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An Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex Technology

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Agenda
• Part One – OFDM and SISO radio configurations
– – – – – – – SISO – Single Input Single Output Radio Topology Why use OFDM? Digital Modulation Overview Multi-path Issues OFDM and WLAN OFDMA and WiMAX Test Equipment Requirements MIMO – Multiple Input Multiple Output Radio Topology MIMO and WLAN MIMO and WiMAX Beam Forming Test Equipment Requirements

Part Two – OFDM and MIMO radio configurations
– – – – –

Conclusion
– Technology Overview and Test Equipment Summary

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What is SISO?
Single-Input Single-Output

Traditional – SISO Architecture

Data

MAC

Radio

Radio

MAC

Data

Single Data Channel

• One radio, only one antenna used at a time (e.g., 1 x 1 ) • Antennas constantly switched for best signal path • Only one data “stream” and a single data channel

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e (WiMAX). j.3a Ultra Wideband (UWB) Wireless PAN • IEEE 802. DVB-H. . and HiperMAN Wireless MANs • IEEE 802.15.16d.20 Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) • DVB (Digital Video Broadcast) terrestrial TV systems: DVB-T. n (WiFi) Wireless LANs • IEEE 802.11a. Digital Radio Mondiale.com System Standards using OFDM Wireless • IEEE 802. Inc. g. HD Radio. T-DMB and ISDB-TSB • Flash-OFDM cellular systems • 3GPP UMTS & 3GPP@ LTE (Long-Term Evolution). T-DMB and ISDB-T • DAB (Digital Audio Broadcast) systems: EUREKA 147. and 4G Wireline • ADSL and VDSL broadband access via POTS copper wiring • MoCA (Multi-media over Coax Alliance) home networking • PLC (Power Line Communication) 4 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.www. WiBro.

.www.keithley.com Why Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex? • High spectral efficiency – provides more data services. Inc. 5 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. • Resiliency to RF interference – good performance in unregulated and regulated frequency bands • Lower multi-path distortion – works in complex indoor environments as well as at speed in vehicles.

0 Bits/Second/Hz 3G 2.com Spectrally Efficiency – OFDM 4G/LTE (OFDM) 4.11a/g WiMAX 6 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.www. .5 GSM W-CDMA HSDPA WLAN 802.0 (CDMA) 2G (GMSK) 0. Inc.keithley.

8GHz Band (BW 100MHz) • Typical RF transmitters in the ISM band include… – – – – – Analog Cordless Phones (900MHz) Microwave Ovens (2. Inc.www. .keithley.com Why OFDM? …Resiliency to RF interference.8GHz). • • The ISM Band (Industrial Scientific and Medical) is a set of frequency ranges that are unregulated. Most popular consumer bands – 915MHz Band (BW 26MHz) – 2.45GHz or 5.45GHz) Digital Cordless Phones (2.8GHz) Wireless LAN (2. 7 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.45GHz Band (BW 100MHz) – 5.45 GHz) Bluetooth Devices (2.45GHz or 5.

keithley. . Inc.com The Multi-Path Problem Example: Bluetooth Transmitter & Receiver Symbol Rate = 1MSymbols/s Symbol Duration = 1/1E6 = 1us Maximum Symbol Delay < 1us Ceiling Maximum time for signal To travel D (Distance) Dmultipath > Ddirect TX to RX < 1us Ddirect TX1 Floor RX1 8 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.www.

14 Msymbols/sec Bluetooth – 1 Msymbols/sec • A primary disadvantage is that fast symbol rates are more susceptible to Multi-path distortion. 9 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. CDMA and other communications standards use a single carrier to transmit a single symbol at a time. • Data throughput is achieved by using a very fast symbol rate. W-CDMA .3. Inc.www. GSM. .keithley.com Single Carrier – Single Symbol • Bluetooth.

3us Ceiling Maximum time for signal To travel D (Distance) Dmultipath > Ddirect TX to RX < 3.3us Maximum Symbol Delay < 3.www. Inc.com Slow the symbol rate Reduce the previous examples symbol rate by a third Symbol Rate = 300kSymbols/s Symbol Duration = 1/300 = 3.keithley.3us Ddirect TX1 Floor RX1 But the data throughput is reduced! 10 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .

