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Department of Mechanical Engineering, 648 Benedum Hall, 3700 OHara Street, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261

Received 23 May 2004; revised 8 October 2004; accepted 8 October 2004 This work presents a theoretical study of the sound transmission into a nite cylinder under coupled structural and acoustic vibration. Particular attention of this study is focused on evaluating a dimensionless quantity, noise reduction, for characterizing noise transmission into a small cylindrical enclosure. An analytical expression of the exterior sound pressure resulting from an oblique plane wave impinging upon the cylindrical shell is rst presented, which is approximated from the exterior sound pressure for an innite cylindrical structure. Next, the analytical solution of the interior sound pressure is computed using modal-interaction theory for the coupled structural acoustic system. These results are then used to derive the analytical formula for the noise reduction. Finally, the model is used to predict and characterize the sound transmission into a ChamberCore cylindrical structure, and the results are compared with experimental data. The effects of incidence angle and internal acoustic damping on the sound transmission into the cylinder are also parametrically studied. 2005 Acoustical Society of America. DOI: 10.1121/1.1828652 PACS numbers: 43.40.Ey, 43.40.Fz, 43.20.Fn, 43.20.Ks JGM Pages: 679689

I. INTRODUCTION

Thin composite cylindrical structures play an important role in the aerospace industry due to their lighter weight, higher strength, and larger stiffness when compared to their aluminum or steel counterparts.15 Unfortunately, the noise transmission into such cylindrical enclosures is worse because of the light nature of composites.1 4 As part of a noise transmission study for composite structures, a theoretical model to characterize the noise transmission into nite thinwall cylindrical structures is developed.1 The problem of sound transmission through innite, homogeneous, isotropic thin cylindrical structures has been investigated in some detail by several researchers. Tang et al. studied an innite cylindrical sandwich shell with honeycomb core.6,7 A simplied analysis of sound transmission through a nite, closed cylindrical shell was rst proposed by White,8 while the sound radiation into the acoustic cavity enclosed by a nite cylindrical shell with end plates was studied by Cheng.9 Tso and Hansen derived a coupling loss factor for a cylindrical/plate structure using statistical energy analysis.10 Their method, however, does not work well at low frequencies and further could not show the effects on sound transmission of the cavity resonances. Koval rst presented a mathematical noise reduction NR model to account for the effects of cavity resonances on sound transmission into a thin cylindrical shell.11 In his model, the axial modes of the cylindrical cavity are neglected, because both the cylindrical shell and the internal acoustic cavity are considered to be innite in length. Actually, both structural and acoustic axial modes of a nite cylindrical structure are experimentally found to be very important modes for noise control in low frequencies.1,4,12 Gardonio, Ferguson, and Fahy presented an

a

expression of NR to characterize unit amplitude external incident sound transmission through a nite cylindrical shell.13 However, the external sound pressure in their denition is considered to equate the incident, unit amplitude sound, and the effects of scattering sound from the cylindrical shell on ` the external sound eld are ignored. Esteve and Johnson included axial acoustic modes in a cylindrical model that predicted the performance of passive control schemes through the prediction of acoustic potential energy.14 This work presents a theoretical study of the sound transmission into a nite cylinder under coupled structural and acoustic vibration. The proposed model includes internal acoustic axial modes. Particular attention of this study is focused on evaluating a dimensionless quantity, noise reduction, for characterizing noise transmission into a small cylindrical enclosure. The paper is arranged as the follows. Section II presents the theoretical developments, which include analytical expressions of exterior and interior sound pressure for the nite cylindrical structure and the revisions to the denition of noise reduction. In Sec. III a numerical simulation for characterizing noise transmission into a ChamberCore cylinder is performed, which is accompanied by a comparison of analytical and experimental results. Some conclusions are given in the nal section.

