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The dissolution of the monasteries

Reformation in England represented set of religious reforms by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of Pope, Rome i.e. Roman Catholic Church. It is connected with dissolution because dissolution itself was one of those religious reforms undertaken by King Henry which led Reformation to be at its peak. Reformation took place in 16 th century and it is interesting how Powicke comments on that very transitional period. He says that Reformation was very dangerous period for people with their own ideas, it was risky to express those ideas in public, it was generally period of great changes of thought, so it all created atmosphere of unrest and uncertainties, and that was all felt in monastic life too. Good grounds for the dissolution were created in 1531 when Henry VIII proclaimed himself the Supreme Head of the Church. This created a situation in which the king possessed power over churchmen and they could not appeal to Rome (why not see Act in Restraint of Appeal). But mentioning this is crucial because the king used this situation to introduce Valor Ecclasiasticus in the year 1535. He basically sent group of commissioners under the supervision of Thomas Cromwell to go through monasteries and create surveys of their wealth. Why did he need those reports? Well, after he proclaimed himself a Supreme Head of the Church he imposed taxes on churchmen, those that they had already paid to pope and the new ones. So, he needed a survey to be able to assess those taxes right. Church Valuation is today preserved in 22 Latin volumes and it represents a very elaborate and in-depth research of monastic goods (compare to Doomsday Book in the reign of William I). At the same time those commissioners were sending to Cromwell reports in which they informed him of very lurid doings in monasteries. Many historians assume (and Powicke also in one place comments) that these reports were adjusted because monastic life in 16th century was quite the same as the one in century before and still no one made such a great fuss around it. They accused monks of enjoying luxuries and doing nothing, also they accused nuns of being promiscuous. This was all rooted on facts (there was obvious decline in monastic life) but still these reports were a great deal exaggerated to create an artificial situation in which they launched a very negative image of monastic life to the public. Of course that was with the reason and the real reasons (not the one they offered as a justification for dissolution saying that monks were hypocrites using other people's labor without paying them, so they were a drain to English economy) the real ones were: Churchmens loyalty to Rome ( Henry VIII in some corner of his mind knew that churchmen were going to stay faithful to Rome) Monastic wealth (Monasteries owned well over of cultivated land in England) A horrified Parliament enacted laws in 1536 (The first Act of Suppression) by which all monasteries with an annual income of less than 200 were to be dissolved. This act was not discussed on courts because if it had been monks would have had some chance against the king but it was all well anticipated by royal political apparatus. Some of them rescued themselves, buy giving vast amounts of money to the king but still a great majority of monasteries was dissolved. And Powicke says that it was all done in typical English fashion without any feelings, it was tragic here comic there, business-like and basically in the case of dissolution you witness work of an absolute power, taking away monastic property sending churchmen to another religious houses or offering them to secularize. This was very important moment because till then king could not acquire property until a local jury had allowed it, now we have a very different

situation, one in which only kings rights were granted and the rights of others absolutely excluded. Monastic gold and silver were taken away and all that which king and his politicians didnt find good enough for them like bricks, fences was taken away by locals, so after a while you had nothing but ruins of those monasteries. Now it was necessary to found an institution which was to manage all those monastic goods. Soon new department of government was formed (Court of Augmentations), and not just that it handled monastic property and other riches it also secured churchmen with some pensions. Powicke claims that there have been some irregularities when it comes to this department, that it showed a great corruptness in some cases. And here we also see a work of absolute power, because all those who bought off these properties were warned that since that moment they were under penalties to take a good care of them, to plough them and so on. When these measures were to be introduced in the north there was a great movement initiated in a year 1536 but it was suppressed quickly. Some rebels were executed; the rest had to surrender their properties because king proclaimed churchmen who were in charge of their religious houses, owners of those houses and if one of the monks who lived in that monastery was to be accused of treason monastic land would go to the king and the execution in that case was inevitable. The truth is, many monks were involved in Pilgrimage of Grace, and petrified monks voluntarily surrendered their properties. King became ever richer. Powicke claims that Pilgrimage of Grace should be seen as a demonstration rather than as a rebellion, because people were reacting not just against dissolution but against many things, against new learning (see THE REFORMATION IN ENGLAND: Medieval background of the reformation, page 17), interference of Vicar General, Thomas Cromwell who was by the way one who carried dissolution through and was one of the most influential persons of that period. By the Second Act of Suppression (1539) larger monasteries were destroyed. Commissioners were sent again but this time to bully churchmen and being aware of what happened to smaller monasteries, these monks surrendered their properties. King secured himself a legal right on those properties and he became richer for about 150 000 a year. Consequences: Enrichment of Henry VIII and the royal treasury: Vast tracts of land and many other riches fell into his possession Physical destruction of monastic libraries and hospitals: sturdy beggars in late Tudor England became a powerful patron: right to collect tithes (1 tenth given by parish to support its priest) and right of advowson (the right of presenting nominee to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice) Relations between clergy and laymen; -close and a great deal perplexing -laymen claim riches that their ancestors gave to church -church much dependent upon them: they managed monastic land, certain parts of it leased to them, they had a right of advowson, in return their children would be educated at monasteries -laymans dependence: alms 3 %; officials and servants could find job elsewhere -their economic interests interlocked and were administered by laymen!!!!!!!

-laymen about dissolution: saw neither interest nor reason to fight for monks (if there have been a wide sympathy with them there is no reason why monastic reform didnt take place of abolition), even though we cant say that dissolution was a reflection of a popular opinion, generally in England there was a lot of excitement but no real opposition -land went to men protected by the king, this all was breaking the traditional order

Religious reforms of Henry VIII


The Reformation in England did not originate as the will of the people like in other European countries; it was an Act of State, initiated by Henry VIII. His reasons were political, not theological. He wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon because she failed to give him a male heir, but the Pope would not give his permission because Henry had previously got permission from the Pope to marry his brothers widow. The first step was to secure recognition of royal supremacy thus excluding ecclesiastical jurisdiction. In 1530 the whole body of the clergy were accused of praemunire (appeal to a power outside the kingdom for resolution of a situation within England that was under jurisdiction of the Crown) for independent exercise of jurisdiction in the ecclesiastical courts. Convocation was told that the only way to escape the charges was to accept the King as the supreme head of the Church in England which they did three days later. Clear legal effects came in 1534 with the Act of Supremacy, but this meant that the way was prepared for further submission of the clergy and acts against papal rights. Parliament comes into play in 1532. In March, 1532 the Petition of the Commons called the Supplication against the Ordinaries was sent to the King. Although it was meant to be the expression of general will, this petition actually came from the King himself. The Supplication was a complaint against the clergy for uncharitable behaviour, such as excessive fees and excommunication for minor causes. But more importantly it expressed concern regarding the independent legislative power of the Convocation, claiming that it gave Church too much power. Stephen Gardiner, bishop pf Winchester responded for the Convocation, defending their spiritual authority, but unsuccessfully. (Gardiner thought that royal supremacy could co-exist with ecclesiastical independence.) In May 1532, the Convocation submitted, this is known as the Submission of the Clergy. They were to execute no ordinance (no independent legislation) unless by royal consent. In 1534 they ceased to have any jurisdiction. The Supplication against the Ordinaries and the Submission of the Clergy are important because they clear the path for the Reformation, providing legal basis for all measures that followed. Thomas Cranmer was enlisted by the King to help him sway the opinion of the clergy and gain divorce from Catherine of Aragon. He was consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury (under protest; he did not recognize the authority of the Pope, but he took the oath, stipulating that it had no force if it binds him to do anything contrary to the law of God or to the King, or if it impedes him from taking his share in the reformation of the English Church), Pope was threatened with the enforcement of the Act of Annates and had to confirm Cranmer's election. The first Act of Annates from 1532 reduced the amount of money paid to the the Pope to 5% of the amount previously paid, and the Second Act of Annate from 1534 abolished it. Under Cranmer's presidency the Convocation declared that the King's first marriage was contrary to the Divine law. The Convocation achieved this by circumventing the Popes authority under the Act in Restraint of Appeals which forbids appeal to the Pope on all matters (religious matters, testaments, matrimony and divorce, tithes, oblations and obventions). Cranmer is known as the leader of the English Reformation, responsible for establishing the basic structures of the Church of England. He

supported the translation of the Bible into English and headed the committee of bishops who wrote the Bishops Book. He published the Ten Articles in 1536, a mixture of Protestant and Catholic elements, one in a series of attempts to define the new religion. The main instrument the King used in his attempts to gain spiritual authority until 1534 was the Convocation. Convocation during king Henrys reign was not an independent body and the most significant obstacle to the freedom of the Convocation was the fact that none of its decisions had any legal effect if they were contrary to the common law or acts of Parliament. From 1534 the Parliament had the dominant role, legalising the Kings measures such as the submission of the clergy, superiority of the Crown to Convocation, Act in restraint of Annates, right of the King to nominate bishops. By going through parliament the King gave all the Acts an appearance of common will. Another important act is one which dealt with dispensation. The power of dispensation from 1534 was no longer in the hands of the Pope, but under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Archbishop could dispense by the power granted to him by the King and Parliament, not the Pope. Next came the First Act of Succession in March 23, 1534 which set the seal on the king's divorce and put Princess Elizabeth first in line to the throne. It was also proclaimed that subjects were to swear an oath recognizing this Act as well as the King's supremacy. Those who refused to take the oath, including Sir Thomas More, were charged with treason. This Act was overridden by the Act of Succession, 1536, which made the children of Jane Seymour first in line for the throne, declaring the King's previous marriages unlawful, and both princesses illegitimate. Although the Convocation had recognized the King as the head of the Church in 1530, formal confirmation in the Parliament came in 1534 with the Act of Supremacy recognizing king Henry VIII as the supreme head of the Church of England. Now the King had spiritual jurisdiction and he could define the true faith in the Parliament. The duty to maintain the law of God was now in the hands of the King. Those who were in favour of an organic state saw no difficulty in reconciling secular and spiritual aspects of a society in one body. This was mostly due to the fact that there was an intimate connection between canon and common law during the Middle Ages. Fundamental principles of common law could be found in canon law. The proceedings against heresy could serve as an example of the changed relations between these two types of law in the Reformation (as compared to the Middle Ages) Before the introduction of religious legislation of king Henry VIII heretics were tried by the Church, and secular power was there to assist. With the acceptance of royal supremacy both the trial and the execution were under the control of the secular power (no heretic could be executed without the Kings permission, King may take action against heresy, and in The Act of Six Articles heresy became a felony against common law (law of the land)). The main task of king Henrys reign was to ensure unity of the English Church in government, institutions, doctrine and worship, and that was achieved by merging it with the Kingdom. After establishing himself as both the secular and spiritual authority Henry VIII proceeded to define the new faith.

In 1536 The Ten Articles were accepted, and along with the Dissolution of the Monasteries caused a serious demonstration. The Ten Articles mentioned only 3 of the 7 Sacraments which caused confusion among the predominantly Catholic population. They were then replaced by The Institutes of a Christian Man which dealt with the concept of purgatory and the remaining 4 sacraments. In 1539 the Parliament gave statutory effect to articles of religion. At this time Henry VIII became more conservative and took a personal interest in the theological education of his people. (This new conservative attitude caused the fall of Thomas Cromwell. In order to attain unity and uniformity the Parliament passed The Act of Six Articles (it was referred to as "the bloody whip with six strings" by Protestants because it reinstated the Catholic doctrine). The six articles dealt with: transubstantiation confirmed (during mass bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ) communion in both kinds is not necessary (only consecrated bread is given) priests may not marry vows of chastity or widowhood must be observed (celibacy) private masses are to continue auricular confession is necessary (confessing sins to a priest) This meant that the conservatives had won, because although the new religion was a mixture of Protestant and Catholic elements, the Catholic ones prevailed with one important exception the Pope no longer had spiritual power over the Church of England. Another important step in the Protestant direction was the introduction of the English Bible (royal permission given in 1537). It was an unusual thing to do after passing such a conservative act as The Act of Six Articles, especially considering the Reformation taking place in other countries. It was considered necessary because most of the great changes in England were justified by the Scriptures. But the free interpretation of the Bible eventually gave rise to heresy so the King had the Parliament deal with the situation by passing the Act for the Advancement of True Religion in 1543 restricting access to the vernacular Bible, with punishments for those who owned or preached the Bible without authority. These last measures (Act for the Advancement of New Religion and the Act of Six Articles) show that the primary intention of Henry VIII was not to reform the religion but to establish a Church which would be independent from the Pope, leaving all the power in the hands of the King. However, although it was not his intention, Defender of the faith instigated the Reformation in England.

