bakhsh The development of democracy has been hampered by the troublesome legacies of the military regimes. In a democracy. Greater representation of the middle and professional classes increase over election cycles. in the intellectual circles and in media. It should be kept in mind that except for the government that came into power. The quality of democracy depends on middle class. one group does not always win everything it wants.

It permits mass participation on a legally equal footing. It provides civil and other liberties that restrict the sphere of state power within the society. It is collective social enterprise that cannot leave to dominent elites. Our elected representatives have a heavy burden to disprove the sceptics inside and outside the country of forming coalitions as they have and by building national consences on different issues. It promotes widespread deliberation about how to make and enforce policy so as to promote the common good. Democracy is a natural system for an ethnically diverse and culturally pluralistic society like Pakistan. And this is why after every failed dictatorship we have returned to democracy. Views of different authors about democracy Each emphasizes one or more things thought to be true about democracy: It is a dangerous form of government It includes genuine competition for power. we have democracy but not comparable to other countries following social and economic development.Pakistan may remain a transitional democracy untill we have had at least three peacefull transfers of power through electiopns. Yes. Author Aristotle Calhoun Mencken Shaw Danger  Competition Mass & Equal Participation Liberty Rights Deliberation     . We need to make our democracy better in the interest of common man.

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