II. THEORY

The physics of the problem under study is described as follows: 1 an incident sound wave impinges upon the surface of a nite, cylindrical structure causing vibration of the shell; 2 the shell vibration induces sound-pressure uctuations including scattering and radiation pressures; 3 the radiated pressure to the interior excites vibration of the air inside the cylinder; and 4 the noise of the interior cavity in turn interacts with the structure to affect the structural vibration and creates the coupled vibration. The purpose of this

2005 Acoustical Society of America 679

0001-4966/2005/117(2)/679/11/$22.50

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1

m

m 0 m 1 . 4

The total exterior sound-pressure eld of the innite cylindrical structure can be written as p ext p i p se , 5

where p ext is the exterior pressure, p i the incident pressure, p se the scattered pressure by the elastic shell, which contains two parts

FIG. 1. Geometry and incident wave of an innite cylindrical structure.

p se p s section is to nd an analytical solution to describe the exterior and interior sound pressure of the cylinder under sound wave incident. The calculation of exterior pressure over the outside shell is a near-eld problem, which is difcult to analytically solve for a nite, elastic, cylindrical shell.15 In this study, the near-eld pressure of an innite elastic cylindrical shell is used to approximate that of the nite one. The internal sound-pressure eld is solved by means of the coupled structural and acoustic vibration under the input of the solved external pressure.13,16 18 In order to simplify analysis, the impinging wave is selected to be an oblique plane wave, and time-dependent variables are assumed to be harmonic. The solutions of external and internal pressures are presented in the following sections.

A. Exterior pressure of an innite elastic cylindrical shell

p re ,

where p s is the scattered pressure by a rigid cylinder with innite acoustic impedance, and p re is the pressure radiated by an elastic cylindrical shell. The general result of sound radiation from a vibrating structure is presented in the next section.

Assuming that an elastic cylindrical shell is vibrating with a surface-harmonic acceleration distribution w (r a, ,z,t), which can be expanded into a Fourier series as11,15,19 w r a, ,z,t e

jk 1z z m 0

W m t cos m

The specic problem studied is shown in Fig. 1. Consider an oblique plane wave impinging upon an innite thin . cylindrical shell approaching from the radial plane The density of the uid and the speeds of sound are 1 , c 1 , and 2 , c 2 , in the external and internal media, respectively. In the analysis of exterior pressure eld, all waves will be assumed to have the same dependence on the axial coordinate z. The incident plane sound wave can be represented as p i x,z,t P ie j

t k 1x x k 1z z

where a is the radius of the midsurface, k 1z the z components of the wave number given by Eq. 2 , and W m (t) the timedependent part of the acceleration. Only the conguration in is considered in Eq. 7 . If the axis cannot be even oriented to be consistent with this conguration, then a sine series is required using the same procedure presented here. In a linear sound eld without loss, the pressure p and the particle velocity (u ) satisfy wave equation15 p u . t 8

where P i is the amplitude of incident sound pressure, k 1x and k 1z are the x component and z component of the wave number, respectively, and are computed from k 1x k 1 cos , k 1z k 1 sin 2

The boundary condition where the uid meets the structure is governed in the normal direction by p r, ,z,t r w r a, ,z,t ,

r a

where k 1 /c 1 is the wave number in the external uid medium, and is the incident angle. The expansion of Eq. 1 into a cylindrical coordinate system gives11,15,19 p i x,z,t P ie j

t k 1z z m 0

where w (r a, ,z,t) is the uid particle acceleration of the boundary. Note that the uid particle vibration uses the same symbol as the shell vibration because it equates the shell vibration at structureuid boundaries. In order to satisfy the boundary condition, the radiation pressure eld is therefore expressed as the series11,15 p r r, ,z,t

(2) Hm

J m k 1r r cos m , 3

jk 1z z m 0

2 P m t H m k 1r r cos m

, 10

where J m is the Bessel function of the rst kind of integer order m, k 1r k 1x the radial component of the wave number, and m the Neumann factor given by

680 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005

is a Hankel function of the second kind of m where order. Substituting Eqs. 10 and 7 into 9 , the coefcients P m (t) are solved from

D. Li and J. S. Vipperman: Noise transmission model for nite cylinders

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Pm t

1W m 2 k 1r H m

t k 1r a

11

p s r, ,z,t

Pi t e

jk 1z z m 0

j ,

Am 20

denotes the spatial derivative. The radiation preswhere sure eld is thus found to be p r r, ,z,t e

jk 1z z 1

2 H m k 1r r cos m

where Am J m k 1r a

2 Hm

Wm t

0 2 Hm

k 1r m

k 1r a . 12

2 H m k 1r r cos m

k 1r a

21

Because W m (t) is time harmonic, the surface pressure obtained from Eq. 12 can be written in terms of modalspecic acoustic impedance, z m , as15 p r r a, ,z,t where Wm t j jW m t