Last decade of Henry VIII's reign was a drifting back to more conservative values, by contrast, Edward VI's reign saw radical progress in the Reformation. So, after Henry died in 1547, his young son Edward was crowned at the age of 9, and he was the 3.monarch of the Tudor dynasty and England's first Protestant ruler. In Edward's reign the realm was governed by a Regency Council, because he was minor and never reached maturity because he was ill and died in the age of 15. The Council was led by Edward Seymour, who was Edward's uncle and also 1st Duke of Somerset and John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland. In the early part of his life, Edward VI conformed to the prevailing Catholic practices, but he became convinced, under the influence of Cranmer he was the man Edward trusted most, and the other reformers who were his tutors, that true religion should be imposed in England. Edward's reign was marked by economic problems, military withdrawal (for example, from Scotland) and social unrest in 1549, but on the other hand, his reign made a lasting contribution to the English Reformation. So Protestantism was established for the first time in England and reforms that included the abolition of clerical celibacy and abolition of mass (we will talk more about it somewhat later), and the architect of these reforms was Cranmer. Thomas Cranmer wanted English church to be Protestant, but England was still very Catholic, and he actually, together with Thomas Cromwell, chief royal agent, had 3 objectives for the church: 1. to nationalise the worship services (to remove foreign concepts and translate them from Latin); 2. to make services more inclusive, i.e. lay people had to be involved too; 3. to make services more Scriptural by removing all superstitions and falsities, and actually the bishops asked Cranmer to do that, i.e. to look at the service books and remove all superstitious legends, false saints etc. When talking about the first objective, the work of producing English-language books for use in the liturgy was largely that of Thomas Cranmer, at first under the reign of Henry VIII he also wanted the peayers to be said in English, and later, even more radically under Henry's son, Edward VI. Cranmer started to write a prayer book which included all 3 objectives above mentioned, i.e. it was in English, the people participated in prayers, and it was based on Scripture. We see that Cranmer set himself a task of writing a uniform liturgy in English, detailing all weekly and daily services and religious festivals, to be make compulsory in the first Act of Uniformity in 1549. The Act efforts to secure iniformity in public worship throughout England. It provided liturgical conformity in the Book instead of the diverse uses of fout old Latin liturgical books. He collected the material from many sources, many phrases are characteristic of the Martin Bucer and Peter Martyr. When the Act of Uniformity was debated in the House of Lords, it was very controversial and 18 bishops were present at the final vote, and 10 voted in favour and 8 against. By the Act of Uniformity, the Book of Common Prayers was established as the sole legal form of worship in England. The Book of Common Prayer was not only an English-language translation of the Latin liturgical books but it was also a new creation which in its texts and its ceremonial directions reflected various Protestant doctrinal influences. Nevertheless, the tone of the Book was Catholic. It was said to have pleased neither reformers nor their opponents, and it was widely unpopular in the parishes, hostility to this Act of Uniformity and the Prayer Book led to rebellions in some areas of the country. Clergy and lay people did not want this Book it was too Roman for the Protestants and a novelty to the Romans. So, the Book was attacked by traditionaliste for dispensing with many

rituals of the liturgy, and by radical reformers for retaining too many popish elements. The Act and Book were also opposed by senior Catholic clerics such as Stephen Gardiner and Edmund Bonner. Gardiner even said that it was patient of a Catholic interpretation, i.e. that Book is in the line of Roman teology. That angered the Book committee so on All Saints Day in 1552, they made the second Act of Uniformity and the main outcome was the second Prayer Book which was more clear in its teology. The second Act was one of many steps to make England a more Protestant. It replaced the Book of Common Prayer authorised by the Act in 1549, with a revised and more protestant Book of Common Prayer and every church throughout England had to use it. It was said by the Act that anyone who attended a service where this liturgy was not used faced 6 months imprisonment for a first offence, 1 year for a second offence and life for a third. The publication of Cranmer's revised Prayer Book in 1552 supported by a second Act of Uniformity marked the arrival of the English Church at protestantism. In 1551/52, Cranmer rewrote his Book in less ambiguous reforms, revised canon law and prepared the 42 Articles (which we will mention later in more detail), to clarify the forms of the new religion. For the first time in Church's history, clergy and laity have a book which contained Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, a communion service, confirmation and churching of women service, a wedding service, a baptism in Radical Protestantism it is called Believer's Baptism, i.e. an adult baptism demonstrated an acceptance of Jesus Christ, a funeral service where we have a drastic change, i.e. a removal of the burial service from Church it was to take place at the graveyard. Cranmer's formulation of new religion was divesting the Communion service of any notion of the real presence of God in the bread and wine (we even have substitution of words flesh and blood for bread and wine), and he wanted to establish the practice of weekly congregational communion in both kinds, i.e. in bread and wine, but there was widespread opposition to the introduction of regular congregational Communion because of the extra costs of bread and wine that would fall on the parish. In the Book there are intructions that Communion should never be received by priest alone that was a radical change from late Medieval practice. So when talking about Eucharist we can say that for Protestants it is just a memorial of Jesus, but for Catholics it is converting the bread and wine into Jesus' actual body. Protestant theologians ephasize the radical separation between God and the physical world. The words mass and altar were gone in Eucharist. So we have abolishion of the mass- the mass became the communion, tables replaced altars, surplice replaced eucharistic vestments vestments such as the stole and cope were no longer to be worn, but only a surplice and a parson was to dress no differently than other parishioners; the clergy was not only permitted to marry but required to do so. After 1551, the reformation became even more radical with the approval of Edward VI who began to exert more personal influence in his role as Supreme Head of the Church. It was probably a response to criticism from such extreme reformers as John Hooper and John Knox whose preaching at court prompted the King to oppose kneeling at communion. It was idolatrous to receive the Communion in a kneeling posture. Protestant reformers attacked Church's practice of iconic veneration, because they consider it to be similar to idolatrous practices prohibited by the Bible. So Protestants wanted that interior of churches be unadorned, that church walls be white-washed to cover images of Saints and

some pictures and sculptures were removed by civil authorities, but some were damaged by rioting groups. Radical Protestants believed that art and music should be abolished as external aids to religion. Becoming more and more Radical it more and more simplified art and cultural expressions. They did not allow singing nothing but psalms, forbade instrumental music during services in Church and, all that, heavily effected on musical and artistic creation in those parts. Art and literature were under Protestant influence for a long time and it inflicted severe impact on them. In 1551, Cranmer was commended to draw up a Book of Articles of Religion. In 1552 he laid before Council a series of 42 Articles. With the coronation of Mary I, the Articles were never enforced, but after her death, in 1563, Convocation passed only 39 of 42. They became the substance of the 39 Articles which represents essential beliefs of the Anglican Church and the repudiation of Catholic beliefs. Edward fell terminally ill in 1553. He named his cousin Lady Jane Grey as his heir, but she survived as a queen only for 9 days, i.e. before the Privy Council proclaimed Mary as a queen. Mary proceeded to undo many of Edward's Protestant reforms and Englnad became Roman Catholic again. Cranmer was executed and died as a Protestant martyre. The introduction of the Book of Common Prayer, and Cranmer's 42 Articles formed the basis for English Church practices that continued to this day.

THE ELIZABETHAN CHURCH


Queen Elizabeth I ruled from 1558 to 1603. She was the last ruler from the Tudor dynasty. The Elizabethan Settlement came after the dramatic conflicts of the previous reigns; after Marys rule, during which the Protestants were persecuted and Catholicism was restored in the country, Thomas Cranmer lost his power and Cardinal Pole, the Pope's legate in England came and the country was restored to Papal obedience, well, now again new changes were introduced by Queen Elizabeth. AIM AND PERSONAL BELIEFS Her main aim was to keep her people united and to maintain the peace and do everything to avoid religious conflict. She managed that by many compromises that she had to make. She did restore Protestantism but she had a great deal of tolerance towards Catholics. Elizabeth wanted a Church that would appeal to both Catholics and Protestants, and did not want to move the Church in a more Protestant direction, thus making it more difficult for Catholics to accept the Church than it was already. She was also attached to some Catholic practices, for example: her chapels were conservative,1 she disliked long Protestant sermons, she also did not approve of the clergy marrying, but as this was an integral aspect of Protestantism, she had to accept it, although she was more in favour of celibacy. She had little sympathy with Protestant extremists who wanted to strip the Church of its finery, ban choral music, vestments and bell ringing, and liked the Church just the way it was. Elizabeth hoped that by retaining the Church as it was, people would become accustomed to it. COMPROMISES IN ACTS The Act of Supremacy, passed by Parliament and approved in 1559, revived the antipapal statutes of Henry VIII and declared the queen supreme governor of the church, not the supreme head as her father was confirmed to be by the Supremacy Act from 1534. The distinction between these titles made little practical difference in the control of ecclesiastical affairs by the Crown, since the Queen still had the same royal supremacy; the crown still had the power to visit, investigate, correct, and discipline the clergy. This insistence on royal supremacy was a clearly Protestant element in Elizabeths religious policy. But, in the same time, this was a very important move in preserving the peace, because by declaring herself supreme governor not the supreme head of the church she gave the Catholics no reason to feel offended by her title, because for the Catholics the supreme head was the pope and they could not accept the monarch as "Head of the Church", seeing the church as the Pope's domain. The Oath of Supremacy: This act also included an oath of loyalty to the Queen - oath to the royal supremacy - that the clergy were expected to take. If they did not take it, then they would lose their office. Heresy: Definition of heresy was given in this Act of Parliament as well. The Act of Supremacy provided that no manner of order, Act, or determination, for any matter of religion or cause ecclesiastical made by the present Parliament should be judged to be heretical or schismatical, which means that whether someone committed heresy or not was not any more decided on terms of religion so heresy was not considered to be the wrong choice of religion but it became a question of politics heretic was the traitor of the Queen, no matter which religion he/she belonged to 2. This is
the crucifix was displayed, and she also liked candles and music. Earlier: the church from the start regarded itself as the custodian of a divinely imparted revelation which it alone was authorized to expound under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. Thus, any interpretation that differed
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another example of the compromises that Queen Elizabeth made to maintain peace between the Protestants and Catholics and to avoid persecution and religious disputes. High Commission: The commissioners empowered by the Queen were chosen to deal with ecclesiastical matters and they gradually assumed the character of a permanent body which developed a judicial procedure of its own and became a court - The Court of High Commission. It was composed of bishops, lords, theologians, and men learned in the law. Gradually it became a powerful high court, competent to supersede in important criminal matters every church court and to concern itself with practically the entire administration of the Church. The Act of Uniformity in 1559 established a slightly revised version of the two Edwardian prayer books as the official order of worship. By this act the church attendance on Sundays and holy days was made compulsory, with a twelve pence fine to be collected if people did not attend. It was for not attending church that Catholics were fined, not for simply being Catholic, and the fine applied to dissenting3 Puritans as well as to those of the Catholic faith. Catholics and Protestants were allowed to pray together. The wording of the Communion was to be vague so that Protestants and Catholics could both participate, and the ornaments and vestments of the Church were to be retained as they had been before the Edwardian Protestant reforms. All this was made as a concession to Catholics, it was another of Queen Elizabeths compromises. The Thirty-nine Articles of Faith: In 1563 the Canterbury Convocation4 (the periodic assembly of clergy of the province of Canterbury) drastically revised the Thomas Cranmers Forty-two Articles from 1553, and additional changes were made at Elizabeth's request. On several occasions during her reign the convocation agreed upon canons5 which defined and regulated practice and discipline in all kinds of church matters. An act of 1571 was required to make subscription to the Articles compulsory upon priests. The Thirty-nine Articles of Faith are the doctrinal statement of the Church of England - they form the basic summary of belief of the Church of England. They are not as radical as Cranmers Forty-two Articles. In form they deal briefly with the doctrines accepted by Roman Catholics and Protestants alike and more fully with points of controversy. The 39 Articles repudiate teachings and practices that Protestants in general condemned in the Catholic Church. For example, they deny the teachings concerning transubstantiation6 (XXVIII), but they affirm that the Church service should be held in the language people understand in English (XXIV), that both bread and wine should be served to all in the Lord's Supper (XXX), and that ministers may marry (XXXII) they abolish celibacy. And in the article XXV they state that two of the Catholic seven holy sacraments are recognised and those are Baptism and the Supper of the Lord/Eucharist. Other five sacraments are not considered to be sacred because they dont have any visible sign or ceremony ordained by God and during time they got corrupt. The articles are often ambiguous, however, because the Elizabethan government wished to make the national church as inclusive of different viewpoints as possible.
from the official one was necessarily heretical 3 when someone strongly disagrees with an opinion, especially a political or religious one, that most people accept 4 An assembly of bishops and representative clergy of Church of England 5 a regulation or dogma decreed by a church council 6 the miraculous change by which according to Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox dogma the eucharistic elements at their consecration become the body and blood of Christ while keeping only the appearances of bread and wine

