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Neil Aldrin Valeroso


Different Formatting Styles

Properly citing the sources for a research paper is crucial for a writer to avoid plagiarism and build credibility. The most common styles used for listing references include that of the Modern Language Association (MLA) and the American Psychological Association (APA), as well as the "Chicago Manual of Style" (CMS). Each style requires a list of sources at the end of the paper and has its own style for inserting footnotes and endnotes. Whereas CMS uses notes exclusively, MLA and APA predominantly use in-text citation.

MLA Formatting
y MLA formatting is often used for research papers within the humanities and liberal arts. In-text parenthetical citations place the appropriate source in parentheses directly following a quote or paraphrased information. The information must correlate with the information listed in the paper's "Works Cited" page. Endnotes or footnotes may be used to refer the reader to additional publications or to provide content notes that provide additional information. Papers must include a separate page at the end entitled "Works Cited."

APA Formatting

APA style is often used for research papers within the social sciences. In-text citations are used, and are formatted with the author's last name and the source's publication year in parentheses with full reference information included in a list at the end of the research paper. Endnotes or footnotes are allowed only if necessary to provide explanatory information. Content notes, which provide additional information for the reader, are allowed but must be short and focused on one subject. The reference list should be a new page located at the end of the research paper, and should contain references for all sources used in the paper. The first line of each reference should not be indented; however, each subsequent line should be indented by one-half inch. Each should include the last name of the author, then the first name; the list should be alphabetized according to the authors' last names.

CMA Formatting

The "Chicago Manual of Style" has a notes-bibliography (NB) citation system, and is mainly used by publishers and students in the arts, history or literature. The NB system uses endnotes or footnotes along with a bibliography at the end of the paper. Each time a source is used, whether is paraphrased or directly quoted, the writer should provide an endnote/footnote. The first note should include all applicable source information while each subsequent note only needs to include the author's last name, title and page number. The "Bibliography" page should be a separate page at the end of the paper and must include each source cited in the research paper. The bibliography is alphabetized according to the author's last name.

Neil Aldrin Valeroso


Different Research Styles

Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic
investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method. The primary purpose for basic research (as opposed to applied research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.

Scientific research relies on the application of the scientific method, a

harnessing of curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world around us. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines.

Artistic research, also seen as 'practice-based research', can take form when
creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge and truth.

Historical research is embodied in the historical method.