2 1H m

The resultant pressure on the cylindrical surface required by analyzing the scattering action of elastic cylindrical shells is the sum of the incident and scattered waves of the rigid cylinder (p p i p s ). Considering the following relation:1

2 Jm x Hm

jk 1z z m 0

W m t z m cos m

13

2 Jm x Hm x

2 , x

22

jk 1z z m 0 m

m 1 2 Hm

1 k 1r a

cos m

. 23

zm

2 k 1r H m

The scattered pressure from an innite rigid and elastic cylindrical shell is solved in the next two sections using the results of this subsection.

The normal response of the elastic cylindrical shell under the inuence of (p p i p s ) can be expressed in terms of modal mechanical and acoustic impedance as15 w r a, ,z,t e

jk 1z z m 0

When the boundary is rigid and there is no loss of air, the resultant particle acceleration at the boundary must have a zero component along the normal direction to the boundary w s r a, ,z,t w i r a, ,z,t 0, 16 where w s (r a, ,z,t) is the scattered uid particle acceleration at boundary (r a), which is equal to the normal rigid surface acceleration, and w i (r a, ,z,t) the normal incident uid particle acceleration at the boundary, which is given by wave equation 8 or boundary condition Eq. 9 w i r a, ,z,t 1 p i r, ,z,t r 1 .

r a

Pm t cos m zm Zm

24

2 ak 1r H m m

k 1r a

m 1

25

17

and z m is the modal-specic acoustic impedance, and can be obtained from Eq. 15 , Z m is the modal mechanical impedance, and can be determined from DonnellMushtari equa tions with Flugge modifying constants20 under the absence of uid loading inside cylinder, which leads to the expression in the form15 Zm j c p sh a

2 1 m 2 2 2 2 m 2

jk 1z z

m2

26

k 1r

1 m 0 m

J m k 1r a cos m ,

18

where m is the Neumann factor given by Eq. 4 . Compar ing Eq. 18 with Eq. 7 , the coefcient W s ,m (t) is solved for Ws

,m

where s is the volume density of the shell material, c p 2 E/ p (1 ) is the speed of sound propagating in the shell, a is the radius of midsurface, h is the thickness of the a/c p is a dimensionless frequency parameter, shell, (1) (2) , and m are the resonance frequencies of a thin cym lindrical shell without axial components of displacement, and they are dened as15

1 m

1 2

Pi t

k 1r

m 1

J m k 1r a .

19

1 m2 1 m2

m4 m4

1 m2 1 m2

m4 m4

4 m6 , 27 4 m6 , 28

681

Substituting Eq. 19 into Eq. 12 , the scattered pressure from an innite rigid cylindrical shell is obtained as

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005

2 m

1 2

Downloaded 10 Aug 2011 to 129.94.206.155. Redistribution subject to ASA license or copyright; see http://asadl.org/journals/doc/ASALIB-home/info/terms.jsp

It is assumed that the end caps of the nite cylindrical structure are rigid, so that only the radial motion of the cylindrical shell excites the acoustic cavity see Fig. 2 . The modal-interaction approach13,16 18 is used to calculate the sound pressure inside the cavity under the excitation of external pressure which is approximated by the one obtained from the innite cylindrical shell see Eq. 34 . Only the conguration is considered. Note that either odd even sin(m ) modes or even cos(m ) modes can be chosen, 0 deg direction is arbitrary. since the For a simply supported cylindrical structure without axial constraint, the harmonic radial displacement of the shell, subject to external pressure excitation, is described as a linear combination of the in vacuo normal modes as w r a, ,z,t

o 0 q 1

where h 2 /12a 2 is a dimensionless constant. The coefcients of the surface-harmonic acceleration distribution can be obtained from Eq. 24 Wm t j Pm t . zm Zm 29