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LATER YEARS OF ELIZABETHS RULE PERSECUTIONS OF CATHOLICS BEGIN There was little persecution of any kind until the later years of Elizabeths rule. Persecuted Catholics and Protestants in those years were the victims of the laws which protected the Queen against treason or the Church against schism. It was only as the Catholic threat against Elizabeth from Europe increased as the reign progressed, that the Elizabethan government had to take a harsher stance against Catholics than they had initially anticipated. It began with the Northern Rebellion, the rebellion in Catholic north in 1569, and it was made stronger by the Jesuit7 mission in England. Even now many Catholics resented the attempt to destroy their allegiance to the Queen. The greatest danger which Elizabeth had to fear was the alliance against her that Pope could make with Spain. And then with the Papal Bull of 1570, called Regnans in Excelsis, issued by the new pope, Pius V, Elizabeth was excommunicated from the Church. Pope, like all Catholics, believed that she was illegitimate, and thus had no right to the throne of England. Catholics believed that the true Queen of the land was Mary Queen of Scots. With this document he excommunicated her and absolved all her subjects from allegiance to her and her laws. This was a drastic step, and one that was not approved of by Philip II of Spain, or some English Catholics, who knew that this would make things difficult for Catholics in England. Now they were torn between two loyalties - loyalty to the Queen many of them respected, and loyalty to the Pope who they believed was God's representative on Earth. Many Catholics probably never solved the dilemma, ignored it, or remained loyal to both, separating their spiritual and secular allegiances. From this moment on, Catholics were seen as a great threat to the Queen and the realm. The renewal of excommunication by Pope Gregory XIII in 1583 was due to the expectation of joint action by Scotland and France and the hope of Spanish support in a great crusade against England. But King Philip II was not yet ready to attack England. And in the meanwhile, in 1587, Mary Queen of Scots, was beheaded in England as a Roman Catholic threat to the English throne. She was involved in plots against Queen Elizabeths life, like the Ridolfi Plot8 in 1571 and the Babington Plot in 1586, another conspiracy to murder Elizabeth, when her involvement was clearly proved, and Mary was tried and sentenced to death. During all these years of anxiety, the English Catholics bore the burden of fear of each precaution that was taken by the English government against surprise. No Catholic had been martyred between 1558 and 1577, but between 1577 and 1603 some 200 priests and laymen were executed. It culminated in 1584-5 when Parliament decided that it was treason simply to be a Catholic priest in England. Apart from the threat that the Catholics represented in England at that time, another threat came from the Protestant extremists - Puritans. Puritanism is a religious reform movement in the late 16th and 17th centuries that sought to purify the Church of England of remnants of the Roman Catholic popery that the Puritans claimed had been retained after the religious settlement from early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. They were the Protestant exiles during Mary Tudors reign and now they came back from the Continent and imported radical ideas that they had learned abroad about forms of worship and church government. So Puritans were actually radical Protestants or Protestant extremists. Queen Elizabeth had to take drastic measures against them as well. Archbishop Whitgift (1583-1604) was expressly appointed by the Queen to
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member of Society of Jesus (S.J.) a Roman Catholic order of religious men called for an invasion by Spanish troops stationed in the Netherlands and resulted in the execution in 1572 of the Duke of Norfolk

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silence them, and the Court of High Commission was used to detect and prosecute them. Their efforts to transform the nation led to civil war in England and to the founding of colonies in America as working models of the Puritan way of life.

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KING CHARLES I and THE RULE OF THE PURITANS


BACKGROUND INFORMATION King Charles I was James Is successor, reigned over England, Scotland and Ireland Two dominant political parties developed during his reign, the Puritans and the Royalists Religion and politics were closely connected, Royalist party or Cavaliers were protestants and strong supporters of King Charles I, wanted a strong monarchy, as far as religion is concerned.. wanted to keep Anglican church, normal Protestantism like the one Puritans or Roundheads were radical protestants and were against the king, instead, supporters of Oliver Cromwell and giving the parliament more control KING CHARLES I (1600 - 1649) Reigned from March 27,1625 until his execution on January 30, 1649 Strong believer in the divine rights of the king, was an absolutist meaning that he believed that as a king, he should not be restrained by any other institutions Commonly required of citizens to pay of unreasonable taxes e.g. ship-money Ship money was a tax, the levy of which by Charles I of England without the consent of Parliament was one of the causes of the English Civil War. The Plantagenet kings of England had exercised the right of requiring the maritime towns and counties to furnish ships in time of war; and the liability was sometimes commuted for a money payment. Primary politically concerned with foreign policy, declared war on Spain Came into frequent confrontations with parliament since they tried to minimize his power Dismissed Parliament several times including in 1629 when they were dismissed for an eleven year period known as Eleven Years' Tyranny or Personal Rule when Charles I ruled freely, then making peace with France and Spain The Personal Rule (also known as the Eleven Years' Tyranny) was the period from 1629 to 1640, when King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland ruled without recourse to Parliament. He was entitled to do this under the Royal Prerogative, but his actions caused discontent among those who provided the ruling classes. Charles had already dissolved Parliament three times by 1628. After the murder of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who was in charge of Charles' foreign policy, Parliament began to criticize the king more harshly than before. Charles then realized that, as long as he could avoid war, he could rule without parliament. Whig historians sometimes called this period the Eleven Years' Tyranny. The term is indicative of the partisan nature of activities at the time, which would eventually result in the English Civil War. However, more recently revisionists refer to the 11 years a period of "Creative Reform", due to the measures taken by Charles to restructure English politics at the time. Personal Rule ended after the attempted enforcement of the Anglican and increasingly Armenian styled prayer book under Laud that precipitated a rebellion in Scotland in 1640.[ RELIGIOUS CLASHES Archbishop William Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by Charles I in 1633 until 1645, was a Royalist

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William Lauds goals were to impose total religious uniformity and gain authority of the church; he dismissed non-conformist clergymen and closed Puritan organizations. Charles I demanded the use of a new Prayer Book, which was supported by Scottish Bishops but not by Presbyterian Scots. Presbyterianism is a group of Christian congregations adhering to the Calvinist theological tradition within Protestantism. Presbyterian theology typically emphasizes the sovereignty of God, the authority of the Bible and the necessity of grace through faith in Christ. Presbyterianism evolved primarily in Scotland before the Act of Union in 1707. Most of the few Presbyteries found in England can trace a Scottish connection. Although some adherents hold to the theology of Calvin and his immediate successors, there are a range of theological views within contemporary Presbyterianism. Modern Presbyterianism traces its institutional roots back to the Scottish Reformation In 1638 the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland put an end to bishops governing the Church (Episcopalian government) and replaced it with the governance by elders and deacons called Presbyterian government, which caused the initiation of the First Bishops War in 1639. War ended in June that same year with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick in which King Charles I granted Scotts civil and religious freedoms. 18 June 1639 between England and Scotland. Archibald Johnston was involved in the negotiations before King Charles was forced to sign the treaty. After the treaty was signed, King Charles immediately began to gather the resources he needed in order to strengthen his armies. At the beginning of the Second Bishops' War, the agreement was broken. King Charles I had to assemble Parliament in 1640 in order to raise money after great loss from the war. This ended his Eleven Year of Tyranny; however Parliament was dissolved less than a month later, and was given the name the Short Parliament. The Second Bishops War followed, and with King Charles I defeat, the Treaty of Ripon was signed in October 1640 where it was demanded that the King pay expenses of the Scottish army. Peace talks finally ended with the signing of the Treaty of London, ratified by the King in August 1641. Charles undertook to withdraw all his declarations against the Covenanters and to ratify the decisions taken by the Edinburgh Parliament. Reparations of 300,000 were agreed, and the Scots army began its withdrawal from northern England on receipt of the first installment. One set of problems had seemingly ended; another, even more serious, had already begun. By the summer of 1642 Charles, unable to reach agreement with the English Parliament, was drifting towards civil war. Calvinism (sometimes called the Reformed tradition, the Reformed faith, or Reformed theology) is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes the rule of God over all things. [1] It was developed by several theologians, but it bears the name of the French reformer John Calvin because of his prominent influence on it and because of his role in the confessional and ecclesiastical debates throughout the 16th century.[citation needed] Today, this term also refers to the doctrines and practices of the Reformed churches of which Calvin was an early leader. Less commonly, it can refer to the individual teaching of Calvin himself.[2] The system is best known for its doctrines of predestination and total depravity

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LONG PARLIAMENT (16401648) Assembled as a result of the Second Bishops War lead by John Pym, sole reason was to pass finance bills. Demands of Parliament : Triennial Act 1641 (Dissolution Act) passed Parliament must meet for a fifty-day session once every free years to avoid the King from ruling without Parliament. The Triennial Act 1641 (16 Cha. I c. 1)[1] (also known as the Dissolution Act) was an Act passed on 15 February 1641,[2][3] by the English Long Parliament, during the reign of King Charles I. The act requires that the Parliament meet for at least a fifty-day session once every three years. It was intended to prevent Kings from ruling without Parliament, as had been done between 1629 and 1640. If the king failed to call Parliament, the Lord Chancellor was required to issues writs, and failing that, the House of Lords could assemble and issue writs for the election of the House of Commons Ship money was abolished Tonnage and Poundage Act passed for only a year tax on imported wines The Grand Remonstrance long list of criticism against Charles I and solutions was a list of grievances presented to King Charles I of England by the English Parliament on 1 December 1641, during the Long Parliament; it was one of the chief events which were to precipitate the English Civil War. Militia Bill Parliament wanted control over the selection of the commanders of the army and navy A bill of attainder (also known as an act or writ of attainder) is an act of legislature declaring a person or group of persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without benefit of a trial. The Protestation- Parliaments attempt to prevent the civil war In July 1641, Parliament passed a bill requiring those over the age of 18 to sign the Protestation, an oath of allegiance to King Charles I and the Church of England. No one could hold a Church or state office without signing. Nineteen Propositions sent to King Charles I in June 1642 from the English Lords and House of Commons. Their demands were: - POLITICAL DECISION-MAKING: Ministers serving on the Kings Privy Council must be approved by the House of Commons and Lords; Matters that concern the public must be debated in Parliament; High officials (e.g. Lord Treasurer and the Chancellor of the Exchequer) must be chosen with the consent of both houses of Parliament; All judges and officers approved of by Parliament shall hold their posts on condition of good behavior; New peers of the House of Lords must be voted in by both Houses of Parliament - PARLIAMENT SHALL DECIDE ON MATTERS DIRECLTY AFFECTING THE KING: Approving the educators or marriages of Kings children; The unnecessary military attachment guarding the King must be discharged; The King will accept the ordering of the militia by the Lords and Commons - RELIGIOUS POLICY: the Puritan reform of the church gorvernment; Anti-Catholic laws must be strictly enforced; Catholic children must receive a Protestant education; the kingdom will formalize its alliance with the Protestant States of the United Provinces (the Dutch) in order to defend them against the Pope and his followers.

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THE CIVIL WAR


King Charles I rejected the Grand Remonstrance and the Militia Bill, along with the Nineteen Propositions saying that the Parliament had already had enough power. This caused more conflict between the Royalists and the Parliamentarians, leading to the start of the Civil War. The Civil War started on 26 October 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favour of Parliament. There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April 1646.[24] He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, and was taken to nearby Southwell while his "hosts" decided what to do with him. The Presbyterians finally arrived at an agreement with Parliament and delivered Charles to them in 1647. He was imprisoned at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire, until cornet George Joyce took him by force to Newmarket in the name of the New Model Army. At this time mutual suspicion had developed between the New Model Army and Parliament, and Charles was eager to exploit it. He was then transferred first to Oatlands and then to Hampton Court, where more involved but fruitless negotiations took place. He was persuaded that it would be in his best interests to escape perhaps abroad, perhaps to France, or perhaps to the custody of Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight.[25] He decided on the last course, believing Hammond to be sympathetic, and fled on 11 November.[26] Hammond, however, was opposed to Charles, whom he confined in Carisbrooke Castle.[27] From Carisbrooke, Charles continued to try to bargain with the various parties, eventually coming to terms with the Scottish Presbyterians that he would allow the establishment of Presbyterianism in England as well as Scotland for a trial period. The Royalists rose in July 1648 igniting the Second Civil War, and as agreed with Charles the Scots invaded England. Most of the uprisings in England were put down by forces loyal to Parliament after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Kent, Essex and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges. But with the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Preston, the Royalists lost any chance of winning the war. Charles was beheaded on Tuesday 30 January 1649. At the execution it is reputed that he wore two cotton shirts as to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness. He put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke. His last words were, "I shall go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."[3] As a consequence to the war, King Charles I was executed and for the first time in history England was not a monarchy, rather but became a republic known as the Commonwealth of England from 1649 until 1660. His father King Charles I was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War. The English Parliament did not proclaim Charles II king at this time, passing instead a statute making such a proclamation unlawful. England entered the period known to history as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell. On the other hand, Scotland was then still a separate kingdom and the

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Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II King of Scots on 5 February 1649 in Edinburgh. ebate reci).

