Summer Internship Program (SIP) 2011 Report


Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Bachelor of Technology In Electronics and Telecommunication

Guide: Mr. Ashok Kale 09421053428

Submitted by: Abhinav Shandilya

Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Lavale, Pune Symbiosis International University, Lavale Campus


It is my proud privilege to acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude and devotion, the keen interest rendered to us by revered employees of ALL INDIA RADIO. I am also very thankful to our training guide Mr. Ashok Kale (A.E.) and all the concerned and non-concerned instructors and members as well as the university who gave us a chance to learn a lot in the form of summer training. Without there support, it would have been difficult job to successfully complete the training. I want to thank the Department of Electronics and Telecommunication of the Symbiosis Institute of Technology and especially Dr. Narayan Pisharoty for giving me permission to commence this program in the first instance and to do the necessary research work.


All India Radio (abbreviated AIR), officially known as Akashvani is the radio broadcaster of India and a division of Prasar Bharati. Established in 1936[.It is the sister service of Prasar Bharati's Doordarshan the national television broadcaster, today. All India Radio is one of the largest radio networks in the world. Their headquarters is at the Akashvani Bhavan, New Delhi. Akashvani Bhavan houses the drama section, the FM section and the National service.

SERVICES AIR has many different services each catering to different regions/languages across India. One of the most famous services of the AIR is the Vividh Bharat i Seva (roughly translating to "Multi-Indian service"). Vividh Bharati celebrated its Golden Jubilee on 3October 2007. Vividh Bharati has the only comprehensive database of songs from the so termed "Golden Era" of Hindi film music (roughly from 1940s to 1980s). This service is the most commercial of all and is popular in Mumbai and other cit ies of India. This service offers a wide range of programs including news, film music, comedy shows, etc. The Vividh Bhart i service operates on different MW band frequencies for each cit y as shown below
External services: The External Services Division of All India Radio broadcasts in 27 languages to countries outside of India, primarily by high powered short wave broadcasts although medium wave is also used to reach neighboring countries. In addition to broadcasts targeted at specific countries by language there is a 'General Overseas Service' which broadcasts in English with 8¼ hours of programming each day and is aimed at a general international audience. The External broadcasts were started on October 1, 1939 by the then British Government to counter the propaganda of the Nazis directed at the Afghan people. The first broadcasts were in Pushto beamed to Afghanistan and the then North West Frontier Province. Soon broadcasts were started in Dari, Persian, Arabic, English, Burmese, Japanese, Chinese, Malay, French etc. The External Services today broadcast in the 27 languages (16 foreign and 11 Indian languages) with a total program output of 70.25 hrs. per day (on MW & SW).

A broadcast studio is an acoustically treated room. consoles. acoustic treatment of studio walls. etc to 100KW AM and 10KW FM transmitter respectively. telephone lines / STL and Transmitter. microphones. microphones. but quality of sound suffers in this system as far as S/N ratio is concerned. STL. . The broadcast of a program from source to listener involves use of studios. announcer console. Low level mixing system may look economical since it requires one single pre-amplifier for all low level inputs. switching console. microphones. This report consist details of major sections starting from Radio station which is divided into subsections like consoles. AM and FM station at Hadapsar and Sinhgad area respectively. STL. codec.The AIR station where I did my training is based in Pune. with main studio at Shivajinagar. transmitters etc. satellite receiver. It is necessary that the place where a programme for broadcast purposes is being produced should be free of extraneous noise. The main objective behind this training was to study the various sections of radio broadcasting in full technical details which includes studios.

N. are monitored before broadcasting. the clarity of sound. Repeat coil is 1:1 transformer used for safety purpose to protect one circuit from another circuit fault by separating them electrically. . Output signal is selected by fader (variable attenuator) & leads to jack panel. noise level etc. Switching console is the main component in the control room. Now signal is send to transmitter by coaxial cables. Here input is through mike (-7db) & record players (0db). A +4db pad is provided so that input to switching console is 0db. Switching console is similar in function as announcer console but output of this is send to transmitter after equalized line amplifier. Now signal is fed to transmitter. also both ends are connected to repeat coil. It means the proper programs of appropriate level. output is at +4dbu after internal processing. then a 6db pad. of all studios & six of R. The purpose of the distribution amplifier is to provide multiple outputs at the same level from single input.Overview of Radio Station Consoles are the main component in the radio station. Control room is the place where all features of programs are controlled before sending it to the transmitter for broadcasting. Monitoring & selection of the proper program to be broadcasted is selected through switching console. Mainly playback studio is used for announcing a program & rest studios are chiefly used recording live & however we can use them as playback in emergency. Recording room is for recording & editing of various programs. station signal is again fed to equalizer line amplifier & then to 14db pad. In jack panel various connection are provided. Main component of playback studio is announcer console. then 6dbu signal is fed to limiter (6dbu). frequencies. In transmission. We can interlink them or connect to switching console through bars. after repeat coil 7 & 4db pad. Signal is routed through distribution amplifier while passing from the control room.