11a-g WLAN example I Q I Q I Q I Q I Q 312.com Improve the throughput use more than one carrier! 802.5kHz 312.5kHz 312. Inc.www.5kHz Low symbol rate per carrier * multiple carriers = high data rate 250 kbps symbol rate * 48 sub-carriers * 6 coded bits /sub-carrier * ¾ coding rate = 54 Mbps ( for 64QAM ) 11 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.5kHz 312. .

www. • The sub-carrier frequency relative to the center frequency is k ∆F where k is the subcarrier number. .keithley. 12 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc.com Sub Carrier Spacing • The sub-carriers are spaced at regular intervals called the sub-carrier frequency spacing (∆F).

keithley. .com Symbol to Waveform Traditional – Serial Symbol Transmissions Q I 13 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc.www.

.www. QPSK… 64QAM.com Symbol to Waveform OFDM – Parallel Symbol Transmissions OFDM Symbol Period …fn f4 f3 f2 f1 I waveform Q waveform Multiple carriers will transmit multiple symbols in parallel. Inc.keithley. 14 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Carriers may have different modulations – BPSK.

keithley. .www. Inc.com The OFDM Radio Digital I and Q Bus Modulator Filter TX RF/uW Mixer Digital Section (ASIC/ FPGA) D/A IFFT D/A Filter 90o Sum IF PA Local Oscillator (LO) Digital Section (ASIC/ FPGA) A/D Filter FFT A/D Filter 90o IF Mixer PA Local Oscillator (LO) Demodulator RX RF/uW 15 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.

www.keithley.com Key Measurements: Constellation and EVM Pilot Symbols 16 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. . Inc.

Inc.com Vector Signal Analyzer Measurements Modulation Quality Analysis Input Signal QPSK I Q Q Analyzer Display Q Measurement Analysis Magnitude Error = “IQ Error Magnitude” 8PSK I Q Measured Signal Error Vector Magnitude Ratio of Measured Amplitude to Intended Amplitude (% or dB) Unit Circle 16QAM I φ Intended Signal Phase Error = “IQ Error Phase” I etc… RCE (dB) = 20 log(EVM in %/100) 17 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .www.keithley.

com EVM Metrics P = RMS Power Source: Wikipedia 18 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc. .keithley.www.

com Introduction to Constellation Diagrams • A constellation diagram is a representation of a digital modulation scheme in the complex plane. . Inc. or I-axis and the quadrature. • Example: four-symbol Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulator Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) 01 00 11 00 01 10 01 = φ2 = 3π/4 Data Φ(t) 00 = φ1 = π/4 10 = φ4 = –π/4 11 = φ3 = –3π/4 Q 01 00 I 11 10 π 19 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.www. – The real and imaginary axes are often called the in phase. or Q-axis.

707 -0.keithley.www.5 -0.com Recovering the Data QPSK and 16QAM Signals 1 0.5 -0.707 -1 1 0.707 -0.707 -1 SI(t) QPSK -1V Q +1V 01 00 Assign Voltages I +1V 11 -1V 10 SQ(t) 01 00 11 00 01 10 Constant Magnitude circle 1 0. Inc.5 -1 20 Q +1V SI(t) 16QAM 0011 0010 0001 0000 Magnitude Changes 0111 0110 Noise 0101 0100 -1V 1011 1010 1001 1000 I +1V SQ(t) 0100 1100 0110 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF 1111 1110 1101 1100 -1V C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.5 -1 1 0. .

www. . Inc.keithley.com Digital Modulation Overview I and Q Components of a Signal Q I 90o Sum Q A Q φ I I Simple Pythagoras Amplitude (Length of A) = SQRT (I2 + Q2) Phase (Angle φ) = tan-1 (Q/I) 21 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.

keithley.com Representation of Signal in Complex Plane Q-axis (Imaginary) Asinφ S(t) = A cos(2πfct + φ) A φ f c = signal frequency I – axis (Real) Acosφ Independent Signal 1 Independent Signal 2 22 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc. .www.

www. . Inc.Asinφ x sinθ = Acos(φ+θ) filter Acosφ x cosθ carrier Asinφ x sinθ filter 23 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.com Quadrature Modulator Hardware Acosφ x cosθ .