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Inigo Jones - Architect


Joness theatrical career spanned 40 years. His masques were spectacular and innovative, seas raged in terrifying storms, cliffs split, clouds galloped and moons came down carrying brave and beautiful spirits to earth whilst rare monsters rose from the oceans depth. His gift for architecture was seen in his masques, but later he dedicated himself to more seriuos building. He was the one who brought Palladianism in England. Palladianism is an early version of Neoclassicism based on the books of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio who studied Roman ruins in Italy. The characteristics of the style are: BALUSTRADE - an entire railing system (as along the edge of a balcony) including a top rail and its balusters, and sometimes a bottom rail PILASTERS - a pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile SYMETRY HORIZONTAL DIVISION (the upper and the lower part): decorative windows (different shapes roundheaded, triangular, flat) and the entablature - elaborate horizontal band and molding supported by columns; horizontally divided into three basic elements:architrave (the lowest member), frieze (the middle member), and cornice (the uppermost member) PEDIMENTS - the triangular gable end on a building of classic type or a similar form used decoratively. It consists of the tympanum, or triangular wall surface, enclosed below by the horizontal cornice and above by the raking cornice, which follows the slope of the roof BAY - A part of a building marked off by vertical elements, such as columns or pilasters (vertical division) SIMPLICITY, PURITY, SOLIDITY, LITTLE COLOUR From 1605 until 1610 Jones probably regarded himself as primarily under the queen's protection, but he was patronized also by Robert Cecil, 1st earl of Salisbury, for whom he produced his earliest known architectural work, a design for the New Exchange in the Strand (c. 1608; demolished in the 18th century). Though a somewhat immature design, the work was more sophisticated than anything being done in England at the time. Some designs (later superseded) for the restoration and improvement of Old St. Paul's Cathedral also date from this period, and in 1610 Jones was given an appointment that confirmed the direction of his future career. He became surveyor of works to the heir to the throne, Henry, prince of Wales. This appointment, with all its promise, was short-lived, and Jones did little or nothing for the prince before the latter's death in 1612. In 1613, however, he was compensated by the guarantee of still higher office on the death of the king's surveyor of works, Simon Basil. To this office Jones succeeded in 1615, in the meantime having taken the opportunity offered him by Thomas Howard, 2nd earl of Arundel, to revisit Italy. Arundel and his party, including Jones, left England in April 1613 and proceeded to Italy, spending the winter of 161314 in Rome. In the course of the visit Jones had ample opportunity to study works by modern masters as well as antique ruins. Of the masters, the one to whom he attached the greatest importance was Andrea Palladio, the Italian architect who had gained wide influence through his The Four Books of Architecture (1570; I quattro libri dell'architettura), which Jones took with him on his tour. Returning to England in the autumn of 1614, Jones had completed his self-education as a classical architect.

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Jones's career as surveyor of works to James I and Charles I lasted from 1615 to 1643. During most of those 28 years he was continuously employed in the building, rebuilding, or improvement of royal houses. His first important undertaking was the Queen's House at Greenwich, based to some extent on the Medici villa at Poggio a Caiano, near Florence, but detailed in a style closer to Palladio or Vincenzo Scamozzi (15521616). Work there was suspended on the death of Queen Anne in 1619 and completed only in 1635 for Charles's queen, Henrietta Maria. The building, considerably altered, now houses part of the National Maritime Museum. In 1619 the Banqueting House at Whitehall was destroyed by fire; and between that year and 1622 Jones replaced it with what has always been regarded as his greatest achievement. The Banqueting House consists of one great chamber, raised on a vaulted basement. It was conceived internally as a basilica on the Vitruvian model but without aisles, the superimposed columns being set against the walls, which support a flat, beamed ceiling. For the main panels of this ceiling, allegorical paintings by Peter Paul Rubens were commissioned by Charles I and set in place in 1635. The exterior echoes the arrangement of the interior, with pilasters and regular columns set against rusticated walling. The Banqueting House has only two complete facades. The ends were never completed, and this has given rise to the supposition that the building was intended to form part of a larger whole. This may have been so, and it is certain that Charles I, nearly 20 years after the Banqueting House was built, instructed Jones to prepare designs for rebuilding the whole of Whitehall Palace. These designs exist (at Worcester College, Oxford, and at Chatsworth House) and are among Jones's most interesting creations. His works include the first Neoclassical ecclesiastical building in England. The Queens Chapel was the first post-Reformation church in England to be built for Roman Catholi worship. Construction began in 1623 for the use of the Spanish Infanta on her proposed marriage to the then Prince Charles, later King Charles I. However, the marriage did not take place and the chapel was completed by 1627 for Henrietta Maria of France, Charles Is eventual bride. Jones's work was not confined only to royal palaces. He was much involved in the regulation of new buildings in London, and out of this activity emerged the project that he planned in 1630 for the 4th earl of Bedford on his land at Covent Garden. This comprised a large open space bounded on the north and east by arcaded houses, on the south by the earl's garden wall, and on the west by a church with flanking gateways connecting to two single houses. None of the original houses survive, but the church of St. Paul still stands, though much altered. With Covent Garden, Jones introduced formal town planning to London it is the first London square. The most important undertaking of Jones's later years in office was the restoration of Old St. Paul's Cathedral in 163342. At the outbreak of the English Civil Wars in 1642, Jones was compelled to relinquish his office as surveyor of works and left London. He was captured at the siege of Basing House in 1645. His estate was temporarily confiscated, and he was heavily fined. In the following year, however, his pardon was confirmed by the House of Lords and his estate restored. In the year of Charles I's execution, 1649, he was doing work at Wilton for the earl of Pembroke, but the great double-cube room there is probably mostly the work of his pupil John Webb, who survived to reestablish something of the Jones tradition after the Restoration in 1660. Jones was buried with his parents in the church of St. Benet, Paul's Wharf, in London.

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THE COURT MASQUE: Inigo Jones and Ben Jonson Masque or Mask - a spectacular kind of indoor performance combining poetic drama, music, dance, song, lavish costume, and costly stage effects, which was favoured by European royalty in the 16th and early 17th centuries. Masque in England - a court entertainment popular under Henry VIII and Elisabeth I, and especially under the early Stuarts (cooperation of Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones) Benjamin Jonson (1572-1637): a Jacobean dramatist, poet and literary critic; began to write masques in 1605 Inigo Jones (1573-1652): the first professional English architect; employed at the court in 1605 as a set and costume designer of masques. His innovations in stage design: movable scenery (a rotating platform) and the proscenium arch Famous masques by Ben Jonson & Inigo Jones: The Masque of Blacknesse (1605) The Masque of Hymen (1606) Hue and Cry after Cupid (1608) The Masque of Queens (1609) Oberon, the Fairy Prince (1611) ELIZABETHAN THEATRE AND THE COURT MASQUE A comparison Elizabethan theatre Apron stage No scenery Rich costumes Outdoor playhouses) performance (public Indoor performance (at courts) The Court masque Proscenium arch Elaborate scenery More expensive costumes

and

elaborate

No artificial lightening Developed light effects Sound effects (trumpet blasts and drum Better sound effects (instrumental rolls) music composed by famous composers of that time) Lack of stage mechanisms (stage trap Developed stage mechanisms Hell, Deus ex machina) (landscape curtains, stage wings with perspective paintings, moving shutters, revolving platform) Emphasis on characters and universal Emphasis on celebrating royal couples messages (for their entertainment) and the court (luxury and wealth of the court) Focus mainly on acting Focus on acting, dancing, singing and stage design No women on stage Women take part in acting ARCHITECTURE: Neoclassicism and Inigo Jones

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Neoclassicism: European and American architectural style inspired by classical Greek and Roman architecture (18th and 19th centuries) Palladianism: an early version of European Neoclassicism (17th and 18th centuries) based on the books of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio Inigo Jones: introduced the Palladian style into England; Italian trip in 1613; influenced by the work of Andrea Palladio and his The Four Books of Architecture Functions: the Surveyor to prince Henry (1610); the Surveyor of the Kings Works (1615-1642) Patrons: King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway; King Christian IV's sister, Anne, the Queen of England; King James I of England; Roger Manners, 5th Earl of Rutland; Earl of Arundel; King Charles I; Queen Henrietta Maria The typical characteristics of the neoclassical style: BALUSTRADE - An entire railing system (as along the edge of a balcony); a roof fence PILASTERS - A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, but also a halfround form or the shape of any type of column SYMMETRY HORIZONTAL DIVISION (the upper and the lower part): decorative windows (different shapes round headed, triangular, flat) and the entablature - elaborate horizontal band and moulding supported by columns; horizontally divided into three basic elements: architrave (the lowest member), frieze (the middle member), and cornice (the uppermost member) PEDIMENT the part in the shape of a triangle above the entrance of a building in the ancient Greek style VERTICAL DIVISION: BAY SIMPLICITY, PURITY, SOLIDITY, LITTLE COLOUR Neoclassical buildings by Inigo Jones: The Queens House at Greenwich (1616 to 1635), built in two periods The Whitehall Banqueting House at Whitehall (1619-1622) The Queens Chapel at St. Jamess Palace, (1623-1627); the first neoclassical church in England

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The Court Masque


also spelled Mask a spectacular kind of indoor performance combining poetic drama, music, dance, song, lavish costume, and costly stage effects, which was favoured by European royalty in the 16th and early 17th centuries. in its origin: festival or entertainment in which disguised participants offer gifts to their host and then join together for a ceremonial dance. The theme of the drama presented during a masque was usually mythological, allegorical, or symbolic and was designed to be complimentary to the noble or royal host of the social gathering. Most likely originating in primitive religious rites and folk ceremonies known as disguising, or mummery, masques evolved into elaborate court spectacles that, under various names, entertained royalty throughout Europe. In Renaissance Italy, under the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici, the intermezzo became known for its emphasis on song, dance, scenery, and stage machinery. The intermezzi included a dance or masked ball where the guests mingled with the actors. A nondramatic form, the trionfo, or triumph, evolved from these Italian court masques and, arriving in France, gave rise to the ballet de cour and the more spectacular masquerade. During the 16th century the European continental masque traveled to Tudor England, where it became a court entertainment played before the king. Gorgeous costumes, spectacular scenery with elaborate machinery, and rich allegorical verse marked the English masque. During the reign of Elizabeth I the masque provided a vehicle for compliments paid to the queen at her palace and during her summer tours through England. Under the Stuarts the masque reached its glory with Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones. Ben Jonson became court poet. He endowed the form with great literary as well as social force. In 1605 Jonson and the scene designer Inigo Jones produced the first of many excellent masques, which they continued to collaborate on until 1634. Inigo Jones was a British architect, painter and designer. Of his early life little is recorded. He was said to have been apprenticed to a joiner, but after we know nothing until 1603. In 1603 he had visited Italy long enough to acquire skill in painting and design and to attract the patronage of King Christian IV of Denmark and Norway, at whose court he was employed for a time before returning to England. Friendship with King Christian IV made him famous in royal circles. He was noticed by the queen of James I of England, Christian IVs sister, Anne of Denmark. Queen Anne was the centre of artistic patronage at the court of James I. She loved amusement and was not without ideas. James and Anne started their reigns with unlimited confidence in the resources of the English exchequer and spent large amount of money for their own pleasure and entertainment. In 1605 Queen Anne employed Jones to design the scenes and costumes of masques. The words of these masques were supplied by Ben Jonson, the scenery, costumes and effects nearly always by Jones. The masque was nothing new in Court life, but after 1603 it was rapidly lifted to a highly finished dramatic performance combining poetry, song, music, and dance. The masques are important to us because they provide evidence of Joness taste as a designer, somewhat before the earliest evidence of his work as an architect. Inigo Joness first sketches in 1605 were costume designs for the Queens Masque of Blacknesse. The Masque of Blacknesse was first performed at the Stuart Court in the Banqueting Hall of Whitehall Palace on Twelfth Night, January 6, 1605. The masque was written by Ben Jonson at the request of Anne of Denmark, who wished the masquers to be disguised as Africans. Anne was one of the performers (while 6 months pregnant) in the masque along with her court ladies, and appeared in blackface makeup.