the program can be from OB spot. Programs that are to be relayed from other Radio Stations are received in a receiving centre and then sent to the studio centre or directly received at the studio centre through RN terminal/telephone line. In some cases.STUDIO CHAIN IN AIR STATION Normally the program originate from a studio centre located inside the city/town for the convenience of artists. . All these programs are then selected and routed from studio to transmitting centre through broadcast quality telephone lines or studio transmitter microwave/VHF links. The program could be either ³live´ or recorded´. such as commentary of cricket match etc.

Type II has one additional drama studio. a talks studio with announcer booth. . is not able to distinguish between wanted and unwanted signals and will pick up the sound not only from the artists and the instruments but also reflections from the walls marring the quality and clarity of the programme. there is a warning lamp. the microphone which is the first equipment that picks up the sound. service room. BROADCAST STUDIO A broadcast studio is an acoustically treated room. R/C room. rooms. The other types have more studios progressively. III and IV. tape library. music studio with announcer booth. etc. DG room. The studio centre in AIR are categorized as Type I. The number of studios and facilities provided in each type are different. Outside of every studio entrance. one recording/dubbing room and a Read Over Room. mixing and cueing facilities are provided. which glows µRed¶ when the studio is µON-AIR¶. This is possible only if the area of room is insulated from outside sound. a control room and other ancillary rooms like battery room. So the studios are to be specially treated to give an optimum reverberation time and minimum noise level. The entry to the studios is generally through sound isolating lobby called sound lock.c. switch gear room. II. It is necessary that the place where a programme for broadcast purposes is being produced should be free of extraneous noise. waiting room.STUDIO CENTRE The Studio Centre comprises of one or more studios. For example a type I studio has a transmission studio. recording and dubbing room. The studios have separate announcers booths attached to them where first level fading. Further. The size of such a centre and the number of studios provided depend on the program activities of the station. a.

y Before feeding the programmes to the transmitter. optimum reverberation time etc.Studio Operational Requirements Many technical requirements of studios like minimum noise level.(This is applicable in case of telephone lines only) y Visual signalling facility between studio announcer booth and control room should also be provided. y Facility to fade in/fade out the programme smoothly and control the programme level within prescribed limits. are normally met at the time of installation of studio. . Announcer console does this function. These are as follows: y Programme in a studio may originate from a microphone or a tape deck. It is also called switching console. y If the programmes from various studios are to be fed to more than one transmitter. a master switching facility is also required. The Control Console in the control room performs this function. y For routing of programmes from various studios/OB spots to a central control room. y Facility for aural monitoring to check the quality of sound production and sound meters to indicate the intensity (VU meters). However for operational purposes. or a turntable or a compact disc or a R-DAT. we require a facility to further mix/select the programmes. certain basic minimum technical facilities are required for smooth transmission of programmes and for proper control. So a facility for selection of output of any of these equipments at any moment is necessary. the response of the programme should be made flat by compensating HF and LF losses using equalised line amplifiers.

which normally provides a level of ±70 dBm. as we see. However. The first and foremost requirement is that we should be able to select the output of any of these equipments at any moment and at the same time should be able to mix output of two or more equipments. Turntable which provides an output of 0 dBm. . Audio mixing is done in following two ways: i) Required equipments are selected and then outputs are mixed before feeding to an amplifier. 2). the level from microphone is quite low and need to be amplified.MIXING As already mentioned. so as to bring it to the levels of tape recorder/ tape decks. CDs will also provide a level of 0 dBm. This is called low level mixing (Fig. Tape decks which may provide a level of 0 dBm. This is not commonly used now days. various equipments are available in a studio to generate programme as given below: y y y y Microphone.

