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While preterm birth is a known risk factor for cerebral palsy, an examination of data for infants born at term or later finds that compared with delivery at 40 weeks, birth at 37 or 38 weeks or at 42 weeks or later was associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy, according to a study in the September 1 issue of JAMA. Cerebral palsy (CP), the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, with limitations that persist throughout life, is characterized by nonprogressive disorders of movement and posture. "One of the strongest predictors of CP is preterm birth, with the risk of CP increasing steadily with earlier delivery. Although risk is lower among term births, about three-fourths of all infants with CP are born after 36 weeks. Within this range of term births, there are few data on the possible association of CP with gestational age," the authors write. Dag Moster, M.D., Ph.D., of the University of Bergen, Norway, and colleagues examined the relation of CP risk with gestational age among term and postterm births using the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, which identified 1,682,441 children born in the years 1967-2001 with a gestational age of 37 through 44 weeks and no congenital anomalies. The group was followed up through 2005 by linkage to other national registries. Of the group of term and postterm children, 1,938 were identified as having cerebral palsy. The researchers found that infants born at 40 weeks had the lowest risk of CP, with a prevalence of 0.99/1,000 births. Risk for CP was higher with earlier or later delivery, with a prevalence at 37 weeks of 1.91/1,000 (90 percent increased risk), a prevalence at 38 weeks of 1.25/1,000 (30 percent higher risk), a prevalence at 42 weeks of 1.36/1,000 (40 percent increased risk), and a prevalence after 42 weeks of 1.44/1,000 (40 percent higher risk). The authors add that these associations were stronger in a subset with gestational age based on ultrasound measurements, with a gestational age of 37 weeks associated with a 3.7 times higher risk of CP; and 42 weeks, a 2.4 times higher risk. Adjustment for infant sex, maternal age, and various socioeconomic measures had little effect. "Clinicians typically regard term births (37-41 weeks) as low risk, with the possibility of increased risk with postterm delivery. This standard definition of term does not correspond well with the period of lowest risk for CP in this study or with the weeks when most infants are born. Weeks 37 and 38 seem more to resemble weeks 42 and 43, both in CP risk and in the general likelihood of delivery, leaving 39 to 41 weeks as the optimum time for delivery. If the time of delivery affects CP risk, then intervention at 40 weeks might reduce CP risk, while elective delivery at 37 or 38 weeks might increase it. If infants prone to CP are disrupted in their delivery times, the prevalence of CP would be unchanged regardless of time of delivery," the researchers write. "Until the biological mechanisms for these patterns of risk in term and postterm births are better understood, it would be hasty to assume that interventions on gestational age at delivery could reduce the occurrence of CP." JAMA. 2010;304:976-982. Source: Journal of the American Medical Association
Babies' First Full Nappy Can Reveal Mother's Smoking
Main Category: Smoking / Quit Smoking Also Included In: Pregnancy / Obstetrics; Pediatrics / Children's Health; Water - Air Quality / Agriculture Article Date: 27 Aug 2010 - 2:00 PDTV
Approximately 56% of them said they had breastfed for a month or more.D. worked with a team of researchers to carry out the study. can be used to determine how much the mother smoked. M. Sources: BioMed Central Limited. which is often under-reported". researchers from the University of Pittsburgh revealed.Meconium. Speaking about further applications of this research. are useful to enhance the measurement of tobacco smoke exposure. USA. race. Dr. from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill. at least for the .S. Women who never gave birth have the same risk as women who breastfeed their children A woman who has never breastfed at all runs nearly twice the risk of developing diabetes.php A mother who breastfed her children has a considerably lower risk of developing Diabetes Type 2 when she is older. The scientists inform that these long-term differences persisted even after certain factors were taken into account. according to an article published in the American Journal of Medicine.com/articles/199261. such as age. physical activity. Eleanor Bimla Schwarz. epidemiology. Braun said. it may be useful to estimate gestational exposure to other environmental toxicants that exhibit more variability during pregnancy. Women who had breastfed all their infants ran the same risk of developing diabetes type 2 as women who had never given birth. "Although meconium was not superior to serum as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure. AlphaGalileo Foundation. assistant professor of medicine. and obstetrics. M. Joe Braun. Biomarkers of exposure. or if she was exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy.233 women aged between 40 and 78 years. especially non-persistent compounds like bisphenol A and phthalates".. Breastfeeding May Protect Mother From Developing Diabetes Type 2 http://www.. He said. the dark and tarry stools passed by a baby during the first few days after birth. The study involved 2. Women who had had children and never breastfed were almost twice as likely to develop diabetes type 2 as women who had never given birth. Diet and exercise are widely known to impact the risk of type 2 diabetes. but few people realize that breastfeeding also reduces mothers' risk of developing the disease later in life by decreasing maternal belly fat. Concentrations were higher and almost universally detected among infants born to active smokers compared to women with secondhand or no exposure. smoking and alcohol consumption. The researchers found that tobacco smoke metabolites in meconium reflected the duration and intensity of gestational exposure to tobacco smoke. like serum and meconium tobacco smoke metabolites. gynecology and reproductive sciences at the University of Pittsburgh. compared to a woman who had children but never breastfed. Schwarz said: Our study provides another good reason to encourage women to breastfeed their infants. compared to women who never gave birth. The study found that: y y y 27% of women who had children but never breastfed at all developed diabetes type 2. "Prenatal active and secondhand tobacco smoke exposure is a prevalent environmental exposure that is associated with adverse infant and childhood health outcomes. finding that they correlated well with reported smoke exposure and other markers of tobacco smoke exposure. said: We have seen dramatic increases in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes over the last century. Researchers writing in BioMed Central's open access journal Environmental Health measured tobacco smoke metabolites in meconium samples from 337 babies.medicalnewstoday.
Jeanette S. Diabetes Type 2 . September 2010. "Lactation and Maternal Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-based Study" Eleanor Bimla Schwarz MD. Clinicians need to consider women's pregnancy and lactation history when advising women about their risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Creasman MPH. The majority of people with Type 2 have developed the condition because they are overweight. McClure PhD.03. Gestational Diabetes . Van Den Eeden PhD and David Thom MD.the person's body has destroyed his/her own insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. or your insulin is not working properly. PhD The American Journal of Medicine.016 Written by Christian Nordqvist Copyright: Medical News Today Not to be reproduced without permission of Medical News Today y y . Types of diabetes There are three main types of diabetes: y Diabetes Type 1 . Candace K. Type 2 generally appears later on in life.e6 doi:10. Stephen K.amjmed. Volume 123. Most patients with Diabetes Type 1 developed the condition before the age of 40. MSc. Alison Stuebe MD.You develop diabetes just during your pregnancy. MS. Issue 9.2010. Jennifer M.e1-863. compared to Type 1.infant's first month of life. Pages 863. Brown MD.You don't produce enough insulin. This is an autoimmune disease . Approximately 15% of all people with diabetes have Type 1.1016/j.You produce no insulin at all.