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The plot of the masque follows the ladies arriving at the English Court to be "cleansed" of their blackness by King James. Jones designed a raised and mobile stage for the masque, forty feet square and four feet off the floor; this was employed for many subsequent masques. The stage contained inner space for the machines that produced stage effects and the technicians who operated them. Blackness introduced effects that Jones would repeat with variation throughout his career as a stage designer: it opened with a tempestuous seascape, simulated by flowing and billowing cloths. The masque was controversial in its day, in part for the production's use of body paint instead of masks to simulate dark skin. One observer, Sir Dudley Carleton, expressed a view tinged with the prevailing social biases of the era: ...instead of Vizzards, their Faces and Arms up to the Elbows, were painted black, which was a Disguise sufficient, for they were hard to be known...and you cannot imagine a more ugly sight.... The masque was expensive, costing 3000, and caused consternation amongst some English observers due to the perceived impropriety of the performance. In January 1606, at Whitehall, Jones was responsible for the Masque of Hymen, in which there was a globe with moving clouds. In 1608 came the Hue and Cry after Cupid, to celebrate the marriage of Viscount Haddington. Here there were rocks which clove in twain, possibly on the principle of moving shutters, a new departure in English stage design. This was followed, in 1609, by the Masque of Queens, wherein was probably, the first attempt at a genuine change of scene. A Hell disappeared, suddenly giving place to a House of Fame, perhaps by means of a revolving platform. Oberon, the Faery Prince, followed in 1611. Annes masques were avidly attended by foreign ambassadors and dignitaries and functioned as a potent demonstration of the English crowns European significance. Her masques were responsible for almost all the courtly female performance in the first two decades of the seventeenth century and are regarded as crucial to the history of women's performance. Jonson invented the antimasquealso known as the antemasque, the false masque, and the antic masqueand produced the first in 1609. It took place before the main masque and concentrated on grotesque elements, and provided a direct contrast to the elegance of the masque that followed. In later years the masque developed into opera, and the antimasque became primarily a farce or pantomime. After Jonson's retirement, masques lost their literary value and became mainly vehicles for spectacle. The masque may have been a display of aristocratic talent and protocol. It was also a highly politicized event during which the royal couple was celebrated and glorified. In the text of most masques, the performers are interrupted by antimasquers, signs of disorder, but often the king, by his very presence, restores order. The theatrical setting of the masque was devised so that the king alone experienced the full force of the perspectival illusion. The masque also acted as a way of demonstrating hierarchy in the society. Masque entertainments in England ceased with the beginning of the English Civil Wars. As the difficulties between the crown and Parliament increased, there were circulated numerous pamphlets and petitions in which the stage was attacked for its immorality, indecency and extravagance. Puritans attacted the court masque because of hedonism and pagan mythology which were presented in it, costs and women acting. In 1642 Parliament issued an ordinance suppressing all stage plays; and five years later even a stricter law was passed. Finally, in 1648 all playhouses were ordered to be pulled down, all players to be seized and whipped, and every one caught attending a play to be fined five shillings. Public stage performances had

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been banned for 18 years by the Puritan regime, and it was during 1660 that theatres reopened and drama experienced its rebirth (Restoration period).

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Cromwell's domestic policy


Oliver Cromwell was born in April, 1599 and he died in September, 1658. He came into power as the nominee of the army and he was one of the commanders of the New Model Army. His rule as a Lord Protector lasted from 1653 until 1658. He was invested with all the authority of a dictator.Acoording to the Instrument of Government the first triennial Parlament was to meet in September, 1654 and in the meantime the Protector and his Council were empowered to issue Ordinances. Between December, 1653 and September, 1654 Cromwell issued eghty-two ordinances, nearly all of which were confirmed by the second Parliament. All the leading principles of Cromwells domestic policy are contained in the small folio volume of these ordinances. There are few prologations of expiring acts, others are personal or local. But none of them exhibit so plainly the Protectors domestic policy as the three sets of ordinances dealing with the reform of the Law, the reformation of manners and the reorganization of the national Church. All of these reforms were in a highly religious, puritan spirit. The first of these reforms were the reforms of the Law. At the opening of Parliament in September, 1654, Cromwell announced that the Government had summoned up persons of great ability to consider how the laws might be made more understandable and short, and as he says less chargeable to people. One of the most important of these schemes was the ordinance for the regulation of the Court of Chancery, published on 21 August 1654, and confirmed by Parliament in 1656. It contained a reduced scale of fees and embodied, according to modern lawyers, many valuable reforms. Cromwells goal was also to reform the Criminal Law, what he also did less than a year before. In April, 1653 he gave pardons to all prisoners sentenced to death except those guilty of murder. He wanted to reform the laws in a way that they would be closer to laws of God. His next intention was to discuss the bills introduced by the Government for the establishment of country registers and local courts, but they were dropped. He also completed the abolition of feudal incidents9. The second important reformation was the Reformation of Manners. For this project Cromwell got more support of his Parliament. These reforms icluded various changes in behaviour, things that needed to be respected, education and also the implementation of religious, Puritan aspects in everyday life. This was all a step further of making England a rigid Puritan country. The Long Parliament had ordered a strict observance of Sunday, punished swearing severely, and made adultery a capital crime; Cromwell issued further ordinances against duelling (the one who sends a challenge was to be bound over to keep the peace for six months, and the one who kills his opponent was to be tried of murder), swearing (by special provision for punishment of carmen, porters and waterman), racemeetings (because the Cavaliers used these meetings to carry out their harmful thoughts) and cock-fights (because they led to disturbances of the peace and were accompanied with drunkness). Parliament confirmend these other ordinances passing similar act of its own. One was directed against the vagrants of idle,disolute persons who abounded all parts of the country. This was specialy reffering to fiddlers and minstrels that made or played music in taverns. They were declared punishable as rogues and vagabonds. A second act aimed at professional gamesters about London who made it their trade to corrupt the young gentry. A third act enforced the Puritan Sabbath in all its severity. On that day, no shops could be opened and no works carried on. No travelling was
9

Under the feudal system, a lord granted land to a servant in return for military service and other obligations. These privileges, burdens and customs, attached to land, office, estates or manors, were known as feudal incidents;

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allowed, except in cases of neccesity with a certificate from a justice. The people that broke this ordinance were punished. The Sunday closing was the rule for all inns and alehouses, but the sale of victuals was permitted. Much of these legeslations were ineffective. Then Cromwell establishet Major-Generals throughout England in the autumn of 1655. They were in charge to keep eye on the political enemies of the government but were also required to repress crime and immorality in their respective districts. In spite of these restrictive laws, the Puritan encouraged public amusements and sports. In 1647, the Long parliamennt gave an act of giving servants, apprentices, and scholars a whole holiday once a month for recreation and relaxation from their constant labour. Cromwell himself haunted, hawked and played bowls, but also drank wine and beer although he never forbade the sale of drink. He thought that drinking is a natural liberty but it may not be abused. The Puritans also showed a great zeal for education. During the Commonwealth a portion of conficated Church land was devoted to the maintenance of school and schoolmasters. Cromwells government undertook the task of ejecting incapable schoolmasters and licencing persons fit to teach. One of the earliest ordinances appointed fresh commisioners for the visitation of the universities and established a permanent board of visitors for the great public schools. In 1651 Oliver Cromwell has been elected as the Chancellor of Oxford and held that office for six years. In 1651 there were petititions for founding universities at York or Manchester, and Cromwell also wanted to found a college out of the property of Dean and Chapter Library in Durham. But, Parliament did nothing, so Oliver himself found a college at Durham in 1657 which grew greatly until the restoration. According to Cromwell, both learning and education were inseparably connected with religion. In his mind, the function of the universities was to provide ministers for the Church. His defence of the universities was a natural consequence of his decision to mantain the national Church against those who wanted to cut the connection between the Church and the State. Cromwell had the full support of the army. In the Agreement of the People from 1649, the army demanded that the Christian religion be held forth and recommended as the public profession of the nation. These principles were embodied in the Instrument of Government which had to decide about important questions. The first question was about the abolition of tithes, but Cromwell decided to preserve them because they were important for ministers of the Church. The basis for Protectors plan for the reorganization of the Church was the scheme presented by John Owen to the Long Parliament in 1652. On 20 March 1654, Cromwell issued an ordinance for the approbation of public preachers, which appointed thirty-eight commisioners, lay and clerical to examine and find the candidates to be a person for the grace of God in him...able and fit to preach the Gospel. These Triars undertook the mission to see that only fit and proper persons should recieve the public stipend guaranteed by the State. Next came the provision for the elimination of the unfit. A second ordinance, issued in August, 1654, appointed local commisioners, Ejectors, in every county to remove scandalous and inefficient ministers and schoolmasters. In September this work was completed by a third ordinance for the union of small and division of large and populous parishes. The rule of the Triers was that they must not admit a man unless they were able to find something of the grace of God in him. Cromwell was proud and satisfied with these ordinances . There were theree sorts of godly men, three sects: the Presbyterians, the Independents and the Baptists. Outside the bounds of the national Church, the constitution promised liberty of worship to all that worship Jesus Christ. Anglicanism and Catholicism, however, labelled as Prelacy and Popery, and regarded as politically dangerous, were expected from this promise. Many ejected ministers gathered meetings in private houses and were not

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molested by the Govenment, but the royalist rebellion led to greater severity towards Anglicans. In October, 1655 issued a proclamation prohibiting the employment of ejected clergy. The case of Catholics was even harder when in June, 1654 a Catholic priest was executed just because he was a priest. The Independents wanted their toleration but those were only rumuors. Public opinion in England was too hostile to the Catholics to permit their legal toleration. This also happened when Cromwell wished to readmit Jews to England. Divines feared for their religion and the merchants for the trade so toleration was not accepted, but Jews were allowed to meet in private houses for devotion. Cromwells tolerant nation was shown in the case of the Quakers 10 that were persecuted because they were held dangerous to the public peace. He set free George Fox and several other Quakers, because he thought that they would not harm the State. In spite of his liberal policy he failed to satisfy several sections of Puritans. Some Independents thought that the State should not decide about religious matters. Cromwells intention was not to punish immoral doctrines, because they are matters of conscience, but when they develope into actions, they were to be punished. In 1656 he said that whatever pretensions to religion would continue quiet and peaceable, they should enjoy conscience and libery to themselves. Cromwell was the most tolerant ruler since the reformation but his intention to make the Christian sects to co-operate was more difficult than he thought. In the Puritan Church that he organized, only the main principles of Chrisrianity were to be accepted. It was not so much a Church as a confederation of Christian sects working together for righteousness, under the control of the State. The originality of Protectors policy lay in attempt to combine toleration and comprehension. His tolerance arose from the respect for the consciences of others.

The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers, was founded in England in the 17th century as a Christian religious denomination by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of Christianity.
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Architecture and sculpture


The Renaissance architecture or The Great Rebuilding in England has not been realised untill recent years,as a result of Professor W.G. Hosskins work. The Great rebuilding affected all classes,and it occured between about 1570 and the outbreak of the Civil War. Many complex movements influenced from abroad,some were excepted and some were not.athe Renaissance influence in architecture was for a long time just about decoration and details .The earlier Renaissance in England has left a great monument-the tomb of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey.It was the first example of Renaissance in England,made by Pietro Torrigiani-Florentine sculptor and painter. The Renaissance influence in England architecture was still restricted only to decoratin and details,only superficial,because the Gothic spirit was still too strong . The earllier Italian Renaissance,quatrrocento,was still too distant from English Medieval tradition. When Renaissance start turning to Mannerism ,which was Gothic of Classicism it started to be mopre appealing to the Northern Europeans .What happens next is a demonstration of English preferences made for Dormer family in Wing church in Buckinghamshire. He recieved a grant from king Henry VIII ,a rich manor of Saint Albans abbey.The tomb of Sir Robert Dormer is a classical tomb of 1552,it does not have anything religious,and looks more like a Roman portico,than a tomb,apsolutely secular.It has wide-spaced Corinthian collumns,pillasters in the back and very simple tomb-chest decorated with ox sculls and fruit and flowers. This is also purely Italian piece of work from Edwardian time. There are also 2 more tombs ,assumed to be of his son,grandson and their wives.They were made in 1509 and 1616,probably by Gerard Johnson,also superficially Renaissance,with marbel columns,pediment ,ribbon-decoration and nulling. English architecture fully experinced Renaissance with Inigo Jones,Welsh architect,painter and designer who founded the English classical tradition in architecture . In the second part of the century English are trying new thing,in very crude way,trying to find the most convenient solutions in both aestethic and function. The Renaissance architecture was not accepted instantly the way it was in Italy in England because of many differences like the climate-Italian architecture was wall architecture-which was very functional for sun protection-England,on the other hand has opposite needs,therefore they favoured window-architecture and letting in light,which was more appropriate.But the great difference in English architecture was the arrisal from medieval insecurity to expansion and social security. Its product were three houses at Longleat in 1580s.Astonishing palace was unification of congenital and classic.It was built by English and also foreign craftsmen . At its peak it produced something unique,which can be seen even today,unification of congenital and classic that made a true,individual style,unique to England ,because Renaissance did not entirely expand in England ,,however ,the external influence