Noise level at the input of best designed pre-amplifier is of the order of ±120 dBm and the output levels from low level equipment ±70 dBm. In low level mixing. 2 Low level mixing Low-level output of each equipment is pre-amplified and then mixed. (Fig. This is called high level mixing. there is signal loss of about 10 to 15 dB in mixing circuits. 3). All India Radio employs High level mixing. Announcer Console .Fig. the S/N ratio achieved in low level mixing is 35 to 40 dB only. 3 High level mixing Low level mixing system may look economical since it requires one single pre-amplifier for all low level inputs. Fig. Therefore. but quality of sound suffers in this system as far as S/N ratio is concerned. High level mixing system requires one pre-amplifier in each of the low level channels but ensures a S/N of better than 50 dB.

live broadcast from recording studio. Such control console is known as switching console. Broad functions of switching console in control room are as follows: y Switching of different sources for transmission like News. Quality monitoring. there would be a provision for further mixing which is provided by a control console manned by engineers.Most of the studios have an attached booth. other satellite based relays. Control Room For two or more studios set up. O. Communication link between control room and different studios. This is also acoustically treated and contains a mixing console called Announcer Console. The Announcer Console is used for mixing and controlling the programmes that are being produced in the studio using artist microphones. tape playback decks and turn tables/CD players. The technical facilities provided in a typical announcer booth. besides an Announcer Console are one or two microphones for making announcements. two turn tables for playing the gramophone records and two playback decks or tape recorders for recorded programmes on tapes. Recently CD and Rotary Head Digital Audio Tape Recorder (R-DAT) are also included in the Transmission Studio. which is called transmission booth or Announcer booth or play back studio.Bs. y y y y Level equalisation and level control. RECORDING ROOM . This is also used for transmission of programmes either live or recorded. Signaling to the source location.

2. With this arrangement output of CTR # 1 can be recorded on CTR # 2. This arrangement allows mixing of programmes.e. it converts electrical signal into sound wave.3 and 4.A block schematic of a typical recording room is shown in figure 12. Transformers T1 and T2 transform the output impedance of the cassette recorder to 600 ohm. Three numbers of receptacles for cassette outputs have been provided. Please carefully note the impedances and levels at various points. Moving Coil or dynamic loudspeaker . DUBBING ROOM A block schematic of a typical dubbing room is shown in figure 11. The arrangement is similar to the recording room except that an additional tape deck and a mixer unit have been provided. Red and green lamps are provided on the control panel for indications from and to control room and studios. Loud Speakers A loudspeaker performs an opposite function to a microphone. Outputs from the multiple pads are wired to PB switches. Two numbers of CTRs and two numbers of Push Button switches have been shown. Outputs from various studios and switching consoles have been given to multiple pads 1. i. The output of CTR # 1 is wired to PB switch # 2 through MP # 6.

. Whenever any cone movement is to be reversed its connections at the terminals may be interchanged to get the sound output in phase. Speaker Impedance Normally such speakers are designed with impedances of 2. When several speakers are connected in parallel as in the case of column units then their phase must be checked. Voice coil is having a few turns of wire. plastic or aluminium former. Low frequency speakers known ³woofers´ are of large size. When audio currents from an amplifier flows through the coil. Spider permits forward backward motion but no lateral motion. thus forming a dome ³tweeter´.9. The resulting cone vibrations produce air pressure variation in correspondence with the audio signal. The voice coil and the cone assembly move corresponding to the audio currents. depending on the position of the permanent magnet. The two fields attract or repel each other.It consists of a permanent magnet and a voice coil for carrying audio signals. In fact all the cones should behave identically so that their outputs are together.8. In hi-fi applications two or more speakers are used to cover the full audio range. To reproduce high frequencies. The middle range speakers are called ³squeakers´.32 ohms.3. The coil is suspended with the help of ³spider´.5. This field is at right angle to the field of permanent magnet. it is common to attach a dome of fabric or plastic material to the coil than to the cone. It is attached to a peper that radiates sound. This is done by feeding currents from a Torch cell through a switch.16. made of flexible material. wound on paper. it produces a magnetic field around the coil. While switching it on every time the position of the cone is watched whether it is moving inwards or outwards.

