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Table of Contents

Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 2 History: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 2 Human Resource Management:................................ ................................ ............................. 3 Responsibilities and Roles:................................ ................................ ................................ 3 Employees at Work: ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 3 Emirates and Human Resource Management: ................................ ................................ ....... 3 Involvement of HRM: ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 3 Soft Model of HRM: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 4 Hard Model of HRM: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 4 Emirates and Leadership Activities: ................................ ................................ ...................... 4 Staffing Approaches - Recruitment: ................................ ................................ ...................... 4 Ethnocentric Approach Advantages and Disadvantages:................................ ................. 5 Geocentric Approach Advantages and Disadvantages: ................................ ................... 5 Staffing Training & Development: ................................ ................................ ................. 6 Performance Appraisal and Rewards:................................ ................................ .................... 7 Rewards: ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 Strategic Reward: ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 7 Total Reward: ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 7 Emirates - Rewards Offered: ................................ ................................ ............................. 8 Cross-Cultural Management: ................................ ................................ ................................ 8 Emirates Culture Diversity: ................................ ................................ ................................ 9 Conclusion: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 10 References: ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 11

Introduction
As globalisation is very powerful transition in the world market, it has affected the hospitality and tourism industry very powerfully. The organisation should perform according to changes which occur in the global economy and there is a huge responsibility with the managers who needs to manage people who will be having different cultural backgrounds, for the organisation performance. The hospitality and tourism industry has developed radically in these years that in many countries this industry plays a most important part in maintaining the economy in the global market. In this report, the researcher has chosen the organisation which falls under hospitality and tourism industry, airline industry is the backbone for most of the countries and the economy of a nation depends on the tourism industry and the tourism depends on the airline industry. The airline industry chosen here is Emirates; it is the largest airline in the middle-east and it handles 2400 passenger flights per week. Emirates won the award for the best in-flight entertainment at 2010 World Airline Awards. Passenger also voted Emirates as the worlds best airways. Since globalisation made business market global the competition with the airline industry is immense, but Emirate executes their jobs which are planned in advance by various economist.
History: In 1985 which was the period where the emergence of Emirates took place. As soon as the beginning of the airways the challenges it faced are very much complicated. Initially it was to operate only with the capital fund and independent of government subsidies. The first flight was flown from Dubai to Karachi which marked the important instance in the history of Emirates Airways. As the years pass from the start in 1985, more destinations were added to the chart. In 1990 Emirates become one of worlds fastest growing airlines and the revenue has increased by $100 million each year. In 1993 the Emirates sky cargo was introduced which carried huge number of passengers. By 1994 there were 15 flights and 32 destinations and it was growing as well. In 1998 Srilankan airways is kept operated by Emirates when it bought 43.6 % of the stake.

Human Resource Management:


In the present competitive world, the survival of the organisations is a biggest challenge and it is achieved through the performance of the work force the peoples. In every organisation, the operations are carried out by people and in order to maximise the potential and performance of such people certain activities are performed which is referred to as Human Resource Management. Various activities in an organisation which all together indicate the Human Resource management, the activities under HRM are recruitment, training and placements, appraisals, and rewards etc.
Responsibilities and Roles: HRM department deals with employees regardless of the department and with no priority. Few responsibilities of HR department are to recruiting, training, appraisals etc. Motivation should always be there in and around the employees and it is made sure by the HR department. The absence of such a department will cause the company to lose its morale and competitive advantage over other firms. After globalisation each organisation will be having a diversified work force and it has to be handled properly so that the company can achieve competitive advantage over other firms and also to get 100% of the employees potential in work. Employees at Work: Employees potential is one of the key factors behind the success of an organisation. Different type of work force is available in the market; depending on the requirements of the organisation the work force is selected. Contingent employee are one looking for various types of jobs, during the recruitment the agencies plays an important role in pushing more employee into the structure. The agencies will really benefit from contract term employees, because those employees keep on switching over to other jobs.