W oq t

oq

,z ,

35

Substituting Eq. 29 into Eq. 12 , the radiation pressure from the innite elastic cylindrical shell is p re r, ,z,t Pi t e

jk 1z z m 0

where o is the number of circumferential waves in the structural mode shapes, and q is the number of longitudinal halfwaves in the structural mode shapes. The in vacuo structural normal mode shapes can be written as21

oq

,z

cos o

sin q

z ,

36

j ,

Bm 30

2 H m k 1r r cos m

where Bm 2

2 ak 1r 1

where L is the length of the nite cylindrical shell. The natural frequencies for simply supported closed thin shells can be obtained from Leissas book.21 The modal equation for the structure can then be derived by taking advantage of the orthogonal properties of the mode shapes as16 W oq t 2

s oq s oq W oq

2 zm Zm Hm

k 1r a

31

s 2 oq W oq

t 37

Finally, the external pressure of the innite elastic cylindrical shell is computed from p ext r, ,z,t p i r, ,z,t p s r, ,z,t p re r, ,z,t . 32

S Moq l,m,n

P lmn t D oq,lmn

p oq t , Moq

jk 1z z m 0

J m k 1r r 33

2 C m H m k 1r r cos m

where C m A m B m , and A m and B m are given by Eqs. 21 and 31 , respectively. When the incident pressure is time harmonic, i.e. P i (t) P i e j t , the external pressure over the innite exible cylindrical shell is p ext r a, ,z,t P ie j

t jk 1z z m 0

where the superscript s denotes structure. In the right-hand side of Eq. 37 , the rst term is the cavity uid loading, and the second term is the external distributed input, where Moq is modal mass of the structure, D oq,lmn is the dimensionless structuralacoustic coupling coefcient, p oq (t) is the modal force from the external pressure eld, P lmn (t) is the timedependent portion of the interior pressure, l, m, and n are the number of radial nodes, diametric nodes, and longitudinal nodes in acoustic cavity mode shapes, respectively, and S 2 aL is the area of the midsurface of the cylindrical shell. Moq , D oq,lmn , and p oq (t) are given by the following equations, respectively: Moq D oq,lmn p oq t ms 1 S

2 oq

,z dS,

38

J m k 1r a , 34

oq

,z

lmn

r a, ,z dS,

39

2 C m H m k 1r a cos m

p ext r a, ,z,t

oq

,z dS

P i e j t E oq , 40

where P i is the magnitude of incident pressure. This concludes the derivation for the external pressure eld.

682 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005

where the structural mode shapes oq are given by Eq. 36 , lmn are the acoustic mode shapes, which are dened by Eq. 46 , and the pressure p ext is given by Eq. 34 . For a uniform cylindrical shell with surface density m s , coefcients Moq , D oq,lmn , and E op become Moq 1

o

m s La , aL 1 cos q n J m k lm a S m q n 0, j otherwise

o 1

41 1 cos q n q n , o m and q n

D oq,lmn

42

aL

J o k 1r a J o k 1r a

C o H o2 k 1r a , C o H o2 k 1r a sin k 1z L q k 1z L q

E oq

j o aL j

L cos k 1z L q k 1z L q , otherwise

k 1z q

cos k 1z L q k 1z L q

43

sin k 1z L q k 1z L q

where o and m are the Neumann factor given by Eq. 4 . If the cavity uid loading is neglected, Eq. 37 becomes W oq t 2

s oq s oq W oq

s 2 oq W oq

P i E oq j t e . Moq 44

The effects on the noise transmission into the cylinder due to ignoring cavity uid loading will be discussed in Sec. III through comparing analytical and experimental results. Next, the cylindrical cavity acoustic effects induced by the elastic shell vibration are studied. The acoustic pressure in the cavity can be expressed as a linear combination of the rigid-wall acoustic cavity modes p r, ,z,t

l,m,n 0

this study. k lm is solved from J lm (k lm r) r a 0, and the f acoustic natural frequencies are obtained from lmn 2 c 2 k lm (n /L) 2 , where the superscript f denotes uid. Invoking the orthogonality condition for mode shapes and considering the damping term, the modal equation for the acoustic system is written as16 P lmn t 2

f lmn f lmn P lmn

f 2 lmn P lmn

t 47

2 2c 2S

V lmn

o 0,q 1

W oq t D oq,lmn ,

P lmn t

lmn

r, ,z .

45

2 lmn

lmn

r, ,z dV,

48

r, ,z

J m k lm r cos m

cos n

z .