Headphone impedances range from 4 to 1000 ohms. Specifications of a stereo headphone type EM 6201 (Philips) are given below: Frequency range Matching impedance Maximum input 20 to 20 kHz 4 to 32 ohms 0.1 watt. If the permanent magnet has become weak or the paper cone is torn off. Headphones Headphones basically work on the same principles which are applicable to loudspeakers. Therefore.The matching of the loud-speakers impedance with the output impedance of a monitoring amplifier is important. . However. Thus even very small units are capable of providing very good bass performance. Most headphones used for high quality applications are either moving coil or electrostatic. monitoring speakers should be the best available. with headphones the acoustical loading is achieved by intimacy of the ear units to the ears. By listening to poor quality. the loudspeaker may be replaced. This is done by suitable series parallel combinations in the speakers to approach the amplifiers impedance. the ears lose the discrimination of good and bad quality programme.

Television and Computer field. physically cutting the tape. II. The editing is simple and accurate.e.MAGNETIC TAPE RECORDING. which generally takes place along with the recording of the new program. The recording medium i. This can also be done electronically. The System The magnetic tape recording system may be studied under three sub-systems : . III. the magnetic tape can be used again and again after erasing the previous recordings.. EDITING AND PLAYBACK INTRODUCTION Magnetic tape recording system has got many special features. These are :- I. which makes it unique in Sound Broadcasting. Instant and simultaneous replay during recording. without These facilities combined with excellent quality and reliability has made magnetic recording system very popular in the field of entertainment and all direct recordings are first done on magnetic tape.

the signal current variations in time. This is mixed with suitable adhesives. coercivity of about 300 to 500 oersteds.5 mils thick). II. the record and replay speeds are exactly the same for a faithful reproduction of the recorded signal. even and thin coating (0. The magnetic system comprising the magnetic tape plus record. the brake mechanism and the control cum interlock system. RECORDING PRINCIPLES The magnetic material used in recording is magnetic oxide of iron Fe2O3 and Fe2O4 or a suitable mixture of the two with small quantities of the oxides of Nickel and Cobalt. replay and erase heads. the magnetic conditions on the so magnetized tape can be approximately depicted in the form of . Normally. and as it passes on forward. we really record wavelengths and from a recorded wavelength any frequency signal can be obtained by running the tape at play back speeds different from the one at the time of recording.I.4 to 0. and applied in the form of an extremely smooth.6 mils) on to a PVC backing (1. This is called recorded wavelength and will be given by P! v . the capstan motor. due to the magnetic properties of remanance and coercivity.0 to 1. Tape transport system comprising the two spooling motors. will be recorded as magnetic intensity variations along the tape length. and the signal current is of frequency "f" Hz. f So in tape recording. This magnetic coated tape has a remanance of about 500 to 1000 gausses. plasticizers. Thus a single cycle will be recorded on a tape length V/f cm. retains the magnetism induced. The permeability is rather low (5 to 10). For a fixed frequency audio signal pure tone. This tape gets magnetized when it comes in contact with a recording head with audio frequency signal currents flowing through the head windings. fillers etc. Thus if the tape is moved across the head at a constant speed of V cm/sec.

6). increasing to saturation value in the middle of the gap and again steadily dropping to low value of the field. the magnetic material should be subjected to about 100 to 200 alternating magnetic cycles. In this arrangement every part of the tape passes the erase head gap (about 15 mil) and is subjected to about 200 cycles of alternating magnetic field. some knowledge about the magnetic tape qualities and defects are considered essential for professional grade sound . MAGNETIC TAPE Before we conclude the discussions on magnetic recording system.recorded wave lengths condition of an array of half wave bar magnets placed end to end along with the tape length THE ERASE PROCESS Erasing the previously recorded signal is essential for using the tape repeatedly. These repeated magnetizing cum de-magnetizing cycles erase the signal completely and leave the tape in completely unmagnified form similar to a virgin tape without a magnetic history. we use the line current of 50 Hz in bulk erasure and the whole of the magnetic tape remains in the magnetic field for about 2 to 3 seconds to complete the erasure with the same result. starting from low value at the start of the gap. On erase head this is achieved by a current of about 100 kHz frequency as the tape stays in the erase head gap for a very short duration about one millisecond. A satisfactory method for this is to feed the erase head with a high amplitude signal of about 100 kHz and the tape passes over this erase head before it passes on to the record head (see fig. In contrast. We note that for effective erasure. as the tape leaves the gap.