Emirates and Human Resource Management:


One of the largest international airlines in Dubai, Emirates is known for their high standard services, passenger who once travelled with Emirates in future they will never switch over to any other airlines. The success of the airline industry not only depends on the number of international flights, but also the quality of service provided and the how comfortable the services are. This is why an airline industry belongs to both tourism industry and hospitality industry.
Involvement of HRM: As a part of the success the management of the employee is also very important. As mentioned earlier the employees are the backbone of an organisation. After the major change in the global market which is globalization, airline industry are self pushed to recruit people from all round the world, so these people will be having different ethnic origin and culture etc. By doing so the industry believes the quality of the service can be further increased, because passengers are also will be from different ethnic origin. Managing a multi cultural group of employees under one roof is the most challenging job. The role of HRM does not

stop from just recruitment they are also responsible for providing them with appropriate training. They should also make sure a quality work environment is maintained at all times. This employee factor or a human thing can be classified in two simple model which is soft model and hard model.
Soft Model of HRM: This model is also known as Harvard Map of HRM, where this model got its shape from the Harvard Business School. In HRM it is said to be the most influential model. Employees have always been the assets of an organisation and for transforming the potential of these assets for gaining competitive advantage is what this model represents. Employee activities in a business are recognized with a technological approach. Various policies that can be achieved by using soft model are congruence, commitment, cost-effectiveness and competence. Hard Model of HRM: This type of model is also known as Michigan model of HRM, it is also called as matching model or best fit approach to HRM. In the management of the employee there includes more than one business strategies which is featured and quantitative. In this model the employees are considered as commodity, through developing human resource and performance management, a strategic approach method is taken by the commodity.

Emirates and Leadership Activities:


Both the public sector and private sector organisation have started recognizing the need for the development of quality and capability in leadership where leadership is about making choices. Emirates have introduced various programmes for the skill developments of the leaders, and one such program is called as leading business. The primary outcome of that program is that leaders will know to handle challenges that may occur with employees, managing changes and making sure that all the employees will put forward their strength for the success of that organisation, the programme mainly focused on achieving business strategies. In addition to the program, Emirates created a website particular for managers so they can learn from the websites more deeply where learning materials and journals can be obtained. Emirates in addition to program launched a new one named Leadership matters, in this program the key principle is the importance of leadership in an organisation and also it aimed at developing high class leaders in terms of the pilot and cabin crew committees. These 2 leadership programmes ensured the talent pool was taken care of throughout the year. Individuals are further developed based on the 3 main qualities which are communication, accountability and motivation.

Staffing Approaches - Recruitment:


Finding the right people for the right position is one the most challenging task of HRM and it includes several stages which are HR planning, interviews and recruitment, selection, induction and orientation, training, performance appraisal, rewards, transfers and

separation. The order of these steps followed may differ from organisations depending on the staffing policy and firms strategy. Human resources for an organisation are recruited, trained and allocated with suitable position, this is what staffing is and there are many approaches related to staffing which are ethnocentric, polycentric and geocentric. In ethnocentric approach of staffing, the human resources are recruited from the home country only and vacancy in major roles is filled by individuals from home country. In this type of approach the belief and practices will be dominant and it assumes that it will be followed globally; hence managers are appointed from head waters for maintaining the consistency. The knowledge differs from managers of the subsidiaries to the managers from the head office and hence all the employees are managed under the guidance of the subsidiaries manager and it is the responsibility of the manager to produce more resources from the local itself. Globalization has caused for this kind of staffing approach, employees are recruited globally and are placed in the subsidiaries according to the vacancies. Such an organisation will have a diversified work force and the job of managers get tougher at this conditions.
Ethnocentric Approach Advantages and Disadvantages: When the staffing population in an organisation is filled with local talents, managers in the subsidiaries will find it feasible for managing such a work group.

The advantages are labour cost is low so cost effectiveness, more recruitment from local citizen improves the confidence in young generation and the trust towards the company also increases, recognition by the locals as the organisation forms the major part of the economy and while decision making are done, the local constraints will always be taken care of. The disadvantages are reduction in the power of control by headquarters, global priorities and local demand never get balanced, and it will be so hard for finding the right people for the right position.
Geocentric Approach Advantages and Disadvantages: Diversified work force can be seen many organisation where globalisation has been hit, so in our case without any doubt, Emirates comes under globalisation and geocentric approach is followed in emirates airlines, the positive things shows a great future to the organisation and negative is always a part of the process which has to be overcome in the long run of the business.