46 where V is the acoustic cavity volume. For a cylindrical cavity with length L and midsurface radius a, the modal volume is computed from

Note that l, m, and n cannot be zero at the same time, because the static pressure mode 0,0,0 is not considered in

a 2L , 2 V lmn a 2L

m n

l m 0,n J m k lm a

2

1, 1 m k lm a

2

. J m k lm a

2

49

otherwise

Because all time-dependent variables are assumed to be time harmonic, the displacement and pressure are expressed as W oq (t) W oq e j t and P lmn (t) P lmn e j t . Solving Eqs. 44 and 47 for the modal pressure distribution, P lmn (t), yields

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005

P lmn t

P ie j

t 2

F lmn j2

f lmn f lmn f 2 lmn

, V lmn 50

where

683

F lmn

2 2c 2S

E oq D oq,lmn

o 0,q 1 s 2 oq

j2

s oq

s oq

. Moq 51

Substituting Eq. 50 into Eq. 45 , the internal pressure eld is p int r, ,z,t P ie j

t l,m,n 0 lmn 2

F lmn j2

f lmn f lmn f 2 lmn

V lmn 52

r, ,z .

The structural damping s and uid medium damping f in Eq. 52 are determined by experimental modal identication.1 In order to derive an analytical solution for the noise reduction of the nite cylindrical structure, the modal pressure ( P lmn ) is re-expressed as1 P lmn t P ie

j t R G lmn I jG lmn

the problem under consideration differs from the innite at panel, not only because of its nite dimension, but also because of the effects of internal acoustic cavity resonances in the closed cylindrical shell. Hence, it is not possible to dene a transmission loss as is done for at panels. For measurement of the sound transmission through cylindrical shells, Holmer and Heymann22 dened the sound power transmission coefcient to be equal to the ratio of power radiated per unit surface area of the shell to the power passing axially through a unit area of cross section. In other references,11,13,2325 researchers suggested using the noise reduction instead of calculating TL, which was equal to the ratio of the outer time- and surface-averaged mean-square pressure and inner time- and volume-averaged mean-square pressure. In this study, the revised noise reduction for characterizing broadband sound transmission into a nite cylindrical structure is dened where the external surfaceaveraged mean-square pressure is used NR log10

2 p int r, ,z,t 2 p ext r, ,z,t

55

53

R I where G lmn and G lmn are the real part and imaginary part of

where p 2 (r, ,z,t) is the mean-square pressure of p(r, ,z,t) averaged over the midsurface area S, and a time period, T. It is dened as p 2 r, ,z,t 1 ST p r, ,z,t p * r, ,z,t dt dS,

S T

F lmn

j2

f lmn

f lmn

f 2 lmn

V lmn ,

t l,m,n 0 R G lmn I jG lmn lmn

56 where * denotes the complex conjugate. For a cylindrical shell, the expression of dS in Eq. 56 is dS r d dz, and the averaged mean-square external pressure is calculated from

2 p ext r, ,z,t

r, ,z . 54

Equations 34 and 54 are used in the calculation of noise reduction in the next section.

F. Noise reduction

P2 i J m k 1r a

,

2 C m H m k 1r a 2

57

The denition of transmission loss TL for an innite at panel assumes that the transmitted sound is totally absorbed, and only inward-propagating waves exist. However,

m 0

58

R G lmn 2 I G lmn 2 2 lmn rd

dz 1

l 0,m 1,n 0 n

S l,m,n 0

aL

n 1 I G lmn 2

R G 00n

I G 00n

aL

R G lmn

I G lmn

2 J m k lm a

2aL

l 1,m 0,n 0

1

m n

R G lmn

2 J m k lm a .

60

684 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005 D. Li and J. S. Vipperman: Noise transmission model for nite cylinders

S l,m,n,o 0 o l

lmn

omn rd

dz 1

o 0,o l l 0,m 1,n 0 n

aL

n,o 1

aL 1

J m k lm a J m k om a

2aL

o 0,o l l 1,m 0,n 0

m n

61

2 p int r, ,z,t

P2 i

62

where 1 2n 1 2l 1

0,m 1,n 0 n

R G 00n

I G 00n

R G lmn

I G lmn

2 J m k lm a

1

l 1,m 0,n 0 m n

R G lmn

I G lmn

2 J m k lm a

1 2 n,o

1 2o

1

0,o l l 0,m 1,n 0 n

R R G lmn G omn

I I G lmn G omn J m k lm a J m k om a

1

o 0,o l l 1,m 0,n 0 m n

63

Substituting Eqs. 57 and 62 into Eq. 55 , the analytical formula for the calculation of noise reduction is obtained as