0.recording and reproduction.3% for a steady load of 1 Kg. Layer to layer Adhesion Tape shall show no sticking . for 24 hours.005 mm.01 mm. Tensile Strength The tape should stand a steady pull of 3. falling from a height of 250 mm. Elastic Elongation Residual elongation should not be more than 0. Cup and Curl Tape should be free from coupling and curling defects on visual inspection.050 mm + 0. Some important mechanical and magnetic properties are given below for guidance. Coating Thickness Max.015 mm min. and impulse load test of 100 gm. Overall Thickness 0.001 mm. Wt.5 Kg. Wt. 0. Smoothness of Coating Better than 0.

a terrestrial link can provide dial up diagnostics and performance monitoring of receiver sites The three major subsystems the remote satellite receiver.A satellite audio receiver such as ABR202 .An interfacility link cable . The facility consists of an audio encoder/multiplexer. a digital modem.SATELLITE RECIEVER The hub or satellite transmission uplink station is the facility where audio to be transmitted is collected and uplinked to the satellite. As an option. includes three major components: . an earth station. an antenna and a network control computer.A satellite antenna subsystem .

absorption and refraction on encountering an obstacle. b) ACOUSTIC ABSORBERS . Physical characteristics of sound waves are thus modified in various ways before they reach the human ear. In close rooms. a) Propagation of Sound Waves Sound waves emanating from a sound source are propagated in all directions. To achieve the desirable effects of the reflected sound. Acoustic treatment is provided in studios. the dimensions and shape of the room are decided with due care and acoustic treatments are also provided on the various surfaces. the sound would be reflected and re-reflected till the intensity weakens and it dies down. and other technical areas in order to achieve the acoustic conditions which have been found from experience to be suitable for the various types of programmes. In this section problems and design aspects of internal acoustics of a broadcast studio are explained. Extent to which each of these phenomenon takes place depends upon the structure and shape of the obstacle. These sound waves are subject to reflection.ACOUSTIC TREATMENT Good acoustics is a pre-requisite of high quality broadcasting or recording. control rooms. and also on the frequency of sound waves. These reflected waves can create echo effect in the room.

a) Acceptable background Noise Level It is not possible to specify an acceptable background noise level in the studios as a single weighted figure. insulation boards. are members of this class. etc. No single absorber generally provides uniform absorption over the complete frequency spectrum. because the noise normally present is spread over a wide range. Absorption gets reduced if the surface pores are filled with paints etc. Absorption of these materials depends upon their softness. ii) Fibrous Materials: Celotak. perfotiles. fall in this category. Sound Insulation The µunwanted sound¶ or µnoise¶ in the studios spoils the quality of recorded programmes. Some of the commonly used absorbers are: i) Porous Materials: Mineral wool. jolly-lowtone tiles etc. glass wool. decided for acceptable background noise level in the studios. and layout of the studio building is therefore. Different absorbers have different absorption characteristics. The mass of the panel and the springiness of the air in the cavity resonant at some particular frequency. however. these cannot be used without some facing material. Absorption efficiency of these materials depends upon the trapping and dissipation of sound energy in tiny pores. An excessive . ii) Panel Absorbers: Panel absorbers are thin sheets/membranes with an air cavity behind. These materials are very good absorber and are most effective in mid and high frequencies. Sound insulation of walls doors etc.Acoustic absorbers are provided on the inner surfaces of the room to achieve optimum R/T characteristics.

Frequency Band (Hz) Noise Level (db above 0.002 dynes/cm2) 37-75 75-150 150-300 300-600 600-1200 1200-2400 54 43 35 28 23 20 b) Source of Noise and Sound Insulation Noise in studios may be either air-borne or structure borne. In AIR NC 20 curve is followed for studios which corresponds to following values. Background noise in a studio can originate from y y y Outside the building Inside the studio itself and /or Outside the studio but within the building . usually over the range 68 Hz to 4 kHz. Therefore. These acceptable limits have varied widely between different authorities. the acceptable background noise level is specified as a graph of band level in octave bands against frequency.noise energy over a small bandwidth could be very disturbing without very much affecting the weighted noise figure.