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New inspiration came from Edwardian circle,where the Norther French version of Italian Classicism was in full motion . Sir Joh Thynne assisted by two craftsmenEnglish Robert Smythson and French Alain Maynard,built magnificent palaces in Longleat.Acctually at his death it gwas not finished yet,he had never lived in it,as in every of predecessor his house was always a building.They did not build them for enjoing in them,rather for magnificence and future generations. One of the most passionate buileders was Sir Thomas Smith.He was Secretary of State under Edward VI and ambassador to France under the reign of conservative Elizabeth.He was a brilliant poor boy,a son of a small shepard,obssesed with architecture.In his library Smith had dozens of books about architecture and of Vitruvius,on which the whole Renaissance architecture was based . He married a rich wife,wich provide him to build two houses,and satisfy his architectural taste .The houses were buil on her estate at Theydon Mount in Essex.Building lasted for years,and his chief architect was Richard Kirby who followed Smith instructions.Smith took his advice over his tomb,where we see a presentation of an old bald knight holding hand to his head as if he hjas a headache,which,how he expresses in his will came from anxiety about finishing house. Another Edwardian was Burghley,whose obssesion with building can be described almost as mania .He built immense palace at Burghley on estate that his parents left him.Equally marvellous palace he erected at Theobalds:He did not plan to build such a big house for his younger son,but since the Queen was often guest,she and her servants had to be properly taken care of . His artistic eclecticism, developed under Somerset and Northumberland, was revealed in his personal planning for his three housesBurghley House at Stamford, Cecil House in the Strand, and Theobalds in Hertfordshire; their decoration, furnishings, collections of pictures, coins, and things of workmanship, and their gardens, supervised by the botanist John Gerard, won universal admiration. Burghley made a creative contribution to the Elizabethan architectural achievement. Because of the war with Armada Queen needed the money so she suspended royal patronage for architecture . They were all Edwardians:Smith,Cecil,Bacon,Sir Anthony Cooke ,Sir Thomas Heneage . -they began from the early 1560s under surer conditions and sunnier prospects . Observing the English empiricism and eclectism at work,we can see astonishing and wider variety of appearance and design in Elizabethan than in Georgian houses. The owner of the house,dilettant,would choose what he wants either from books or his experience . Before Bess of Hardwick built her second house she inspected Wollaton,Holdenby And Worksop and then improved on them in the finest work of them all . Every builder was hesitating in the start but with help of experts they developed their skill . Consequently Elizabethan architecture bursted ,they have found their style . There is a huge differnce between the grand builings of 1570-80 and 1580-90. The earlier ones are more classical,because the builders are still insecure ,and as the builing developed later ones are more magnificent,with more style,they have huge windows ,distinctive plans and vivid skylines. In the end the style is certainly achieved .

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Cecil William Burghley is one of the leading figures in architecture.Burghley house alone is an outstanding heritage .His building came from books of de lOrme and Serlio ,French and Italian architects . He provided three flamboyant palaces :Burghley House,Cecil House in the Strand and Theobalds. Even more original was Wollaton,near Nottingham by Robert Smythson,who was at last recognized as an architect . Extraordinary flamboyant impression. Worksop Manor-probably Smythson next house,even more dramatic,tall building,looking ot over the country,situated on the hill. Hardwick,which is till today the supreme triumph of Elizabethan architecture has been improved by the Countesss Bess,who added two large wings,plasterwork figures and friezes . Here is one more proof that the house expresses the personality of its creator.Her perfectionism resulted with a hose of great beauty and romaticism and uncompromising design . No matter what size they were all houses were quasi-palaces,very richly decorated,with many different kinds of materials used . For these building various materials have been used.At first it was sandstone and limestone,and granit . Brick-builing expanded in eastern counties and timber building in western . They were also using different combinations of materials . We also have to mention Sir Thomas Tresham who builted very curious and fantastic buildings in Northonhampshire.He built at Rothwell a small Renaissance palazzo,for market house,and alsoat Rushton he started but never finshed building Triangular Lodge,representing the Trinity,plastered with latin sayings and esoterioc symbols . Urban buildin was dominantly of timber-framed houses,even in London,to whom stone was easily accesible .Timber had considerable advantages like long lasting . The chief danger was fire . Church building in Elizabethan times has hardly been studied at all,it was not amount to much.They were mostly repaired and maintained . After Reformation country had more churces then it could utilise.Rebuilding was undertaken only when seriously damaged. The nave of the church at Great Dalby was rebuilt in very secular manner,so it is actally the great hall of manor-house,with tall transomed windows,a squre room devided by couple of arches.Church architecture was like all the rest,extremely secular because the architect did not know other . The chief activity was putting up of monuments to prosperous like merchants and yeomens. The interios revealed religious reforms-the altars were missing,images,frescoes and wall paintings whitewashed over and much more,although there was still stained glass and carved benches . There is not many pulpits from Elizabethan time,two or three in the county ,and those ones were very simple,ractangularly panelled . Communion tables are also rare.There is one fine example at Blyford,Suffolk,with bulbous legs,very simple,like those for secular use . There was also many alms-boxes indicating care for the poor ones . The brasses and slabs were at their peak in 14th and 15th century ,so they were very much used . Another development is the memorial for women who died at childbirth ,being portrayed in bed with their babies . Merchant appear with the tools of their trade ,sometimes the effect is even comic . Small heraldic brasses often with traces of colouring,are often beautiful .

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Brasses developed out of incised slabs but the latter have survived in far fewer number . Good tradition continued up to 1640.The best monuments were those in slate ,of figures sculpted in relief ,coloured and ornamental.Most notable exponent of provintial art was Peter Crocker of Plymouth. BOOK The first and most important book was about aestethics and architecture was Sir Henry Wotton's The Elements of Architecture ,published in 1624 . He had been in Italy for a long time and in his book he shows himself very well read and founded.His experience f i'Ormerom Italy was very much shown.He admired to Palladio , Durer and de l'Orme . His book was the first one of that kind in England . According to Wotton the foundation principles of architecture are commodity,firmness and delight . Wotton was predecessor of English Palladianism . In his opinion practicality should prevail,and the space shoul be determined by use . He is very classical,although there are some English characteristics like empiricism,moderation and importance he gives to the natural principle in art . He treats art briefly,only concerning architecture,-sculptures and painting .Painting he regards as artistic miracle for artistist giving the illusion of 2 dimensional to be 3 dimensional . SCULPTURE That branch of art suffered the most in the Reformation.There was immense destruction of every religously inspired form of art . At 1570s English sculptors were dying out,every connection with Italy and France was broken.Later the English sculpture is dominated by the Dutch craftsmen,who were also protestants .It started developing again,and thousands of destroyed monuments and shrines were replaced by new ones . The art is recovering .At the end of the period among sculptors Epiphanius Evesham stands out . The progressive secularisation is evident,the figures on the tombs are shown as they were alive . Epiphanius is known as an exquisite artist.His works come very late at 1600 to 1614 in France,probably for him being Catholic was easier to work there . He made a tomb for Archbishop of Sense in Notre Dame . There is barely nothing in secular sculpture,just four busts of Tudor at Lumley Castle,those of Sir Nicolas Bacon,wife and son Francis . They represent the highest achievement of the period for Becon,Lumley even more were connoisseur,probably commision bz the foreign artists . IRONWORK Masterpiece of late fifteenth century was Master John Tresillian-s screen and gate at St Georges Chapel in Windsor . The highest standart was in the late Gothic . The new ways caused confusion . With the development of wall fireplaces there is a great demand for decorations so,of which many remain like the fine speciment of Tudor rose/fleur de lis from 1558. English specialty that floriates in 1580s are rain water pipes that exemplifies the fusion of Gothic with Renaissance decoration . PLASTERWORK A rich quantity of admirable plasterwork remains in spite of constant destruction.It was very popular at that time,mostly for decoration of ceilings and

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friezes.Plaster in England was mostly the work of Englishmen .Both early and late Renaissance developed distinctive style ,however they were influenced by Continental sources . As far as quality is conecerned it varied very much,and though it had never achieved elegance of Italian plasterwork it had its own masculine vigour. Although local craftsmen often imperfectly grasped a new style there were local good schools of craftsmen in Devon where as in the houses great amount of works remained .

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The Enlightenment as a Way of Life


The Enlightenment prosvjetiteljstvo, Aufklarung, sicle de lumieres was considered to be the Age of Reason by its contemporaries, because reason became dominant over religious teachings and common superstitions. The Enlightenment je the movement which marks the 18th century and it represents a sort of a turning point to the way man approaches all aspects of life, including religion, marriage, politics, behavior, education, etc. New ideas emerge in this period and their fundament is reason. They discus the way man needs to live and think about life, and, again, they are based solely on reason, which is why this period is also called The Age of Reason. This is the time of great discoveries that shook up the religious principles of life and caused a wave of skepticism towards the Church, Holy Scripture and religiousness. The effect of these scientific discoveries is a creation of a wholly new ideology which claims that one must reject superstition and blind faith in God and miracles and turn to human reason to understand the reality in which one lives. This, of course was immediately criticized by the Roman Church and many other religious authorities, because it questioned their dominance as the main authority on the issues concerning the way one lives. One of the consequences was the appearance of social diffusion, which meant that suddenly there was a lesser gap between social classes (this can be claimed only for some countries, especially in Western Europe), especially between the aristocracy and the higher middle class, which started socializing in the same circles. The reason why this is happening is because these two classes have the time and money to spend on books and discussions which became frequent in their households. There is also the class of servants and the urban working middle class, who try their best to imitate their lords the best way they can. On one side we have Western Europe, where the impact of the new ideology is visible in all classes, while the change in Eastern Europe is restrained only to the aristocracy. There are also great differences in the way the ruling bodies act in Catholic and Protestant countries. The Catholic Church tries to fight off this new menace that threatens it dominance, while the Anglican Church takes up a milder approach towards the new ideology. One of the reasons why this is so is because of the difference in the way the two Churches practice Christianity. The greatest resistance to the Church and religion in general is found in France, where the Court and nobility show very loose morality and disregard for any rules set by the Church. As far as England is concerned, we can list three layers of society, which are actually three groups that live side by side. The first group would be the aristocracy and upper middle class (bourgeoisie) who socialized and spent most of their time and money on discussing new literary works and ideologies in places such as Academies, Masonic Lounges, and of course in their homes. The aristocracy showed no or little respect towards the rules set by Christian doctrine. Most of them had mistresses on the side. They also showed great disregard towards religious practices such as fasting and the sacraments. Still, they were the true carriers of the Enlightenment and its ideas. Some argue that the new age was caused by their tiredness from all the wars and bloodshed caused by religion and selfish kings. The aristocracy was the one who came to the conclusion that in order for one to live a good and progressive life one must use reason. They also understood that they have to spread literacy if they want a progressive nation. The higher classes were the ones that led progressive debates and discussions about life, religion, science, nature, marriage, behavior, social equality, slavery, etc. They supported science, literacy, progressiveness,

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and thus presented the greatest threat to the authorities who could do little harm to them because of their social status and noble birth. The fact that they were of noble birth and high ranking gave them great freedom to behave the way they want, and we see their looseness in moral in the example of the French nobility that had many mistresses. Yet, these same aristocrats were the patrons of the philosophes, the men that promoted these new ideas and stirred so much trouble (although they themselves claimed that they couldnt be blamed since they influenced such a small audience). We must emphasize that France was considered as the cultural center in continental Europe. The French were setting the pace on the continent. Other continental nobles copied them, which was less the case on The Isles. They had their own ways, mostly because of the parliamentary system and the insecure position of the monarch. The Isles experienced more turbulence just before the introduction of the Enlightenment, with the Commons taking up more power, and the Glorious Revolution taking place, the Stuarts being replaced by Wilhelm of Orange, who was succeeded by the House of Hanover (this royal family started their reign in the Enlightenment period and they still rule over the UK). The second group is the servants of the nobility and the urban working class (urban because there was a huge difference between the working class from the villages and towns and the city). This group imitated their lords. What important to point out is that the servants lived in the houses of their lords, ate their leftovers and imitated their lords. The lords gave them their worn out clothes and they also had access to books which their lords kept. The lower classes were becoming more literate (you have the Toulouse statistics on your handouts). In fact, new schools were being built and the gifted boys from poorer classes (and from small towns and villages) were given free education (grammar schools in England, Louis le Grand school of Paris). Everybody is reading in Paris. These were the words of a German lawyer who visited Paris in that period. Reading became trendy. This was the period of Fieldings Tom Jones and of the sentimental novel. The classes that suffered the most during this movement were the small merchants and craftsmen. They were the least educated and they basically despised this rejection of the traditional way of living with the standard of life being dictated by the Church. They were used to their traditions and superstitions, and they wanted nothing to do with the new age were the Church and Holy Scripture were being denounced. They still held on to their allegiance to the Church and believed in the infallibility of the Church and the Scripture. These classes were unable to get any education and books were too expensive for them. Thats why the new ideas were so strange and distant to them. There was also a huge difference between the cities and smaller towns and villages. On one side you had the villagers who experienced almost no transformation, while on the other the inhabitants of the cities were completely transforming their way of life, especially the metropolitan cities like Paris London and Amsterdam. In fact, one of the few transformations of the countryside was the possibility for gifted boys to get an education in the city, but once they left, they would never come back. This is the period of promotion of literacy and education of great masses. The slogan of the period was that only through reason one can achieve greatness and in order for you to use your reason you must have a certain kind of education. Of course, the most educated elite were the aristocrats and the upper middle class, and they used their influence to set themselves as the teachers of true taste, behavior, ideas, morality, speech, etc. Furthermore, it was the upper class that possessed these new controversial books which were causing so much damage to the old, Christian style of life promoted by the Church. The nobility had money