NR

10 log10

64

The NR into a cylindrical structure under a plane wave impinging with an incident angle, , is only a function of frequency since the time variable disappeared from the integrations as does spatial dependence , and the amplitude of incident plane wave was also canceled during the calculation of the internal and external mean-square pressure ratio. Note that the noise reduction given by Eq. 64 is only used to characterize the noise transmission into a nite, thin, cylindrical enclosure with two rigid ends, and also note that the equations are derived with the internal uid loading ignored assumed to be light and with an oblique plane incident wave. The denition of NR proposed in this paper is more similar to TL than previous denitions, and it is more amenable to comparing with experimental measurements. While only the radiation is considered in the transmitted wave for the TL, in the NR the transmitted sound includes both radiation and the scattered waves inside the acoustic cavity. Note that transmission loss and noise reduction are dimensionless quantities that are typically expressed in decibels.

III. NUMERICAL SIMULATION

255 mm, effective thickness h 20.1 mm, and length L 760 mm. The physical parameters of the composite material have been homogenized and are Youngs modulus E 60 GPa, Poissons ratio 0.3, effective density of the uniform shell is s 315 kg/m3 . The speed of sound and the density of air inside and outside the cylindrical shell are c 1 3 c 2 346 m/s at 75 F and 1 2 1.21 kg/m . The oblique incident plane wave is given by Eq. 1 , where 30 deg. In order to simplify analysis, the acoustic damping ratio was set to the same value for all modes and obtained by averaging the measured results 0.28% .1,12 The structural damping ratio was also set to the same for all modes and obtained by averaging the identication results 4.64% .1,12 The maximum order of acoustic and structural modes is set

TABLE I. First ten acoustic cavity modes and their natural frequencies. Mode shape order (l,m,n) 001 010 002 011 012 020 003 021 013 022 Analytical frequency Hz 228 398 455 458 604 660 683 698 790 801

Mode no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Numerical results from Eq. 64 have been generated for the ChamberCore composite cylindrical shell with radius a

J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005

685

to six per each index in the simulation for a total of 36 structural modes and 216 acoustic cavity modes. The analytical results for the rst ten acoustic modes and natural frequencies of the cavity formed by the closed cylindrical structure are listed in Table I. Figure 3 shows the curves of the noise reduction given by Eq. 64 at 30 deg, with frequency range 0,3000 Hz and a logarithmic abscissa. The rst ten acoustic cavity resonances are also indicated in the gure as dashed vertical lines. From Fig. 3 it is observed that there are sharp dips at all cavity resonances, which is consistent with previous experimental studies.1,3,4,12 This phenomenon can be explained by examining Eqs. 52 and 55 . From Eq. 52 , there is a peak in the interior pressurefrequency curve at each acousf tic cavity resonance frequency ( lmn ), and these peaks become dips in the NR curve by the denition of NR in Eq. 55 . It is concluded that the cavity resonances signicantly reduce the noise reduction capability of the nite cylindrical structure, dominating the NR at low frequencies and even causing amplication negative NR; also see Fig. 3 at 398, 455, and 458 Hz. From the gure it is also important to note that the pure longitudinal modes that were neglected in previous models, i.e. 001 at 228 Hz, 002 at 455 Hz, and 003 at 683 Hz, play a very important role in noise transmission of low frequencies. The structural resonances do not play a signicant role in the NR results of Fig. 3 since they are higher than 4000 Hz. Table II lists the predicted structural