The advantages are head quarter will have a close control over the subsidiaries, employees get experienced on the multinational orientation in the local locality itself, growth of internationally skilled executives

The disadvantage related with geocentric approaches are takes some time for adapting to the current locality, subsidiary will become more foreignness, transfer rates will be high and due to that salary cost is higher, local government regulation can be imposed and the morality of the locals can be disturbed.
Staffing Training & Development: This department comes under HRM, and the training is most important and compulsory for the human resources available because everyone who is recruited may not be placed for same position as well as the training differs from positions to position. Organization recruit work force for achieving particular goals, the training are provided such a way that if they get their hands on a project they should be able to complete it by time. There are several development functional areas focusing on the individuals contributions towards everyones role and to the development of the organisation. The development functional areas are individual learning, education, organisation development and development in career path.

Training and development is more important for staffs for adapting new things into their job mannerism, especially for hospitality and tourism industry where staffs are trained enough that they know all the latest food introduced every year, so training for hospitality industry staff is a challenging role. Emirates train their staff every year for the updating the changes brought by the company and the environment. It is also important for adapting the cultural changes happening around the work place which is more relevant Emirates staffs where they will be facing customers from different country and culture. Cultural training is vital since the businesses are being globalised and they are under multi-cultural environment. Each individual getting recruited to the company is dreaming of a goal, the training and development helps such individual in achieving that goal which in turn make profit to the company by his performance and contribution of individuals. This function also provides the individual with opportunity of training developments and the development which can be gone through with an individual are Education, Planned individual training, organization development, career development and training, growth of individuals lies on training and development, specialized training and development of special groups. Two main forms in which the training development carried out are centralized form and decentralized form If the training is obtained the head office, then such training developments are called centralised form of development and if the training for an individual is conducted based on local resources such raining development program are decentralized. The scope of decentralized training is limited to local resources and hence the individual who got decentralized training will struggle to work outside the local subsidiaries and if the case of centralized training the individual will be able to work any local subsidiaries and also in the headquarters.

As the years passed the recruitment become stronger and the training programs are separated into various levels beginners, intermediate and advanced. Emirates are the 1st company in the Middle East to launch a training centre for the area covering the entire Middle East.

Performance Appraisal and Rewards:


For the purpose of administration intentions or development intentions the performance of each employee is plotted into a graph and kept as records. These records of employees can be used by organisation people in the future for making any decision on employee, promotion, bonus and any layoff etc. Emirates are following that practices every 3 quarters of the business year. Such analysis also helps the people of HRM department to take necessary steps if it is in training or in development but they make sure that the individual will put his 100% performance in the work through which company gain profit and as well as the individual gain growth.
Rewards: Reward in a business environment can be classified in two, Strategic Reward: This kind of rewards is used for providing a support and advance business objectives. Employee aspiration is the secondary goal of strategic reward. It is based on the long term policies and practices which is designed and implemented. Total Reward: Apart from huge pay and bonuses, the work which are evaluated by the employees, including learning and development opportunities or an working environment which are very attractive, all are encompassed in total reward.

The people in the organisation are at various levels and they are paid according to the reward strategy in order of each individual achieving the goal is a combination of policy, process and practices. Some of the reward strategies are performance related pay, competence related pay, and skill based pay, team pay, and broad banding.

Figure 1: Reward strategy model [Ref:]


Emirates - Rewards Offered: Some of the reward schemes offered by Emirates to the employee are

1. Competitive Tax Free Basic Salary Emirates make sure the pay given to their employees are competitive by regular reviews. The monthly pay is fixed depending on the profile, experience, knowledge and competencies which are brought forward to the rule. 2. Company provided accommodation allowance Company will provide for the employees who have to stay away from as a part of their job. 3. Company provided transport allowances Emirates provide transportation facilities for all the staff. 4. Profit Share Scheme In the financial year, the profit of any quarter of the year is shared globally among all the staffs across the world. 5. Exchange Rate Protection Scheme Exchange rates in the current economy fluctuate by huge variance, but the employee of Emirates Airways does not have to worry about because 50% of the basic salaries are protected by the scheme. 6. Professional Specialist Allowance Roles having very high profile vale will get a special allowance.