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Quadrature Demodulation
• The receiver can recover the two independently modulated signals, even though they share the same carrier frequency.

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Vector Signal Analyzer Measurements
Modulation Quality Analysis
Mixer RF Input Digital IF IQ Demod

Local Oscillator

Input Signal Analyzer Display
Q

Measurement Analysis
Magnitude Error = “IQ Error Magnitude” Q

QPSK
I Q

8PSK
I Q

Measured Signal

Error Vector Magnitude
Ratio of Measured Amplitude to Intended Amplitude (%)

Unit Circle

16QAM
I

φ

Intended Signal Phase Error = “IQ Error Phase” I

etc…
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RCE (dB) = 20 log(EVM in %/100)
A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E
© Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments, Inc.

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I/Q Modulator Impairments Contributions to EVM
Modulator imbalance Ioffset I Baseband generator Q Qoffset GI φc RF Carrier Phase Shift Origin Offset

LO

90°+θe Quadrature Error

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keithley. Inc.com Origin Offset Example 16-QAM Constellation Q I 27 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .www.

www.keithley. Inc. .com Quadrature Error Examples QPSK Constellations 28 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.

www. Inc.com Modulator Imbalance Examples QPSK Constellations Ideal Excess I Gain Excess I gain and reduced Q gain relative to ideal constellation Excess Q Gain 29 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .keithley.

keithley.www.com Power Amplifier Nonlinearity Another Contributor to EVM 30 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc. .

keithley.com ISI – Inter Symbol Interference Q +1V 0011 0010 0001 Delayed Received Symbol Expected 0000 Symbol Position 0111 0110 0101 0100 Symbol Boundary I +1V -1V 1011 1010 Noise 1001 1000 1111 1110 1101 1100 -1V 31 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc.www. .

www. .keithley. Inc.com Constellation Display Is a Composite of all OFDM Sub-carrier Symbols Individual Sub-carriers f2 f3 f4 …fn f5 f1 QPSK Constellation Display at T = t0 Q 16QAM I BPSK 32 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.

Time …tn t4 t2 t1 t0 Q Q I I I t3 Q Q I I Q I Q Q Q Q I I I Q I t2 Q I Constellation Display Q I I t1 33 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley. Inc.com Constellation Display Is a Composite of all OFDM Sub-carrier Symbols… and time Q Symbols vs.www. .

keithley. .www. Carriers -1 to -n Carriers 1 to n Sub-carrier -1 Pilot Carriers Sub-carrier 1 Frequency 34 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.com Data and Pilot Carriers • Used as reference for phase and amplitude to demodulate the data in the other sub-carriers. Inc.

. QPSK.11a/g) • • • • • • • • • Modulation Technique OFDM Bandwidth 16.25MHz Number of sub-carriers 52 Sub-carrier numbering -26 to + 26 Sub-carrier spacing 312.BPSK. 16-QAM or 64-QAM 35 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.www.com Example: WLAN (802.5kHz Maximum sub-carrier symbol rate 250 kHz (64QAM) Pilot sub-carriers -21.keithley. Inc. +7 and +21 (BPSK) Packet Structure – Preamble – Header – Data Block SUB Carrier Modulation Types . -7.

9 GHz Band. 5.11 to ensure better operation between different vendor’s equipment.11 Means a b g j n 54 Mbps OFDM. It is what you have in your laptop.www.keithley.11 sub standards. • WiFi is an industry consortium that defines a required subset of 802.4 GHz (Legacy. • Not a finished standard yet.4 GHz Japanese version of g that uses half the sample rate. agreed upon a version. 2. . • EWC is an industry consortium that took the unfinished N standard. • Like g.com WLAN Summary • WLAN implies Wireless LAN compatible with one the IEEE 802. but at 2. not OFDM) What you can easily buy now – same as a. Inc. 802.11n ratification. but up to 600Mbps • OFDM • MIMO • 20 & 40 MHz channels 36 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. and is attempting to field solutions prior to 802. 20 MHz channels 11 Mbps CCK.

www. Inc.keithley.25MHz 802.11a/g Signal Creation and Analysis Capability demo Keithley instruments 2820 and 2920 VSA and VSG have a frequency range of 6 GHz and 40 MHz bandwidth as standard.8GHz Modulation Bandwidth up to 16.Test Equipment Requirements • • • Frequency Coverage up to 5.com WLAN OFDM . 37 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .

* 802.com OFDM to OFDMA • • OFDM as a modulation technique is not multi user* – all sub-carriers in a channel are used to facilitate a single link. . OFDMA assigning different number of sub-carriers to different users in a similar fashion as in CDMA.keithley. Inc.www.11 WLAN supports multiple users with FDMA (frequency-division multiple access) 38 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.

WiMAX enhanced Mobile Devices BTS ile b xed Fi Mo 39 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.16d.www.keithley. Inc. point-to-point backhaul applications Mobile – 801. .16d/e OFDMA • • • Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access Fixed – 802.com WiMAX 802. enhanced data services mobile applications.16e.

.www. Inc.com RF Characteristics 802.keithley.16e Mobile WiMAX Pilot Carriers IFFT size determines carriers Carriers Subcarrier Spacing: 10.25 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz Frequency 40 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.94 kHz Guard Band Guard Band Data Carriers FFT Size 128 512 1024 2048 Channel Bandwidth 1.

. . .16e can use time-division or frequencydivision multiplexing between the up and down-link bursts. n k+1 k+2 k+7 k+8 k+9 k+10 PreDLamble Map DL Burst Transition Transition UL Burst Gap Gap Each OFDM symbol consists of n sub-carrier symbols 802. . 41 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .com Symbol Transmission verses Time OFDM Symbol Number k+3 k+4 k+5 k+6 Sub Channel Number k 0 . .keithley. Inc.www. .

www.keithley. .com Transmitting Multiple Symbols Simultaneously I Q 42 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc.

keithley.com Dynamic Symbol Map 43 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.www. Inc. .

-fn 0 +fn 44 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.com The Physical Channels are Different from the Logical Channels Physical sub-channels are changed every symbol using a PN sequence.www. Inc. .

www. Inc.com Link Characteristics – Summary Users Many – Few High Data Throughput (QAM) More Sub-channels used Distance Close – Far away 45 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley. Low Data Throughput (QPSK) Less Sub-channels used .

Inc.www.com WiMAX Measurements demo 46 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley. .

Uses scheduled transactions to ensure all paying users get access. office or car. Inc.keithley. You can get frozen out with WiFi. Implies one of the 802.www.16 Standards Very similar in concept to 802.9 GHz) • Practical rate: 10 Mbps over 2 km 802. Stands for: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access 802.16-2004 (aka 802. • Adds MIMO • • 47 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. • SOFDMA (Scalable OFDM Multiple Access) • SOFDMA interoperates with OFDMA.com WiMAX Summary • • • This is metropolitan area networking – internet to your home. .16 802.16d) Means Fielded system for fixed-point access (to the home or office) • OFDMA (OFDM multiple access) • 2-11 GHz (no regulatory approval above 5. upgraded to include mobile wireless. but requires new equipment.11.16e-2005 The current version of the standard. but the demands of multiple simultaneous users (possibly mobile) make the implementation much more complex.

www. .16e) have MIMO configurations 48 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Both WLAN (802.11n) and WiMAX (802.com OFDM/A to MIMO • • MIMO uses multiple transmitters and receivers that are modulated with OFDM/A.keithley. Inc.

.keithley.5 GSM W-CDMA HSDPA 49 WLAN 802.11a/g WLAN 802.0 0.11n A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.0 2.com Spectrally Efficiency – SISO Bits/Second/Hz MIMO 6.www.0 4. Inc.

5 x Information.com Why is MIMO different from standard OFDM 40MHz 40MHz 40MHz 40MHz ~ 4 x Information. Inc. . but with 4 x the BW 40MHz ~ 3.www. but with 1 x the BW 50 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.

Inc.keithley.com MIMO Radio Configuration TX1 TX2 TX1 TX2 TX3 TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4 51 RX1 2x2 RX2 RX1 3x2 RX2 RX1 RX2 RX3 RX4 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. 4x4 .www.

keithley.www. .com MIMO requires lots of paths! If you have two unknown transmitted signals and two measurements at the receivers. Inc. you can solve for the transmitted symbols! 52 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. If the two measurements are sufficiently independent.