TABLE II. First six structural modes and their natural frequencies. Mode shape order (o,q) 21 31 11 41 32 42 Analytical frequency Hz 4141 4410 5546 5577 5827 6336

resonance frequencies.21 Figure 4 shows the effects of varying the internal acous30 deg. The solid curve is the tic damping on the NR for NR curve with general acoustic damping ratio 0.28% , and the dashed curve is the NR curve with a ten-times increase in the general acoustic damping ratio 2.8% . From Fig. 4 it is observed that when increasing internal acoustic damping ratios the noise reduction obtains signicant broadband improvement. Absorptive treatments would work well at providing increased damping at the higher frequencies, but not at low frequencies. Figure 5 shows the effects of the sound incidence angle, , on the NR. In the following, the mechanism of how the incident angle affects the noise reduction is discussed in de0 deg case. tail based on the normal incident sound From Eq. 2 it can be observed that the x component of the /c, and the z component is k 1z 0 wave number is k 1x when 0 deg. Equation 43 then simplies to j E oq 0,

o 1

aL

J o ka

C o H o2 ka , C o H o2 ka 1 , q

q 0 .

j o 4aL J o ka

q odd number q even number 65 From Eqs. 42 and 65 , it is observed that when the acoustic cavity modes are purely axial i.e., l 0, m 0, and n 0), the coupled structural and acoustic vibration loading in Eq. 51 becomes zero at these modes i.e., E oq D oq,lmn 0), which will in turn cause the modal pressure, Eq. 51 , to be zero i.e., F lmn ( ) 0] at these modes. As a result, the purely axial cavity modes have no contribution to the internal pressure in Eq. 52 when the sound wave impinges normally upon the cylindrical shell. As the incidence angle increases, the extent of the contribution of the purely axial acoustic modes to the internal modal pressure increases, which in turn results in notches in the NR.. From inspecting

D. Li and J. S. Vipperman: Noise transmission model for nite cylinders

Mode no. 1 2 3 4 5 6

686

30

Fig. 5, it is observed that the incident angle creates a signicant inuence on the NR at the vicinity of the resonance frequencies of purely axial acoustic cavity modes 001 mode at 228 Hz, 002 mode at 455 Hz, and 003 mode at 683 Hz . Figure 6 is a comparison of analytical Fig. 6 a and measured Fig. 6 b results for the noise transmission into the ChamberCore cylindrical structure. As indicated in the legends of the gures, the analytical NR is calculated with a plane wave impinging at an incident angle, 30 deg, while the measured NR results are obtained in a approximately diffuse eld.1,3,4 The rst ten acoustic cavity resonances are also shown in Fig. 6 as dashed vertical lines. The measured noise reduction is calculated by an in situ method developed in previous studies.1,3,4,12 First, the ChamberCore cylinder was installed in a diffuse sound eld, and the autospectrum signals were measured over the outside and inside surface of the cylinder. Second, the noise reduction is computed by

NR

10 log10

2 p int 2 p ext

66

2 where p ext ( ) is the mean-square external pressure spec2 trum averaged over the outside shell surface, and p int ( ) is the mean-square internal pressure spectrum averaged over the inside shell surface. Note that because the shell is thin, both the internal and external areas are well approximated by the midsurface area, S. From Fig. 6 it is observed that the general trends of the measured and analytical NR curves are very similar, while the absolute values of NR at low frequencies smaller than 200 Hz and high frequencies larger than 1500 Hz have some discrepancy. There are two main reasons for the difference between the experimental and analytical results. First, the analytical NR was calculated for a plane wave with an 30 deg , while the experimental results incident angle of

687

were measured in an approximately diffuse sound eld. Second, the effects of the internal uid loading on the NR are present in the experimental results, while the effects are neglected in the analytical model in order to simplify the derivation. The inuence of the uid loading on the NR is complex, and includes the change of both internal and external sound elds by the coupled acoustic and structural vibration. The effects of internal uid loading and different sound elds on the NR would make a good topic for a future research endeavor.

IV. CONCLUSIONS

An extended model of the noise reduction for a nite uniform cylindrical shell was developed that includes axial structuralacoustic modes. The exterior near-eld pressure was approximated with that for an innite elastic cylindrical shell. The interior pressure distribution of a nite cylindrical structure was derived using a modal model. Donnel Mushtari and Flugges theories were used for the structural analysis, and were coupled to the rigid-wall acoustic modes using a modal-interaction approach. Analytical results were presented for a novel ChamberCore composite fairing and compared with experimentally obtained NR. Both the experimental and numerical results show that the cavity resonances have a signicant effect on the noise transmission into the nite cylindrical structure. A parametric study found that higher internal acoustic damping provides improved broadband noise transmission reduction. In particular, the axial modes, which were not considered in previous studies, were found to provide signicant decrease in the NR as the sound incident angle is increased.