Cross-Cultural Management:
Nowadays the work environment of any organisation is multi-cultural which means there are people from different cultures. So these people will indulge in communication with others, at this time the different cultures meet, interact, communicate and understand each other which are referred to as cross-cultural environment. The cross-cultural management is a

system by which employees are trained in the global business environment which is a part of global market. Some of the cross-cultural barriers are language, body language, religious beliefs, and social habits etc. Since Emirates airways are globally established organisation the effect of crosscultural barriers are low, but still the company on its own has to develop some internal areas and hence Emirates launched a program for meeting the cross-cultural barriers. The areas where Emirates have to develop are innovation, growth and customer focus. The advantages of cross-cultural or diverse workforce in Emirates Airways are 1) there are potential candidates who cannot be reached because of the barriers mentioned above, but now after the success of the program, the access to such potential candidates is widen 2) customer focus will be ultimate aim of any airline industry and this program helps to relate with diverse customer 3) innovative and productive workforce is developed as result of employing this program.

Emirates Culture Diversity:


Customers who travel with airline industry are most diverse in nature and it is the responsibility of the Emirates Airways to deal with any kind of passengers. Since Emirates Airways is a well established successfully running organisation and the diversity factor is integrated into the business otherwise no organisation can see success. The diversity team of Emirates makes sure that every individual are well aware of the role of diversity. The cultural diversity of Emirates is controlled with the uses of various parameters like age, disability, gender equality, harassment and bullying, racial equality, religion and belief. For the customer to feel secured while travelling with Emirates it is important to control the diversified culture in the organisation. The employment equality regulation is one of the most important regulations where it says in an organisation no individual has the right to discriminate the others on the basis of age. The Emirates airways has launched a program in which, employees at the end of the retirement is possible to work with flexible hours, the age limit for succession planning should be neutral, airways should challenge assumptions in order to encourage age diversity, consistency should be maintained in the recruitment process for internal and external applicants. Disability is other way of controlling the diverse culture. In all applications for Emirates Airways they have a column for disability and the plans are progressing for increase in the accessibility for disabled people. There is no discrimination between disabled person and able person, Emirates door are open to all without any discriminations. Gender equality is maintained in Emirates by providing ladies with flexible working hours and the organisation also encourages coming to work after the maternity. The diversity team in Emirates is responsible to maintain the workplace with dignity and respect, in order to achieve all employees must be made aware of the rules and regulation.

Racial inequality is never accepted and hence it has to be maintained by providing opportunity for every employee to share their idea without any racial inequalities.

Conclusion:
By performing various analyses the theories of leadership and motivation were described. Emirate Airways as the name stands for it, a detailed analysis on the history of the organisation is given and what all are factors which caused the shaping up of such a potential organisation. Human resources management topic has been discussed in the report. The key responsibilities of HRM are recruitment, training and appraisals etc. Success of an organisation depends on the potential of every employer. Various role of HR department are explained briefly. The responsibility doesnt stop with just recruitment but also they are responsible for providing training and the quality of working is environment is maintained. Two models of HRM which are soft model and hard model are described. The leadership activities of Emirates are handled by both private sector and public sector. The three different approaches of staffing which is ethnocentric, polycentric and geo centric, and the merits and demerits related to each are explained. As mentioned earlier the responsibility of HRM is not just recruitment, but also training and development and placing the trained professionals for the right job. Training and development, there are two types one is centralized training and the other one is decentralized. For keep motivating the population of employees it is important to provide performance appraisal and rewards necessarily to the work force. There are 2 types of reward which are strategic reward and total reward. Some of the rewards and packages which were offered by Emirates to its employees are explained. Globalisation has resulted in organisation which is operating a multicultural work environment and it necessary to study how to manage and effectively such environment to obtain competitive advantage. The factors that influence the cultural diversity is explained one by one and necessary steps taken to overcome that is also added.

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