c) Noise originated from outside the building Noise from outside the studio building are mostly due to aircraft. cement mortar etc. road and rail traffic etc. d) Noise from inside the studio Noise from inside the studio itself consist of air-conditioning noise due to air flow. to avoid bridging by stone. These are mounted separately in a ballast nitch outside the studio. In case studio centre is located in noisy street. This gap is filled with damping materials. plants in a separate block isolated from the main studio mook. To avoid noise of fluorescent lights. Cooling fans in tape recorders are generally of low noise type. sufficient set-back distance is provided between the street kerb and the main building. Sometimes a multi-storeyed office building is built in between the studio building and the sound source to act as a sound barrier for the studio building. Wherever . ballast chokes are not mounted with the light fittings in the studio. Noise due to airflow in the studios is controlled by creating slow diffusions of air. A structural isolation gap of 75 mm width right from foundation level up to the roof height is provided between the two blocks.c. The structural borne noise is avoided by providing the a. e) Control of air-conditioning and diesel generator and lift noise Noise due to air-conditioning plants can transfer to the studios as structural borne noise as well as air borne noise. the noise from fluorescent lights. from cooling fans in tape recorders etc. These noise can be avoided/minimised by locating the studio building in a quiet environment away from the railway lines highways and aerodromes. such as asphalt.

dragging of furniture. dragging of furniture etc. Similarly diesel generator is either installed in this structurally isolated block or in a separate building away from the studio. These plants are mounted on vibration isolation pads and water pipes for condenser cooling are also isolated from the walls with resilient packing materials so that transmission of the vibration to the building is avoided. plants.required. are transmitted at long distance as structure borne noise.c. duct etc. the main supply and return ducts from the plants are connected to the studio ducts through flexible canvass connection. glass wool. To avoid transfer of airborne noise from the a. studios are generally made in load bearing single storeyed buildings. To avoid transferred structural vibration through ducts. . Transmission of this noise is much more in steel framed buildings than in load bearing structure. the plenum chamber and the entire length of supply/return duct is insulated internally with sound absorbing materials e.g. falling of paper weight etc. Also speed of the blower is kept low (about 750 rpm) as the noise at source itself is controlled. Therefore. Noise due to footfall. only flexible connections are used for linking these blocks for running electrical cables. f) Sound insulation from footfall. The generator is mounted on anti-vibration mounting so that vibration due to the same is minimised in the structure.

box within the box is recommended for broadcasting studios. . floating construction i. This leakage may be due to poor sound insulation of intervening walls or due to flanking paths.In case of steel-framed building and/or multi-storeyed buildings.e. g) Sound Insulation from adjacent room/corridor noise High level of programme/ monitoring in adjacent rooms and conversation in corridors may cause leakage of this sound in a studio.

2 nos. crystals in the range of . This transmitter is divided into different stages: RF STAGE Fixed frequency crystal oscillator serves as a main drive source. Block Diagram of 100kw transmitter A 100 KW MW transmitter uses only 4 beams power tetrode tube viz CQK-50 in RF power amplifier stage. The transmitter uses standard class-B high level modulation and the final power amplifier operates in class-D. 4-1000 in RF stage. Two oscillators are provided out of which one stand by.AM TRANSMITTER 100KW. of CQK-25 in modulator stage 1. In order to have frequency stability.

3 ± 6 MHz are used. The preliminary stages are all solid state & direct coupled audio exciter contains four power transmitters in series in each channel & is designed to deliver a peak AF output of 200V to the modulator grids. Acoustic alarms in case of monetary over loads supplement the visual indication.000A & is designed to work with no grid current & delivers the required output for 100% modulation of the 100KW carrier. The system uses Z80 microprocessor. Provisions for visual indication of fault are made. RECTIFIER SYSTEMS The entire rectifier used in the transmitter for providing DC supplies to the various stages employs silicon diodes.000A air cooled tetrode tube. Two commands are not carried out in certain requirements of interlocking are not through & until such requirements are met. The screen grid is modulated along with the plate with an audio voltage from a tertiary winding in the modulation transformer. The HT rectifier supplying 5KW to the final RF amplifier & the modulators also uses silicon diode rectifiers. Recycling operations in the event momentary . Connectors switch ON the power circuits. The oscillator output is a square wave of 5V amplitude and is fed to a solid power amplifier. The final preamplifier uses 4C*15. which is capable of delivering about 200W to the grid of the final preamplifier. A comparator to trip the transmitter during high VSWR senses the rectifier RF voltage & current. CONTROL & PROTECTION CIRCUIT An electronic control system is adopted for the transmitter. The stand by allows the transmitter to be maintained in operational stage up to filament ON. AUDIO STAGE The AF input for transmitter is standard 600 ohm balanced impedance. A current transformer & voltage divider step down the RF current & voltage respectively. operating in class C with plate modulation. the selection being carried out with a switch mounted on the control panel. Both auto & normal operation are provided. It is a conventional grounded cathode circuit. Pressing the appropriate push button switching commands carries out individual switching operations & transmitter states are automatically supervised. The modulator uses two numbers of 4C*15.