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to buy expensive books, even the banned ones, and they also used their class and influence to protect the authors of these controversial works. These books were not only progressive books; there were those books with pornographic and erotic contents. Still, this resistance towards the authorities produced a new generation which was more literate than any other before. Thats why we have sales of newspapers (The Spectator) quadrupled in just 20 years at the end of the 18th century. The promotion of literacy meant openness of thought, although this remained in theory still in the 18th century, but this was a good start. In terms of religion, resistance is being put up towards the old Church teachings and even the Holy Scripture. The highly educated elite start denouncing the validity of the Holy Scripture and the Trinity. The main reason was the new scientific discoveries which cast a shadow of doubt on the correctness of the Scriptures (of all monotheistic religions). The new discoveries opposed the claims of the Bible. Suddenly the geocentric system is being replaced by the heliocentric system, which raises many doubts and eventually leads the elite to found new religions (rather new approach than new religion). The new approach to religion was filled with skepticism and mistrust. This created space for a new set of ideas to emerge. The philosophes claimed that there was only one God, but He is not the God of the Holy Scriptures (of any monotheistic religion), but a totally different God, Whose understanding was based on reason. The problem with this new religion was that it was too complicated for the masses to understand it, so it was limited to a small number of people (the elite). The religion was called Deism and it rejected the Sacraments, Holy Trinity, Holy Scriptures, miracles, revelations and superstitions, also all religious beliefs which were not backed by science and pure reason. Nevertheless, most people stayed Christians, although somewhat confused due to the differences of the religious doctrines and scientific discoveries. Isaac Newton was one of the men who tried to explain the Holy Scripture through science and reason. At that time there were many scientists who were very religious, yet they used reason in their scientific research. They tried to prove that approving science doesnt exclude believing in God and the Holy Scripture. One of the new concepts was God the clockmaker. Philosophes claimed that there was one God who created the universe as a clock mechanism, but this God left the universe alone after He created it. He has nothing to do with it anymore. He doesnt interfere, so theres no use praying to Him, since He cannot help you, nor does He want to. Another set of ideas that emerged were materialism and determinism, which basically meant that all is matter (or rather made of matter cestica, materija). There is no soul, no spirit, no supernatural events, no miracles and things like that these ideas laid the fundaments for atheistic beliefs and somewhat for Darwins theory of evolution. So, this life is the only life we have. There is no Hell. There is no Heaven. Enjoy now, or youll just waste your life. What is interesting is the fact that the clergy played a great role in the period, especially in smaller towns and villages. Some of them were very much under the influence of this new set of ideas. We have an example of a priest coming to church, yet questioning his beliefs and even thinking about women, etc. Some clergy had their doubts about the Biblical geocentric claims, due to the discovery of the heliocentric system. The clergy was the second to the aristocracy in terms of endorsing the new ideology. They were the ones who kept a large number of the most controversial books in their libraries such as Montesquieu and Voltaire. Many of the philosophes were taught by the clergy before they introduced their ideas to the higher classes. One of the richest libraries was that of a French cleric from a small town in the south. He was reported to have had 22 copies of the Encyclopedia.

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It might be good to mention some of the most prominent names of the period like Voltaire, dHolbach, Montesquieu, Diderot (the great editor of the Encyclopedia), Johnson, Newton, Locke, Hume, Lessing, Grimm, Rousseau, Goethe, Barbier, Condillac, Raynal, etc. These thinkers and influential men of the period enjoyed the protection of the aristocracy. The higher classes were their patrons. There were also influential patronesses like Madame Roland and Madame Necker. I will mention some of the most influential newspapers Spectator from London, which sold around 35 000 copies per edition in the second half of the 18 th century; also the Mercure from France available in as many as 26 cities in 1748, and in 55 already in 1774. Still, Spains Correro de Madrid and Espiritu de los majores did not sell that well, possibly because of the great influence of the Church. Also, Germany had many local papers. One of the most important innovations was the optimistic view about the present times the people of this age shared, or at least the higher classes did. For the first time in history man thinks that the age he/she lives in is progressive and that he/she is living in the golden era of human history. On the other side, the philosophes shared an opinion that the Middle Ages were degrading, humiliating, destructive, not worth mentioning and that nothing good came out of it. This was the time when the name Dark Ages was coined. The source of their inspiration was the Anitque, the Classical Period, Greece and Ancient Rome, especially the Augustan Age (they admired Cicero and Brutus). Even though they imitated the Classical Period in almost everything, they still believed that their age was far superior to any other. This was the best period. This life was the best. This planet was the best. They only saw progress in their period (although many cases point out that there was much ignorance and many superstitions still existed). Even though they celebrated their progressiveness, they doubted the future generations. They considered it impossible for the future generations to be progressive. How can you have something progressive after the most progressive period? How can you be better than the best? A new idea concerning God emerged. Suddenly, God is no longer the Great Punisher Who tortures human kind, but He is the Benevolent God, a Father figure, a Teacher Who, instead of forcing Abraham to sacrifice his son, He blesses human kind with science and great discoveries. Newton claimed that the best way to be pious is to work hard and study. This is the first time in Western history that the question of equality of humans is being raised. Humans are equal no matter the nationality, race, and religion. Still, this was just in theory, since this century was the century when slave trade flourished, but we have an interesting example of a Dutchman advising his son to explore all religions to expand his views. This is the time of abolishment of executions and death sentences, witch trials, religious intolerance (except for the Jews the Jews were still mistreated in most parts of Western Europe). In 1792 the House of Commons representative Lord Sheffield expresses his approval of abolishment of slavery. By the end of the 18th century most hard punishments are abolished throughout Europe (although France and the UK struggled to abolish the death sentence they did so in the second decade of the 19 th century). We must also mention that this is the first time when charity work appears. People started raising money for the less fortunate. The idea of philanthropy (love for the human being) was born. Nevertheless, most of these ideas just stayed ideas. They were not brought into practice. Still, the idea of national superiority is being dropped and the best of nations was thought to be the one who took care of their poorest the best way they could.

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The ideals of this period were set by the aristocracy and the upper middle class. One of the most important ideals was reasonableness one must act according to reason in whatever situation and drop the traditional rules of behavior and stupid superstitions. There is an example of an Elector of Bavaria, Maximillian of Bavaria, who ate the picture of the Holy Virgin to cure himself from small pox. His doctor recommended this cure. This was in 1774, so we can see what the philosophes meant when they said traditions and superstitions. The aristocracy decided to civilize the less fortunate how to behave, so they set a set of rules on behavior, inside and outside your house, in manners, dressing, eating, etc. This is called decorum. Decorum the aristocracy prescribes limits of appropriate social behavior within set situations. Suddenly we have these polished manners and formalities by which one has to act in order not to be mocked and considered a savage. There are a few more terms which you need to remember, like intellectualism and reasoning, which we covered already. The last thing thats left is to mention that although they behaved the way they did, they thought that it was very important to preserve balance and harmony, not to exaggerate in anything (which is also something they imitated from the Classical Times).

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The cultural horizont of most educated men in Western Europe in the early 17th century was dominated by two main sources: scripture and the classics. Scientist relied on these two sources in their discoveries. They tried to find the scientific proofs for some of the fact named in the Old Testament. It is important tomention that most of the scientists were religious men. The late 17th century is known by high level of superstition amoung the lay people. Only in Longuedoc 400 sorcerers were burned. These sorcerers were accused of heresy and that they have made pacts with the Devil. The witchcrafting increased in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. The Storms that delayed the return of James I to Scotland accourding to laymen was the product of sorcery. At this time the most active witch-hunters were laymen. Since the world beyond Europe was unknown some scientists belived that ocean is full of different kind of monsters. Some of them also belived in unicorns. This century is also known by the favourism of geocentric system from the Church. It is written in the Old Testament that the Earth is the centar of the universe and that everything else revolves around it. This fact automaticly implied that the man is the lord of the universe( Greek and Jewish-Christian tradition). The heliocentric system was expounded in 1543 by Copernicus and developed by Galileo nearly century later. This age was also significant by development of telescopes and astronomical abservations. The Church was very strict in this matter and prosecuted those who were against the geocentric system. Giordano Bruno was an ex-Dominican who renounced Christianity and who belived in eliocentric system and was burned at stake because of it. In the late 17th century Europe was the main centar for scientific researches. All the discoveries were published in Europe and scientists belived that beyond Europe lived only barbarians and savages. Limits of the known world were driven back to Europe. The 18th century was called The Age of Reason or The Enlightment. Reason become the main source of human perception of world and of education. Reason accourding to Spinoza and Decartes is enlisted in the service of God. Reason can also be defined as Gods light in human brain. The coneption of reason ment that the man is the master of its own destiny. Reason gives us the ability to think on our own and to choose whatever we want to. The 18th century was age of great scientists and scientific discoveries. Amoung the most important people of The Enlightment were Issac Newton, francis Bacon and John Locke. Issac Newton was university professpr on Cambrige. He was born in 1642. He was mathematician who gave the theory of universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Died in 1727. Francis Bacon was born in 1561. He served as Attorney General and Lord Chancelor of England. The most important man who left us method of experiment and induction. He rejected the authority of tradition in all branches of learning. He died in 1627. John Locke was born in 1632. He was a politician, a refugee in Holland from 1683 to 1688. A big fighter for human freedom and a man who put an end to Divine Right monarchy in England. He died in 1704. The Church had a very strict relation towards the scientists. Church claimed that the dissmisal of church authority will bring them to the faith of Lucifer. The scientists find it increasingly hard to offer a rational justification for traditional beliefs. Because of this Church prohibited the books of scientists to be published. Church still had the laymen under its own protection, in other words under Church control. The 18th century was the time of discovering new civilizations like China and India. These civilizations had more knowledge than those in Europe. Influences

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on European art and thought coe from China. Many scientists would go and collect knowledge and than published it in Europe. The American Indians were described as most gentle and faithful, void of all guile and treason and that they live after the manner of the golden age. Deism is a philosophical belief in the existence of God on the basis of reason and observation of the natural world alone. Deists generaly rejected the notion of supernatural revelation as a basis of truth and religious dogma. They also thought that human reason has no need to be supporting arm of the theology to find its way to truth. Reason becomes the judger of good and bad..............