1

D. Li, Vibroacoustic Behavior and Noise Control Studies of Advanced Composite Structures, Ph.D. dissertation, School of Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 2003 . 2 E. Herup, S. Huybrechts, S. Grifn, and S. Tsai, Method of making composite ChamberCore sandwich-type structure with inherent acoustic attenuation, U.S. Patent No. 6,231,710 B1 2001 . 3 D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, Noise transmission control studies on a 688 J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 117, No. 2, February 2005

chamber core composite cylinder, IMECE02-33069, New Orleans, LA, 2002. 4 J. S. Vipperman, D. Li, I. Avdeev, and S. A. Lane, Investigation of the sound transmission into an advanced grid-stiffened structure, J. Vibr. Acoust. 125, 257266 2003 . 5 S. M. Huybrechts and T. E. Meink, Advanced grid stiffened structures for the next generation of launch vehicles, Proceedings of Aerospace Conference, IEEE, 1, 263270 1997 . 6 Y. Y. Tang, J. H. Robinson, and R. J. Silcox, Sound transmission through two concentric cylindrical sandwich shells, 14th International Modal Analysis Conference, Dearbon, Michigan, Feb. 1996. 7 Y. Y. Tang, J. H. Robinson, and R. J. Silcox, Sound transmission through a cylindrical sandwich shell with honeycomb core, 34th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, AIAA Paper No. 96-0877 1996 . 8 P. H. White, Sound transmission through a nite, closed, cylindrical shell, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 40, 1124 1130 1966 . 9 L. Cheng, Fluidstructural coupling of a plate-ended cylindrical shell: Vibration and internal sound eld, J. Sound Vib. 174, 641 654 1994 . 10 Y. K. Tso and C. H. Hansen, An investigation of the coupling loss factor for a cylinder/plate structure, J. Sound Vib. 199, 629 643 1997 . 11 L. R. Koval, Effects of cavity resonances on sound transmission into a thin cylindrical shell, J. Sound Vib. 59, 2333 1978 . 12 D. Li and J. S. Vipperman, On the noise transmission and control for a cylindrical ChamberCore composite structure, J. Sound Vib. to be published . 13 P. Gardonio, N. S. Ferguson, and F. J. Fahy, A modal expansion analysis of noise transmission through circular cylindrical shell structures with blocking masses, J. Sound Vib. 244, 259297 2001 . 14 ` S. J. Esteve and M. E. Johnson, Reduction of transmission into a circular cylindrical shell using distributed vibration absorbers and Helmholtz resonators, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 28402848 2002 . 15 M. C. Junger and D. Feit, Sound, Structures, and Their Interaction, 2nd ed. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1986 . 16 F. Fahy, Sound and Structural Vibration: Radiation, Transmission and Response Academic, London, 1993 . 17 Y. M. Huang and C. R. Fuller, The effects of dynamic absorbers on the forced vibration of a cylindrical shell and its coupled interior sound eld, J. Sound Vib. 20, 401 418 1997 . 18 D. R. Thomas, P. A. Nelson, and S. J. Elliot, Active control of the transmission of sound through a thin cylindrical shell. II. The minimization of acoustic potential energy, J. Sound Vib. 167, 113128 1993 . 19 N. M. McLachlan, Bessel Functions for Engineers, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1955 . 20 R. D. Blevins, Formulations for Natural Frequency and Mode Shape Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1979 . 21 A. W. Leissa, Vibration of Shells, NASA-SP-288, 1973, pp. 43 46. D. Li and J. S. Vipperman: Noise transmission model for nite cylinders

22

C. I. Holmer and F. J. Heymann, Transmission of sound through pipe walls in the presence of ow, J. Sound Vib. 70, 275301 1980 . 23 C. R. Fuller, S. J. Elliott, and P. A. Nelson, Active Control of Vibration Academic, London, 1989 .

24

C. R. Fuller and A. H. von Flotow, Active control of sound and vibration, IEEE Control Syst. Mag. 15, 919 1995 . 25 C. H. Hansen and S. D. Scott D. Snyder, Active Control of Noise and Vibration E & FN Spon, London, 1997 .

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