The blower is mounted at the bottom of PA cubicle.overload is provided. These are interlocked with control system of the transmitter. at static pressure of 60mm WC. (b) The blast motor is 3 phase at 415 & is rated for 1HP. AIR FLOW CIRCUIT SAFETY SYSTEMS (a) Mechanical key exchange (b) Electrical interlocking CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR INTERFACE The RF output from the 2nd crystal oscillator is fed to the RF IN and of the crystal interface PCB. Hot air is let out from top of the transmitter rack. are provided. . modulation 1 ± 8 m/min. The blower is capable of providing air at 35M/min. the transmitter is automatically taken in to stand by condition. The air temperature sensing thermostats should be set at 70 degree C during normal program modulation & 85 degree C while 100% with continuous tone for more than one minute. The approximate airflow for individual valves is given below:(a) PA = 10m/min. The air at required volume and pressure is forced through the valves providing cooling of the valves. Air intake is from the bottom. modulation 1 ± 6 m/min. left hand side of the transmitter through & air filter. Provision for monitoring the airflow & the exhaust air temp. COOLING & VENTILATION SYSTEM The PA & modulator valves employ forced air cooling. on which valves bases are mounted. The grid components of the PA and modulator valves are mounted in the air chamber. In case. if cycling take place 3 times in 16 sec. The oscillator A/B select signal in given by the microprocessor based control system. The air is ducted to an air chamber. External air ducts duct the air out of the transmitter building.

000A.RF EXCITER The class E type power amplifier is designed to generate 220W of drive power to drive the grid of final RF power stage value 4C*15. A comparator to trip the transmitter during high VSWR senses the rectifier RF voltage & current. It uses 4C*15. Biasing of valve is done at . AUDIO FREQUENCY STAGES Audio signal as comes from the control through PNT¶s lines having signal level 1 ± 2 db (approximately) is passed through equalizer and level limiter. of 5C*15. A current transformer & voltage divider step down the RF current & voltage respectively. The screen grid is modulated along with the plate with an audio voltage from a tertiary winding in the modulation transformer. An overall feedback is employed from the primary of the modulation transformer. now it come into audio stage components.000A air cooled tetrode tube. The RF amplifier assembly consists of (a) RFamplifier driver (b) RF amplifier comprising 1 RF 440 power MOSFET impedance matching transformer interface. The AF input for the transmitter is at 600 ohm balanced impedance. The standing feeds for the modulator are kept to the minimum in order to conserve power at low level of modulation.400V. (c) RF amplifier interface. Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) are used for regulated DC supplies to the 200W RF exciter stage FINAL POWER AMPLIFIER It is a class C power amplifier. by incorporating a linearity corrector in the audio preliminary stages. The modulator uses 2nos. It is a conventional grounded cathode circuit operating in class C with plate modulation. The final stage of the audio exciter contains four power transistors in series in each grid. firstly high pass filter. .000A value & is designed to work with no grid current & delivers the required output for 100% modulation of the 10KW carrier.

This also has the audio attenuator and audio muting relay. The Hum compensator provides for the introduction of controlled amount of signals at 50. It cuts off all frequencies below 50 Hz. AF Pre-Corrector This card corrects the audio for the non-linearity of modulator tubes. There is a potentiometer by which any clipping can be set such that the maximum modulation factor will not exceed. one for each balanced audio line. The driver provides the necessary DC Bias voltage and also AF signal sufficient to modulate 100%. Signal from the negative feed back network from the secondary of the modulation transformer and the signals from the compensator also are fed to this unit. It uses an op-amp and switching circuits which will distort the audio for different audio levels. opposite to that of tube distortion.High Pass Filter The audio input from the speech rack is fed to active High Pass Filter. 100 and 150 C/s which can be varied from 0 to 360o into the pre amplifier stage APA 302 so as to cancel the Hum components due to the power frequencies present in the system. AF Pre-amplifier The output of the High Pass Filter is fed to the AF Pre-amplifier. The output of AF driver stage is formed by four transistors in series as it works with a high voltage of about -400 V. AF Driver 2 AF drivers are used to drive the two modulator valves. The transistors are protected with diodes and Zener diodes against high voltages that may result due to internal tube flashovers. This will help to raise the S/N ratio of the transmitter. POWER SUPPLIES: .