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The Consumer Society


Definition: a society in which people frequently buy new goods, especially goods which are not essential, and which places a high value on owning many things. The coming of advertising on the television and its growing importance in the press were symptoms of the growth, from about the mid-fifties, of the consumer society. The emphasis of the post-war government had been on social need in the provision of schools and hospitals and other services which, it was thought, could best provided communally. Now the emphasis was shifted to the needs of individual. The increase of consumer goods in the 1960s and encouragement of the privatisation of many public services and industries, and growing private purchase of education and health services. Importance of advertising industry: helps to keep the consumers informed and to spread awareness about products or services. In the consumer society advertising became supremely important, for goods were mass produced for which mass consumption than had to be stimulated, rather than to meet an already demonstrated need. From the mid-1950s image became a prime concern, and not only the image of products, but the image of people and of corporate concerns, even churches became fitting subjects for the services of the marketing experts. The concentration on image affected all aspect of life. For the consumer it raised expectations of a life-style which for most could never be realised, through the depiction in advertisements of ideal families, kitchens, gardens, or holidays. The advertising in advance of a book, film, or pop group was used to create a bestselling image in the public mind even before the product was on the market, so that best-selling became a self-fulfilling prophecy. In these situations credibility becomes more important than truth, presentation more noticed than content. One consequence of the cultivation of image was the growth of the counterbalancing scepticism which manifested its self in the national taste of satire. With the full encouragement of a new Director General of the BBC, Hugh Carlton Greene, youthful weekly satirical show That Was The Week That Was appeared on television in 1962 and almost the whole nation united in joyful relief at the weekly dose of iconoclasm and taboo-breaking. In the same year, 1962, the weakly paper Private Eye first appeared. The success of That Was The Week That Was caused innumerable satirical shows on television and radio, outstanding among them anarchic Monthy Piton of the 1970s, targeting social manners, and Spitting Image in the 1980s, with its remarkable rubber-faced puppet grotesques. These so offended some members of the establishment, particularly through its caricatures of the Royal Family. Satire was one spirited response to a changing British society. The dissatisfaction of the arrival of new society could be seen also in literature. In the 1950s and early 1960s the novelists Kingsley Amis, and John Braine, playwright John Osborne, and the poet Philip Larkin among others, reflected in their work a sense of the dislocation of the individual (usually working-calls or lower-middle-class) in changing society. But not all artists greeted the changes in society and particularly the coming of the consumer society with dismay11. A group of visual artist in 1954 who called themselves the Independence Group embraced the mass-produced urban culture of movies, advertising and science fiction with enthusiasm, and out of their enthusiasm for the new icons of the age grow pop art, which rejected any distinction between god and bad taste.
Feeling of unhappiness and disappointment

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Many of the working-class also welcomed the consumer society, with its great rewards to compensate for work which for the majority continued to be long, hard and dull; and none welcomed it more than working-class youth, who found themselves for the first time with spare cash to spend. The Youth Culture Phenomenon Definition: refers to the ways young people (between 15 and 25) differentiated themselves from the establishment (from 1960s onwards) Before the economic growth of the mid-1950s there was no such thing as a youth culture, it is product of twenty century. The working class young who were the great majority were pitched into work at the age of fifteen and expected to learn to become adults whilst handing most of their money over to their mothers each week. Most of the middle class young were kept in school uniform till eighteen and were protected from temptation by succession of academic and professional hurdles places in front of them and by severely restricted pocket money and a lack of leisure opportunities. Here are features of the youth culture to come the importance of style and music. The need for working class youth to establish an identity of their own in a society in which they felt little valued no doubt contributed to the phenomenon of working class youth culture. It is ironic that British youth should have to look to America in order to establish a sense of their own identity. With the coming of rock n roll through the records and films of first Bill Haley, and then Elvis Presley, the energising element of dance was added to music, creating such excitement that there were minor riots in cinemas and dance halls. Ballroom dancing although popular as a means for boys and girls to meet, had had its drawbacks steps had to learnt, they were restricting and formal, and might make a young working class male look soft. Rocknroll, by contrast, was physical, creative and uninhibited. With the appearance of rocknroll ballroom dancing became one more style of old-time dance, even for the middle-aged and middle-class. The development of youth cults is also one of the features of the youth culture. They emerged from the 1960s onwards and were largely short-lived neighbourhood allegiances, and lost their hold when the responsibilities of marriage came along. Each cult had its own obsessive style, its own music, and its own loyalties. The Teddy Boys (late 1950s) so called because they adopted an American version of Edwardian dress; they wore a very special rig: long jacket with velvet collar and cuffs drain-pipe trousers, bright ankle socks and slim Jim tie. Their hair was "long" and greased. These boys terrified the English society: razor attacks, fights between gangs but also against the police, robberies ... Mods (early 1960s) mainly lower white collar workers with a neat image; Britain has its first original youth cult, the mods a fashion based culture with a continental style mixed with a love of soul and RnB. Band that reflected everything that mod culture represented was The Who Rockers (1960s) enemies of Mods, tough and aggressively working class, image: leather jackets and motor bikes. Skinheads (1970s) succeeded Rockers with their close-cropped heads and bovver boots, violence and hostility toward homosexuals and hippies. The term Skinhead refers to the shaven heads of its members. Skins are opposed to hard drugs, but are heavily into beer drinking. Skins also emphasize monogamous relationships between male and female members, whereas some gangs share their females. Should a young woman enter the movement and pass herself around to male members in order to become more acceptable, her membership generally will be terminated.

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Punks (mid to late 1970s) deliberately shocking but also highly creative image of mask-like face, brilliantly dyed hair and safety-pin jewellery, The Sex Pistols, The Clash, Ramones, and Iggy Pop; Punk-related ideologies are mostly concerned with individual freedom and anti-establishment views. Common punk viewpoints include non-conformity, direct action and not selling out. Other notable trends in punk politics include anarchism, socialism, anti-militarism, anti-capitalism, antiracism, anti-sexism, anti-nationalism, environmentalism, and vegetarianism. The 1960s was a period of world-wide student concern over human rights issues. American campus unrest in the mid-1960s associated with the Civil Rights movement and the protest against the Vietnam war, reflected in the protest songs of Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, has a powerful influence in Britain, where demonstrations focused on the question of Rhodesian independence, South African apartheid12 laws, and war in Vietnam. In the late 1960s influence of Californian hippy culture began to enter the British campuses, and was adopted by minority of students. The word hippie derives from hipster, and was initially used to describe people who created their own communities, listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs such as cannabis and LSD to explore alternative states of consciousness. Alcohol, drugs and music were stimuli which had kept the youth cultures fizzing. For the working class the drugs were mainly purple hearts bought on the black market. Middle class youth experimented with the mindexpending drugs of cannabis and later, the hippy drug LSD. In the late 1970s and 1980s a new, more worrying drug was used increasingly as an escape route in depressed areas of the county. Alcohol addiction too, became an increasing problem. In the 1960s, though, the use of drugs was one means by which extraordinary could be pushed to its extreme limits. The permissive society Definition: society from the 1960s onwards where norms are becoming increasingly liberal. Permissive society of the 1960s stemmed from the coming together of two separate traditions, humanism and a late romanticism. Christianity was in decline in Britain throughout the period, particularly in the Church of England and the other Protestant churches but also among Roman Catholics. As Christianity declined and became less confident in its moral certainties it was left to humanists to take the lead in promoting important and widely-welcomed reforms of the moral code. Capital punishment was abolished in 1965. The laws relating to abortion, family planning, homosexuality and divorce were all reformed in the late 1960s. Some religious leaders sought to update their message, notably Bishop Robinson, whose Honest to God (1963) caused a sensation by espousing the new morality. Robinson wrote that nothing can of itself always be labelled as wrong, giving extramarital sex as an example. After this it was possible to publish many books dealing with explicitly sexual material, and was the precursor of the abolition of theatre censorship (1968), the relaxation of cinema censorship, and a much greater tolerance of sexual material on television. It is probable that most people welcomed what was seen as a freer and less hypocritical attitude to sex. In particular, the legalising of homosexual acts between consenting males righted a long-standing injustice which affected a much larger proportion of the population that had been realised. However, a liberalisation had its opponents. Opponents of permissive society were various religious and social groups, e.g. Catholic communities. If the permissive society begins in the 1960s, the moral majority also begin to counter it and continued to do so through the succeeding decades. The leading
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A political system in which people of different races are separated 43

figure in this movement was an unknown school mistress and follower of the moral movement, Mrs Mary Withhouse. Co-founder of a movement to clean up television, she concentrated her fire largely one the BBC, which she proclamed as sex mad, left-wing and the centre of a conspiracy to remove myth of God from the mind of man. She inspired more than one Conservative Prime Minister to try to get more control of program content, but despite the sympathetic interest in the 1980s of Prime Minister Mrs Thatcher herself, made little progress. In the influence of humanism was one strand of the permissive society, the other a late romantic desire to banish controls, break down barriers and give everyone unfettered freedom to do his own thing, and push experience to its limits. The most obvious symbol of this desire for freedom was the miniskirt, which retreated further and further up the thighs as the decade progressed. The 1960s girl depicted in the films of the period swings confidently through the streets, alone and self-contained, long hair streaming behind her, in every way a symbol of an emancipation which existed only in the minds of film-makers and fashion photographers. The actual 1960s girl was more likely to be found in creaming hysterical mob at the pop concert, or worshiping her pop star with her friends. Hysteria was one way of pushing experience to its limits, and some pop groups incorporated it into their acts by a climatic smashing of guitars, and equipment. Drugs might perform the similar function of the release; so too might the mysticism of the Eastern religions, particularly Zen Buddhism, which gained large followings from the late 1960s, begin given the rebels seal of the approval when taken up by The Beatles. Meditation became so popular that Christian churches set up groups to practice it. Hysteria, drugs, mysticism, and meditation: these offered very different qualities of release. So too, with the literary gurus of the period. J.J.R Tolkiens fantasy The Lord of the Rings has a large cult following. The Proverbs of Hell of William Blake taken out of the contest of his whole work provided popular rebellious slogans: Damn braces: Bless relaxes, The tigers of wrath are wiser than the horses of instruction, and Sooner murder an infant in its cradle than nurse unacted desires. Artists explored the possibilities of sounds, materials, language, and locations which had not been considered appropriate to art. The boundaries between art forms were broken down by multi-media creations such as performance art. This could take extreme forms. In 1965 two artists even discussed the possibility of publicly disembowelling human corpse and hurling the guts at the audience.

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WOMEN AFTER 1945: COMPANIONATE MARRIAGE &DOUBLE BURDEN.


1. Companionate Marriage * Definition: A companionate marriage is based on the spouses having mutual interests in their careers and children. Spouses in companionate marriages believe in the equality of men and women and believe their roles in marriage are interchangeable. *The sociologists in the 1950s and 1960s argued that they witnessed a dramatic change in how marriage was understood and practiced in general. Formerly, they argued, marriage was seen as an institution in which roles and responsibilities were defined by convention and norms wee maintained by community and kinship pressures. After the war, marriages were based on personal preferences of the partners, and in that way they negotiated their roles in the marriage itself, it wasnt like before the war, that is marriage being based on the imposed expectations. This companionate marriage became an important aspect. It implied a co-operative agreement of some kind. In the year of 1949, it was observed and found that there was now greater emphasis on the wifes role as companion to her husband as well as a producer of children and that this had raised womens status in marriage. The idea that a husband and a wife formed a partnership or a team became accepted and widespread. In the 1950s it was claimed by the sociological studies that marital partners, husband and wife, were becoming more and more equal. Seventy-five per cent (75%) that were studied by Ferdynand Zweig in 1952 claimed absolute or near equality of the partners in a marriage relationship. 2. Domestic Work * Even though the idea of a companionate marriage was widespread, it was encouraged and equally accepted what many people were used to already, considering women the housewives. Many people, such as William Beveridge, who was a post-war architect of the welfare state, thought that it was perfectly fine that the woman stays home and does the housekeeping as long as she is not overwhelmed with the domestic work. *1944 Education Act: Recommended that young girls should be thought domestic science because they were all potential home-makers. After this Act was passed, most of the curriculums which young girls attended had some applicability to the home. *Womens Literature/Magazines -Around the year of 1960, five out of six women saw at least one magazine per week. These women magazines urged upon her virtues of the new discoveries. They advised furnishing of homes and recommended that women to become home decorators. Women who read these magazines were expected to spend time and money on keeping themselves young and attractive. The magazine articles were supposed to help them on the dress, hairstyling, and the use of beauty products. Spending money on clothes, footwear, and cosmetics rose seventy-eight per cent (78%) between 1956 and 1965. The magazines were not only influencing women to change their individual commodities, but were also introducing a new lifestyle.

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*Equal Pay Act of 1970 and Sex Discrimination legislation of 1975: Set rules for the employees, that they could not specify sex/gender, in their working requirements. They also could not ask women on an interview if shes planning to get pregnant, etc. *Marriage Crisis: Immediately after the was. The divorce rate rose sharply to 3.7 divorces per 1,000 married people. This rate dropped to 2 per 1,000 in the 1950s, but then it returned to the 1946-50 level by 1968, and continued to climb steeply throughout 1970s, stabilizing at around 12 per 1,000 in the 1980s There was many reasons for this rise of divorces. One of the major ones, however, was that the husbands found this changed position of women difficult to accept. Also, the contemporary emphasis on sexual satisfaction weakened restraints on extramarital sex. Many of these divorces remarried. The significance of the growing acceptability of cohabitation for women was that loss of virginity before marriage was no longer as taboo as it had been. Advice to women in magazines relaxed considerably between the 1950s and the 1970s. It was strong disapproval of premarital sex for women than for that of the man in 1969. 27 per cent of men and 49 per cent of women thought that men should not have sex before marriage, whereas 43 per cent of men and 68 per cent of women though women should not do so. The gradual disappearance on pre-marital sex coincided with greater accepted of the unmarried mother, renamed the single parent in the 1970s. The proportion of mothers bringing up children on their own rose from 2 to 4 per cent between 1961 and 1987. *Cohabitation: is the idea of two people, men and woman, who are usually in some kind of relationship, living together. This, at that time was opposed by some, but many accepted it. Living together and having sexual contact before marriage became widespread and it was not such a taboo any longer. Cohabitation, as a lifestyle, is on the rise. Consider the significant growth in cohabitation rates in the last few decades. In 1960 and 1970, about a half million were living together. CONCLUSION: Even though many women liked the idea that they were becoming more equal to men and had their own earnings, that \had some downfalls. They brought their marriage in danger/ unmarried women put their future marriage, in question, and could easily get stuck with being a single mother for the rest of their life.

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