. Inc.www.com Mathematically Model the Channel y = Hx + n TX1 h11 = a+jb h12 h21 h22 TX2 Channel RX1 RX2 y = Receive Vector x = Transmit Vector H = Channel Matrix n = Noise Vector H= h11 h12 h21 h22 Header 53 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.

Inc.www.com Correct for channel effects RX = H * TX + n h11 = a+jb h12 h21 h22 TX2 Channel TX1 RX1 RX2 TX1 TX2 = Data RX1 RX2 -n Data h11 h12 h21 h22 Header 54 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .keithley.

.www.com 2x2 Measurement Example demo 55 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc.keithley.

keithley. More Symbols 11 01 Matrix A – Transmit Inverse Symbols 110001100110 Coverage TX1 TX2 RX1 RX2 Throughput 11010101001010101 TX1 TX2 Matrix B – Transmit Parallel Symbols RX1 RX2 56 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. . Inc.16e Matrix A and B Robust Symbols vs.www.com 802.

. Inc. capacity and throughput 57 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.com Beam Forming TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4 • Control the directionality and shape of the radiated pattern Increase range.keithley.www.

Inc. .www.Closed Loop TX1 TX2 TX3 TX4 Sound Channel Feedback Channel Characteristics Direct Beam 58 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.keithley.com The Beam Forming Process WiMAX Example .

– Disadvantage – Not as efficient as Maximum Ratio Transmission.keithley. Inc. . thus improving throughput and coverage.com Typical Types of Beam Forming • Statistical Eigen Beam Forming (EBF) – Advantage – Quickly builds a channel model to form a beam. – Disadvantage – Slow processing times limit to static transmissions 59 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. • Maximum Ratio Transmission (MRT) – Advantage – builds a very accurate channel model. making it ideal for mobile applications.www.

and Trigger Sync to MIMO Synchronization Unit • MIMO Sync. . Inc. full-rack width 60 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Unit: 1U high. ½ rack width • MIMO Sync.www. and synchronized Trigger to all units • Signal sampling alignment within +1 nsec Form Factor • 28/2920: 3U high. Unit distributes a common LO. 100 MHz digital clock.com MIMO Instrument Requirements 2820 VSA (Master) 2820 VSA Hardware • All 28/2920 VSAs are identical standard units • Flexibility to use 2820 VSAs as stand-alone generators • User-definable instrument configuration setting Stand-alone MIMO Master MIMO Slave MIMO Synchronization Unit 2920 VSG (Master) 2920 VSG MIMO Synchronization Unit System • Common LO and clock signals for all analyzers • Master provides LO. common 100 MHz clock.keithley.

keithley.com Conclusions 61 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc. .www.

com Speed vs. Mobility Speed WLAN OFDMA Future WiMAX HSDPA GSM Today Mobility 62 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. .www. Inc.keithley.

com The Long Term Evolution of Wireless GSM / W-CDMA HSDPA/UPA DVB-H LTE GMSK. QPSK SISO 802. Inc. 802.keithley.16e Wave 2 Long Term Evolution 63 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.11a-b-g-j 802. .11n.16e CDMA OFDMA MIMO 802.www.

keithley.www. 64 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments. Inc. .com Instrument Bandwidth Requirements 300kHz 1MHz 3MHz 5MHz GSM IS2000 W-CDMA WiMAX WLAN 10MHz 20MHz 40MHz Keithley instruments have 40MHz BW as standard.

Inc.com Summary • • • • OFDM and SISO radio configurations OFDM and MIMO radio configurations OFDMA WLAN.www. .keithley. WiMAX and the evolution to 4G 65 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.

com Industry’s Leading 4x4 MIMO RF Test System • Industry-Leading Performance – Flexible 2. 3. or 4-channel configurations – 40MHz signal bandwidth – 1 nsec signal sampler synchronization – 1 nsec peak-to-peak signal sampler jitter – 1° peak-to-peak RF-carrier phase jitter – High-performance: -40dB EVM (Error Vector Magnitude) – Uses standard MIMO-ready instruments – Industry leading signal analysis MIMO software 66 A G R E A T E R M E A S U R E OF C O N F I D E N C E © Copyright 2007-2008 Keithley Instruments.www. Inc. .keithley.

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