the DC voltage after rectification is filtered by smoothing choke of L102 and capacitors C122 A. 750 DC for PA screen: This supply provides the screen voltage of RF power amplifier tube 4C*15.The transmitters has been provided with the power supplies required for the value circuit as well as transistorized sub units as listed below 1. this provides screen voltage to modulator value. 3. 750V. The HT voltage can be adjusted from 3. A battery supply with out 12V rechargeable batteries are provided for backup of microprocessor based control in the event of power failure the battery enables the status of transmitters to be stored for two minutes in the event of power failure. These components are located at the bottom of PA cubicle. 750V. 5A-/15V. +5V. A total of 3 such set are mounted on the rear of the PD cubical. The power transformer used for HT power supply is installed at the rear of PD cubicle. C. 2.5KV to 6KV by the tap changing on the secondary of T101. High Tension power supply ± 5KV. 4. this provides grid bias supply to PA and modulator value. this provides screen voltage to PA value. 4. Apart from the above.000A. For the control electronic and interface PCB¶s. HT Power Supply:The HT supply consists of a 3phase power transformer T101 and 3phase full wave rectifier. 2. each one phase comprising of 28 diodes mounted on 1 mounting plate. B. the following power supplies has been provided for the sub units 1. . it provides a DC output voltage of the 5KV at 2136 tap. The 2 phase transformer provides the necessary AC voltage to the rectifier formed by CR503 to CR514. 1A. 3. 50mA supply. -650V supply. 400mA supply. 6A this provides anode power supply to PA and modulator valves. +12V relays. An SMPS unit providing DC voltage which can be set from 25V to 45V for the RF exciter stage. It employs 3 phase full wave rectifier followed by a choke input filter. Totally 84 diodes are connected in 3phase full wave connection. Resistors and capacitors are connected in parallel across each diode for the purpose of preventing abnormal voltage due to surges for equalizing the distributed voltage etc. Silicon avalanche diodes have been used for rectification.

The NR8200 consists of following units and modules Power Distribution y y y y y y Main Switch Motor protection switches Automatic line fuses Power distributor board Auxiliary power supply Grounding bolt Transmitter Control Unit y NETCCU y Rack Controller Terminal board y y y Exciter unit Exciter (1or 2) Exciter switch .5 kW.5 kW to max 12.FM TRANSMITTER The FM transmitter family NR8200 for transmitting broadcast signal in band II(FM). Both the power class of transmitter and its name depend upon the number of built in amplifiers. The output power ranges from 2. LDMOS transmitter based amplifier ensures high output power while requiring only minimum space.

.Output stage y y y y y y y Power amplifier Amplifier Combiner Absorber unit RF connecting cable Directional couplers Spare test interface for customer RF connector Cooling system y y y y µ Intake air and exhaust air duct Fan Differential pressure gauge Temperature sensors for exhaust air.

FM Transmitter Specifications FIG. 1 .

FIG.2 .

. The servers are connected to each other via bus topology and Ring topology. captive earth station etc. The training started was with the server and networking room where I visited and studied about the overall networking procedure and the interconnection between the servers to access the private data as well as public data. control booth. and further can be received in the digital form. audio songs etc are available to every server at any instance in any section. The data like news . The next section was Lines room including all the lines containing data decoding and arriving at same room and can be accessed. . Overall the training process at All India Radio broadcasting was exciting and very helpful in understanding the industrial working process and environment. I visited various sections like server and networking room. These data can also send through the telephone lines in form of Analog data. After studying these sections I understood their execution and importance for the transmission and reception of the data in All India radio. At AM and FM transmitter station I studied minute technical details of how the signal received from main studio is transmitted all over the designated area. Every server is independent to fetch and add the data to them. This data can be further forwarded to the other studios and control room with help of Encoder. In the Captive Earth Station I learned the reception and transmission of data in the form of signals via two types of channels cxc and cxs channel a digital and analog form. And this problem can only tackled by using high power offline UPS. lines room. With the help of new technologies and various amplifiers.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION In this sector of training I studied about the overall procedure and objective of the Broadcasting process in elaborate form. In control booth section the overall control of the signals taken in the consideration. The only constraint that I noticed in this whole transmission process was of non availability of uninterrupted power supply at AM and FM station. All India Radio had provided us all the equipments and apparatus for understanding of each and every section up to its depth.

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